USDA.gov National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
HomeAbout AWICPublicationsWorkshopsServicesNews and EventsHelpContact Us
Search AWIC
Search all of the United States Department of Agriculture
Advanced search
Browse by Subject
Research Animals
Farm Animals
Zoo, Circus and Marine Animals
Companion Animals
Government and Professional Resources
Alternatives
Literature Searching and Databases
Pain and Distress
Humane Endpoints and Euthanasia
 
You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on the South American Camelids  / Alpacas 2006  Printer Friendly Page
Publications
 
Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>

 

Alpacas 2006

Abutarbush, S.M.; Petrie, L. Fatal sand impaction of the spiral colon in a 1-month-old alpaca. Canadian Veterinary Journal = La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 July; 47(7): 683-684. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: alpacas, neonates, case studies, anorexia, diarrhea, animal conditions, digestive system diseases, colon, sand ingestion, sand impaction.

Almy, F.S.; Ladd, S.M.; Sponenberg, D.P.; Crisman, M.V.; Messick, J.B. Mycoplasma haemolamae infection in a 4-day-old cria: Support for in utero transmission by use of a polymerase chain reaction assay. Canadian Veterinary Journal = La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Mar; 47(3): 229-233. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1371050
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3324
Abstracts: Blood smear examination in a 4-day-old alpaca revealed massive erythrocyte parasitism by Mycoplasma haemolamae. Blood collected from both the nonparasitaemic dam and the cria were positive for M. haemolamae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. These findings suggest in utero transmission of M. haemolamae in camelids, even when the dam is not parasitemic.
Descriptors: alpacas, crias, neonates, case study animal diseases, Mycoplasma haemolama mycoplasmosis, neonates, disease transmission, periparturient diseases and disorders, disease diagnosis.

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center ( U.S.). Web Selections: Llama and Alpaca Production. 2006
URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/wsllama.htm
NAL call no.: aSF401.L6
Descriptors: llama, alpaca, production, management, alternative livestock species, fiber production.

Anderson , D.E. Periapical tooth root infections in llamas and alpacas.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 235-240. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Head and neck abscesses are a common complaint in llamas and alpacas in North America representing 3% of clinical cases presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Ohio State University (OSU-VTH). Approximately 20% of infected teeth have infection of the pulp cavity most often associated with a patent infundibulum, approximately 60% have evidence of periodontal disease and compromised periodontal ligament, and 20% are of unknown cause. Differential diagnosis includes tooth root abscess, osteomyelitis, soft tissue abscess (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis), foreign body, parotid duct lesion, facial bone fracture, retained food bolus, and malocclusion. The aim of this paper is to review available information and provide clinical observation on etiology, diagnosis, and treatment option for tooth root infection in llamas and alpacas.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, tooth pulp, tooth diseases, tooth abscesses, disease diagnosis, etiology, medical treatment, surgery, literature reviews, veterinary teaching hospital, Ohio State University, US.
 

Animal Welfare Information Center ( U.S.). Information Resources on Farm Animals. The Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD [2006]. Note: Farm animals. Title from disc label. "June 2006." "Induced molting, dairy cattle, beef cattle, swine, disposal of dead animals, swine housing, proceedings livestock and poultry handling and transport, Emus and ostriches, llamas, alpacas, guanacos and vicunas." System requirements: CD-ROM drive and Adobe Acrobat.

Ansaloni, F.; Pyszny, F.; Claros, A.L.; Marquina, R.; Zapana-Pineda, J.; Claros, A.J.; Quispe-Huanca, J.L. DECAMA-project: Analysis of farm income from South American camelids meat production in Latin American countries: Preliminary results of a comparison between case studies. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
Nal Call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: camelid meat production, economic development, hygiene status and quality of animal based products, income and production costs of camelid meat production, homogeneous questionnaire, visits and direct interviews with agricultural entrepreneurs, Andean rural areas, Peru, Bolivia, South America.
 

Baitchman, E.J.; Aiken, S.W.; Calle, P.P. Successful treatment of atlantooccipital luxation in an alpaca (Lama pacos). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2006; 37(1): 71-74. ISSN: 1042-7260
URL: http://www.bioone.org
Descriptors: alpaca, 7 mo old male alpaca, zoo animal, clinical picture, abnormal lowered posture of head and neck, reluctance to walk, diagnosis, cervical radiographs, atlantooccipital luxation, treated with manual closed reduction, resolved to a normal gait and posture.

Barrington , G.M.; Allen, A.J.; Parish, S.M.; Tibary, A. Biosecurity and biocontainment in alpaca operations. Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 217-225. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Biosecurity on South American camelid operations involves both external and internal measures to prevent the introduction and spread of disease. External biosecurity involves practices and techniques directed at the prevention of entry of new diseases into a group of animals. Internal biosecurity or biocontainment, involves practices and techniques that are directed at the prevention or spread of disease within an existing group of animals. External biosecurity is particularly important in North America camelid operations due to the extensive movement of animals for breeding or show purposes. Internal biosecurity typically involves this the prevention and treatment of failure of passive transfer, maintenance of proper nutrition and housing, and the implementation of an appropriate vaccination program for endemic or relevant diseases. Attention to appropriate cleaning and disinfection procedures related to housing, feeding, and treatment equipment is important for the maintenance of both internal and external biosecurity practices. This paper discusses various risk factors associated with the control of infectious disease in the context of external and internal biosecurity measures in camelids operations.
Descriptors: alpacas, livestock production, livestock biosecurity, disease prevention, disease transmission, animal nutrition, animal housing, vaccination, disinfection, cleaning, animal feeding, risk factors, literature reviews, animal diseases.

Becerra, Jorge Alberto Bustamante. Grazing intensity, plant diversity, and rangeland conditions in the Southeastern Andes of Peru (Palccoyo, Cusco). In: Spehn E.M.; Liberman M.; Korner C [Editors]. Land Use Change and Mountain Biodiversity . CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 2006. 376p. ISBN: 084933523X. Note: Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment Workshop, Bolivia, Colombia; August 20 -23, 2003.
NAL call no.: QH541.5 M65 L36 2006
Descriptors: sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, Opuntia floccosa, Polylspis, primary production, grazing intensity, plant diversity, rangeland conditons, Peru.

Beghelli, D.; D'Alterio, G.L.; Severi, G.; Moscati, L.; Pezzotti, G.; Foglini, A.; Battistacci, L.; Cagiola, M.; Ayala-Vargas, C. Evaluation of the immune response to vaccination against C-Pseudotubercoiosis in an alpaca herd in Italy: Preliminary results. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: alpaca herd, caseous lymphadenitis, Corynebacterium pseudotubercolosis, vaccination program, homotypic, autogenous inactivated and adjuvated (aluminium hydroxide) vaccine, subcutaneous injection, blood testing for immune reaction.

Bella, A; Sousa, N.M.; Dehimi, M.L.; Watts, J.; Beckers, J.F. Western analyses of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein family (PAG) in placental extracts of various mammals.Theriogenology. 2006 Oct 15; 68(7): 1055-1066. ISSN: 0093-691X
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0093691X
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.08.002
NAL call no.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: The present study was conducted in order to analyze the immunoreactivity of placental extracts of several animal species and humans against the following three groups of PAG antisera: anti-boPAG-I (R#497), -boPAG-II (R#435), and -caPAG (R#706). Placental proteins were obtained after extraction at neutral pH, followed by ammonium sulfate (A.S.) precipitation, dialysis, and lyophilization. The immunoreactivity of different placental extracts was revealed by the use of monodimensional SDS-PAGE, followed by blotting on nitrocellulose membrane and the identification of immunoreactive proteins after incubation with PAG antisera (Western blot technique). A strong immunoreactivity of proteins from synepitheliochorial placenta (cattle, sheep, goat, bison, buffalo, and deer) was demonstrated in both 20-50% and 50-80% A.S. fractions using the three antisera. Proteins from species with epitheliochorial placenta presented variable profiles of detected PAG-like proteins: in the sow, many immunoreactive forms were revealed by antisera boPAG-I and boPAG-II, whereas in the dromedary, only two forms were revealed by anti-boPAG-II. Concerning other species, our protocols showed for the first time a cross-reaction between PAG antisera with proteins extracted from dog, alpaca, dromedary, sea lion, and human placenta.
Descriptors: mammals, dogs, alpacas, dromedaries, sea lions, humans, placenta, animal tissue extracts, glycoproteins, immunochemistry, cross reaction, antiserum, Western blotting technique, placental glycoproteins, immunoreactivity.

Berardino,.D. di; Nicodemo, D.; Coppola, G.; King, A.W.; Ramunno, L.; Cosenza,.G.F.; Iannuzzi, L.; Meo, G. P. di; Balmus, G.; Rubes, J. Cytogenetic characterization of alpaca (Lama pacos, fam. Camelidae) prometaphase chromosomes. Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 2006; 115(2): 138-144. ISSN: 1424-8581
URL : www.karger.com/cgr
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000095234
Abstract: The present study provides specific cytogenetic information on prometaphase chromosomes of the alpaca (Lama pacos, fam. Camelidae, 2n=74) that forms a basis for future work on karyotype standardization and gene mapping of the species, as well as for comparative studies and future genetic improvement programs within the family Camelidae. Based on the centromeric index (CI) measurements, alpaca chromosomes have been classified into four groups: group A, subtelocentrics, from pair 1 to 10; group B, telocentrics, from pair 11 to 20; group C, submetacentrics, from pair 21 to 29; group D, metacentrics, from pair 30 to 36 plus sex chromosomes. For each chromosome pair, the following data are provided: relative chromosome length, centromeric index, conventional Giemsa staining, sequential QFQ/C-banding, GTG- and RBG-banding patterns with corresponding ideograms, RBA-banding and sequential RBA/silver staining for NOR localization. The overall number of RBG-bands revealed was 391. Nucleolus organizer-bearing chromosomes were identified as pairs 6, 28, 31, 32, 33 and 34. Comparative ZOO-FISH analysis with camel (Camelus dromedarius) X and Y painting probes was also carried out to validate X-Y chromosome identification of alpaca and to confirm close homologies between the sex chromosomes of these two species.
Descriptors: alpacas, centromeres, chromosomes, cytogenetics, genetic mapping, karyotypes, metacentric chromosomes, nucleolus organizer, sex chromosomes, telocentrics, X chromosomes, Y chromosome, nucleolus organizing region.

Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Timmerman, A.; Harmsen, M.M. Een geval van ernstige Sarcoptes-schurft bij alpaca's (Lama pacos). [A case of severe sarcoptic mange in four alpacas (Lama pacos).] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde. 2006; 131(8): 282-283. ISSN: 0040-7453. Note: In Dutch.
URL: http://www.tijdschriftvoordiergeneeskunde.nl/
NAL call no.: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: 4 alpacas, sarcoptic mange, treatments with drugs, doramectin, ivermectin, amitraz, diazinon, none of the drugs were effective against the mites.

Braga , W.U.; Chavera, A.E.; Gonzalez, A.E. Clinical, humoral, and pathologic findings in adult alpacas with experimentally induced Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006 Sept; 67(9): 1570-1574. ISSN: 0002-9645.
URL: URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.67.9.1570
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstracts: Objective - To experimentally infect adult alpacas by ID inoculation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, follow the clinical and pathologic course of disease, and study the humoral response to infection. Animals - 13 adult alpacas. Procedures - 9 alpacas were inoculated with 1.1x106 CFUs of C. pseudotuberculosis from llama (n=4) or alpaca (5) origin, and 4 alpacas were sham inoculated as controls. Alpacas were clinically observed after inoculation and euthanatized on days 16, 58, 93, or 128 after inoculation; necropsy examination and histologic evaluation were performed. An indirect ELISA, which made use of the C. pseudotuberculosis cell wall as the antigen, was used to measure antibody titres in serum samples. Results - Alpacas had a persistent febrile response, a local severe inflammatory response, and leukocytosis (>30x103 WBCs/ micro L). Internal abscesses that localized mainly in the renal lymph node were observed. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was recovered from the inoculation site 1 week after inoculation and from internal abscesses at 58 days after inoculation. Initial lesions were typical pyogranulomas with central caseous necrosis, whereas later lesions consisted of connective tissue, mononuclear cells, abundant neutrophils, and liquefactive necrosis. Infected alpacas had detectable serum antibody titres starting on day 16 that persisted until day 93 after inoculation. Sham-inoculated alpacas did not develop serum antibody titres, clinical signs of infection, or lesions. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Alpacas inoculated with C. pseudotuberculosis developed abscesses at the inoculation site and internally in the renal lymph nodes, without lung lesions. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates from llama and alpaca origin were found to be pathogenically indistinct. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; animal pathogenic bacteria, caseous lymphadenitis, animal diseases, disease course, immune response, humoral immunity, symptoms, bacterial antigens, blood chemistry, abscess, lesions, experimental infections.

Braga , W.U.; Chavera, A.; Gonzalez, A. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in highland alpacas (Lama pacos) in Peru. Veterinary Record— London. 2006 July 1; 159(1): 23-24. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL : http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL Call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: This short communication describes the abscesses found in alpacas of varying age and sex from two herds located between 4200 and 4600 m above sea level in the southern Peruvian highlands in 1997. Of the 3943 alpacas investigated, 84 were found to have abscesses consistent with a diagnosis of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA). The diagnosis was made by direct inspection and palpation of the superficial lymph nodes and/or mammary glands one month after shearing. Samples were taken from 45 of the 84 alpacas for microbiological and histopathological examinations. In addition, postmortem examinations were carried out on 42 culled alpacas that were negative at clinical investigation. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 45 of the 84 alpacas with abscesses. Twenty-three of the 45 positive alpacas were euthanized and examined postmortem. All 23 were found to have internal abscesses due to C. pseudotuberculosis. A total of 52 abscesses were found during postmortem examination, most of which were found superficially or in the mammary glands. Four of the 42 culled alpacas that were negative at clinical inspection had a single internal abscess in the renal lymph node. It is possible that the bacterium was disseminated by alpacas with chronic mastitis to suckled offspring and/or to the environment. In conclusion, natural infections with C. pseudotuberculosis in Andean alpacas produces mastitis and abscesses in superficial lymph nodes, as well as internal abscesses mainly in the renal lymph node lines.
Descriptors: alpacas, wild highland populations, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, abscess, Peru.

Bromage, Gina. Llamas and Alpacas: A Guide to Management. Crowood in Ramsbury. 2006. 208 p. ISBN: 186126884X; 9781861268846
NAL call no.: SF401.L6.B76 2006
Abstract: This book serves as a guide to those who own llamas and alpacas or considering to own these animals. It is comprised of 13 chapters. The housing, fencing, routine husbandry procedures, welfare, behaviour and training of these animals are covered. The assessment of the animal, shearing, fleece evaluation and marketing are examined. The breeding, birth, care of newborn animals and common diseases are discussed. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, care, handling, breeding, housing, behavior, reproduction, etc.

Burgt, G. van der; Dowle, M. Microchip insertion in alpacas.Veterinary Record-- London. 2007; 160(6): 204. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A 6-month-old alpaca in the UK was implanted with a microchip behind the left ear in the upper part of the neck at a 90 degrees angle to the skin. The alpaca collapsed and died within 5 min of insertion of the microchip. Postmortem examination showed that the microchip was located in the spinal cord between C2 and C3 vertebrae. The resulting neurogenic shock was thought to be the cause of death. This case emphasizes the importance of inserting the needle so that it is not perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the spine when microchipping camelids in the upper neck. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstract.
Descriptors: alpacas, micro chip insertion accident, spinal cord injury, animal pathology, case report, clinical aspects, complications, postmortem examinations, shock.

Burkhalter, B.; Feldmann, H. Sichere Zaune.[Safe fencing.]Forum Kleinwiederkauer/Petits Ruminants. 2006; (3): 12-19. Note: In German and French.
URL: http://www.caprovis.ch
Descriptors: alpacas, goats, llamas, sheep, mobile and permanent fences, economic factors, illustrations, Switzerland.

Catone, G.; Basile, M.; Barbato, O.; Ayala, C. Transvaginal embryo biometry in alpaca (Lama pacos): Preliminary report. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: 5 adult female alpacas, transvaginal sonography, high frequency transducers, microconvex 6,5 MHz transvaginal probe, gestational sac diameter, crown rump length, early pregnancy, 12-65 days post copulation, alternative option to transrectal ultrasonography, Maridiana Farm, Umbetidel, Perugia, Italy.

Cebra, C.K. Camelid anaemia.Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 277
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: alpacas, Eimeria, anemia, clinical aspects, coccidiosis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, fluid therapy, hematocrit, hematology, hemoglobin, rehydration, blood transfusion.

Cebra, C.K.; Bildfell, R.J.; Fischer, K.A. Microanatomic features of pancreatic islets and immunolocalization of glucose transporters in tissues of llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006 Mar; 67(3): 524-528. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.67.3.524
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective - To describe the microanatomic features of pancreatic islets and the immunohistochemical distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT) molecules in the pancreas and other tissues of New World camelids. Animals - 7 healthy adult New World camelids, 2 neonatal camelids with developmental skeletal abnormalities, and 2 BALB/c mice. Procedure - Samples of pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, mammary gland, brain, and adipose tissue were collected postmortem from camelids and mice. Pancreatic tissue sections from camelids were assessed microscopically. Sections of all tissues from camelids and mice (positive control specimens) were examined after staining with antibodies against GLUT-1, -2, -3, and -4 molecules. Results - In camelids, pancreatic islets were prominent and lacked connective tissue capsules. Numerous individual endocrine-type cells were visible distant from the islets. Findings in neonatal and adult tissues were similar; however, the former appeared to have more non-islet-associated endocrine cells. Via immunostaining, GLUT-2 molecules were detected on pancreatic endocrine cells and hepatocytes in camelids, GLUT-1 molecules were detected on the capillary endothelium of the CNS, GLUT-3 molecules were detected throughout the gray matter, and GLUT-4 molecules were not detected in any camelid tissues. Staining characteristics of neonatal and adult tissues were similar. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - In New World camelids, microanatomic features of pancreatic islets are similar to those of other mammals. Data suggest that the poor glucose clearance and poor insulin response to hyperglycemia in adult camelids cannot be attributed to a lack of islet cells or lack of GLUT molecules on the outer membrane of those cells. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, Islets of Langerhans, microstructure, glucose transporters, immunohistochemistry, adult animals, neonates, mice, animal models, abnormal development, skeletal development, hepatocytes, central nervous system, brain, adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle, mammary glands.

Cebra, C. Advanced diagnostic testing.Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume-20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 275-276
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: camels, dromedaries, alpacas, diagnostic testing, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, laparoscopy, radiography, ultrasonography, ultrasonography, fecal analysis, rectal palpation, ultrasound, clinical picture, body fluids, restraint of animals.

Cebra, C. Practical fluid therapy. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume-20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 273-274.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: camels, alpacas, dromedaries, dehydration conditions, rehydration approaches, fluid therapy, oral rehydration, drug delivery systems, rehydration solutions.

Cebra, C.K. Acute recumbency in camelids. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume-20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 272.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: alpacas, Dermacentor, recumbency, possible causes, botulism, causal agents, etiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, mortality, death rate,

Cebra, C.K. Camelid blood test interpretations. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 20, Orlando, Florida, USA, 7-11 January, 2006. 2006; 268-271
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedaries, blood chemistry, blood profiles, normalities regarding blood components, normal blood values, hematology, 3 hydroxybutyric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, chlorides, potassium, serum albumin, sodium, triacylglycerols, creatinine, electrolytes, erythrocytes, fatty acids, glucose, immunoglobulins, leukocytes, eosinophils, lymphocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes, platelets, beta hydroxybutyrate, blood platelets, blood urea nitrogen, dextrose, gamma globulins, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, GOT, GPT, immune-globulins, triglycerides, white blood cells, disease markers;

Cebra, C.K.; Bildfell, R.J.; Lohr, C.V. Determination of internal organ weights in llamas and alpacas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: camelids, llamas, alpacas, organ weights, gender differences, species differences, first and second gastric compartments, third stomach, liver, pancreas, post mortem sampling, no gender differences found, species differences observed.

Cebra, C.K.; Tornquist, S.J. Meta-analysis of glucose tolerance in llamas and alpacas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: glucose tolerance, 5 adult female llamas, 9 adult llama geldings, 22 adult alpacas geldings, 0.5g/kg glucose in bolus after overnight fast, blood draws at various intervals, no difference for llama genders, alpacas had greater volume of distribution than llamas, potentially require different dosing regimens for medications that distribute throughout the extracellular fluid, lower insulin response to hyperglycemia in alpacas result of lower peak glucose concentrations, not pancreatic insufficiency.

Celedon, M.O.; Osorio, J.; Pizarro, J. Aislamiento e identificacion de pestivirus obtenidos de alpacas (Lama pacos) y llamas (Lama glama) de la Region Metropolitana, Chile. [Isolation and identification of pestiviruses in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) introduced to the Region Metropolitana, Chile.] Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria. 2006; 38(3): 247-252. ISSN: 0301-732X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: www.uach.cl
Abstract: The natural habitat for more than 90% of the domestic South American camelids (SAC) in Chile, alpaca (Lama pacos) and llama (Lama glama), is located between 11 degrees and 21 degrees South latitude at 3800 and 5000 ms of altitude. Lately, alpacas and llamas have been introduced to other geographic parts of the country where they are in contact with domestic ruminants, making likely infection with BVDV, present in cattle, goats and sheep. The BVDV includes two species, BVDV genotype I (BVDV I) and BVDV genotype II (BVDV II), which along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) conforms the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. This study evaluates the hypothesis that SAC introduced to the Metropolitan Region (MR) of Chile are infected with pestiviruses. In order to perform viral isolation, samples were taken from 80 SAC (42 live alpacas, 35 live llamas, 2 dead llamas and 1 aborted fetus of llama), coming from 4 flocks suspected to be infected with pestivirus. The samples were inoculated in primary culture of bovine fetus lung cells (free of BVDV), passing each sample 5 times, and were then analysed by direct immunofluorescence and indirect immunoperoxidase techniques to detect the presence of pestivirus antigens. For molecular characterization, a fragment of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of RNA of the isolates was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and treated with restriction enzymes Pst I, Bgl I and Xho I in order to identify species of viruses. The results show that 18 SAC (10 alpacas and 8 llamas from the 4 studied flocks), were infected with pestivirus. All isolates were non cytopathogenic. BVDV I was isolated from 6 alpacas while BVDV II was isolated from 4 alpacas and 8 llamas. The viral samples were obtained from 8 healthy alpacas, 2 alpacas with abortion, 5 healthy llamas, 2 llamas with abortion and 1 dead llama without clinical history. It is concluded that alpacas and llamas from the MR of Chile are infected with BVDV I and BVDV II.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, amplification, disease prevalence, identification, isolation, molecular genetics, RNA, bovine diarrhea virus, pestivirus, biochemical genetics, BVD, mucosal disease, mucosal disease virus, ribonucleic acid, Chile.

Condori, G.; Ayala, C.; Cochi, N.; Rodriguez, T. DECAMA-project: Evaluation and classification of carcass quality of alpaca. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07--09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: alpacas; 16 month old animals; carcass quality assessment; visual assessment; 5 classes: 1) poor, 2) normal, 3) good, 4) very good, and 5) excellent; fat covering considered 5 regions for the grades; carcass weight and length for the compactness indices; rump width and leg length; longissimus dorsi muscle; South America.

D'Alterio, G.L. Skin lesions in UK alpacas (Lama pacos): Prevalence, aetiology and treatment. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: camelid breeders, llamas, alpacas, 3,520 animals counted, zinc deficiency, ectoparasitism, Chorioptes mite, mail survey, characterize the camelid population, features of skin disease, efficacy of eprinomectin vs ivermectin, anti miticide, Britain.

D' Alterio, G.L. Introduction to the alpaca and its veterinary care in the UK. In Practice. 2006 July-Aug; 28(7): 404-411. ISSN: 0263-841X
NAL call no.: SF601.I4
Abstract: South American camelids, particularly alpacas (Lama pacos), are becoming increasingly popular exotic livestock species in the UK. As with most exotic animals, veterinary intervention relies heavily on knowledge gained with more conventional and familiar species. However, species differences must be taken into consideration, and it is crucial that exotic patients are placed within the appropriate biological context. This article discusses the husbandry procedures commonly adopted for alpacas in the UK and describes how routine veterinary techniques are conducted in this species. It also outlines an approach to disease prevention. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, large animal practice, animal health, animal care, blood composition, digestive system, endoparasites,vaccination, Clostridium perfringens, animal reproduction, castration, United Kingdom.

D'Alterio, G.L.; Knowles, T.G.; Eknaes, E.I.; Loevland, I.E.; Foster, A.P. Postal survey of the population of South American camelids in the United Kingdom in 2000/01. Veterinary Record— London. 2006; 158(3): 86-90. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: www.bvapublications.com
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: The members of the two leading British camelid breeders associations were surveyed by means of a postal questionnaire between December 2000 and January 2001; 696 questionnaires were posted and 218 usable responses were returned. A total of 3520 camelids were recorded, of which 2719 (77.2 per cent) were alpacas (Lama pacos) and 726 (20.6 per cent) were llamas (Lama glama). Ninety-four per cent of the camelid herds were of one species, and 70 per cent of the animals were kept for more than one purpose. Camelids imported from South America were present on 45 per cent of the units surveyed. Husbandry procedures and preventive health measures were uniform; 92.2 per cent of the animals were kept on pasture all year around, 99 per cent were supplemented with hay and 97.7 per cent with concentrate feed; 88.1 per cent were vaccinated against clostridial disease with a multivalent vaccine licensed for sheep, and 96.3 per cent were treated periodically with anthelmintic drugs. During 2000, ill health, other than dermatological conditions, was reported by 24.3 of respondents, and 32 different conditions were described. Skin disease was reported by 51 per cent of breeders. Zinc deficiency was diagnosed presumptively as the cause of skin disease by 31.9 per cent of the respondents, and ectoparasitism by 26.4 per cent. Of those who treated a skin condition, 71.9 per cent reported an improvement, but less than half of them considered the improvement to have been permanent.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, postal questionnaire survey, animal health, animal husbandry, disease prevalence, disease prevention, populations, skin diseases, therapy, vaccination, South America, UK.

D'Alterio, G.L.; Bazeley, K.J. Referral service for South American camelids at the University of Bristol Veterinary School: A review of cases from 1999 to 2002. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF601.I4
Descriptors: vicunas, llamas, alpaca, guanaco, veterinary medicine, clinical and surgical camelid cases, Farm Animal Practice & Hospital of the University of Bristol, Britain, UK.
 

Davis, W.C.; Hamilton, M.J. Use of flow cytometry to characterize immunodeficiency syndromes in camelids. Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 187-193. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Disorders in immune function in lamas have been observed over the past years. However, it has been difficult to determine how many types of deficiencies exist. Through the use of flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies specific for leukocyte differentiation molecules, it has been possible to characterize the immune system of lamas and determine the genetic basis of one disease, the juvenile lama immunodeficiency syndrome (JLIDS). The availability of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry now afford an opportunity to clinically diagnose animals with JLIDS at birth and characterize other immunodeficiencies in animals presenting with similar clinical signs of immune dysfunction. The findings also show that flow cytometry can be used to characterize disorders in other species.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, immunosuppression, flow cytometry, monoclonal antibodies, leukocytes, cell differentiation, genetic disorders, disease diagnosis, juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome.

De Fidelibus, G.; Vecchi, A.; Minucci, G.; Lebboroni, G.; Antonini, M.; Renieri, C. Morphological variation of Italian alpaca population. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
Nal call no: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: alpacas, adult animals, Italian populations, ITALPACA Association, morphology, coat colors, hoof color, ear length and type, forehead and nose profile, 30% white, 69% pigmented, 32% percent are red with black extremities, 32% black, 18% wild, 10% reddish brown, 1% black and tan, 47% Huacaya, 8% Suri, 44% intermediate, locations of fleece, age effects, Italy.

Di Berardino, D.; Nicodemo, D.; Coppola, G.; King, A.W.; Ramunno, L.; Cosenza, G.F.; Iannuzzi, L.; Di-Meo, G.P.; Balmus, G.; Rubes, J. Cytogenetic characterization of alpaca (Lama pacos, fam. Camelidae) prometaphase chromosomes. Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 2006; 115(2): 138-144. ISSN: 1424-8581
URL: http://content.karger.com
NAL call no.: QH431.C95
Descriptors: alpacas, cytogenetics, prometaphase chromosomes, karyotype standardization and gene mapping, comparative studies, future genetic improvement program applications, entromeric index on chromosomes, 4 groups, A group subtelocentrics pair 1-10, B group telocentrics pair 11-20, C group submetacentrics pair 21-29, Group D metacentrics from pair 30-36, relative chromosome length, centromeric index, conventional Giemsa staining, sequential QFQ/C-banding, GTG- and RBG-banding patterns with corresponding ideograms, RBA-banding, sequential RBA/silver staining for NOR localization, ZOO-FISH analysis with camel (Camelus dromedarius) X and Y painting probes, validate X-Y chromosome identification of alpaca, homologies between the sex chromosomes camels and alpacas.

Dykgraaf, S.; Pusterla, N.; Van Hoogmoed, L.M. Rattlesnake envenomation in 12 New World camelids. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006 July-Aug; 20(4): 998-1002. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL call no.: SF601.J65 .
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, snake bites, snake venoms, Crotalus atrox, antivenoms, antibiotics, fluid therapy, mortality, California.

Evermann, J.F Pestiviral infection of llamas and alpacas. Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 201-206. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: This review summarizes the literature pertaining to pestiviral infections of members of the camelid family. The exact nature of pestiviral infections, in particular bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), is the subject of active investigation especially in llamas and alpacas. Earlier reports based on serology-detected pestiviral (BVDV) antibodies in members of the camelid group ranging from a low 4% to a high of 53%. These studies indicate that members of the camelid group are susceptible to infection and do seroconvert. Over the past decade, clinical reports have documented disease conditions in llamas, alpacas and more recently, camels. These conditions range from respiratory and enteric diseases to chronic wasting and in utero infections resulting in stillbirths, and abortion. The review brings together some thoughts on whether infections of the camelid group are due to interspecies transmission and/or the potential that members of this group have their own unique pestiviral infections.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, bovine viral diarrhea virus; viral diseases of animals and humans, literature reviews, seroprevalence, pestivirus, respiratory tract diseases, digestive system diseases, wasting syndrome, disease transmission, disease vectors.

Finucane, Brian; Agurto, Patricia Maita; Isbell, William H. Human and animal diet at Conchopata, Peru: stable isotope evidence for maize agriculture and animal management practices during the Middle Horizon. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2006; 33(12): 1766-1776. ISSN: 0305-4403
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03054403
Descriptors: humans, plant species, alpacas, llamas, guanacos, vicunas, Avaia porcellus, maize, various grasses, nitrogen 15, delta C 13, analysis of skeletal remains, Middle Horizon period (AD550-1000) Conchopata, Peruvian highlands, animal management strategies, no sex differences in diet, Peru.

Frank, E.N.; Hick, M.V.H.; Gauna, C.D.; Lamas, H.E.; Renieri, C.; Antonini, M. Phenotypic and genetic description of fibre traits in South American domestic camelids (llamas and alpacas). Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 113-129. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Even though llamas and alpacas are multipurpose animals, fibre production remains the main trait from an international market point of view. The objectives of this review are to describe the phenotypic traits that determine fibre quality, and to identify the genetic mechanisms governing them. The finer and lesser prickling effect the fibre has, the higher its value is. All these characteristics are related to fibre diameter and evenness, and to other traits such as color, type of fleece, fibre length and yield. Studies on genetic mechanisms for llama and alpaca fleece traits show that the white phenotype is dominant to the pigmented phenotype and to the spotted phenotype. Black face and extremities phenotypes are dominant to black and wild phenotypes. Lustre is dominant to non-lustre type and double coated is governed by an additive genetic mechanism. Heritabilities of fleece weight, staple length and fibre diameter are low to moderate in the high plateau environment and very high outside Altiplano conditions.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, fiber quality, phenotype, animal genetics, wool production, fiber color, fiber staple, fleece, yields, dominance (genetics), heritability, diameter, genotype, literature-reviews.

Gall, David A.; Zekas, Lisa J.; Van Metre, David; Holt, Timothy. Imaging diagnosis--pulmonary metastases in new world camelids. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound. 2006 Oct-Nov; 47(6): 571-573. ISSN: 1058-8183
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com
NAL call no.: SF757.8.A4
Abstract: The radiographic appearance of pulmonary metastatic disease from carcinoma is described in a llama and an alpaca. In one, a diffuse miliary pattern was seen. In the other, a more atypical unstructured interstitial pattern was recognized. Metastatic pulmonary neoplasia in camelids may assume a generalized miliary or unstructured pattern.
Descriptors: Doberman Pinscher dogs, llamas, alpacas, lymphoma, prostate gland, ultrasonography, case studies, carcinoma, radiography, respiratory tract diseases.

Garcia-Pereira, F.L.; Greene, S.A.; McEwen, M.M.; Keegan, R. Analgesia and anesthesia in camelids.Small Ruminant Research The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 227-233. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references. A literature review.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: South American camelids, alpacas and llamas, are increasing in popularity. As a result, veterinarians in North American and European countries are treating increasing numbers of these species in their practices. This article reviews some of the common anesthetic and analgesic practices used in camelids.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, analgesia, anesthesia, veterinary medicine, tranquilizers.

Genin, D.; Alzerreca, H. Le Houerou, H.N. [Editors]. Campos nativos de pastoreo y produccion animal en la puna semiarida y arida andina. Entre fragilidad, saberes tradicionales y marginalidad, inverted-?cual desarrollo duradero? [Native pastures and animal production in the semi-arid puna and arid Andes. What type of sustainable development between fragility, traditional knowledge and marginalization?] Secheresse. 2006; 17(1/2): 265-274. ISSN: 1147-7806. Note: In Spanish with a French summary.
URL: http://www.secheresse.info
Abstract: Natural pasture types in the altiplano and altoandino regions of the Andes are described and precipitation and temperature data are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of sheep, lamas, and alpacas are discussed and linked to vegetation type and altitude. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, sheep, llamas, livestock farming at high altitudes, altiplano, indigenous knowledge, high pastures, dry zones, grazing lands, rural development, sustainability, Andes, South America.

Gilbert, R.; Kutzler, M.; Valentine, B.A.; Semevolos, S. Hyperandrogenism from an ovarian interstitial-cell tumor in an alpaca. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Nov; 18(6): 605-607. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: An 8-year-old intact female Huacaya alpaca (Lama pacos) was presented for recent development of male behavior. Serum testosterone concentration was determined to be 969.1 pg/ml by using radioimmunoassay, while the range in 33 healthy female adult intact alpacas was 11.7-62.1 pg/ml. An ovarian mass was suspected, and an exploratory laparotomy was performed. A tan mass was present on the left ovary. Histologically, the mass was composed of closely packed, plump, polygonal cells with central round nuclei with granular chromatin and abundant eosinophilic finely granular to vesiculate cytoplasm. An ovarian benign interstitial (Leydig) cell tumor was diagnosed.
Descriptors: alpacas, ovaries, neoplasms, Leydig cells, androgens, hormone secretion, females, animal behavior, blood chemistry, testosterone, ovulation, hyperandrogenism.

Grubb, Tamara L.; Schlipf, John W.; Riebold, Thomas- W.; Cebra, Christopher K.; Poland, Lisa; Zawadzkas, Xenia; Mailhot, Nicole. Minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane in llamas and alpacas.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2006 Nov; 33(6): 351-355. ISSN: 1467-2987
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118516519/home
NAL call no.: SF914 .V47
Abstract: To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane in llamas and alpacas. Prospective study. Six healthy adult llamas and six healthy adult alpacas. Anesthesia was induced with desflurane delivered with oxygen through a mask. An endotracheal tube was inserted, and a port for continuous measurement of end-tidal and inspired desflurane concentrations was placed between the endotracheal tube and the breathing circuit. After equilibration at an end-tidal-to-inspired desflurane concentration ratio >0.90 for 15 minutes, a 50-Hz, 80-mA electrical stimulus was applied to the antebrachium until a response was obtained (i.e. gross purposeful movement) or for up to 1 minute. The vaporizer setting was increased or decreased to effect a 10-20% change in end-tidal desflurane concentration, and equilibration and stimulus were repeated. The MAC was defined as the average of the lowest end-tidal desflurane concentration that prevented a positive response and the highest concentration that allowed a positive response. Mean pl SD MAC of desflurane was 7.99 pl 0.58% in llamas and 7.83 pl 0.51% in alpacas. The MAC of desflurane in llamas and alpacas was in the range of that reported for other species.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, veterinary drugs, anesthetics, pulmonary alveoli, chemical concentration, drug evaluation, anesthesia, desflurane, inhalant anesthesia, minimum alveolar concentration, Internet resource.

Grubb, Tamara L.; Schlipf, John W.; Riebold, Thomas W.; Cebra, Christopher K.; Poland, Lisa; Zawadzkas, Xenia; Mailhot, Nicole. Minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane in llamas and alpacas.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2006 Nov; 33(6): 351-355. ISSN: 1467-2987
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118516519/home
NAL call no.: SF914 .V47
Abstract: To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane in llamas and alpacas. Prospective study. Six healthy adult llamas and six healthy adult alpacas. Anesthesia was induced with desflurane delivered with oxygen through a mask. An endotracheal tube was inserted, and a port for continuous measurement of end-tidal and inspired desflurane concentrations was placed between the endotracheal tube and the breathing circuit. After equilibration at an end-tidal-to-inspired desflurane concentration ratio >0.90 for 15 minutes, a 50-Hz, 80-mA electrical stimulus was applied to the antebrachium until a response was obtained (i.e. gross purposeful movement) or for up to 1 minute. The vaporizer setting was increased or decreased to effect a 10-20% change in end-tidal desflurane concentration, and equilibration and stimulus were repeated. The MAC was defined as the average of the lowest end-tidal desflurane concentration that prevented a positive response and the highest concentration that allowed a positive response. Mean +/- SD MAC of desflurane was 7.99 +/- 0.58% in llamas and 7.83 +/- 0.51% in alpacas. The MAC of desflurane in llamas and alpacas was in the range of that reported for other species.
Descriptors: alpaca, llama, desflurane, inhalant anesthesia, llama.

Gruntman, A.M.; D Nolen Walston, R. Albendazole toxicity in nine alpaca crias.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006; 20(3): 724. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 24th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA; May 31 -June 03, 2006.
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpaca, crias, albendazole, drug toxicity, symptoms, antihelmenthic drug, oral administration, iv administration, fluconazole, enrofloxacin, Neupogen, mtronicazole.

Gunsser, I.; Haenichen, T.; Kiesling, C. Breeding and/or Handling Problems? Causes of Death in Camelids. In: M. Gerken and C. Renueri [Editors]. The 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: 179 camelids; 63 alpacas; 5 guanacos; 1 guanaco-llama mix; 5 dromedary camels; 3 Bactrian camels; 1 vicuna; post mortem sampling; causes of death; most common problems: pulmonary edema; next most common: liver, digestive system, abdomen, endoparasites, chronic feeding mistakes; pathology of other organs: urinary tract, head, spleen, skin; degeneration of parenchymas, teeth problems, spleen reactions, mites or other infections; less frequent pathology: genitals, neck, bones, limbs; general causes of death: infectious diseases (22.5%), euthanasia (17.1%), emaciation (9.5%), fatty degeneration of parenchyma (9.0%), diagnosis inconclusive (14.4%).

Gunsser, I.; Aigner, A.; Kiesling, C. Evaluation of laboratory results of camelids, made for import, export or participation in shows. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: 2,546 llamas and alpacas; importing, exporting, show animals, 9, 391 tests for ruminant diseases, brucellosis, leucosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, bovine herpes virus 1, and other diseases, testing products evaluated, negative for most ruminant diseases, false positives found, laboratories in Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, and Finland, United States, Chile, Peru.

Halloy, Stephan; Seimon, Anton; Yager, Karina; Tupayachi, Alfredo. Multidimensional (climatic, biodiversity, socioeconomic), changes in land use in the Vilcanota watershed, Peru. In: Spehn E.M.; Liberman M.; Korner C. [Editors]. Land Use Change and Mountain Biodiversity.CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 2006. 376p. ISBN: 084933523X. Note: Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment Workshop, Bolivia, Colombia; August 20 -23, 2003.
NAL call no.: QH541.5 M65 L36 2006
Descriptors: alpaca, crop plants, vascular plants, watershed areas, biodiversity, socioeconomics,

Hertzberg, H.; Kohler, L.: Prevalence and significance of gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa in South American Camelids in Switzerland. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2006; 119(7/8): 291-294. ISSN: 0005-9366. Note: In English with a German summary.
URL: http://www.vetline.de/bmtw/
NAL call no.: 41.8 B45
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of endoparasitic infections in South American Camelids (SAC) in Switzerland. Qualitative and quantitative coproscopic examinations were performed in 38 farms during the grazing period. Management practices with possible interference with parasitic infections were analysed. On the farm level, prevalences of endoparasitic infections were: trichostrongyles, 87%; Trichuris sp., 74%; Capillaria sp., 68%; Nematodirus battus, 63%; Nematodirus sp., 53%; Dicrocoelium dendriticum, 34%; Moniezia sp., 8%; Fasciola hepatica, 5%; protostrongylids, 5%; Eimeria macusaniensis, 68%. The level of helminth egg excretion was generally low. The highest values were recorded for trichostrongyles with an average for all investigated farms of 53 eggs per gram of faeces. The mean trichostrongyle egg output was approximately three-fold in SAC on farms that also kept sheep and/or goats, although this difference was not significant (P=0.11). Clinical trichostrongylidosis was not reported from any of the farms. The low infection level with gastrointestinal nematodes is attributed to the defaecation behaviour of SAC, depositing their faeces focally on small spots on pasture. As a consequence, pasture infectivity is largely restricted to the area adjacent to the dung piles. Dicrocoeliosis is regarded as the most relevant parasitic infection of llamas and alpacas in Switzerland causing severe clinical symptoms and death in untreated animals. 16% of the owners regularly treated their herds against dicrocoeliosis using praziquantel at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight orally. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, animal parasitic nematodes, anthelmintics, disease control, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, fecal testing, disease surveillance, helminthoses, praziquantel, protozoal infections, Capillaria, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Eimeria macusaniensis, Fasciola hepatica, Moniezia, Nematodirus, Nematodirus battus, Protostrongylidae, Trichostrongylus, Trichuris, Enoplida, protozoal diseases, Switzerland.

Hoffman, Eric; Baum, Karen. The Complete Alpaca Book. Bonny Doon Press, LLC. Santa Cruz, Calif.: 2006. ISBN: 9780972124218; 0972124217
NAL call no.: SF401.A4.H65 2006
Descriptors: alpacas, rearing, management, nutrition, feeding, breeding, reproduction, behavior, common diseases, etc.

Huanca, W.; Cervantes, M.P.; Huanca, T. Embryo mortality and its relation with the phase of follicular development at mating in alpaca. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: 116alpacas, 3 year old females, follicular development phase (growth, maintanence, or regression) during mating, embryo mortality 35 days post mating, transrectal ultrasonography for follicular status, testing at various intervals, male acceptance, ovulation and concenption rate compared with Chi Square test, follicular development at mating did not influence embryo mortality between 20 and 35 days of gestation.

Jakes, K.A.; Shim, S.; Thompson, A. A pilot study of the effects of diet on Huacaya and Suri alpaca fibre.Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(2): 185-192. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: A two-year pilot study was undertaken to determine whether a difference in calorie and protein intake influences alpaca health or fibre quality in ways that override differences that stem from colour, age or breed. 36 Huacaya and Suri animals were divided into low and high nutrition groups. The low nutrition diet was a low protein, trace mineral supplemented diet, while the high diet was a protein and energy supplemented one. Animal health was monitored throughout the study; extreme cold and naturally occurring diseases resulted in some attrition from the groups. Fibre was collected at approximate 3-month intervals from the midside of each animal. Fibre diameter was evaluated quarterly, while growth rate, scale length and bundle tensile strength was evaluated at the end of 12 and 24 months. Fibre diameter was thinner after growth in the winter months but thickened again through the summer. Huacaya fibre was stronger than Suri but it was not clear whether diet influenced strength. Growth rate was not affected by diet. Scale length was not affected by diet nor could scale length be used as a reliable measure to distinguish Huacaya and Suri fibres. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, animal feeding, animal fibers, fiber staple length, dietary protein, diets, energy intake, feed supplements, growth rate, hair, minerals, animal fiber staple, trace elements.

Jensen, J M. Camelid Drug Formulary. Published by Game Ranch Health. San Antonio, USA: 2006, 405 p. ISBN: 9781424312177
NAL call no.: SF916.5.J46 2006
Abstract: The book is divided into two main sections, the first dealing with South American Camelids (SAC), llama (Lama glama), alpaca (Lama pacos), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna), and the second with dromedaries (Camelus dromedaries) and Bactrian camels (C. bactrianus). The drugs are grouped in the book according to clinical application (for example, Analgesia, Anaesthesia, Gastrointestinal, Immunization, Reproductive, Vitamins-Minerals). The information consists of a table with five columns entitled Drug, Species, Dosage, Comments, and Reference. For example the information for penicillin in the Reproduction - SAC section is: Drug: penicillin, Species: SAC, Dosage: 22,000 mg/kg, SC, q24h for 3 treatments, Comments: prevention of uterine infection, References: Johnson, L. 1989 [the full references are listed at the end of each of the SAC and Camel sections]. This book will be extremely useful to all veterinarians who come across camelids in their work.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, vicunas, guanacos, drug formulary, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, anti-infective agents, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-parasitic agents, drug therapy; gastrointestinal-agents, pharmacology.

Johnson, A.L.; Lamm, C.G.; Divers, T.J. Acquired cervical scoliosis attributed to Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in an alpaca.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2006 Aug 15; 229(4): 562-565. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Case Description - A 2-year-old alpaca was evaluated because of acute onset of cervical scoliosis. Clinical Findings - Physical examination revealed severe scoliosis of the caudal portion of the cervical vertebral column with a C-shaped curvature to the right side. No gait deficits were observed. Cervical radiography confirmed severe curvature of C4 to C6 but did not reveal any bony changes. Cerebrospinal fluid had high total protein concentration and extremely high nucleated cell count with a high proportion of eosinophils, suggesting parasitic infection. Treatment and Outcome - The alpaca was treated for suspected parelaphostrongylosis with ivermectin, fenbendazole, flunixin, vitamin E, thiamine, physical therapy, and a custom-made neck brace. The alpaca's condition continued to deteriorate, and it developed tetraparesis and ataxia and was euthanized after approximately 1 month. Microscopic evaluation of the cervical spinal cord revealed marked vacuolar changes in the left medial portion of the ventral funiculus, mild lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and multifocal granulomas. The lesions were continuous from C1 to C7 and were compatible with parasite migration. Clinical Relevance - To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of acquired scoliosis in an alpaca, which appears to represent an unusual manifestation of parelaphostrongylosis that was reported in horses. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, animal diseases, scoliosis, curvature of the neck bones, nematode infections, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, case study, clinical picture, disease detection, disease course, disease diagnosis, drug therapy, veterinary equipment, acquired cervical scoliosis.

Kobera, R.; Poehle, D. Case reports in South American camelids in Germany. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: alpaca, females, males, infection, epidemiology, pathogens, Candida albicans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, pseudotuberculosis vaccine, acute kidney failure, pathology, mortality, yeast infection, diagnosis, pancreas, spleen, immune response, myocardium tissue, case reports, Germany.

Kutzler, M.A.; Shoemaker, M.; Valentine, B.A.; Bildfell, R.J.; Tornquist, S.J. Bilateral cystic rete testis in an alpaca (Lama pacos).Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 May; 18(3): 303-306. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: A 9-year-old intact male alpaca (Lama pacos) was examined because of marked enlargement of the left scrotum. Ultrasound examination revealed a thin-walled anechoic structure in the area of the left testis. Aspirated fluid contained spermatozoa, many of which had abnormal morphology. Castration was performed and the left testis was markedly enlarged with a clear fluid-filled cyst. The cyst was lined by a single layer of squamous to cuboidal epithelial cells consistent with those originating from rete testis. The right testis was of a comparable size and shape to that of normal alpaca testis, but the rete testis was mildly to moderately dilated. Additional findings included chronic inflammation of the right testis and epididymis and epididymal fibrosis with ductal hyperplasia on the left. The diagnosis was bilateral cystic rete testis, most likely secondary to chronic inflammation.
Descriptors: alpacas, adult intact males, rete testis, scrotum, spermatozoa, cysts (neoplasms), epithelial cells, inflammation, epididymis, male genital diseases, animal diseases, anatomy and morphology, symptoms, epididymal fibrosis.

Lakritz, J.; Middleton, J.R.; Anderson, D.E.; Linden, D.R.; Sams, R.A.; Tessman, R.K.; Tyler, J.W. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered caffeine in healthy alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama).American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006 June; 67(6): 1063-1069. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective-To determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of IV administered caffeine in healthy Lama spp camelids. Animals-4 adult male alpacas and 4 adult female llamas. Procedures-Caffeine (3 mg/kg) was administered as an IV bolus. Plasma caffeine concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography in 6 animals and by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 2 llamas. Results-Median elimination half-life was 11 hours (range, 9.3 to 29.8 hours) in alpacas and 16 hours (range, 5.4 to 17 hours) in llamas. The volume of distribution at steady state was 0.60 L/kg (range, 0.45 to 0.93 L/kg) in alpacas and 0.75 L/kg (range, 0.68 to 1.15 L/kg) in llamas. Total plasma clearance was 44 mL/h/kg (range, 24 to 56 mL/h/kg) in alpacas and 42 mL/h/kg (range, 30 to 109 mL/h/kg) in llamas. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were suitable methods for determination of plasma caffeine concentrations in alpacas and llamas. Plasma caffeine concentration-time curves were best described by a 2-compartment model. Elimination half-lives, plasma clearance, volume of distribution at steady state, and mean residence time were not significantly different between alpacas and llamas. Intravenous administration of caffeine at a dose of 3 mg/kg did not induce clinical signs of excitement.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, females, pharmacokinetics, intravenous injection, caffeine, behavioral effects, half life, drug evaluation.

Leotta, Gerardo A.; Deza, Natalia; Origlia, Javier; Toma, Claudia; Chinen, Isabel; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Iyoda, Sunao; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rivas, Marta. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in captive non-domestic mammals. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006; 118(1-2): 151-157. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.08.019
NAL call no.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: ruminants, goats, giraffes, Taurotragus oryx, elands, Antilope cervicapra, blackbuck antelopes, Ovis musimon, mouflon sheep, Ovis aries somalicus, Somali sheep, Bos grunniensis, yaks, Lama pacos, alpaca, Lama guanicoe, guanaco, Lama guanico glama, llama, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, capybaras, Dolichotis patagonus, Patagonian cavy, Cervus elaphus, red deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, pampas deer, Axis axis, axis deer, Mazama gouazoubira, fallow deer, Dama dama, paint deer, Elaphrus davidianus (Coleoptera-), pere david deer, Escherichia coli, serovar-O12:H25, serovar-O13:H6, strain 25 strains, strain 27 strains, strain O146:H28; Shiga toxin producing-Escherichia coli, 7 different sero-types, testing fecal samples, PCR, Shiga toxin gene sequences, natural reservoir, frequency in non-domestic animals, zoo habitat, living in a pit, Zoo and Botanical Garden, La Plata City, Argentina.
 

Li, PengFei; Dong, ChangSheng; Fan, RuiWen; Bai, Rui; Zhu, ZhiWei; Du HaiYan. Study on the relation of ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5) gene and alpaca fleece growth Journal of Economic Animal. 2006; 10(4): 215-218. ISSN: 1007-7448. Note: In Chinese with an English summary.
URL: http://jjdwxb.periodicals.net.cn
Abstract: The ribosomal protein S5 gene from the alpaca DNA library was studied using southern blotting. The gene was sequenced and the deduced nucleotide and amino acid sequences were compared with that of other mammals. The gene sequence was also analysed using bioinformatics to determine its special functional structure. The results will be used as basis for future research.
Descriptors: alpacas, amino acid sequences, fleece, genes, growth, nucleotide sequences, proteins, protein sequences.

Linden , D.R.; Anderson, D.E.; Ramsey, P.M. Seasonal variation in water intake in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) species. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(2): 201-205. ISSN: 0971-6777
NAL call no.: SF997.5.C3
Abstract: Water consumption was recorded during selected periods throughout the year to determine the variation that occurs with climactic changes and between species for llamas (L. glama) and alpacas (L. pacos) housed in North America ( Ohio, USA). Llamas had mean water consumption of 46.1 ml/kg during summer, 34.1 ml/kg during autumn, 25.0 ml/kg during winter and 33.2 ml/kg during spring. Alpacas had mean water consumption of 69.0 ml/kg during summer, 50.2 ml/kg during autumn, 40.6 ml/kg during winter and 46.1 ml/kg during spring. On a metabolic body weight basis, llamas and alpacas had mean water consumptions of 117.2 and 101.1 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively, during spring, 157.1 ml kg (0.75)-1 and 194.8 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively during summer, 116.2 ml kg (0.75)-1 and 141.6 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively, during autumn and 86.7 ml kg (0.75)-1 and 114.9 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively, during winter. Mean daily ambient temperature during summer, autumn, winter and spring sample periods were 25.4, 24.6, 4.4 and 21.0 degrees C, respectively. Mean relative humidity during the summer, autumn, winter and spring sample periods were 69.6, 64.2, 82.5 and 87.2%, respectively. This study showed that seasonal environmental variations correlated with variations in water consumption in llamas and alpacas (P<0.05). This study determined that alpacas consume greater amounts of water per kg body weight than llamas in any given season under the same temperature and humidity (P<0.05). Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, body weight, environmental temperatures, relative humidity, seasonal variation, seasonality, species differences, spring, summer, autumn, winter, water-intake, seasonal changes, seasonal fluctuations, Ohio, USA.

Lupton, C.J.; Elvestad, R.P.; Pfeiffer, F.A.; MacKinnon, K. Effects of age, location, and nutrition on body weight, fiber production, and fiber quality characteristics of penned alpaca males. Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 84(Suppl. 1): 58. ISSN: 0021-8812. Note: 2006 ADSA/ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA; July 09-13, 2006.
URL: http://jas.fass.org/
Descriptors: alpacas, males, body weight, age effect, fleece quality, fiber production, fiber quality, location effect, nutrition effect, Texas, US.

Lupton, C.J.; McColl, A.; Stobart, R.H. Fiber characteristics of the Huacaya alpaca.Small Ruminant Research. 2006 Aug; 64(3): 211-224. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.04.023
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: A study was conducted to establish a comprehensive profile of US Huacaya Alpaca fiber characteristics that could be useful for educational, promotional, policy, selection, and breeding purposes. Specifically, the means, distributions, and ranges of 23 fiber characteristics and body weight of a representative sample (n = 585) of US Alpacas were measured or calculated using internationally accepted objective test methods. Animals in specified age groups and of known sex representing six geographical regions in the USA were weighed and sampled in approximate proportion to their population density in the respective regions. Fiber samples were shorn from the mid-side of the Alpacas, representing female, male, and castrated male registered animals in the three age categories: 1- and 2-year-old and adult Alpacas. Each sample was measured for mean fiber diameter, prickle factor, comfort factor, mean fiber curvature, medullation (white and light fawn samples only), laboratory scoured yield, mean staple length, mean staple strength, position of break, and resistance to compression. In addition, yellowness and brightness were measured on the white samples and color differences were measured on the colored samples using a colorimeter. With one exception (laboratory scoured yield), the measured characteristics exhibited considerable variability. The only difference in fiber characteristics that was attributable to sex was mean staple strength. Males produced stronger fibers than females. In contrast, differences due to age were apparent for all but two of the measured traits, these being coefficient of variation of staple length and resistance to compression. Compared to wool of comparable fineness, the Alpaca was shown to be higher yielding, more heavily medullated (a distinctive feature of Alpaca), longer, and considerably stronger. Resistance to compression was invariably lower for Alpaca compared to wool of comparable fiber diameter likely due to the lower levels of crimp in the Alpaca fibers.
Descriptors: alpacas, animal fibers, textile fibers, fiber quality, mechanical properties, fatigue strength, color, gender differences, animal age, national surveys, alternative livestock, United States.

Madaleno, I.M. Raising camelids up the Andes: Aymara indians animal and vegetable farming complementarities in Chile. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas,Indian camelid herders,Aymara Indian communities, 3,800 meter above sea level, lack of crops, quinoa, social structure, villages, ethnic pastoralism, bofedal, animals for meat, milk and wool fibers, traditional camelid husbandry, current status, Chile.

McGregor, B.A. Production, attributes and relative value of alpaca fleeces in southern Australia and implications for industry development. Small Ruminant Research:- The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 93-111. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: An investigation of commercially important alpaca fibre attributes aimed to identify the influence of management and production variables on alpaca fibre and to quantify the relative economic value of fibre production. Fleeces from five farms in southern Australia (n = 1100) were measured using midside samples and standard tests and were assigned a relative economic value based on an analysis of market price data. Greasy fleece (GFW) and saddle weights of Huacayas peaked at 2 years and Suris at 3 years of age and then declined with increases in age until 6 years of age. GFW of Huacaya were not affected by mean fibre diameter (MFD). In Suris, GFW increased with MFD reaching a peak at 29-33 micrometer. Mean +/- S.D. of clean washing yield was 92.0 +/- 1.5%. The proportion of the fleece as saddle, neck and skirting components was (mean +/- S.E., %): saddle 55.9 +/- 0.9, neck 16.3 +/- 0.5, skirtings 27.8 +/- 0.6. About, 10% of Huacayas had fleeces with MFD < 24.0 micrometer, while 14% of Suris had fleeces < 24.0 micrometer. Both Huacayas and Suris had about 50% of fleeces with mean fibre diameter > 29.9 micrometer. One-third of Huacaya and Suri saddles had <20% of their fibres medullated. Only, 30% of white Huacaya and Suri samples had >50% of their fibres medullated. For Huacaya and Suri alpaca, the incidence of medullated fibres increased linearly from 10 to 60% by weight as MFD increased from 20 to 36 micrometer. The ratio of medullated fibre diameter to MFD declined as MFD increased. For Huacaya, there was no change in average staple length as MFD increased. Huacaya alpaca had a greater fibre curvature than Suri alpaca. Data on resistance to compression and staple strength was correlated with other fibre attributes. The price declined by 11% per 1 micrometer increase in MFD from 22 to 26 micrometer and by 5% per 1 micrometer increase between 27 and 34 micrometer. The total relative economic value increased with increasing GFW and with increasing saddle weight up to 2.5 kg. Total relative economic value declined as MFD increased above 23 micrometer, increasing live weight above 60 kg and with increasing age above 2 years for Huacaya and 3 years for Suri. The productivity and economic returns from fleece production of Huacaya and Suri breeds was similar. The Australian industry needs to implement commercial mating, shearing and culling strategies to maximise production and returns from animals aged less than 3 years. The main driver of economic value from fleece production was lower MFD of the fleece.
Descriptors: alpacas, Huacaya breed; Suri breed, fleece, commodity prices, wool production, wool industry, animal age, fiber quality, fiber staple, costs and returns, productivity, diameter, livestock production, South Australia.

McKenna, P.B. Eimeria macusaniensis in camelids - a brief review.Surveillance Wellington. 2006; 33(4): 8-10
URL: www.biosecurity.govt.nz
Descriptors: alpacas, fecal sampling,oocysts of Emeria macusaniensis, parasite life cycle, distribution, pathogenicity, disease diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogen control and prevention, Otago, New Zealand.

McKenna, P.B. Register of new host-parasite records.Surveillance Wellington. 2006; 33(4): 6-7. ISSN: 0112-4927
URL: www.biosecurity.govt.nz
Abstract: This article presents some new host-parasite records in domestic, zoo and wild animals in New Zealand, including Eimeria macusaniensis in an alpaca; Lamanema chavezi in llamas and alpacas; Nematodirus spathiger,Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Cooperia oncophora and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in llamas; T. vitrinus in an alpaca; Oxyuris karamoja in a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum); Syngamus trachea in a stitchbird (Notiomystis cincta) and Heterakis gallinarum in a guineafowl. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: domestic animals, wild animals, zoo animals, wild birds, poultry, guinea fowl, hosts, new host records, parasitoses, alpacas, llamas, birds, parasitic organisms, Camelostrongylus mentulatus,Ceratotherium simum, Cooperia oncophora, Eimeria macusaniensis, Heterakis gallinarum, Nematodirus spathiger, Syngamus trachea, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Lamanema chavezi;Notiomystis cincta, Oxyuris karamoja, New Zealand.

Mattson, D.E.; Baker, R.J.; Catania, J.E.; Imbur, S.R.; Wellejus, K.M.; Bell, R.B. Persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in an alpaca. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2006 June 1; 228(11): 1762-1765. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Case Description-A 2.5-month-old female alpaca that had been born prematurely was examined because of moderate mucopurulent nasal discharge and high rectal temperature. Clinical Findings-In addition to pyrexia and clinical signs of disease of the upper portion of the respiratory tract, the cria had inappetence and was in an unthrifty condition. Hematologic abnormalities included low WBC count, low hemoglobin concentration, and low PCV. Samples of blood were submitted for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and serologic evaluation. Other adults and newborn crias in the herd were similarly examined. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was detected in the cria, and a diagnosis of persistent infection with BVDV was made at 5.5 months of age. Persistent BVDV infection was suspected in another cria born into the herd but was not identified in any of the adult alpacas. Treatment and Outcome-Despite several treatments with antimicrobials, no permanent improvement of the cria's condition was achieved. Because of the poor prognosis, the owners requested euthanasia of the cria; BVDV was isolated from specimens of multiple organs collected at necropsy. Clinical Relevance-To date, BVDV infection in New World camelids has not been regarded as a major disease entity. Findings in the cria of this report illustrate that some strains of BVDV readily infect alpacas. Clinical description of the disease plus clinicopathologic findings suggest that persistent BVDV infection may be greatly overlooked as a cause of chronic anemia and failure to thrive in alpacas.
Descriptors: young female alpaca, case study, bovine viral diarrhea virus, viral diseases, chronic diseases, fever, respiratory tract diseases, anorexia, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, disease diagnosis, drug therapy, antimicrobial agents, symptoms.

Miesner, M.D.; Anderson, D.E. Factor-Viii deficiency in a newborn alpaca. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006 Sept-Oct; 20(5): 1248-1250. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpacas, neonates, blood coagulation factors, blood coagulation disorders, genetic disorders, hemophilia, hemophilia Type A.

Miesner, M.D.; Anderson, D.E.; Linden, D.; Walker, W.; Specht, T.; Rings, D.M.; Lakritz, J. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of fenbendazole and oxfendazole in alpacas after five daily oral doses of 50mg/kg fenbendazole 10% suspension.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006; 20(3): 724. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 24th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA; May 31-June 03, 2006.
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpaca, males, parasitic helminth infection, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, oxfendazole, antiparasite drug, oral administration, serum and cerebrospinal levels.

Miragaya, M.H.; Chaves, M.G.; Aguero, A. Reproductive biotechnology in South American camelids. Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 299-310. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Basic and applied research on physiology of reproduction in alpacas and llamas has gained much importance in the last decades because of their increasing economic value. Reproductive biotechnology would allow propagation of genetically superior individuals, especially those with excellent quality fiber. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the most relevant subjects related to reproductive biotechnology in female and the male. In the female, follicular synchronization, ovarian superstimulation, embryo recovery and transfer, oocyte maturation, assisted reproduction techniques (in vitro fertilization, ICSI), nuclear transfer and embryo cryopreservation are reviewed. In the male, this review concerns artificial insemination.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, females, animal reproduction, biotechnology, genetic improvement, estrus synchronization, fiber quality, literature reviews, embryo transfer, oocytes, in vitro fertilization, cryopreservation, germplasm conservation, artificial insemination.

Molinillo, Marcelo; Monasterio, Maximina. Vegetation and grazing patterns in Andean environments: A comparison of pastoral systems in punas and paramos. In: Spehn E.M.; Liberman M.; Korner C [Editors]. Land Use Change and Mountain Biodiversity.CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 2006. 376p. ISBN: 084933523X. Note: Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment Workshop, Bolivia, Colombia; August 20 -23, 2003.
NAL call no.: QH541.5 M65 L36 2006
Descriptors: cattle, llamas, alpacas,vegetation patterns, punas, paramos, grazing patterns, Andes mountains, South America.

Morton, K.M.; Bathgate, R.; Evans, G.; Maxwell, W.M.C. A comparison of three diluents for the Cryopreservation of epididymal alpaca sperm.Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2006; 41(4): 329. ISSN: 0936-6768. Note: 10th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction, Portoroz, Slovenia; September 07-09, 2006.
URL :http://www3.interscience.wiley.com
Descriptors: alpacas, epididymal sperm, post thaw motility, citrate, lactose, cryopreservation diluents, laboratory techniques.

Mosaad, A.A.; Elbagory, A.R.; Khalid, A.M.; Waters, W.R.; Tibary, A.; Hamilton, M.J.; Davis, W.C. Identification of monoclonal antibody reagents for use in the study of the immune response to infectious agents in camel and water buffalo.Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(2): 91-101. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: Progress in elucidating the mechanisms regulating the immune response to infectious agents and derived vaccines in domestic species, especially in camels and water buffaloes, has been impeded by the lack of monoclonal antibody (mAb) reagents needed to study the immune response in the species of interest. As a first step to address this problem, we conducted a study to determine how many existing mAbs developed against leukocyte differentiation molecules (LDM) in various species recognize conserved epitopes on orthologous (identical) molecules in two or more species of Artiodactyla. Analysis of 490 monoclonal antibodies raised against LDM in cattle, goat, sheep, llama, pig, dog and human revealed that many epitopes have been conserved on orthologous molecules in the course of evolution in closely related species in the suborder Ruminantia such as in cattle, bison and water buffalo, and fewer on more distantly related species such as goat and sheep. Only a few of the epitopes conserved in Ruminantia were conserved in the suborders Suiformes (pigs) and Tylopoda (llamas and camels). The highest level of conservation in all suborders was found with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (MHC I) and class II (MHC II) molecules. These findings show the potential as well as the limitations of screening existing mAbs for research in less use studied species. Importantly, the findings also provide further insight into the composition of the immune system in Artiodactyla and factors to be considered when studying the immune response to infectious agents and vaccines in the different suborders of Artiodactyla.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, Bison bison, buffalo, Bactrian camel, Camelus bactrianus, cattle, dogs, dromedaries, goats, human, pigs, rabbits, sheep, epitopes, evolution, immune response, immune system, immunity, major histocompatibility complex, monoclonal antibodies, antigenic determinants, histocompatibility complex, hogs, immunity reactions, immunological reactions.

Newman, K.D.; Anderson, D.E. Fracture management in llamas and alpacas. Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 241-258. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Fracture management in llamas and alpacas present a unique and interesting challenge to the veterinary surgeon compared to other species. Camelids are considered to be excellent patients for the treatment of orthopedic injuries because they have a relative low body weight, tolerate external coaptation devices, are able to ambulate on three legs post-operatively, and can tolerate prolonged periods of recumbency for recuperation after surgery. Reports in the literature on camelid fractures (28 cases) and the authors' experiences with an additional 38 fractures are reviewed. There are a number of repair techniques that can be employed, depending primarily on fracture configuration and the surgeon's experience. Complications to fracture repair include mal-union, delayed union, non-union, osteomyelitis, sequestrum formation, and implant failure. Complications are associated with damage to the neurovascular bundle, damage to adjacent soft tissue at the fracture site, and compound fractures. Complications may be managed through the use antibiotics, surgical debridement, and staged destabilization of the fixation device. When irreversible damage to the neurovascular bundle has occurred, limb amputation with or without a prosthetic device may be alternatives to euthanatizing the patient.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, bone fractures, fracture fixation, literature reviews, postoperative complications, osteomyelitis, risk factors, amputation.

Nolen-Walston, R.; Rushton, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Bedenice, D.; Del-Piero, F. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) in South American Camelids: 9 cases. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006; 20(3): 723-724. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 24th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA; May 31-June 03, 2006.
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, infection with Eastern equine encephalitis virus (Togaviridae-), clinical picture, blood sampling, neurological symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid, epidemiology, immunology, laboratory techniques.

Pachao, N. DECAMA-Project: Characteristics of the supply and demand of charqui. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llama, alpaca, charqui, meat product, jerky, Arequipa markets, volumes of production, characteristics of demand, commercialization of systems, financial margins, 443.4 MT/year, Peruvian markets.

Palacios C.A.; Perales, R.A.; Chavera, A.E.; Lopez, M.T.; Braga, W.U.; Moro, M. Eimeria macusaniensis and Eimeria ivitaensis co-infection in fatal cases of diarrhoea in young alpacas (Lama pacos) in Peru. Veterinary Record— London. 2006 Mar 11; 158(10): 344-345. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Seven 4-5-month-old alpacas in Peru were presented with clinical signs of sudden watery to bloody diarrhoea, dehydration, emaciation and death in July-August 2002. Small (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and large intestine (caecum, colon and rectum) tissue samples showing gross pathological lesions were obtained postmortem for analysis. E. macusaniensis and E. ivitaensis schizonts were both present in the intestinal mucosa samples; macrogamonts and immature oocysts were found in the cytoplasm and between the nuclei and basal membrane of epithelial cells in the caecum and colon. This is the first description of E. macusaniensis and E. ivitaensis coinfection leading to death in young alpacas.
Descriptors: young alpacas, Eimeria, diarrhea, intestinal disease, high mortality, post mortem sampling, co-infection with 2 Eimeria species, Peru.

Palma , R.L.; McKenna, P.B.; Aitken, P. Confirmation of the occurrence of the chewing louse Bovicola (Lepikentron) breviceps (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) on alpacas (Lama pacos) in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2006; 54(5): 253-254. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: www.vetjournal.org.nz
Abstract: The presence of Bovicola breviceps in New Zealand (28 October 2005) was confirmed. This confirmation was based on the examination of a large number of nymphs and at least 10 adult female lice collected from a Huacayan alpaca. Slide-mounted samples of B. breviceps could be easily identified and distinguished from other species of Bovicola by the morphology of their ventral terminalia, in particular the shape of the gonapophyses and configuration of their pigmented sclerites. Treatment with cypermethrin at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg was effective in eradicating louse infestation in the alpaca. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, Bovicola breviceps, case reports, cypermethrin, drug therapy, diagnosis, disease control, geographical distribution, infestation, new geographic-records.

Patitucci, A.N.; Perez, M.J.; Barril, G.; Carcamo, C.M.; Munoz, A. Deteccion de anticuerpos sericos contra Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle y Manceaux, 1909) en llamas (Lama glama Linneaus, 1758) y alpacas (Lama pacos Linneaus, 1758) de Chile. [Serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in llamas and alpacas from Chile. ] Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria. 2006; 38(2): 179-182. ISSN: 0301-732X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: www.uach.cl
Abstract: Serum samples from 113 llamas (Lama glama) and 127 alpacas (Lama pacos) from the IX and V Regions, respectively, of Chile were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used in both species and titres of 1:25 were considered diagnostically significant. Sera from 49 llamas (43.3%) and 15 alpacas (11.8%) were positive for T. gondii. Percentage seropositivity in serum dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, 1:500 and 1:5000 was 17.6, 7.9, 14.1 and 3.5% in llamas and 0, 2.3, 0.7 and 8.6% in alpacas. The rather low prevalence in alpacas may be associated with geographical conditions, management practices or contact with cats rather than different species susceptibility. As expected, older animals showed higher T. gondii reactivity than young animals. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, Toxoplasma gondii, antibodies, agglutination tests, blood serum, immune response, seroprevalence, susceptibility, immunity reactions, immunological reactions.

Poulsen K.P.; Elce, Y.A.; Frederico, L.M.; Remick, A.K.; Capucille, D.J. Atresia coli in an alpaca cria. Veterinary Record— London. 2006 Apr 29; 158(17): 598-599. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: www.bvapublications.com
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Atresia coli in a 10-day-old alpaca cria was described ( USA; date not given). The cria was presented with a history of lethargy and poor appetite from 2 days of age. Moreover, it did not pass faeces since birth. The abdomen was distended, and the animal showed signs of pain upon abdominal palpation. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed, and imaging showed diffused distention of the spiral colon and jejunum with fluid. Intestinal atresia, intussusception and intestinal obstruction were considered to be possible causes of the problem, and a decision to perform an exploratory laparotomy was made. However, the cria developed extreme bradycardia and dyspnoea under maintenance anaesthesia, went into cardiac arrest and died. Upon examination of the descending colon, an atresic section of colon was found. The malformed section of the bowel was approximately 10 cm in length and extended into the pelvic canal. This was the first report of atresia coli in an alpaca in the USA.
Descriptors: alpaca, case study, colon, abnormal development, atresia coli, surgerical intervention, US.

Poulsen, K.P.; Gerard, M.P.; Spaulding, K.A.; Geissler, K.A.; Anderson, K.L. Bilateral renal agenesis in an alpaca cria.Canadian Veterinary journal = La-Revue-Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Feb; 47(2): 159-161. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: alpacas, cria, neonates, animal diseases, case studies, kidney diseases, congenital abnormalities, disease diagnosis.

Prokop, I.; Prokop, B. Heat stress in alpacas. 2. Small Farm Today. 2006 May-June; 23(3): 26-27. ISSN: 1079-9729
URL: http://www.penrose-press.com/idd/MAG19155.card
NAL call no.: S1.M57
Descriptors: alpacas, herd management, small farms, small scale farming, heat stress, Lama, temperature, farm management, US.

Prokop, I.; Prokop, B. Heat stress in alpacas.Small Farm Today. 2006 Mar-Apr; 23(2): 26-27. ISSN: 1079-9729
URL: http://www.penrose-press.com/idd/MAG19155.card
NAL call no.: S1.M57
Descriptors: alpacas, small farms, small scale farming, heat stress, alpacas, Lama, temperature, herd management, US.

Pusterla, N.; Colegrove, K.M.; Moore, P.F.; Magdesian, K.G.; Vernau, W. Multicentric T-cell lymphosarcoma in an alpaca. Veterinary Journal. 2006 Jan; 171(1): 181-185. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233
NAL call no.: SF601.V484
Abstract: A two-year-old female alpaca with multicentric lymphosarcoma presented because of progressive weakness and recumbency. The diagnosis of lymphosarcoma was based on the detection of immature and atypical lymphocytes in a lumbosacral CSF sample. Post mortem examination confirmed multicentric lymphosarcoma involving multiple organs. Immunophenotyping using cross reactive T- and B-cell antibodies characterized the tumour as a T-cell lymphosarcoma.
Descriptors: alpacas, female, lymphosarcoma, T lymphocytes, case study, disease diagnosis, symptoms.

Ratto, M.H.; Huanca, W.; Singh, J.; Adams, G.P. Comparison of the effect of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas, alpacas, and bulls. Theriogenology. 2006 Sept 15; 66(5): 1102-1106. ISSN: 0093-691X
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0093691X
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.02.050
NAL call no.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: We have recently reported the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas--species characterized as induced ovulators. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the seminal plasma of bulls will induce ovulation in llamas, and to compare the ovulation-inducing effect of seminal plasma of conspecific versus hetero-specific males. The seminal plasma of alpacas, a closely related induced ovulator (Lama pacos), and cattle, a distantly related ruminant species (Bos taurus) considered to be spontaneous ovulators, were compared with that of the llama (Lama glama). Ovulation and maximum corpus luteum diameter were compared by ultrasonography among female llamas (n = 19 per group) treated intramuscularly with 2 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, negative control) and those treated with 2 mL of seminal plasma of bulls, alpacas, or llamas (conspecific control). The diameter of the preovulatory follicle did not differ among groups at the time of treatment. Bull seminal plasma induced ovulations in 26% (5/19) of llamas compared to 0% (0/19) in PBS group (P < 0.001). The proportion of females that ovulated was lower (P < 0.01) in bull seminal plasma group compared to the groups treated with alpaca or llama seminal plasma (100%). A corpus luteum was detected on Day 8 (Day 0 = treatment) in all llamas in which ovulation was detected earlier (Day 2) by ultrasonography. The diameter of the CL did not differ among groups. Results document the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of B. taurus. The interspecies effects of seminal plasma on ovulation and luteal development provide rationale for the hypothesis that OIF is conserved among both spontaneous and induced ovulating species.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, females, ovulation, seminal plasma, intramuscular injection, corpus luteum, Hereford beef bulls.

Rawdon, T.; McFadden, A.; King, C.; Mitchell, V.; Howell, M. Clinical findings and risk factors associated with the first report of Eimeria macusaniensis in New Zealand alpacas. Surveillance Wellington. 2006; 33(4): 11-15. ISSN: 0112-4927
URL: www.biosecurity.govt.nz
Abstract: A cross-sectional survey on the epidemiology of E. macusaniensis was conducted after its discovery for the first time in alpacas in New Zealand in July 2005. Faecal samples for analysis were collected from affected properties during 10 August 2005. It was shown that 14 out of 427 alpacas in 4 at-risk farms were shedding oocysts. One out of 33 animals in a fifth farm was also shedding. Interfarm prevalence of shedding was 0.61-7.55%. Shedding was significantly associated with age (<12 months) and exposure to the animals imported from Australia in 30 May 2005. The clinical, pathological, histopathological and postmortem findings in an adult female alpaca with E. macusaniensis are also described.
Descriptors: alpacas,age differences, animal pathology, clinical aspects, coccidiosis, diagnosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, histopathology, hosts, new host records, oocysts, postmortem examinations, risk factors, autopsy, clinical picture, disease surveillance, Eimeria macusaniensis, postmortem inspections, New Zealand.

Renieri, C. DECAMA-project: Sustainable development of camelid products and services marketed oriented in the Andean Region. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: alpacas, camelid meat products, sustainable development, Andean region, South America.

Richter, M.; Grest, P.; Spiess, B. Bilateral lipid keratopathy and atherosclerosis in an alpaca (Lama pacos) due to hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006; 20(6): 1503-1507. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1892/0891-6640(2006)20[1503:BLKAAI]2.0.CO;2
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpaca, atherosclerosis, case report, clinical aspects, hypercholesterolemia, lipids arteriosclerosis, clinical picture, hypercholesterinemia, keratopathy, lipids.

Rohbeck, Simone; Gauly, M.; Bauer, C. Course of gastro-intestinal parasite and lungworm infections in South American camelids on a farm in central Germany. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, parasites, Eimeria fauna, Moniezia, Haemonchus contortus,Trichuris, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia, Dictyocaulus viviparous, oocysts, coccidiosis, gastrointestinal parasitic infections, lungwork infections, epidemiology, Germany.

Robinson, T.F.; Sponheimer, M.; Roeder, B.L.; Passey, B.; Cerling, T.E.; Dearing, M.D.; Ehleringer, J.R. Digestibility and nitrogen retention in llamas and goats fed alfalfa, C3 grass, and C4 grass hays. Small Ruminant Research. 2006 July; 64(1-2): 162-168. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.04.018
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to determine the relative digestive capabilities and N retention between goats and llamas fed three forages. Four llamas (2 yrs; 125 +/- 7.3 kg BW) and four Boer-cross goats (2 yrs; 53 +/- 8.4 kg BW) were housed in metabolism crates and fed alfalfa (Medicago sativa; ALF), temperate C3 grass (Festuca arundinacea; C3G) and tropical C4 grass (Cynodon dactylon; C4G) hays. Each forage was fed for 21 d during which time the animals were adapted to the forage, followed by a 5 d period of urine and feces sample collection. Dry matter intake species differences, when adjusted to metabolic body weight (kg BW0.75; MW), were noted for ALF and C3G (P < 0.01), while the goats showed a difference between all three forages (P < 0.05; 61.6, 31.0 and 46.2 g/(d kg0.75) for ALF, C3G and C4G, respectively), the llamas showed a difference between the grasses (40.4, 52.1 and 38.5 g/(d kg0.75) for ALF, C3G and C4G, respectively). Digestible DM relative to MW (DDM/MW) was higher for ALF and C4G for the goats versus the llamas (P < 0.03; 42.5 and 29.0 g/(d kg0.75) for goat ALF and C4G and 27.9 and 23.2 g/(d kg0.75) for the llama ALF and C4G, respectively). Llamas had a higher DDM/MW for the C3G, 19.6 and 28.9 g/(d kg0.75) than goats. Both animal species were in positive N balance for all three forages; llamas and goats retained more N on the high-protein ALF, 0.60 and 0.22 g/(d kg0.75), respectively, than they did on either of the grasses (P < 0.05; 0.15 and 0.04 g/(d kg0.75) for C3G and 0.35 and 0.14 g/(d kg0.75) for C4G). Unexpectedly, however, both species retained more N on C4G than on C3G. These results demonstrate that, under these circumstances, llamas do not have a higher digestive efficiency than goats, and goats retained more DM and N than llamas. Thus the goats appear to be more efficient on these forages than the llamas. Feeding strategy and morphology difference may account for these findings.
Descriptors: llamas, goats, animal feeding, alfalfa, digestibility, nitrogen, nutrient retention, C3 plants, forage grasses, hay, C4 plants, urine, feces, excretion, dry matter intake, body weight, nitrogen balance.

Rodriguez, J.; Dodd, C.; Rosadio, R.; Wheeler, J.C.; Bruford, M.W. Paternity testing using microsatellite DNA in alpacas (Vicugna pacos). 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, microsatellites, amplified in 3 multiplex reactions, polymorphic, allele numbers, Cervus 2.0, paternity testing, parentage accuracy in records, IVTA Research Station, Marangani, Canchis Province, Cusco, Peru.

Shim, S.; Jakes, K.A. Differentiating alpaca fibres by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry.Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(2): 193-199. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: A proposed method to distinguish the fibre from two breeds of alpaca, the Huacaya and the Suri, using scanning electron microscopic examination of cross-sections etched with cold plasma is described. Sulfur distribution in the cross-sections, obtained by energy dispersive spectroscopy, supported the distinctions made between the fibre types. Cell size, appearance and fibre shrinkage indicate that Huacaya fibre was composed of two cell types, while Suri was composed of one in the sample fibres examined. Sulfur was unevenly distributed in Huacaya while it was more evenly distributed in Suri fibres. Applying these methods to a larger number of fibres may resolve controversies concerning the difference in fibre structure between the two breeds.
Descriptors: alpacas, Huacaya breed, Suri breeds, animal fibers, breed differences, alpaca fiber morphology, scanning electron microscopy, spectrometry, structure, sulfur, elemental sulphur.

Sponheimer, M.; Robinson, T.F.; Cerling, T.E.; Tegland, L.; Roeder, B.L.; Ayliffe, L.; Dearing, M.D.; Ehleringer, J.R. Turnover of stable carbon isotopes in the muscle, liver, and breath CO2 of alpacas (Lama pacos). Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2006; 20(9): 1395-1399. ISSN: 0951-4198
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/4849/home
Descriptors: alpacas, stable carbon isotopes of liver, muscle and breath CO2, C-3 grass diet exterimental isonitrogenous C-4 grass diet, breath sampling, muscle biopsies, 72 day sampling, half lives of C-4 derived carbon.

Stull, J.W.; Talbot, E.A.; MacRae, S.; Montero, J.T.; Matyas, B.; Cantor, F.; Konomi, R.; DeMaria, A.; Hayes, E.B.; Smith, T.L.; Nasci, R.S.; Sejvar, J.J.; O'Leary, D.R.; Campbell, G.L.; Noga, A.J.; Lanciotti, R.S. Eastern equine encephalitis - New Hampshire and Massachusetts, August-September 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006; 55(25): 697-700. ISSN: 0149-2195
URL: http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/mmwr.html
Abstracts: This report summarizes the investigations of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) infection in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, USA, during August-September 2005. Eleven human cases of EEEV infection were reported, 7 cases in New Hampshire and 4 cases in Massachusetts. All infected patients were hospitalized and 4 of them died (36%). Before hospitalization, 3 (27%) patients had symptoms lasting for less than a day, and 8 (73%) patients had symptoms lasting for 2-15 days. Nine (82%) patients had encephalitis marked by altered mental status, and 3 of them had acute neurological symptoms that required hospitalization. Two patients had meningitis without altered mental status. All patients who underwent cerebrospinal fluid examination (n=10) had pleocytosis. Examination of mosquito pools revealed that 0.4% (15 of 3938) and 0.6% (45 of 8136) of mosquito pools in New Hampshire and Massachusetts were positive for EEEV, respectively. The EEEV-positive mosquitoes identified were Culiseta morsitans, C. melanura, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex pipiens, C. pipiens-restuans,Aedes cinereus and Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus [A. japonicus japonicus]. Examination of animals with suspected EEEV infection showed that 52 wild birds, 9 horses, 4 alpacas, 2 emus and one llama in New Hampshire, and 4 horses and one emu in Massachusetts were EEEV-positive. These findings underscore the importance of surveillance for arboviral encephalitis and promotion of preventive measures in the USA. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: wild birds, alpacas, humans, horses, emus, disease prevalence, disease vectors, encephalitis, epidemiology, human diseases, mortality, mosquito borne diseases, symptomatology, symptoms, viral diseases, Aedes cinereus, Aedes japonicus japonicus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex pipiens restuans, Culicidae, Culiseta melanura; Culiseta morsitans, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, death-rate; encephalomyelitis; hospitalization; mosquitoes, viral infections, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, US.

Szafranska, B.; Panasiewicz, G.; Majewska, M. Biodiversity of multiple Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (PAG) family: gene cloning and chorionic protein purification in domestic and wild eutherians (Placentalia) - a review. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development. 2006; 46(5): 481-502. ISSN: 0926-5287
URL: http://www.edpsciences.org
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2006034
Abstract: This review presents a broad overview of chorionic glycoproteins encoded by the Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (PAG) gene family and also serves to illustrate how the recent discovery of the PAG family has contributed to our general knowledge of genome evolution, placental transcription and placental protein expression. The complex and large PAG family is restricted to the Artiodactyla order, although single PAG-like genes have also been identified in species outside the Artiodactyla. The PAGs are members of the aspartic proteinase (AP) superfamily. Unexpectedly, however, some members of the PAG family possess amino acid substitutions within and around the active site that likely render them unable to act as proteinases. This paper summarizes the available information regarding biodiversity of PAG gene expression based on cDNA cloning, mRNA localization studies and the structural organization of the PAG genes with a particular emphasis on PAG promoters. It also compares available data regarding PAG protein purifications, sequencing and their N-glycodiversity. Finally, it discusses the scientific relevance, possible functional roles of the PAGs and describes possible profitable applications related to the detection of PAG proteins in the blood of pregnant domestic and wild species. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts
Descriptors: Alces alces , alpacas, Artiodactyla, Bison bonasus, buffalo, Camelus, cattle, Cervus elaphus canadensi, dromedaries, goats, Odocoileus virginianus, pigs, sheep, zebras, zebu,aspartic proteinases, biodiversity, complementary DNA, DNA cloning ,cDNA, evolution, exons, gene expression, genes, genomes, glycoproteins, introns, messenger RNA, nucleotide sequences, placenta, pregnancy, promoters, reviews, DNA transcription.

Tibary, A.; Vaughan, J. Reproductive physiology and infertility in male South American camelids: a review and clinical observations.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 283-298. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Male South American camelids exhibit several distinctive behavioral and physiological reproductive characteristics. This paper describes the anatomical features of the male reproductive tract and a detailed review of puberty, spermatogenesis and factors affecting semen production. Methods of semen collection and parameters of sperm morphology and semen biochemistry are also described. The most common abnormalities and diseases associated with reduced fertility and infertility are presented based on the authors clinical experience.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, animal reproduction, male fertility, literature reviews, reproductive behavior, male reproductive system, puberty, spermatogenesis, semen, reproductive disorders, artificial insemination, breeding soundness.

Tibary, A.; Fite, C.; Anouassi, A.; Sghiri, A. Infectious causes of reproductive loss in camelids. Theriogenology. 2006 Aug; 66(3): 633-647. ISSN: 0093-691X
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0093691X
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.04.008
NAL call no.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Reproductive losses in camelids are due to infertility, pregnancy loss, udder diseases and neonatal mortality caused by a variety of infectious diseases. Uterine infection and abortion represent the major complaint in camelid veterinary practice. The major infectious organisms in endometritis and metritis are E. coli and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus. Abortion rates due to infectious diseases vary from 10% to more than 70% in some areas. Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and chlamydiosis have been diagnosed as the major causes of abortion in llamas and alpacas. In camels, brucellosis and trypanosomiasis represent the major causes of infectious abortion in the Middle East and Africa. Mastitis is rare in South American camelids. The prevalence of subclinical udder infection in camels can reach very high proportions in dairy camels. Udder infections are primarily due to Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. Neonatal mortality is primarily due to diarrhea following failure of passive transfer and exposure to E. coli, rotavirus, coronavirus, Coccidia and Salmonella. This paper reviews the etio-pathogenesis of these causes of reproductive losses, as well as the major risk factors and strategies to prevent their occurrence.
Descriptors: large animal practice, llamas, animal reproduction, alpacas, dromedaries, dairy animals, abortion, female fertility, mastitis, neonatal mortality, colostral immunity, endometritis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, toxoplasmosis, Chlamydia, etiology, pathogenesis, risk factors, disease control, disease diagnosis.

Tyler , J.W.; Middleton, J.R.; Tessman, R.K.; Nagy, D.W. Risk of after-hours visits to an in-hospital food animal service by species. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006 Mar-Apr; 20(2): 407-409. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: large animal veterinary practice, veterinary clinics, cattle, swine, Vietnamese potbellied pigs, llamas, alpacas, goats, sheep, risk groups, risk factors, veterinary education, Missouri, US.

Van Saun, R.J. Nutrient requirements of South American camelids: a factorial approach.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 165-186. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Literature describing digestive physiology and defining specific nutrient requirements for llamas and alpacas was reviewed. Using data from studies defining maintenance energy and protein requirements, llamas and alpacas have lower energy and protein requirements compared to other ruminants; however, they have a greater protein requirement per unit of energy. This is consistent with observed differences in urea and glucose metabolism between camelids and other ruminants suggesting a reliance on protein catabolism to maintain blood glucose concentrations. Evidence suggests llamas and alpacas may have a greater requirement for Vitamin D, but no other evidence of significant differences in requirements between camelids and other ruminants. There are limited data defining other nutrient requirements or differences in requirements based on physiologic state for llamas and alpacas. In spite of limited data, a factorial approach to estimate nutritional requirements of llamas and alpacas was described. Defined maintenance energy and protein requirements were extrapolated to other physiologic states using beef cattle, sheep and goat data as templates. Models were developed to predict energy, protein, mineral and vitamin requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. Model development was based on determining beef cattle and sheep nutrient requirements on an amount per kg of body weight and assuming no inherent metabolic differences among species. An averaged value was calculated and used as a basis for defining requirements for llamas and alpacas. Amount per kg body weight requirements were converted to a recommended dietary nutrient density basis using an observed lower dry matter intake per unit body weight. Factorially derived models were in better agreement with North American feeding recommendations compared to predicted requirements using current North American-based requirement models. North American-based requirement equations over predicted energy and protein, resulting in required dietary nutrient densities in excess of practical feeding practices. The proposed factorial models need to be critically validated, but provides a starting point for discussion in advancing the study and application of llama and alpaca nutrient requirements. There are tremendous gaps in our knowledge of llama and alpaca requirements, requiring further basic research especially in the areas of neonatal and fetal growth and composition, lactational performance and mineral bioavailability.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, nutrient requirements, ruminant nutrition, literature reviews, dietary protein, urea, glucose, energy metabolism, vitamin D, dietary minerals, animal growth, pregnancy, lactation, animal models, beef cattle, sheep.

Van Saun, R.J. Nutritional diseases of South American camelids.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 153-164. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Literature describing nutritional or nutrition-related diseases of llamas and alpacas was reviewed. Case reports of copper toxicity, polioencephalomalacia, plant poisonings and urolithiasis accounted for the greatest number of literature citations relative to llamas and alpaca nutritional diseases. However, the overall number of published studies detailing nutritional disease of llamas and alpacas is very limited. Metabolic bone disease, associated with Vitamin D deficiency, and hepatic lipidosis were metabolic diseases for which controlled research studies were completed to address underlying mechanisms. Circumstantial evidence would suggest llamas and alpacas are similar to other ruminants relative to most nutrient deficiency or toxicity disease problems. Llamas and alpacas are unique compared to other ruminant animals in their susceptibility to zinc and Vitamin D deficiency diseases. A zinc-responsive dermatosis has been described, but the true role of zinc deficiency is debated. Llamas and alpacas show a seasonal deficiency in Vitamin D resulting in a hypophosphatemic rickets syndrome. Camelids may have a lower capacity to endogenously synthesize Vitamin D or higher requirement compared to other species. Although mechanisms are not fully understood, llamas and alpacas are somewhat different in metabolic responses to negative energy balance and subsequent hepatic lipidosis. Further research is necessary to better define llama and alpaca nutrient requirements and metabolism as they directly impact potential for nutritional disease.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, animal diseases, diet related diseases, literature reviews, copper, ruminant nutrition, encephalomalacia, poisonous plants, poisoning, developmental orthopedic disease, vitamin deficiencies, vitamin D, fatty liver, zinc, nutrient deficiencies, skin diseases, rickets, seasonal variation, energy balance.

Vaughan , J.L.; Tibary, A. Reproduction in female South American camelids: a review and clinical observations.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 259-281. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Female South American camelids present striking reproductive peculiarities compared to other domestic livestock. Characteristics such as induced ovulation, pregnancy recognition and maintenance make reproductive management relatively challenging for practitioners with limited exposure to these species. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of knowledge in reproductive physiology and infertility in these species. Following a brief review of the distinctive anatomical features, we describe the follicular wave patterns in non-mated and mated females, mechanisms of ovulation and corpus luteum development as well as fertilisation and pregnancy. Endocrinology of follicle growth, pregnancy, parturition and the post-partum period are described. The paper concludes with a review of the main causes of infertility, early embryonic death and abortion based on clinical observations by the authors.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, females, literature reviews, ovulation, pregnancy diagnosis, pregnancy outcome, female fertility, ovarian follicles, follicular development, corpus luteum, fertilization, parturition, endocrinology, embryonic mortality, abortion, reproductive disorders.

Vaughan, Jane. Artificial breeding in alpacas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: alpacas; males; reproduction; ejaculations lasting 15-20 minutes; semen of low volume, low density, high viscosity; variation in semen quality; collection best quality sperm; pregnancies; artificial insemination; comparing fresh and chilled or frozen semen; developing non-surgical, transcervical single and multiple ovulation embryo transfer procedure; female preparation; embryo flushing; good body condition; need for green grass and adequate selenium.

Webb, A.A.; Cullen, C.L.; Lamont, L.A. Brainstem auditory evoked responses and ophthalmic findings in llamas and alpacas in eastern Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal = La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Jan; 47(1): 74-77. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a summary in French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: Seventeen llamas and 23 alpacas of various coat and iris colors were evaluated for: 1) deafness by using brainstem auditory evoked response testing; and 2) for ocular abnormalities via complete ophthalmic examination. No animals were deaf. The most common ocular abnormalities noted were iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes and incipient cataracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, brain stem, evoked potentials, hearing, eyes, vision disorders, eye conditions and diseases, Canada.

Weber, H.; Beckmann, K.; Haas, L. Equines Arteritisvirus (EAV) als Aborterreger bei Alpakas?[Equine arteritis virus (EAV) - induced abortion in alpacas?]Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2006; 113(4): 162-163. ISSN: 0341-6593. Note: In German with an English summary.
URL: http://www.schaper-verlag.de
Abstract: Here we report a case of a late abortion of a primiparous alpaca where genome fragments of the equine viral arteritis virus (EAV) could be detected in fetal tissues using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All five alpacas of the herd had virus neutralizing antibodies against EAV. EAV thus must be regarded as a potential agent for abortions in alpacas. Possible routes of introduction of the virus are discussed. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas,fetal abortion, equine arteritis virus, late abortion, arteritis, case report, diagnosis, disease transmission, host range, neutralizing antibodies, PCR, reverse transcription.

Whitehead, C.E.; Anderson, D.E. Neonatal diarrhea in llamas and alpacas.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 207-215. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity in neonatal llamas and alpacas. Diarrhea may be multifactorial in etiology including management and nutritional factors as well as a variety of pathogens. Most of the pathogens involved affect other livestock species and some have host-adapted strains. However, the clinical signs, their expected severity and age of onset of disease varies between species in some cases. The most common pathogens causing diarrhea in neonatal camelids are coronavirus, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and coccidia. The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on neonatal diarrhea in camelids and to present clinical data from 55 cases seen at The Ohio State University.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, neonates, diarrhea, etiology, symptoms, disease severity, animal age, Coronavirus, viral diseases of animals and humans, Escherichia coli, Escherichia infections, Cryptosporidium, cryptosporidiosis, coccidiosis, salmonellosis, Giardia, giardiasis, literature reviews, disease diagnosis, Coccidia.

Wilkins, P.A.; Southwood, L.L.; Bedenice, D. Congenital vulvar deformity in 6 alpacas.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2006 July 15; 229(2): 263-265. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.229.2.263
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Case Description - 6 female alpacas, ranging in age from < 1 day to >2 years, were examined because of primary owner complaints related to urogenital malformation. Clinical Findings - In all instances, the vulva was totally to subtotally imperforate. One neonate had failure of passive transfer of immunity and mild azotemia at the time of initial examination. No additional urogenital malformations were detected in any of the alpacas. Treatment and Outcome - Vulvoplasty performed via local anesthesia was successful in all alpacas. The neonate with failure of passive transfer received a plasma transfusion. Postsurgical wound management was limited to topically applied medications. Clinical Relevance - Congenital vulvar deformity in alpacas may result in interference with urine outflow. Neonates with a completely imperforate vulva may be brought to veterinarians for examination on an emergency basis. Less severely affected alpacas may be examined later in life with owner complaints ranging from stranguria or dysuria to urogenital malformation. No other primary abnormalities of the urogenital tract in alpacas have been reported, to the authors' knowledge. Vulvoplasty, performed with local anesthesia, resolves obstructed urine flow. Because it is possible that this condition is heritable, affected alpacas, and possibly their sires and dams, should not be used for breeding. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: animal diseases, alpacas, female genital diseases, vulva, congenital abnormalities, urinary tract diseases, case studies, symptoms, disease detection, resection, urination, vulvoplasty.

Wolt, D.; Gauly, M.; Huanca, W.; Cardenas, O.; Bauer, C.; Schares, G. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum und Toxoplasma gondii in South American camelids. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, vicunas, Neospora caninum, Toxiplasma gondii, post-natal infection routes, clinical significance, South America.

Zama , M.M.S.; Bhardwaj, H.R.; Tarunbir Singh; Gupta, A.K.; Chaudhary, R.N. Dorsal patellar fixation in large animals - a review.Indian Journal of Field Veterinarians. 2006; 1(4): 71-80. ISSN: 0973-3175
URL: http://www.ivri.nic.in
Abstract: alpacas, equines, camels, llamas, etiological factors, diagnosis, treatment, patellar fixation, tibio-femoral patellar articulation-stifle joint, bone fractures, diagnosis, ultrasonography.

Zanolari, P.; Konar, M.; Tomek, A.; Hoby, S.; Meylan, M. Paraparesis in an adult alpaca with discospondylitis.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006 Sept-Oct; 20(5): 1256-1260. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpacas, spine, intervertebral disks, spinal diseases, inflammation, abscess, paresis, spinal cord, disease diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging, spinal cord compression.

Zanolari, P. Neuweltkameliden - von der Geburtsvorbereitung bis zur Versorgung der Neugeborenen.[ New World camelidae: from birth preparations to care for newborn animals.] Forum Kleinwiederkauer/Petits Ruminants. 2006; (12): 6-12 . Note: In German and French. A literature review.
URL: http://www.caprovis.ch
Abstract: This review deals with the gestation period and parturition of alpacas and lamas, and details are given of placental function, the role of colostrum in protecting young animals from infections, failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer and colostrum administration. A checklist of measures required before and after parturition includes the provision of a stress-free environment for dams, neonatal checks of the respiration and navel, ensuring that young animals stand up within 60 minutes of birth and that they suck within 4 h, regular checks of daily gain, the avoidance of extreme temperatures and the provision of selenium. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstract.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, colostrum, gestation, newborn immunity, vitelline immunity, maternal immunity, newborn animals, parturition, pregnancy, reviews.

 

Back to Top  
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>
Last Modified: Jan 23, 2014  
 
AWIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | AgNIC | ARS | Web Policies and Important Links | RSS Feeds | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | USA.gov | White House