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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on the South American Camelids  / Alpacas 2005  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Alpacas 2005

Adams, G.P.; Ratto, M.H.; Huanca, W.; Jaswant Singh. Ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas.Biology of Reproduction. 2005; 73(3): 452-457. ISSN: 0006-3363
Abstract: Studies were conducted to document the existence of an ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas (experiment 1) and llamas (experiment 2) and to determine if the effect is mediated via the pituitary (experiment 3). In experiment 1, female alpacas (n=14 per group) were given alpaca seminal plasma or saline intramuscularly or by intrauterine infusion. Only alpacas that were given seminal plasma i.m. ovulated (13/14, 93%; P<0.01). In experiment 2, ovulation was detected in 9/10 (90%) llamas at a mean of 29.3+or-0.7 h after seminal plasma treatment. Plasma progesterone concentrations were maximal by Day 9 and were at nadir by Day 12 post-treatment. In experiment 3, female llamas were given llama seminal plasma, GnRH, or saline i.m., and ovulation was detected in 6/6, 5/6, and 0/6 llamas, respectively (P<0.001). Treatment was followed by a surge (P<0.01) in plasma LH concentration beginning 15 min and 75 min after treatment with GnRH and seminal plasma, respectively. Plasma LH remained elevated longer in the seminal plasma group (P<0.05) and had not yet declined to pre-treatment levels after 8 h. Compared with the GnRH group, corpus luteum tended to grow longer and to a greater diameter (P=0.1) and plasma progesterone concentration was twice as high in the seminal plasma group (P<0.01). Results document the existence of a potent factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas that elicited a surge in circulating concentrations of LH and induced an ovulatory and luteotropic response. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, blood chemistry, blood plasma, corpus luteum, GnRH, LH, ovaries, ovulation, ovulation rate, pituitary, progesterone, semen, seminal plasma, gonadoliberin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, hypophysis, pituitary gland.

Alexander,.K.; Drost, W.T.; Mattoon, J.S.; Anderson, D.E. 99mTC-ciprofloxacin in imaging of clinical infections in camelids and a goat. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound. 2005; 46(4): 340-347. ISSN: 1058-8183
Abstract: 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was used to image five adult camelids and a juvenile goat with clinical and/or radiographic signs of infection. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin (range 10-33 MBq/kg) was injected intravenously and a series of 2-min static images were acquired at 1- and 4-h postinjection. At 24-h postinjection, 5-min static images were acquired. Only the skull or abdomen was imaged in the adults; the whole body was imaged in the goat. The quality of the 1-, 4-, and 24-h studies was evaluated subjectively. Normal and abnormal areas of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin uptake were recorded and subjectively graded as mild, moderate or intense. Image quality was best 4-h postinjection. Twenty-four-hour images were poor because of insufficient radioactivity. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin imaging resulted in true positive or true negative scans in four of six animals. Two false-negative studies occurred. Intense 99mTc-ciprofloxacin activity was seen in the lungs and urinary bladder, moderate/intense activity in the kidneys, and mild activity in the physes/epiphyses, liver and intermittently in the gastrointestinal tract. The normal distribution of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in camelids/small ruminants differed from people. Further studies to determine the sensitivity and specificity of infection detection using 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in animals are warranted.
Descriptors: alpacas, goats, goat kids, llamas, glue ear infections, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus, abscesses, clinical aspects, etiology, antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, drug therapy, osteomyelitis, otitis media, radiography, scintigraphy, tissue distribution, Ohio, US.

Ames , T.R. Hosts. In: S.M. Goyal and J.F. Ridpath [Editors]. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Diagnosis, Management and Control. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. 2005; 171-175. ISBN: 0813804787
NAL call no.: SF967.M78 B68 2005
Abstracts: The reports of naturally occurring disease indicate that pigs and a variety of domestic and wild ruminants can be infected with BVDV. The virus has been shown to produce congenital infection in pigs, sheep, and goats. In some cases, congenital infection results in persistently infected animals that can be a significant source of viral transmission. Wild ruminants are known to be susceptible to acute infections with BVDV, and limited evidence suggests that cervids may also undergo congenital infections leading to persistent infection (Grondahl et al., 2003). This suggests a new potential for this virus to be shed in large amounts from wild ruminants that could then infect cattle. Current evidence suggests that wild ruminants may serve as a transient source of virus while undergoing acute infections and may possibly be a more prolonged source of virus from persistently infected animals. This would be of greatest concern where these animals are in contact for prolonged periods of time, as opposed to transient fence line contact. The role of species from which the virus has never been isolated but in which seroconversion has been observed is not clear. The significance of in vitro growth of BVDV in certain cell lines without infection in whole animals is also not known. It is unlikely, however, that these species would be viremic for significant periods of time and thus are unlikely to shed BVDV in the environment. Based on the previous discussion, it seems that non-bovine domestic ruminants and swine remain the greater concern for disrupting management attempts to control the diseases caused by BVDV in cattle. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, bison, cats, goats, pigs, rabbits, sheep, whit tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, bovine diarrhea virus, BVD, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease transmission, experimental infections, glycoproteins, hosts, host range, isolation techniques, neutralizing antibodies, seroconversion, serological surveys, seroprevalence, bovine diarrhea virus; BVD, disease surveillance, mucosal disease virus, seroepidemiology, cell lines.

Britt, Lisa G.; Middleton, John R.; Warhover, Terri Tucker; Kreeger, John M.; Branson, Keith R.  Acanthomatous ameloblastoma of the maxilla of an adult alpaca.  Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound.  2005; 46(1): 65-68.  ISSN:  1058-8183.
NAL call no.:   SF757.8.A4
Descriptors: adult alpaca, maxillary swelling, histological diagnosis, ambeloglastoma, radiation therapy, poor outcome, animal euthanized, case study. 

Burri, I.H.; Martig, J.; Sager, H.; Liesegang, A.; Meylan, M. Neuweltkameliden in der Schweiz. I. Population, Haltung und Gesundheitsprobleme.[South American camelids in Switzerland. I. Population, management and health problems.] SAT- Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde. 2005; 147(8): 325-334. ISSN: 0036-7281. Note: In German with English, French, and Italian summaries.
NAL call no.: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: At the beginning of 2000, a population of 1622 South American camelids in 257 herds was living in Switzerland. The origin of the animals, their age, the management systems, their feeding habits, their use as well as the observed medical conditions and the indications for treatment were assessed with a questionnaire. It was shown that 60% of the South American camelid population in Switzerland consisted of llamas (999 animals) and 40% of alpacas (623), and that females younger than 4 years of age made up the majority of the animals. South American camelids were predominantly kept as a hobby, for breeding or trekking. The most frequent health problems were related to the digestive tract, the skin, the eyes and metabolism. Veterinarians were consulted for deworming, vaccinations, castrations or obstetric interventions. The parasitological examination of 204 faecal samples showed that llamas and alpacas were infested with the same endoparasites as ruminants (i.e. nematodes, trematodes and protozoa). Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, herd size, animal diseases, animal feeding, animal health, livestock numbers, parasitoses, parasitic diseases, parasitic infestations, population dynamics, Nematoda, Protozoa, Trematoda, Switzerland.

Burri, I.H.; Tschudi, P.; Martig, J.; Liesegang, A.; Meylan, M. Neuweltkameliden in der Schweiz. II. Referenzwerte fur hamatologische und blutchemische Parameter.[South American camelids in Switzerland. II. Reference values for blood parameters.]

SAT-Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde. 2005; 147(8): 335-343. ISSN: 0036-7281. Note: In German with English, French, and Italian summaries.
NAL call no.: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: In order to establish reference values for blood parameters of South American camelids in Switzerland, 273 blood samples were collected from 141 llamas and 132 alpacas. These animals were classified in three categories (young animals <six months, adult females and males). Forty-one parameters were measured (red blood cell count, white blood cell count, electrolytes, metabolites and enzymes). Significant differences between llamas and alpacas were evident for 26 parameters. This study also showed that differences between young animals, females and males must be taken into consideration. A comparison of blood values with the results of faecal analysis for parasite eggs showed that an infestation with Dicrocoelium dendriticum was associated with elevated activity of two liver enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyltransferase ( gamma -GT), in the serum. In contrast, no differences were found in the results of blood analyses between animals shedding eggs of gastrointestinal strongyles or not. Repoduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, age differences, sex differences, species differences, animal parasitic nematodes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, blood chemistry, electrolytes, enzymes, erythrocyte count, gamma glutamyltransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, hematology, helminth ova, helminthoses, leukocyte count, liver, metabolites, normal values, Strongylidae, Switzerland.

Carman, S.; Carr, N.; DeLay, J.; Baxi, M.; Deregt, D.; Hazlett, M. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in alpaca: abortion and persistent infection. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2005 Nov; 17(6): 589-593. ISSN: 1040-6387
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: An alpaca herd in eastern Ontario experienced vague signs of illness, including anorexia and lethargy in 9 animals, 2.5 months after the addition of a chronically ill cria and his dam to the farm. Subsequently 2 alpaca had early pregnancy loss; one aborted at 5.5 months gestation and the other at 7 months gestation. Seventeen were found to have serum antibody to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), with highest titers to BVDV type 1. The fetus that was aborted at 5.5 months gestation, 3 months after the clinical outbreak, was found to be positive for BVDV on immunohistochemical staining, and noncytopathic BVDV type 1b was isolated. Of the 13 cria born alive that season, a single male underweight alpaca cria, born 9 months after the clinical illnesses, was infected with BVDV type 1b. The cria was positive for BVDV at birth, at 3 and 26 days of age and continued to be positive for noncytopathic BVDV using virus isolation, nested reverse transcription PCR, antigen detection ELISA, and immunohistochemical staining until euthanasia at 46 days of age. The cria remained serum antibody negative to both BVDV type 1 and type 2. A diagnosis of persistent infection was made. This is the first report describing persistent infection with BVDV in an alpaca cria.
Descriptors: alpacas,neonates, crias, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine viral diarrhea virus, disease diagnosis, abortion, disease course, infection, herd health, animal diseases, virus transmission, persistent infection, Ontario, Canada.

Chigerwe, M.; Middleton, J.R.; Pardo, I.; Johnson, G.C.; Peters, J. Spinose ear ticks and brain abscessation in an alpaca (Lama pacos).Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2005; 12(2): 145-147. ISSN: 0971-6777
NaL call no.: SF997.5.C3 J68
Abstract: An 11-year-old male alpaca (Lama pacos) in Missouri, USA, was presented with a 2-week history of ataxia, intermittent seizures, left-sided head tilt and circling towards the left [date not given]. The owner described episodes of seizure-like activity lasting 1-3 min, but the alpaca acted normally between episodes. On presentation, the alpaca was depressed, ataxic on all four limbs and preferred to remain sternal. The neurological deficits identified on history and physical examination were suggestive of asymmetrical brain stem disease. The seizure-like activity, circling and tilting of head to the left as reported by the owner were not observed during physical examination or hospitalization. Initial diagnostic procedures revealed a mature neutrophilia, hyperglycaemia and elevated creatine phosphokinase. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was within reference range and no bacteria were recovered from culture. Initial therapy included intravenous lactated Ringer's solution at 50 ml/kg/day and oxytetracycline (Oxybiotic-100; Butler) at 10 mg/kg IV for 24 h. The following morning the alpaca's condition had deteriorated and permission was granted to euthanize the animal. Gross necropsy revealed numerous nymphal and adult ticks in the left external ear canal adjacent to the tympanic membrane, which were identified as Otobius megnini. A 2-cm diameter proliferation of bone accompanied by a caseous abscess was identified on the second molar of the left mandible. A 2.5x2x1.5-cm encapsulated mass with a 3-mm capsule was adhered to the right lateral aspect of the brainstem, cerebellum and adjacent calverium contained exudate on cut surface and was diagnosed as a brain abscess by histopathology. Bacteriological culture of a swab from the brain abscess identified Arcanobacterium pyogenes.
Descriptors: alpacas, case report, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Metastigmata, Otobius megnini, brain abscess cerebrum, clinical picture, therapeutics, postmortem sampling, animal pathology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, histopathology, postmortem examinations, therapy, Missouri, US.

Cristofanelli, S.; Antonini, M.; Torres, D.; Polidori, P.; Renieri, C. Carcass characteristics of Peruvian llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) reared in the Andean highlands. Small Ruminant Research:The journal of the International Goat Association. 2005 June; 58(3): 219-222. ISSN: 0921-4488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: An experiment based on males from 20 llama and 40 alpaca reared in Peru evaluated the carcass characteristics from animals slaughtered at 25 months of age, at a final body weight of 46.1 kg for alpaca and 63.2 kg for llama. Warm carcass weight was significantly higher in llama carcasses compared with alpaca, while dressing percentage was higher in alpacas. In the llama carcasses, leg, thorax and chops were heavier compared with the same cuts taken from the alpaca carcasses (P < 0.05). In contrast, the shoulder and neck were proportionately heavier in the alpaca compared with the llama carcasses. Full digestive tract was the heaviest component found in the carcasses. In the llama carcasses, both full digestive tract and digestive content were significantly heavier than in the alpaca carcasses. Significant differences were observed in the proportion of muscle and bone in the shoulder and in the leg of the llama and alpaca carcasses. Llama and alpaca slaughtered at similar age showed different carcass characteristics; considering the results of this study, llama can be more easily bred as animal for meat production.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, carcass quality, legs, thorax, shoulders, neck, bones, gastrointestinal system, carcass characteristics, livestock production, carcass composition, carcass evaluation, Peru.

D'Alterio, G.L.; Callaghan, C.; Just, C.; Manner-Smith, A.; Foster, A.P.; Knowles, T.G.   Prevalence of Chorioptes sp. mite infestation in alpaca (Lama pacos) in the south-west of England: implications for skin health.  Small Ruminant Research. 2005 Mar; 57(2-3): 221-228.  ISSN: 0921-4488.
NAL call no.:  SF380.I52
Abstract: A study aiming to determine the prevalence of Chorioptes sp. mite infestation in the alpaca (Lama pacos) was carried out following confirmation of widespread skin disorders affecting South American camelids in the United Kingdom, and the isolation of this species of mange mite in conjunction with skin lesions from case material referred to the authors. A total of 209 alpaca in nine units in the south-west of England were included in the study. Every alpaca on the unit was clinically examined for the presence of skin lesions. All alpaca presenting with signs of skin disease, as well as approximately one in five clinically healthy, randomly selected, in-contact alpacas were included in the sampled population (n = 83). Superficial skin scrapings were taken from each animal included in the sampled population from six different sites, in addition to a dry swab taken from the ear canal. Of the 209 alpaca examined, 47 (47/209; 22.5%) showed signs of skin disease, ranging from mild alopecia, thickening, crusting and scaling of the skin of the pinnae, to severe and similar diffuse lesions affecting mostly ears, axilla, face and dorsum. Of the sampled population, 33 alpaca (33/83; 39.8%) were positive for Chorioptes sp. mite. Cumulatively, in 29 out of 33 positive cases (87.9%) Chorioptes sp. mites were detected in scrapings taken from the forefoot and/or the axilla. Thirteen out of the 47 alpacas affected by skin lesions (27.7%) were concurrently positive for Chorioptes sp. mite, 20 out of 36 (55%) un-affected sampled alpaca were positive for the mite, and 34 out of 47 affected alpacas (72.3%) presented skin lesions but were negative for Chorioptes sp. mite. Statistical test showed that affected animals tended not to be positive for the mite whilst un-affected animals tended to be positive for the mite. Additionally, there was a highly significant association between lesions, age and mite, in that an increase in the presence of skin lesions and a decrease in the presence of mites with increasing age was observed. Chorioptes sp. mites have been previously observed in the llama and the alpaca, but chorioptic mange was considered a rare condition in both host species. Findings from the present study indicate high prevalence of both the mite infestation and related clinical signs in alpaca in the south-west of England.
Descriptors: llamas, skin health implications, Chorioptes sp., parasitic mite prevalence, England.

D'Alterio, G.L.; Jackson, A.P.; Knowles, T.G.; Foster, A.P. Comparative study of the efficacy of eprinomectin versus ivermectin, and field efficacy of eprinomectin only, for the treatment of chorioptic mange in alpacas. Veterinary Parasitology. 2005; 130(3/4): 267-275. ISSN:  0304-4017
Abstract: The efficacy of eprinomectin versus ivermectin (Study 1: a single-centre, randomised, treatment-controlled, blinded field trial), and the field efficacy of eprinomectin (Study 2: a single-centre, open, un-controlled field trial) for the treatment of chorioptic infestation in naturally infested alpacas were assessed in two studies. Thirty alpacas, all positive for Chorioptes sp. mite, were randomly allocated to two treatment groups in Study 1. Group A received a single topical administration of a 0.5% formulation of eprinomectin at the dose rate of 500 micro g/kg. Group B received three subcutaneous administrations at 14 days interval of a 1% formulation of ivermectin at the dose rate of 400 micro g/kg. Response to treatment was assessed by periodic mite count, and skin lesions scored. In Study 2, one group of 19 alpacas received four administrations at weekly interval of topical eprinomectin at the dose rate of 500 micro g/kg, and response to treatment was monitored by mite counts. No localised or systemic side effects were observed in either trial. There was a statistically significant decrease in mite counts on day 7 (P<0.001) within treatment Groups A and B of Study 1, but mite counts increased again on day 14 and remained high for the duration of the trial in both treatment groups. On day 14 of Study 2, there was a statistically significant reduction in mite counts (P<0.008) and the mite counts remained very low throughout the remainder of the study. The eprinomectin protocol employed in Study 2, consisting of four weekly topical administrations at the dose rate of 500 micro g/kg of body weight, proved highly effective at reducing the Chorioptes mite burden in alpacas. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, natural infections of Chorioptes mites, mange mite control, eprinomectin protocol was effective, ivermectin, efficacy of treatments.

Dougherty, N. An introduction to alpaca medicine. Veterinary Times. 2005; 35(23): 10-11. ISSN: 1352-9374
Descriptors: alpacas, wool producing animals, animal feeding, body condition, nutrition, vitamin A deficiency, crude fiber, carbohydrates, animal husbandry, circadian rhythm castration, conception rates, ovarian follicles, ovulation, pregnancy diagnosis, gestation length, antifungal agents, cloprostenol, facial eczema, gestation-period, protein requirement; reproductive performance, rickets, sporidesmins, ultrasonography, urea, ranitidine, saccharides, blood transfusion, veterinarians, veterinary medicine.

Eastern States Veterinary Association. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. Large Animal. Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. Published by the Association. 2005; 530 pp
Abstract: This proceedings is comprised of the papers presented in the North American Veterinary Conference on Large Animals. 38 papers generally deal with bovines, with emphasis given on viral and bacterial diseases and their diagnosis and control, metabolism and lameness disorders, fluid therapy, peripartum disorders, surgical procedures and serological testing. 91 papers on horses are included with following topics: dermatology; incisor reduction; wound healing; managing wounds; skin grafting; diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy of the coffin, pastern and temporomandibular joints; limb deformities; urinary problems; anaesthesia; myositis; colitis; dental care; sinus disease; guttural pouch disease; castration complications; reproductive emergencies; emergency procedures in equine critical care; alternative medicine in equine practice; strangles; reproductive disorders; acupuncture; behaviour; foot problems; viral diseases; zoonotic diseases; pain management; heart failure and corneal diseases. 16 papers on small ruminants are presented, dealing with lameness and foot care, dermatological problems; pregnancy diagnosis; neonatology, infertility, mineral nutrition, artificial rearing, endophytes in forages, chronic wasting disease, techniques for removal of brainstem for TSE testing, myopathy in cervids and small ruminants and diseases of free ranging and captive North American cervids. Diagnosis and control of bacterial and viral diseases in pigs are discussed in 10 papers. 78 papers on practice management and legal issues are also included.
Descriptors: alpacas, cattle, goats, horses, llamas, sheep, pigs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Streptococcus equi, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, acupuncture, anesthesia, anesthetics, animal behavior, animal nutrition, bacterial diseases, prognosis, colic, colitis, customer relations, dermatology, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, disease prevention, drug therapy, eye diseases, fluid therapy, foot diseases, heart diseases, joint diseases, lameness, law, management, marketing, metabolic disorders, myositis, Arterivirus, personnel management, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive disorders, skin diseases, surgery, tooth diseases, urinary tract diseases, vaccination, veterinary practice, viral diseases, wounds, zoonoses, prognosis, anesthesia, anesthetics, arthropathy, bacterial infections, bacterioses, chemotherapy, coronary diseases, legal aspects, legal principles, humane euthanasia, metabolic diseases, rehydration therapy, surgical techniques, zoonotic infections, emergencies, healing.

Ferasin, L.; Ogden, D.M.; Davies, S.J.; Kirby, R.J.; D'Alterio, G.L. Electrocardiographic parameters of normal alpacas (Lama pacos). Veterinary Record— London. 2005; 157(12): 341-343. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: The electrocardiographic parameters of 40 healthy alpacas (Lama pacos) were recorded with a base-apex lead system to establish the normal resting electrocardiographic parameters in this species. The following parameters were measured: heart rate and rhythm, QRS and T morphology, ST segment position, P amplitude and duration, QRS duration and PQ and QT intervals. The heart rate varied between 50 and 110 bpm, with a mean (sd) of 80 (17.8) bpm, and no significant differences were observed between males and females or between alpacas of different ages. Sinus arrhythmia was observed in 35 of the animals, and a regular sinus rhythm was recorded in the other five. The QRS morphology was variable, with an 'rS' pattern observed in 29 animals, 'RS' in six, 'Rs' in three and 'QS' in the other two. A variable morphology was also observed for the T wave, which was positive in 27 animals, negative in seven and biphasic in the other six. All the electrocardiographic parameters were normally distributed and no significant differences were observed between the sexes, except that the amplitude of the P wave was higher in males. The PQ interval was significantly shorter in animals less than six months old. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, age differences, sex differences, arrhythmia, electrocardiography, heart rate, Britain, UK.

Field, C.; Rushton, J.; Viscarra, R.; Urquieta, B.; Salem, H.B. African camels and South American camelids. In: E. Owen; A. Kitalyi; N. Jayasuriya; T. Smith [Editors] Livestock and Wealth Creation: Improving the Husbandry of Animals Kept by Resource Poor People in Developing Countries. 2005; 411-432. ISBN: 1904761321
NAL call no.: SF55.D44 L56 2005
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas, meat production animals, animal diseases, animal feeding, animal health, animal physiology, animal products, geographical distribution, metabolism, milk production, reproduction, Africa, South America.

Foster, A.P.; Houlihan, M.; Higgins, R.J.; Errington, J.; Ibata, G.; Wakeley, P.R.  BVD virus in a British alpaca.  Veterinary Record-- London.  2005; 156(22): 718-719.  ISSN:  0042-4900.
NAL call no.:   41.8 V641
Descriptors:  alpaca, bovine diarrhea virus, BVD, case report, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease vectors, postmortem examinations. 

Gandolf, A.R.; Papich, M.G.; Bringardner, A.B.; Atkinson, M.W. Pharmacokinetics after intravenous, subcutaneous, and oral administration of enrofloxacin to alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2005; 66(7): 1291. 767-771. ISSN: 0002-9645
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors : alpacas, enrofloxacin, pharmacokinetics, administration route comparison study, intravenous, subcutaneous, oral dosing.

Gauly, M.; Vaughan, J; Hogreve, S.K.; Erhardt, G. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential assessment of auditory function and congenital deafness in llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (L. pacos). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2005; 19(5): 756-760. ISSN: 0891-6640
NAL Call no.: SF601.J65
Abstract: Auditory function of llamas and alpacas was assessed objectively by means of brainstem auditory-evoked response audiometry (BAER) to establish the normal hearing range and to test the hypothesis of a correlation between blue eyes, white coat, and deafness. Sixty-three camelids were available for the study. Thirteen animals had blue irides; 1 animal had 1 blue and 1 pigmented iris. Wave latencies, amplitudes, and interpeak latencies were measured under general anesthetic. Click stimuli (dB [HL]) were delivered by an insert earphone. Four to five positive peaks could be detected; waves I, II, and V were reproducible; wave II appeared infrequently; and wave IV generally merged with wave V to form a complex. Peak latencies decreased and peak amplitudes increased as stimulus intensity increased. A hearing threshold level of 10-20 dB (HL) was proposed as the normal range in llamas and alpacas. None of the animals with pigmentation of coat and iris showed any degree of hearing impairment. Seven of the 10 blue-eyed, pure-white animals were bilaterally deaf and one of them was unilaterally deaf. However, 2 blue-eyed, white animals exhibited normal hearing ability. Three blue-eyed animals with pigmented coat did not show any hearing impairment. All white animals with normal iris pigmentation had normal auditory function; so did the 1 animal with 1 normal and 1 blue iris. The high frequency (78%) of bilaterally deaf animals with pure white coat and blue iris pigmentation supports the hypothesis of a correlation between pigmentation anomalies and congenital deafness in llamas and alpacas.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, auditory threshold, brain stem, coat pigmentation, congenital abnormalities, deafness, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, eyes, hearing, pigmentation, techniques, birth defects, congenital malformations, deaf, threshold of hearing.

Geurden, T.; Hemelrijk, K. van. Ivermectin treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes in New World camelids in Belgium. Small Ruminant Research. 2005; 58(1): 71-73. ISSN: 0921-4488
Abstract: Gastrointestinal parasites are a major clinical and economical threat to New World camelids (NWC) throughout the world. Since there are no anthelmintics approved for use in NWC, there is only limited information about the efficacy and safety of these products. In this study, the reduction of the faecal egg output following treatment with an injectable formulation of ivermectin in NWC was evaluated. Therefore, a group of 10 llamas and a group of eight alpacas, naturally infested with Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp., were randomly divided into a treated and a control group, and injected with ivermectin subcutaneously at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg bodyweight. Faecal samples were collected per rectum immediately prior to treatment from each individual animal in the study, and every week thereafter for the next 5 weeks. Both for the llamas and the alpacas, there was a 100% reduction in faecal egg output during at least 3 weeks. None of the animals showed adverse reactions to the ivermectin treatment.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, fecal sampling, Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., nematode infestation, fecal egg count, digestive tract, ivermectin, nematode control.

Guglielmone, A.A.; Romero, J.; Venzal, J.M.; Nava, S.; Mangold, A.J.; Villavicencio, J. First record of Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae) from Peru.Systematic and Applied Acarology. 2005; 10: 33-35. ISSN: 1362-1971
Abstract: Twenty-four adult ticks were collected from South American alpacas, Lama pacos (Linnaeus, 1758), at Anexo Tambo Canahuas (16 degrees 01'S, 71 degrees 26'W), Distrito de Yanahuara, Departamento Arequipa, Peru, altitude 4,300 m. Three male and 20 female ticks were identified as Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann, 1901, a common parasite of camelids belonging to the genera Lama G. Cuvier, 1800, and Lesson, 1842, in the Andean region of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The remaining tick was a female of Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946. This is the first Peruvian record of H. juxtakochi, a species known from the Neotropical and southern Nearctic Zoogeographic Regions. Lama pacos is also a new host for this tick species. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, ectoparasites, Amblyomma parvitarsum, epidemiology, geographical distribution, hosts, new geographic records, new host records, zoogeography, Peru.

Gustafson, Nancy R.; Severidt, Julie; Van Metre, David C.; Schultheiss, Patricia C.; LaRue, Susan M.; Callan, Robert J.  Radiation therapy for the treatment of urethral sarcoma in a cria.  Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2005; 19(2): 271-274.  ISSN:  0891-6640.
NAL call no.:   SF601.J65
Descriptors: immature female alpaca, Enterobacter sakazakii, antiprotozoal drug, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxacin, dimethyl sulfoxide, trimethoprim, sulfonamides, renal acting drugs, antiparasitic drug.

Johnson, L.W. Neonatology of llamas and alpacas. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 306-308.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, animal health, congenital abnormalities, diarrhea, maternal immunity, newborn animals, parturition, umbilical hernia, birth defects, congenital malformations, diarrhea, newborn immunity, scouring, vitelline immunity.

Johnson, L.W. Small ruminant tips for the small animal practitioner.Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 301-303
Descriptors: alpacas, goats, llamas, sheep, abortion, anesthetics, gestation, polling, anesthetics, animal breeding, animal diseases, animal health, antihelmintics, blood sampling, castration, coccidiosis, dehorning, disease control, mycoses, posthitis, pregnancy, pregnancy complications, pregnancy diagnosis, small animal practice, urolithiasis, vaccination-

Johnson, L.W. Small ruminant tips for the small animal practitioner.Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 19,- Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 491-493
Descriptors: alpacas, goats, llamas, sheep, lambs, animal breeding, animal diseases, and disease control, bacterial diseases, infectious diseases, coccidiosis, mycoses, urolithiasis, pregnancy diagnosis, abortion, anesthesia, anesthetics, antihelmintics, blood sampling, castration, immunization lamb, pregnancy complications surgery, surgical operations, vaccination, communicable diseases, immune sensitization.

Johnson, L.W. Alpaca infertility cases.Proceedings of the North AmericanVeterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 309
Descriptors: alpacas, case reports, diagnosis, dysplasia, infertility, pseudohermaphroditism, reproductive disorders, testes, testicles, treatment, Colorado, US.

Klisch, K.; Bevilacqua, E.; Olivera, L.V.M. Mitotic polyploidization in trophoblast giant cells of the alpaca.Cells Tissues Organs. 2005; 181(2): 103-108. ISSN: 1422-6405
Abstract: Genome multiplication is a typical feature of trophoblast giant cell (TGC) development in many species. Elevated nuclear DNA contents can be achieved by modified cell cycles with a complete lack of mitosis (endoreduplication) or with incomplete mitoses. The aim of this study is to characterize genome multiplication in the alpaca TGC. Placental tissues of gestation days 150, 264 and 347 (near term) and term placentae were processed for light microscopy and for transmission electron microscopy. Each TGC showed many nuclear profiles. Observation of serial sections revealed that TGCs are truly multinucleate with several highly lobulated nuclei. Feulgen staining showed that TGC nuclei have a higher DNA content than nuclei of other trophoblast cells. The number of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in nuclear profiles of TGC was between 15 and 100, while other trophoblast cells showed 1 or 2 AgNORs. Large multipolar mitotic figures with maximal diameters of 80 micro m were observed in the alpaca placentas on gestation days 264 and 347. No cytokinesis was seen in TGC. The results show that the mode of genome multiplication in the alpaca TGC is mitotic polyploidization. Subsequent acytokinetic mitoses may lead to an accumulation of chromosomes and centrioles in TGC. With increasing ploidy levels, the shape of these polyploidizing mitoses becomes more irregular. The restitution of nuclei after these complex multipolar mitoses is likely to result in the irregular nuclear shape in TGC.
Descriptors: alpacas, chromosomes, DNA, genomes, mitosis, nucleolus organizer, placenta, pregnancy, trophoblast, deoxyribonucleic acid, gestation, nucleolus organizing region.

Kriegl, C.; Klein, D.; Kofler, J.; Fuchs, K.; Baumgartner, W. Haltungs und Gesundheitsaspekte bei Neuweltkameliden. [South American Camelid husbandry in Austria.]. Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift. 2005; 92(5): 119-125. ISSN: 0043-535X. Note: In German with an English summary.
Abstract: Introduction: South American Camelids have gained popularity over the last few years in Austria. Therefore veterinarians are often asked about their husbandry, breeding or to intervene in clinical management of different problems. The aim of this work is to get an overview of the development of the current state of new world camelidae husbandry in Austria. Material and methods: At the end of 2002 a 12-page questionnaire was sent to all owners of South American camelids in German-speaking countries. It contained general questions on the animals and their husbandry, questions on preventive measures and on diseases. 179 of the 760 questionnaires that had been sent out were returned, which corresponds to a rate of return of 23.6%. At the same time post mortem findings of the last 6 years were collected and analysed. Results and conclusion: In contrast to Switzerland where alpacas account for 47.6%, in Austria llamas are much more dominant with 89.7%. The average herd size in Austria is 9.5 animals, with the majority of animals being held as a hobby. The animals are mainly used for hiking and trekking tours, breeding, pasture farming and/or wool production. Diseases of the digestive tract and endoparasites constitute the most frequent problems of husbandry. Regular preventive medication against endoparasites led to significantly fewer diseases of the digestive tract. The most frequently used supplements are avermectins with 74.4%. In general breeders with no more than 5 animals had significantly (p<=0.001) less diseases than those with more animals. 42.6% of the post mortem examinations of tylopods showed that the animals had died below reproduction age. The share of infectious diseases was particularly high with 18.5%. Altogether 30 parasite findings were recorded from 21 animals (38.9%). Nematodes of the digestive tract were found most frequently with 43.3%. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, dromedaries, fiber producing animals, camelids, animal husbandry, endoparasites, avermectins, digestive tract, Austria.

Lakritz, J.; Linden, D.; Anderson, D.; Specht, T.; Barnum, C.; Newman, K. Oral absorption of fenbendazole (FBZ) and oxfendazole (OXF) by alpacas after feeding 1.8% fenbendazole impregnated mini-pellets: A comparison with 10% oral suspension. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2005; 19(3): 478. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 23rd Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; June 01 -04, 2005.
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpacas, Trichuris ssp, parasite, oral dosing, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, anti-helminthic drugs, pharmacokinetics, 10% oral suspension, impregnated mini pellets.

Lupton, C.J.; McColl, A.; Pfeiffer, F.A.; Stobart, R.H. Fiber characteristics of US huacaya alpacas.Journal of Dairy Science. 2005; 88(Suppl. 1): 173. ISSN: 0022-0302. Note: Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association/American Society of Animal Science/Canadian Society of Animal Science, Cincinnati, OH, USA; July 24 -28, 2005.
NAL call no.: 44.8 J822
Descriptors: alpacas, mature male, Huacaya breed, fiber characteristics, staple, diameter, smooth, crimped, etc.

Mason, T.E.; Dowling, B.A.; Dart, A.J.   Surgical repair of a cleft soft palate in an alpaca.  Australian Veterinary Journal.  2005 Mar; 83(3): 145-146.  ISSN:  0005-0423.
NAL call no.:   41.8 AU72
Descriptors:  alpaca, cleft soft palate repair, surgical technique, case report.

McClanahan, S.L.; Malone, E.D.; Anderson, K.L. Bladder outlet obstruction in a 6-month-old alpaca secondary to pelvic displacement of the urinary bladder. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 2005; 46(3): 247-249. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a French summary.
NAL call no.:   41.8 R3224
Descriptors:  young female alpaca, young animal, stranguria, radiographic studies, bladder outlet obstruction, pelvic displacement of the bladder, case report, clinical aspects, cystopexy surgery, uncomplicated recovery.

McKenna, P.B.; Hill, F. I.; Gillett, R. Sarcoptes scabiei infection on an alpaca (Lama pacos).New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2005; 53(3): 213. ISSN: 0048-0169.
Descriptors: male alpaca, pruritus, alopecia, hyperkeratotic crusts on hind legs, histopathological analysis of skin section, Sarcoptes scabiei, first record in New Zealand.

Moore, D.P. Neosporosis in South America.Veterinary Parasitology. 2005; 127(2): 87-97. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL call no.:   SF810.4.V4
Descriptors: cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffalo, alpacas, llamas, wild canids, reproductive losses, Neospora caninum, epidemiology, disease control, South America.

McKenna, P.B. Register of new host-parasite records.Surveillance Wellington. 2005; 32(4): 7-8. ISSN: 0112-4927
Abstract: New host parasite relationships diagnosed in New Zealand are presented, including Eimeria spp. in a stoat (Mustela erminae), Hepatozoon albatrossi in an albatross (Diomedea epomophora), Sarcoptes scabiei in an alpaca, Capillaria spp. infection in a kokako (Callaeas cinerea) and Capillaria anatis in a domestic goose, Amidostomum anseris in a goose, Trichostrongylus tenuis infection in a goose and Heterakis gallinarum infection in a goose. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, stoats, albatross, kokako, domestic geese, new host records, host-parasite relationships, diagnosis, epidemiology, host parasite relationships, parasitoses, Heterakis gallinarum, Sarcoptes scabiei, Trichostrongylus tenuis, Callaeas cinerea, Capillaria anatis, Diomedea epomophora, Trichostrongylus tenuis,Heterakis gallinarum, New Zealand.

Middleton, J.R.; Moody, M.M.; Parish, S.M. Diabetes mellitus in an adult alpaca (Lama pacos). Veterinary Record— London. 2005 Oct 22; 157(17): 520-522. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL Call no.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: alpacas, diabetes mellitus, case studies.

Padula, A.M. Clinical evaluation of caudal epidural anaesthesia for the neutering of alpacas.Veterinary Record— London. 2005; 156(19): 616-617. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: alpacas, neutering of males, castration, surgical procedures, efficacy of caudal epidural anesthesia.

Ratto, Marcelo H.; Huanca, Wilfredo; Singh, Jaswant; Adams, Gregg P. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2005; 3. ISSN: 1477-7827
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas,ovulation factor, seminal plasma, females, seminal plasma or phosphate buffered saline, intramuscular injection intrauterine infusion, intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage, transrectal ultrasonography, ovulation detection, follicular and luteal diameters, conclusion was systemic effect of seminal plasma.

Robinson, T.F.; Roeder, B.L.; Schaalje, G.B.; Hammer, J. D.; Burton, S.; Christensen, M. Nitrogen balance and blood metabolites of alpaca (Lama pacos) fed three forages of different protein content. Small Ruminant Research. 2005; 58(2): 123-133. ISSN: 0921-4488.
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Sixteen intact male alpaca consisting of four age groups (AG1, 16 +/- 4.4 months, 44.3 +/- 9.2 kg; AG2, 25 +/- 1.8 months, 51.7 +/- 2.3 kg; AG3, 35 +/- 1.1 months, 64.7 +/- 15.6 kg; and AG4, 60 +/- 12.0 months, 67.0 +/- 8.2 kg) were housed in metabolism crates (20 degrees C with 12:12 h on:off light cycle). Three forages, straw (ST), grass hay (GH) and alfalfa (ALF) were fed to each alpaca in random order. The forages were fed at 12 h intervals with water provided ad libitum. Treatment periods were 14 days, with blood samples collected over a 24 h period on day 14 to determine temporal patterns of plasma metabolite and electrolytes. Dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.002) for ST at 212 g/day, while GH and ALF were 678 and 715 g/day, respectively. Nitrogen intake was 2.2, 14.7 and 23.9 g/day (P < 0.002), respectively. Fecal N was 1.5 for ST, 4.8 for GH, and 5.1 g/day for ALF (P < 0.002). Urine N excretion was 6.3 and 6.2 g/day for ST and GH, increasing to 13.6 g/day for ALF (P < 0.02). Nitrogen retained was -5.4, 3.7 and 5.2 g/day for ST, GH and ALF, respectively, with an age and diet x age response (P < 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Plasma glucose was not different for forage or age, averaging 7.6 mmol/L. Lactate was lowest for GH (0.70 mmol/L), with ST and ALF having similar concentrations (0.87 and 0.96 mmol/L; P < 0.07). NEFA concentrations were highest for ST (398 micromol/L) and similar for GH and ALF (204 and 201 micromol/L; P < 0.003). Plasma urea N concentrations were similar for ST and GH (4.3 and 4.9 mmol/L) increasing to 8.1 mmol/L for ALF (P < 0.001). Plasma creatinine was higher for ST (250 micromol/L) than GH and ALF (214 and 205 micromol/L; P < 0.0001). Sodium and calcium concentrations were lower for ST than GH and ALF (P < 0.06 and 0.002, respectively), while potassium and chloride were not different across forages. Metabolite temporal patterns fluctuated over the 24 h period with glucose, lactate, and alpha-amino N increasing and NEFA concentration decreasing postprandially. Crude N maintenance requirement was calculated to be 0.84, 0.63, 0.80 and 0.51 g/W(0.75) for AG1, AG2, AG3 and AG4, respectively. Overall N requirement was calculated to be 0.60 g/W(0.75). These data demonstrate the effects of feeding forages of varying quality on whole-body N utilization, temporal blood metabolite and electrolyte patterns and a possible age effect on maintenance N requirements.
Descriptors: male alpacas, 4 age groups, metabolism crates, straw, grass hay alfalfa, water ad libitum, 14 day treatment, effects on N balance and blood metabolites, dietary nitrogen requirements.

Rodriguez-Alvaro, A.; Gonzalez-Alonso-Alegre, E.M.; Delclaux-Real del Asua, M.; Martinez-Nevado, E.; Talavera-Canete, C. Surgical correction of a corneal perforation in an alpaca (Lama pacos).Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2005; 36(2): 336-339. ISSN: 1042-7260
Descriptors: adult alpaca (Lama pacos), case study, eye trauma damage, corneal perforation, prolapsed iris, surgical repair, pedicle conjunctival graft was performed, cornea structural integrity, vision returned.

Santiani, A.; Huanca, W.; Sapana, R.; Huanca, T.; Sepulveda, N.; Sanchez, R. Effects on the quality of frozen-thawed alpaca (Lama pacos) semen using two different cryoprotectants and extenders. Asian Journal of Andrology. 2005; 7(3): 303-309. ISSN: 1008-682X
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate two extenders and two cryoprotectant agents (CPA) for alpaca semen cryopreservation. Methods: Semen samples were obtained from four adult alpacas (Lama pacos) and frozen using extender I (TRIS, citrate, egg yolk and glucose) or extender II (skim milk, egg yolk and fructose), each containing either glycerol (G) or ethylene glycol (EG) as CPA. Consequently, four groups were formed: (1) extender I-G; (2) extender I-EG; (3) extender II-G; and (4) extender II-EG. Semen was diluted in a two-step process: for cooling to 5 degrees C (extenders without CPA), and for freezing (extenders with CPA). Viability and acrosome integrity were assessed using trypan blue and Giemsa stains. Results: When compared, the motility after thawing was higher (P<0.05) in groups II-EG (20.0%+or-6.7%) and II-G (15.3%+or-4.1%) than that in groups I-G (4.0%+or-1.1%) and I-EG (1.0%+or-1.4%). Viable spermatozoa with intact acrosomes in groups II-EG (18.7%+or-2.9%) and II-G (12.7%+or-5.9%) were higher than that in groups I-G (5.7%+or-1.5%) and I-EG (4.0%+or-1.0%). Conclusion: The skim milk- and egg yolk-based extenders containing ethylene glycol or glycerol to freeze alpaca semen seems to promote the survival of more sperm cells with intact acrosomes than the other extenders. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, semen, spermatozoa, semen characteristics, semen preservation, cryopreservation, cryoprotectants for semen, egg yolk, ethylene glycol, freezing, fructose, glucose, glycerol, dextrose, fruit sugar, ketohexose, levulose, semen diluent additives; semen diluents, skim milk, semen thawing.

Shapiro, J.L.; Watson, P.; McEwen, B.; Carman, S. Highlights of camelid diagnoses from necropsy submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, from 1998 to 2004.Canadian Veterinary Journal. 2005; 46(4): 317-318. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, camelids, age differences, animal diseases, diagnoses, bacterial diseases, causes of death, diseases of gastrointestinal and nervous systems, liver, neoplasms, postmortem examinations, Ontario, Canada. 

Smith, J. J.; Dallap, B.L. Splenic torsion in an alpaca.Veterinary-Surgery. 2005; 34(1): 1-4
Abstract: Objective - To describe the clinical signs, diagnostic evaluation and surgical management of an alpaca with splenic torsion. Animals - Six-year-old female alpaca. Results - Splenic torsion and uterine torsion were the inciting cause for persistent abdominal discomfort in this alpaca. Rectal examination, abdominocentesis, and transabdominal ultrasonographic findings were suggestive of a splenic lesion. Surgical management involved splenectomy of a necrotized spleen. Conclusions - Although rare in occurrence, splenic torsion should be considered as a potential cause of abdominal discomfort in alpacas. Splenectomy is a reasonable and successful method of treatment for a devitalized spleen secondary to splenic torsion in alpacas. Clinical Relevance - Splenic torsion causes persistent abdominal discomfort in camelids and may be associated with uterine torsion. Rectal examination, transabdominal ultrasound and abdominocentesis are useful diagnostic tools to differentiate splenic torsion from other causes of abdominal discomfort. Splenectomy is an uncomplicated procedure in camelids and has a favorable prognosis.
Descriptors: alpaca, splenic torsion, case study, clinical signs, absominal discomfort, uterine torsion, diagnostic evaluation, rectal exam, transabdominal untrasound, abdominocentesis, splenectomy.

Suedmeyer, W.K.; Williams, F., III. Multiple trichoepitheliomas in an Alpaca (Lama pacos).Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2005; 36(4): 706-708. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL call no.: SF601.J6
Abstract: A 13-yr-old male Alpaca (Lama pacos) presented with multiple ovoid, well-circumscribed, nonulcerated intradermal masses. Individual masses measured 1-4 cm in diameter, and the overlying skin was alopecic. Several of the masses were surgically removed and evaluated microscopically. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated multiple dermal cysts lined by neoplastic follicular epithelium. The cysts were filled with multiple layers of lamellar keratin and lined by abortive inner and outer root sheaths exhibiting cellular atypia, supporting the diagnosis of trichoepitheliomas. No additional treatment was initiated, and the alpaca continues to do well. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpaca male, case report, cancer, clinical picture, trichoepithelioma, clinical aspects, diagnosis, histopathology. neoplasms, Missouri, US.

Sullivan, E.K.; Callan, R.J.; Holt, T.N.; Van Metre, D.C. Trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids.Veterinary Surgery. 2005 Sept-Oct; 34(5): 524-529. ISSN: 0161-3499
NAL call no.: SF911.V43
Abstract: Objective-To describe clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcome associated with trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids. Study Design-Retrospective study Animals-Alpacas (7) and 1 llama. Methods-Historical and clinical data were obtained from the medical records of New World camelids with a diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction confirmed by surgical exploration or necropsy. Results-Seven camelids were <1 year old. Abnormal clinical findings included anorexia, reduced fecal output, recumbency, colic, abdominal distension, regurgitation, decreased serum chloride concentration, increased serum bicarbonate concentration, and/or elevated first gastric compartment chloride concentration. Survey abdominal radiographs obtained (4 animals) revealed gastric distension (4) and/or visualization of the obstruction (2). Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy (1) or surgery (7). Right paracostal celiotomy was performed on all animals and duodenotomy (3) or retropulsion of the trichophytobezoar combined with third compartment gastrotomy (4) was used to remove the obstruction. Six animals survived to discharge and 5 were healthy at follow-up, 8-20 months later. The remaining discharged alpaca was healthy at 12 months but subsequently died of unrelated causes. Conclusions-Diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction should be considered in juvenile New World camelids with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Right paracostal celiotomy can be used for access to the descending duodenum and third gastric compartment for surgical relief of obstruction. Clinical Relevance-Duodenal obstruction from bezoars should be considered in New World camelids <1year of age with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Surgical relief of the obstruction by right paracostal celiotomy has a good prognosis.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, duodenum, intestinal obstruction, trichobezoars, surgery, clinical examination, animal age, symptoms, anorexia, defecation, colic, chlorides, blood chemistry, bicarbonates, disease diagnosis, juveniles.

Tee, S.Y.; Dowling, B.A.; Dart, A.J. Treatment of long bone fractures in South American camelids: 5 cases.Australian Veterinary Journal. 2005; 83(7): 418-420. ISSN: 0005-0423
NAL call no.: 41.8 AU72
Abstract: An adult llama and four alpacas were referred with long bone fractures. The llama presented with a closed, comminuted fracture of the right metatarsal bones. Two of the alpacas presented with comminuted fractures of the proximal radius. One fracture was closed and one was open. One alpaca had a closed, comminuted fracture of the distal radius, and the final alpaca had a closed, oblique fracture of the metatarsus. A diagnosis was made in each animal on the basis of clinical examination and radiographs. All fractures were managed by open reduction and internal fixation using selective placement of lag screws and dynamic compression plates. Four animals made uneventful recoveries and no long-term complications were encountered. One alpaca was re-admitted for plate failure and non-union of the fracture 5 weeks after surgery. The plate and screws were removed and a transfixation cast was applied. The fracture healed, however the alpaca showed signs of radial nerve paralysis after the cast was removed. With confinement in a small yard, full function gradually returned to the leg over the ensuing 4 months. Using techniques recommended in other species, South American camelids are suitable candidates for long bone fracture repair using open reduction and internal fixation.
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedaries, llama, metatarsus bone fractures, clinical picture, case reports, surgical fracture fixation, radiography, transfixation cast.

Timoteo, O.; Maco, V. Jr.; Maco, V.; Neyra, V.; Yi, P.J.; Leguia, G.; Espinoza, J.R. Characterization of the humoral immune response in alpacas (Lama pacos) experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica against cysteine proteinases Fas1 and Fas2 and histopathological findings. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2005; 106(1-2): 77-86. ISSN: 0165-2427
NAL call no.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: A characterization of the humoral immune response of alpacas to Fasciola hepatica Fas1 and Fas2 antigens, two abundant cysteine proteinases in the excretory/secretory (E/S) products, was performed over the course of 6 months of experimental infection. Six adult alpacas aged 1-2 years old received a single dose of 200 F. hepatica metacercariae; two non-infected alpacas were kept as control group. All infected animals shed eggs 8 weeks post-infection (PI) and the number of flukes recovered at necropsy averaged 41 +/- 4. The livers of infected animals showed regions with chronic inflammation, granuloma containing parasite eggs, necrosis and cirrhosis. Peripheral eosinophilia in infected animals was greatly enhanced 6 weeks post-infection and later. A single peak of serum glutamic piruvic transaminase (SGPT) was observed 4 weeks PI and serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) elevated 3 weeks PI and later. Circulating IgG Abs against Fas1 and Fas2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fas2-ELISA detected the infection 10 days PI reaching to highest titer on 7-8 weeks PI and kept elevated, until the end of infection. Fas1-ELISA detected the infection 2 weeks PI and followed the same pattern as Fas2-ELISA. Anti Fas2 IgG Abs were in higher titers and showed stronger avidity than anti Fas1 IgG Abs. In addition, rabbit IgG antibodies raised against cysteine proteinase Fas2 showed infiltration of this parasite antigen associated to the degradation of bile ducts and liver parenchyma of infected alpacas. In the present study we have established a F. hepatica experimental infection of alpacas, Fas2 appears to have a role in the pathogenesis of the liver damage in alpacas caused by the liver fluke. Infected alpacas elicited a strong humoral immune response against fluke cysteine proteinases Fas1 and Fas2, which might be considered as candidates for immunodiagnosis and vaccine development against fasciolosis in alpacas.
Descriptors:  6 adult (1-2 year old) alpacas, Lama pacos, liver flukes, experimental infection with 200 metacercariae, Fasciola hepatica, proteinases of Fas1 and Fas2 antigens, immune responses, flukes recovered at necropsy, liver affects, circulating IgG antibodies, titers, ELISA.

Urquieta, B.; Flores, P.; Munoz, C.; Bustos-Obregon, E.; Garcia-Huidobro, J. Alpaca semen characteristics under free and directed mounts during a mating period. Animal Reproduction Science. 2005 Dec; 90(3-4): 329-339. ISSN: 0378-4320
NAL call no: QP251.A5
Descriptors: alpacas, males, females, semen, reproductive behavior, animal reproduction, semen color, semen volume, ejaculation, duration, spermatozoa, animal fertility, semen quality, semen collection, sexual rest, controlled mating, undirected mating.

Urquieta, B.; Flores, P.; Munoz, C.; Bustos-Obregon, E.; Garcia-Huidobro, J. Alpaca semen characteristics under free and directed mounts during a mating period.Animal Reproduction Science. 2005; 90(3/4): 329-339. ISSN: 0378-4320
NAL call no.: QP251-A5
Abstract: Most studies in alpaca reproductive biology have been focused on female physiology. Only recent research is being conducted in order to increase the knowledge on males. Semen characteristics during breeding periods will contribute to understanding the poor fertility rates in alpaca. Ten adult male alpacas were distributed randomly into two groups and submitted alternatively to two regimens of semen collection of 12 days duration (day 1, initial day of semen collection). Semen samples were collected using an artificial vagina and a receptive, non-pregnant female. With regimen 1, males were maintained with females except for the days of sexual rest (6 and 7). Semen was collected on days 1, 5, 8 and 12. With regimen 2, males were exposed to females for daily semen collection only, before and after sexual rest. Mating duration, color and volume of ejaculates, spermatozoa concentration and morphology were evaluated. No statistical differences for the variables were found between regimens that were used for semen collection. With respect to influence of day, however, the total numbers of spermatozoa ejaculated on days 1 and 5 of semen collection were statistically different (p<0.05). Azoospermic samples increased on days 5 and 12 of semen collection. Partial recovery in spermatozoa concentration and number of spermatozoa ejaculated were observed after sexual rest. Although normal spermatozoa percentage was less on day 1 (p<0.05) as compared with values found in the following ejaculates (days 5 and 12), the total number of normal spermatozoa was greater. These results support the conclusion that when male alpaca have a daily ejaculation during five consecutive days, they might copulate without having enough spermatozoa for fertilization towards the end of the mating period. Reproduced by permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, males, male fertility, mating, spermatozoa, semen, semen characters, ejaculate volume, morphology, reduction in fertility with consecutive days, reproduction.

Varney, K. Quarterly review of diagnostic cases - July to Sept 2005.Surveillance Wellington. 2005; 32(4): 14-19. ISSN: 0112-4927
Descriptors: cattle, deer, horses, dogs, cats, pet birds, sheep, alpacas, pigs, diseases, disease management, etiology, therapeutics, case studies, New Zealand.

Wernery, U.; Joseph, M.; Johnson, B.; Kinne, J. Wry-neck - a form of tetanus in camelids. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2005; 12(2): 75-79. ISSN: 0971-6777
NAL call no.: SF997.5.C3 J68
Descriptors: Clostridium tetani , Lama guanicoe, bacterial-toxins, lockjaw, clinical aspects. experimental infections, tetanus toxicity.

Williams, S.H.; Vinyard, C.J.; Wall, C.E.; Hylander, W.L. Experimental observations on symphyseal fusion in selenodont artiodactyls. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 2005; 45(6): 1209. ISSN: 1540-7063. Note: Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Orlando, FL, USA; January 04 -08, 2006
NAL call no.: QL1.I67
Descriptors: alpaca, bone, jaw muscle, masseter muscle, fibrocartilage, mandibular symphysis, symphyseal fusion, repetitive mastication.

Wolf, D.; Schares, G.; Cardenas, O.; Huanca, W.; Cordero, Aida; Baerwald, Andrea; Conraths, F.J.; Gauly, M.; Zahner, H.; Bauer, C.   Detection of specific antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected alpacas (Lama pacos), llamas (Lama glama) and vicunas (Lama vicugna) from Peru and Germany. Veterinary Parasitology. 2005; 130(1-2): 81-87. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL call no.: SF810.4.V4
Descriptors:  llamas, alpacas, wild vicunas, experimental infection, protozoal parasite, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, sera testing, immunoblot, ELISA, IFAT, antibody detection against N. caninum tachyzoites, routes of infection, natural infections in South American camelids, Peru, Germany .

Zacari, M.A.; Pacheco, L.F. Depredacion vs. problemas sanitarios como causas de mortalidad de ganado camelido en el Parque Nacional Sajama. [Depredation versus disease problems as causes of mortality in camelid livestock in the Sajama national park.] Ecologia en Bolivia. 2005; 40(2): 58-61. ISSN: 1605-2528. Note: In Spanish.
Abstract: This article discusses the causes of mortality among camelid livestock (llamas and alpacas) in the Sajama National Park in Bolivia. The problems of predation by pumas and foxes are described, including losses recorded, as well as animal diseases as causes of mortality. The incidence, potential mortality percentage and the numbers of animals at risk of death for the following diseases in a sample of 2078 llamas and alpacas in the national park are presented: conjunctivitis, ocular orbit infections, keratitis, pediculosis, diarrhoea, scabies, fractures, fever (in alpacas), pneumonia and malnutrition. Among these diseases, the most significant were malnutrition (30.22%), followed by scabies (3.22%) and pediculosis (3.22%).
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, animal diseases, animal nutrition, death rate, causes of death, livestock, malnutrition, mortality, pediculosis, predation, scabies, Bolivia.

Zhang, Qiao Ling; Dong, Chang Sheng; He, Jun Ping; He, Xiao Yan; Fan, Rui Wen; Geng, Jian Jun; Ren, Yu Hong.   [Study on the chromosomal karyotype and G-banding of alpacas (Lama pacos).]  Yichuan.  2005; 27(2): 221-226.  ISSN:  0253-9772.  Note: In Chinese with an English summary.
Descriptors: 23 Huacaya alpacas, 3 males, 20 females, genetics, chromosomes and karyotypes, cytogenetic basis for selection, breeding, disease diagnosis, genetic mechanisms of sex determination, lymphocyte culture, trypase-EDTA for G-banding, 74 chromosones, XX, XY, autosomes, X chromosome was metacentric, Y chromosome telocentric.


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