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Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Alpacas 2007

Abd El Aty, A.M.; Goudah, A.; Shah, S.S.; Shin, H.C.; Shimoda, M.; Shim, J.H. Pharmacokinetic variables of moxifloxacin in healthy male camels following intravenous and intramuscular administration. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2007; 30(6): 586-591. ISSN: 0140-7783
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/117986825/home
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, camels, males, Chlamydia infection, Mycoplasma infection, drug therapy, moxifloxacin, fluoroquinolone, moxidectin, mocifloxacin, antibiotics, intravenous administration, intramuscular administration, pharmacokinetics.

Adams, G.P. Theriogenology in llamas and alpacas.Large Animal Veterinary Rounds. 2007; 7(10): 6 pp
URL: http://www.larounds.ca
Abstracts: The reproductive characteristics of llamas and alpacas are similar, and clinical management need not distinguish between the two. Camelids are the only large domestic species that are induced ovulators. Sexual behaviour and copulation time is strikingly different from any other domestic species. In addition, gestation is unusually long and uterine anatomy, placentation, and birthing distinctly differ from any other species. This issue of Large Animal Rounds discusses the reproductive management of South American camelids. The paper covers sexual and mating behaviour, ultrasonography of the ovaries and uterus, follicular dynamics, luteal dynamics, ovarian irregularities, breeding shemes, puberty and postpartum period, synchronization and fixed-time breeding and pregnancy diagnosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, breeding camelids, reproduction, mating behavior, sexual behavior, corpus luteum, ovarian follicles, ovaries, ovulation, uterus, pregnancy gestation period, sexual maturity, synchronization, pregnancy diagnosis, ultrasonography, postpartum period.

Balmus, Gabriel; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Biltueva, Larisa.S.; O' Brien,.Patricia.C.M.; Alkalaeva, Elena.S.; Fu, Beiyuan; Skidmore, Julian.A.; Allen, Twink; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A. Cross-species chromosome painting among camel, cattle, pig and human: further insights into the putative Cetartiodactyla ancestral karyotype. Chromosome Research. 2007 June; 15(4): 499-514. ISSN: 0967-3849
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10577-007-1154-x
NAL call no.: QH600 .C47
Abstract: The great karyotypic differences between camel, cattle and pig, three important domestic animals, have been a challenge for comparative cytogenetic studies based on conventional cytogenetic approaches. To construct a genome-wide comparative chromosome map among these artiodactyls, we made a set of chromosome painting probes from the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) by flow sorting and degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR. The painting probes were first used to characterize the karyotypes of the dromedary camel (C. dromedarius), the Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus), the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), the alpaca (L. pacos) and dromedary x guanaco hybrid karyotypes (all with 2n = 74). These FISH experiments enabled the establishment of a high-resolution GTG-banded karyotype, together with chromosome nomenclature and idiogram for C. dromedarius, and revealed that these camelid species have almost identical karyotypes, with only slight variations in the amount and distribution patterns of heterochromatin. Further cross-species chromosome painting between camel, cattle, pig and human with painting probes from the camel and human led to the establishment of genome-wide comparative maps. Between human and camel, pig and camel, and cattle and camel 47, 53 and 53 autosomal conserved segments were detected, respectively. Integrated analysis with previously published comparative maps of human/pig/cattle enabled us to propose a Cetartiodactyla ancestral karyotype and to discuss the early karyotype evolution of Cetartiodactyla. Furthermore, these maps will facilitate the positional cloning of genes by aiding the cross-species transfer of mapping information.
Descriptors: camels, alpacas, guanacos,cattle, pigs, cytogenetics, evolution, Cetartiodactyla, chromosome painting, karyotype.

Bella, A.; Sousa, N.M.; Dehimi, M.L.; Watts, J.; Beckers, J.F. Western analyses of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein family (PAG) in placental extracts of various mammals. Theriogenology. 2007; 68(7): 1055-1066. ISSN: 0093-691X
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.08.002
Abstract: The present study was conducted in order to analyze the immunoreactivity of placental extracts of several animal species and humans against the following three groups of PAG antisera: anti-boPAG-I (R#497), -boPAG-II (R#435), and -caPAG (R#706). Placental proteins were obtained after extraction at neutral pH, followed by ammonium sulfate (A.S.) precipitation, dialysis, and lyophilization. The immunoreactivity of different placental extracts was revealed by the use of monodimensional SDS-PAGE, followed by blotting on nitrocellulose membrane and the identification of immunoreactive proteins after incubation with PAG antisera (Western blot technique). A strong immunoreactivity of proteins from synepitheliochorial placenta (cattle, sheep, goat, bison, buffalo, and deer) was demonstrated in both 20-50% and 50-80% A.S. fractions using the three antisera. Proteins from species with epitheliochorial placenta presented variable profiles of detected PAG-like proteins: in the sow, many immunoreactive forms were revealed by antisera boPAG-I and boPAG-II, whereas in the dromedary, only two forms were revealed by anti-boPAG-II. Concerning other species, our protocols showed for the first time a cross-reaction between PAG antisera with proteins extracted from dog, alpaca, dromedary, sea lion, and human placenta.
Descriptors: bison, buffalo, cattle, deer, goats, pigs, sheep, dogs, alpacas, dromedary, sea lions, humans, placenta, placental fluids, pregnancy, proteins, glycoproteins, sows, gestation.

Braga , W.U. Protection in alpacas against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis using different bacterial components.Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Jan 31; 119(2-4): 297-303. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.08.019
NAL call no.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram positive bacterium that produces caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis in llamas and alpacas. To evaluate the immune potential of different doses of cell wall and toxin components of C. pseudotuberculosis from alpaca origin, 12 adult alpacas were allotted at random to four groups, and SC inoculated in the left flank with vaccines composed of low and high doses of bacterial crude antigens, cell wall: 250 and 500 og/ml and toxin: 133 and 265 og/ml, respectively. The vaccines were supplemented with 20 og/ml of muramyl dipeptide as adjuvant. Three alpacas were sham inoculated with adjuvant as a control. After 3 weeks, immunized and naive alpacas were challenged intradermally in the right flank with 1 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) of C. pseudotuberculosis. The alpacas were sacrificed at days 28, 58 and 112 after inoculation, and the degree of protection induced by vaccines was demonstrated by the absence of abscesses and/or bacteria. The alpacas vaccinated with high dose of toxin, did not show abscesses. In contrast, the alpacas vaccinated with a low dose of toxin showed abscesses at the inoculation site, regional, and renal lymph nodes. The cell wall vaccinated alpacas showed a lesser degree of protection than the other groups with superficial and internal abscesses. The control alpacas had persistent fever and abscesses at the inoculation site, regional, and internal lymph nodes. In addition, a robust and early humoral response was observed in all vaccinated alpacas after challenge, lasting at least 3 months. The results suggest that the toxin of C. pseudotuberculosis is a very important antigen, inducing a dose dependant protective immunity against this bacterium in alpacas.
Descriptors: animal health, alpacas, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, caseous lymphadenitis, vaccination, immune response, animal diseases, bacterial antigens, abscesses, bacterial virulence, vaccine adjuvants.

Braga , W.; Schul, S.; Nunez, A.; Pezo, D.; Franco, E. A primary Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis low dose infection in alpacas (Lama pacos) protects against a lethal challenge exposure.Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Oct; 72(2-3): 81-86. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.04.017
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the agent of alpaca's lymphadenitis. The present study was to demonstrate the effect of a primary infection with low (1.1 x 10pd), moderate (1 x 10t), and high (1.2 x 10e) doses of C. pseudotuberculosis against a significant higher challenge dose of 9 x 10i CFU of C. pseudotuberculosis. Three groups of 4 healthy male alpacas were inoculated subcutaneously (SC) in the left flank behind the costal arch with the above doses of bacteria. A fourth group of 4 alpacas was sham inoculated with phosphate buffered saline as control. After 5 weeks all animals were challenged with a dose of 9 x 10i CFU of C. pseudotuberculosis inoculated SC in the right flank. The alpacas were clinically inspected for local and regional abscesses, body temperature and behavior changes. The primary infected alpacas had a febrile response, and abscesses at the inoculation point and regional lymph nodes. However, after challenge, the primary infected animals showed no superficial lesions or febrile response. In contrast, the immune naive alpacas from group D developed a severe disease characterized by fever, abscesses in regional lymphnodes, and in one alpaca a subcutaneous edema and sudden death 2 weeks after exposure. In addition, primary infected alpacas had a robust antibody response against C. pseudotuberculosis cell wall antigen with significant differences with respect the naive challenged alpacas. At necropsy, the primary infected alpacas had abscesses only in the regional or internal renal-lymph nodes from the left or primary inoculation side of the body, with no lesions in the right challenged side. In contrast, the primary sham inoculated alpacas had abscesses in the regional and internal lymph nodes from the right challenged side. This work showed that a primary infection with at least 1.1 x 10pd viable C. pseudotuberculosis induces protection against a second high dose exposure to this bacterium. These results will be useful for further study of prevention methods to control lymphadenitis in alpacas.
Descriptors: alpacas, lymphadenitis, bacterial infections, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, disease prevention, vaccination, vaccines, inoculum, pharmacology, dosage, dose response, in vivo studies, normal values, immune response, antibody formation, protective effect, pathogenesis, disease severity, animal pathology, signs and symptoms, abscess.

Braga , W.; Leyva, V.; Cochran, R. The effect of altitude on alpaca (Lama pacos) fiber production.Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Apr; 68(3): 323-328. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.11.008
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: In the Peruvian highlands, alpaca rearing areas are located between 4100 and 4700 m above sea level, with the finest fiber production believed to be associated with higher altitudes. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of differences in altitude on alpaca production, body weight (BW), clean fiber weight (FW) and fiber diameter (FD). Two areas with similar carrying capacities were identified at 4200 and 4600 m and stocked with 40 2-year-old (tuis), white, huacaya breed male alpacas in total. The experiment was conducted during two phases (phase 1: dry season; phase 2: wet season), with 4 x 28-day periods in each phase, plus a pre-experimental adaptation period of 28 days at 4200 m. Fiber samples were taken from a 10 cm2 area on the left flank region every 28 days. For phase 1, 20 alpacas were transported to 4600 m, while the remaining 20 were kept at 4200 m. In phase 2, 10 alpacas from each group were switched to the alternate elevations, while the remaining animals were kept at their respective altitudes. In general, BW, FW and FD increased continuously during the course of the trial. The standard error for BW least squares means was 0.9343 kg, with a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between periods. The initial FW (1.3 pl 0.3 g x 10 cm2) and FD (22.9 pl 2.6 om) did not differ significantly between treatments, with the standard error for FW and FD being 0.1842 g x 10 cm2 and 1.0663 om, respectively with significant difference (p < 0.0001) between periods, but not between treatments. In general, altitude treatments did not exert a significant effect on any of the variables measured. In contrast, time (period) effects were clearly evident for all the traits measured. Changes in response over time largely appeared to reflect the normal maturation processes of tuis and the availability of higher quality pastures during the wet season. Conclusion, altitude within the normal elevation range for alpaca production does not appear to significantly affect fiber production.
Descriptors: alpacas, wool production, wool, fiber quality, rearing, altitude, highlands, integumentary system, animal growth, fleece, hairs, dimensions, males, body weight, seasonal variation, wet season, ruminant nutrition, statistical analysis, Peru.

Cabezas, O.I.; Giannetto, C.; Islas, A.; Merino, V.; Morgante, M.; Piccione, G. Profile of some haematochemical parameters in alpaca housed at three different altitudes. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2007; 2(3): 146-151. ISSN: 1683-9919
URL : http://www.academicjournals.net/2/c4p.php?id=2&theme=2&jid=ajava
Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe the glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase ( gamma -GT), beta-hydroxybutyrate (B-OH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), calcium and phosphorus concentrations in healthy alpacas under farming conditions. The differences due to seasons and environmental condition were studied to obtain reference values for this species. 36 Huacaya alpacas were used in this study carried out from March to December 2004 in 3 different regions of Chile: north zone (group A) - altitude of 4000 m above sea level; centre zone (group B) - altitude of 80 m above sea level; and south centre zone (group C) - altitude of 150 m above sea level. The highest glucose values were observed in group A during spring, summer and winter and in group B during autumn. The highest AST values were observed in group A during spring, in group B during summer and autumn and in group C during winter. The highest gamma -GT and B-OH values were observed in group A during the 4 seasons. The highest GSH-PX values were observed in group C during spring and summer and in group B during autumn and winter. The highest calcium values were observed in group A during spring and autumn and in group B during summer and winter. The highest phosphorus values were observed in group A during spring, summer and autumn and in group B during winter. ANOVA showed a highly significant effect of the environmental conditions and annual period on all the studied parameters. The results for AST, gamma GT and B-OH could be considered as reference values.
Descriptors: alpacas, blood biochemistry, blood sugar, blood calcium, blood glucose, blood phorphorus, 3-hydroxybutyric-acid, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase-; glutathione peroxidase, seasonal variation, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glutamyl transferase, GOT, effects of altitude and season, seasonal fluctuations, Chile.

Catone, G.; Zerani, M.; Scrollavezza, P.; Vullo, C.; Russo, M. Laparoscopic folliculocentesis and PGs determination in alpacas (Lama pacos): Preliminary report. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2007; 42(Suppl. 2): 109. ISSN: 0936-6768. Note: 11th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction, Celle, Germany; September 21 -22, 2007
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118522125/PDFSTART
Descriptors: alpacas, mature female, ovary, oocytes, prostaglandin E-2 and Prostaglandin F2 alpha, laparoscopy therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, transvaginal ultrasound, imaging and microscopic techniques, ovulation, follicular dynamics, laparoscopic folliculocentesis, lipidic fraction, aspiration needle.

Cebra, C. Diarrhea in llama and alpaca crias. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 20-22-September 2007. 2007; 170-173. Note: In English with a French summary.
Abstract: Neonatal and juvenile diarrhea are common complaints among owners of cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and goats. Microbial causes are usually blamed, although in some cases nutritional or other considerations come in to play. The most commonly identified pathogens are viruses and protozoa. These are relatively self-limiting, and clinical signs are more related to fluid and electrolyte loss than anything else. For ruminants and pigs especially, various products have been developed which specifically address water, base and salt loss. Various antibody and vaccine preparations are available to directly combat the causative organisms, but with the exception of Eimeria, antimicrobial treatment is usually not considered necessary. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas,protozoal agents of disease, etiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diarrhea, disease control, disease prevention, drug therapy, fluid therapy, therapy, clinical picture, rehydration, therapeutics.

Cebra, C. Uterine torsion in llamas and alpacas. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 20-22 September, 2007. 2007; 174-175. Note: In English with a French summary.
Abstract: Uterine torsion is a recognized cause of dystocia in large animals. Relative frequency and severity vary between species, but both dam and offspring can be saved and torsion corrected if the condition is diagnosed in a timely fashion. Uterine torsion is recognized as a cause of colic and dystocia in llamas and alpacas, but is usually regarded as less common than malpresentations involving the long neck and limbs of crias. In fact, uterine torsion may be responsible for some of those malpresentations.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, etiology, clinical aspects, colic, diagnosis, dystocia, malpositions, prognosis, surgery, therapy, torsion, uterine diseases, uterine torsion.

Cebra, C.K.; Valentine, B.A.; Schlipf, J.W.; Bildfell, R.J.; McKenzie, E.; Waitt, L.H.; Heidel, J.R.; Cooper, B.J.; Lohr, C.V.; Bird, K.E. Eimeria macusaniensis infection in 15 llamas and 34 alpacas.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 Jan 1; 230(1): 94-100. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animal diseases, llamas, alpacas, coccidiosis, Eimeria macusaniensis, digestive system diseases, gastrointestinal system, case studies, animal disease outbreaks, signs and symptoms, disease detection, disease diagnosis, fecal egg count, disease course, alternative livestock, Oregon.

Cebra, C. Internal parasites in llamas and alpacas: importance and detection methods. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 21, Orlando, Florida, USA,-2007. 2007; 251-252
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, internal parasites, importance, economic impact, detection methods, Capillaria, Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Fasciola, Fasciola hepatica, Giardia, Strongylidae, Trichuris, Adenophorea, Enoplida.

Chapman,.H.M.; Taylor,.E.G.; Buddle,.J.R.; Murphy, D.J. Student training in large-animal handling at the School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Australia. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. 2007; 34(5): 576-582. ISSN: 0748-321X
URL: http://www.jvmeonline.org
Abstract: The ability to handle animals safely, competently, and with confidence is an essential skill for veterinarians. Poor animal-handling skills are likely to compromise credibility, occupational health and safety, and animal welfare. In the five-year veterinary science degree at Murdoch University, animal handling is taught in a prerequisite unit in the second semester of the second year. From 2008, however, this unit will be taught in the first year of the five-year course. Students are taught to handle sheep, cattle, pigs, and horses safely and competently. Each student receives 30 hours of formal practical instruction. Animal-to-student ratios are 2:1, and staff-to-student ratios vary from 1:8 (sheep, cattle, horses) to 1:17 (pigs). Students must pass the practical exam to proceed into third year. Additional experience with animals is gained during third year (14 hours of practical instruction with sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle) and during the 5 weeks and 2 days of vacation farm experience during the second and third years. In the fourth and fifth years, students consolidate their handling experience with sheep (including rams), goats, pigs, cattle (including bulls), horses (including stallions), and alpacas. As a result, students are able to handle and restrain client animals with confidence. There is no formal course in small-animal handling at Murdoch University. Factors that have enhanced the success of the large-animal handling program include purpose-built on-campus facilities. Inadequate resources (time, facilities, and animals) remain the main impediment to effective learning, further compounded by the increasing tendency of university administrators to make decisions based on economic expediency rather than educational benefit. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: training in animal handling, domestic livestock, horses, cattle, bulls, sheep, goats, pigs, alpacas, college curriculum, educational courses, handling, large animal practice skills, students, veterinarians, veterinary education, veterinary medicine, veterinary schools, instruction, veterinary colleges, veterinary surgeons, Australia.

Chigerwe, M.; Middleton, J.R.; Williams, F., III; Tyler, J.W.; Kreeger, J.M. Atypical coccidiosis in South American camelids.Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007; 19(1): 122-125. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Reported clinical signs of coccidiosis in South American camelids include anorexia of a few days duration, sudden death, and diarrhoea. Antemortem diagnosis of clinical coccidiosis is usually based on clinical signs and supported by detection of coccidial oocysts in faeces. This report describes 2 atypical cases of coccidiosis in South American camelids that had no coccidial oocysts detected on antemortem faecal flotation, prolonged weight loss, and normal faecal consistency.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, Eimeria macusaniensis anorexia, case report, clinical picture, coccidiosis, diagnosis, diarrhea, differential diagnosis, histopathology, oocysts, sudden death.

Davies, H.L.; Robinson, T.F.; Roeder, B.L.; Sharp, M.E.; Johnston, N.P.; Christensen, A.C.; Schaalje, G.B. Digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) fed barley or barley alfalfa diets. Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Nov; 73(1-3): 1-7. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.10.006
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: To determine the effect of barley diets on digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites, mature gelded llamas and alpacas (n = 8; 4 llamas, 36 pl 4 months, 90 pl 10.7 kg; 4 alpacas, 24-36 months, 50 pl 4 kg) were randomly fed 100% barley (B) and 20% alfalfa/80% barley (BA) hay. Animals were housed in metabolism crates and diets were fed for a 7 days adjustment period followed by a 5 days collection period. Feed, feed refusal, feces and urine were collected, dried and N content determined by combustion analysis. Blood samples were collected on day 12 at 30 min intervals over a 6 h period. Plasma was harvested and analyzed for electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, Ca, Capo, P, Mg), metabolites glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), urea N, creatinine, albumin, total protein (TPP), osmolality (Osm). Plasma glucose, urea N, albumin, osmolality, electrolyte and metabolite levels were similar between species, and were unaffected by diet. On a metabolic weight basis, only diet was significant for N intake, urinary and fecal N, and total N excreted. Dry matter intake was not significantly different; however, BA consumption was greater than B, (B) 1272 g N/day and (BA) 1636 g N/day for llamas, and for alpacas (B) 835 g N/day and (BA) 1034 g N/day, respectively. Nitrogen intake followed the same pattern, (B) 21.4 g N/day and (BA) 33.9 g N/day, respectively for llamas, and (B) 13.6 g N/day and (BA) 20.6 g N/day, respectively for alpacas (diet, P < 0.002). Diet affects were significant for urine N excretion (P < 0.02), (B) 11.2 g/day and (BA) 18.2 g/day for llamas, and (B) 6.8 and (BA) 10.8 g N/day for alpacas. Fecal N excretion was different for diet (P < 0.03), with fecal excreted N of 9.0 g N/day and 11.9 g N/day for B and BA in llamas, and 5.9 g N/day and 9.1 g N/day for B and BA respectively in for alpacas, respectively. Nitrogen retention, DM digestibility and N digestibility were unaffected by diet or species. However, the llamas in this study displayed an increase in nitrogen intake of 64.6% between the B and BA diets with a 381% increase in N retention. Alpacas increased their N intake by 57.4% when they consumed the BA forage, which only increased N retention by 22.2%. These species differences indicate that alpacas have a lower N requirement to meet metabolic needs than llamas, which are likely related to the smaller body size of the alpaca. When examining the biological value of N from the respective diets, alpacas and llamas had a value of 56.2% when consuming barley. The BA diet had a higher biological value of 65.0% in llamas compared to 57.4% in alpacas. Therefore, on the basis of this study, extrapolations between llamas and alpacas with respect to nitrogen requirement and balance are not valid.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, ruminant nutrition, dietary protein, forage, barley, alfalfa, nutritive value, nutrient utilization, digestibility, digestible protein, energy requirements, protein requirement, nitrogen balance, nitrogen metabolism, biomarkers, blood chemistry, electrolytes, species differences.

Dong, Chang sheng; Yan,Yong ping; He, Jun ping; He, Xiao yan; Ben, Yu hong; Bai, Rui. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and its signal transducer Smad2 and Smad4 in alpaca testis. Jiepou Xuebao. 2007; 38(4): 481-485. ISSN: 0529-1356. Note: In Chinese.
Descriptors: alpacas, males, 2 year olds, testis, testicular development, spermatogenesis, TGF beta, transforming growth factor, signal transducer Smad2 and Smad4, Western blot and SABC.

Dukti , S.A. ; Southwood, L.L.; Metre, D.C. van. Survival and factors affecting survival in small ruminants and camelids attacked by dogs: 62 cases (1994-2004). Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 2007; 17(3): 257-261. ISSN: 1479-3261
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/vec
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-4431.2007.00229.x
Abstract: Objective: To determine the survival rates and factors affecting survival in small ruminants and camelids attacked by dogs. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Two university teaching hospitals. Animals: Thirty goats, 28 sheep, 3 alpacas, and 1 llama. Measurements and main results: Medical records were reviewed to obtain signalment, time between injury and admission, hospitalization length, lesion site, treatment, complications, survival rate, and cost. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone conversation with the owner. Sixty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. Six animals were euthanized at admission and thus excluded. Of the 56 animals that were treated, 43 (77%) were discharged, 5 (9%) died, and 8 (14%) were euthanized. Animals that had thoracic or abdominal injuries, required surgery, or received more potent analgesic therapy were less likely to survive to discharge from hospital compared with animals that did not. Complications developed in 50 (82%) animals. Animals with respiratory complications were also less likely to survive to discharge from hospital than animals that did not. Long-term follow up was available on 38/43 (88%) animals that were discharged. Thirty-five of 38 (92%) animals were discharged and recovered from their injuries and 5 animals had long-term complications. Conclusions: Small ruminants and camelids that are attacked by dogs have a good prognosis for short-term survival. Short-term survival is affected by lesion location and complications. Reproduced with permission from CAB abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, goats, llamas, sheep, dog bites, dog attacks, chemotherapy, traumas, complications, therapeutics, drug therapy, lesions, prognosis, risk factors; surgery, long term survival, Colorado, US.

Foster, A.P.; Houlihan, M.G.; Holmes, J.P.; Watt, E.J.; Higgins, R.J.; Errington, J.; Ibata, G.; Wakeley, P.R. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in the UK. Veterinary Record— London. 2007 July 21; 161(3): 94-99. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Three alpacas (Vicugna pacos) aged two to 22 months with a history of ill thrift and diarrhoea were examined postmortem, and tissues were collected for histology, including immunohistochemical labelling for pestivirus antigen, virus isolation and TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. Blood samples from two clinical cases and the remaining herd members were tested for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antibody by serum neutralisation, antigen detection and PCR assay. The three affected alpacas were positive for BVDV by PCR of splenic tissue and/or heparinised blood. Non-cytopathic BVDV was isolated from several tissues and plasma of two of the alpacas. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome from the PCR product showed that the BVDV was of subgenotype 1 b. Immunohistochemical examination of brain tissue was positive in two cases, consistent with a persistent infection. BVDV antibodies were detected in 16 of 25 clinically unaffected alpacas. There was no evidence of persistent infection in the in-contact animals. The source of the infection was not determined. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, Vicugna, viral diseases, Bovine viral diarrhea virus, source of persistent infection, United Kingdom.

Foster, A.; Jackson, A.; D'Alterio, G.L. Skin diseases of South American camelids.In Practice. 2007; 29(4): 216-223. ISSN: 0263-841X
URL: www.bvapublications.com
Abstract: Camelids, and alpacas in particular, are growing in popularity in the UK. These animals often present with skin disease and provide a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the veterinary clinician. While much has been made about the role of nutritional problems related to zinc, dermatological problems in these species are frequently associated with chronic infestation with Chorioptes mites. The use of macrocyclic lactones and other products may readily treat infestations with other ectoparasites, such as Psoroptes and Sarcoptes mites, but these agents may have to be administered repeatedly to reduce the population of Chorioptes mites. This article describes the most common ectoparasitic conditions seen in South American camelids in the UK as well as some less common problems associated with nutrition, infections, neoplasia and immune-mediated disease, and discusses an approach to the diagnosis and management of skin disease in these species. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: camels, alpacas, South American camelids, autoimmune diseases, bacterial diseases, diagnosis, ectoparasites, ectoparasiticides, fungal diseases, infestation, metabolic disorders, neoplasms, parasitoses, scabies, skin, skin diseases, treatment, Chorioptes, fungi, Psoroptes, Sarcoptes, bacterial infections, bacterioses, cancers, dermis, metabolic diseases, parasitic diseases, parasitic infestations, parasitosis, UK.

Gamarra, G.; Gallegos, A.; Asparrin, M.; Vivanco Mackie, H.W. Development of superovulatory strategies in alpacas. Reproduction Fertility and Development. 2007; 19(1): 238. ISSN: 1031-3613. Note: 33rd Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society, Kyoto, Japan; January 06-10, 2004. 2007
URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au/?nid=45&aid=35
NAL call no: QP251.R47
Descriptors : alpacas, females, reproductive organs, ovaries, superovulation strategies, follicular development, luteinizing hormone, FSH, gonadotropins, medroxyprogesterone acetate, progestins, progestogen drug, transvaginal ultrasonography, imaging techniques, clinical techniques.

Garcia-Pereira, Fernando L.; Greene, Stephen A.; Keegan, Robert D.; McEwen, Margaret M.; Tibary, Ahmed. Effects of intravenous butorphanol on cardiopulmonary function in isoflurane-anesthetized alpacas.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2007 July; 34(4): 269-274. ISSN: 1467-2987
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118516519/home
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2006.00325.x
NAL call no.: SF914 .V47
Abstract: To determine the effects of intravenous (IV) butorphanol on the cardiopulmonary system and on the bispectral index (BIS) in isoflurane-anesthetized alpacas. Randomized, blinded cross-over experimental trial. Eight healthy, young (3 pl 1 SD years) adult female alpacas weighing 64 pl 9 SD kg. Alpacas were anesthetized with isoflurane by mask followed by tracheal intubation and maintenance of anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Animals were assigned to two treatments, butorphanol (0.1 mg kgp#, IV) and saline (0.01 mL kgp#, IV) in a randomized manner allowing a 2-week interval between treatments. Cardiovascular variables included systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure (PAOP), central venous pressure, cardiac output, and pulmonary temperature (TEMP). Cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were calculated. Bispectral index was also measured. Arterial and mixed venous blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis. All variables were recorded at baseline (time 0) and at 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes following injection and were analyzed by using repeated-measures anova (p < 0.05). PAOP, PVR, and BIS were analyzed by paired t-tests. Butorphanol decreased SVR at all times when compared with the baseline, but no difference was detected between treatments. TEMP decreased with time in both treatments, but they were not different from each other. Other cardiovascular, BIS, and blood gas variables were not different between groups. We conclude that butorphanol had minimal effects on the cardiovascular system of the alpacas, causing a mild decrease in SVR.
Descriptors: alpacas, anesthesia, cardiac output, bispectral index, butorphanol.

Gerspach, C.; Varga, A.; Niehaus, A.; Nichols, S.; Lakritz, J. Serum IgG concentrations in crias: How much is enough?Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2007; 21(3): 583-584. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 25th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary International Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; June 06 -09, 2007.
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpacas, crias, serum, plasma, IgG levels, dystocia, reproductive conditions, sepsis, plasma transfusion, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, clinical recommendations.

Gishen, M.; Cozzolino, D. Feasibility study on the potential of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to measure alpaca fibre characteristics.Animal: an International Journal of Animal Bioscience. 2007 July; 1(6): 899-904. ISSN: 1751-7311
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731107000146
NAL call no.: SF1.A45
Abstract: Visible ( Vis) and near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy is a rapid and non-destructive technique that has found many applications in assessing the quality of agricultural commodities, including wool. In this study, Vis and NIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis was investigated regarding its feasibility in predicting a range of fibre characteristics in raw alpaca wool samples. Mid-side samples (n=149) were taken from alpacas from a range of colours and ages at shearing time over 4 years (2000 to 2004) and subsequently analysed for fibre characteristics such as mean fibre diameter (MFD) and standard deviation (and coefficient of variation), spin fineness, curvature degree (and standard deviation), comfort factor, medullation percentage (by weight and number in white samples only) using traditional reference laboratory testing methods. Samples were scanned in a large cuvette using a FOSS NIRSystems 6500 monochromator instrument in reflectance mode in the Vis and NIR regions (400 to 2500 nm). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to develop a number of calibration models between the spectral and reference data. Mathematical pre-treatment of the spectra (second derivative) as well as various combinations of wavelength range were used in model development. The best calibration model was found when using the NIR region (1100 to 2500 nm) for the prediction of MFD, which had a coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R2) of 0.88 with a root mean square standard error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.62 micro m. The results show the NIR technique to have promise as a semiquantitative method for screening purposes. The lack of grease in alpaca wool samples suggests that the technique might find ready application as a rapid measurement technique for preliminary classing of shorn fleeces or, if used directly on the animal, the technology might offer an objective tool to assist in the selection of animals in breeding programmes or shows. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, animal fibers, characteristics, reflectance spectroscopy.

Gonzalez-Acuna, D.; Cabezas, I.; Moreno, L.; Castro, D. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile.[New records of Phthiraptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile.]. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria. 2007; 39(1): 71-72. ISSN: 0301-732X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: www.uach.cl
Abstract: For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai and Bovicola breviceps, is reported. The presence of M. praelongiceps parasitizing alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region) is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, Bovicola breviceps, Phthiraptera, Microthoracius mazzai,Microthoracuys mazzai, new host records, Chile.

Gray, G.A.; Dascanio, J.J.; Kasimanickam, R.; Sponenberg, D.P. Bilateral epidiymal cysts in an alpaca male used for breeding. Canadian Veterinary Journal = La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2007 July; 48(7): 741-744. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with an English summary.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: male alpacas, epididymis, case studies, animal diseases, male genital diseases, cysts, neoplasms, animal age, ultrasonography, biopsy, disease diagnosis, histopathology, testes.

Grosche, A.; Hoops, M.; Wittek, T. Akutes renales Nierenversagen bei einem Alpakahengst infolge einer hochgradigen Dehydratation. [Acute kidney failure in a male alpaca caused by a severe dehydration.]Praktische Tierarzt. 2007; 88(5): 348...360. ISSN: 0032-681X. Note: In German with an English summary.
URL: http://www.vetline.de/dpt/
NAL call no.: 41.8 P882
Abstract: The clinical and laboratory findings, therapy and outcome of 10-year-old male alpaca suffering from acute renal failure caused by severe dehydration were reported [ Germany]. Two days after an accidentally high intake of concentrates, the alpaca sire was submitted to the veterinary hospital in a recumbent and somnolent condition. In addition to tachycardia, dyspnoea and anuria, physical examination showed severe hypovolaemia, metabolic acidosis and azotaemia. Following aggressive shock therapy and diuresis (furosemide at one mg/kg BW i.v.), the animal started to produce urine in small amounts. The urine was yellow, cloudy, turbid, had a pH of 5.0 and contained one g/litre protein, 17 mmol/litre glucose, numerous leukocytes and bacteria. The gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)/creatinine ratio was 34.7 U/mmol. Further therapy consisted of parenteral application of antibiotics and NSAIDs as well as oral substitution of glucoplastic substances, substances that facilitate rumen function and humine acids during a 12-day period. After admission to the hospital, a total parenteral nutrition was performed for 3 days followed by partial parenteral nutrition up to 10 days. Despite the effective treatment of hypovolaemia and acidosis, the concentrations of urea and creatinine increased. This was accompanied by hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and hyperglycaemia. Urine production ceased again at day 3. However, diuresis could be induced again by administration of furosemide (1.5 mg/kg BW i.v. every 2 h for 8 h) and a single administration of mannitol (0.7 kg BW i.v.). On day 5, the alpaca showed generalized tonic-clonic spasms which could be controlled by administration of diazepam (0.05 mg/kg BW i.v.). These spasms were followed by atactic, paretic and splaying hind limbs. After day 8, the clinical signs improved, oliguria was followed by polyuria and faeces and azotaemia were normalized. On day 16, the alpaca was released from the clinic, since it had normal food intake, general behaviour, faeces and polyuria.
Descriptors: alpacas, acidosis, antibiotics, case report, clinical aspects, concentrates, creatinine, dehydration physiological, diagnosis, diuresis, drug therapy, dyspnoea, furosemide, gamma glutamyltransferase, hyperglycaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hypoproteinaemia, hypovolaemia, kidneys, mannitol, NSAIDS, parenteral feeding, polyuria, renal failure, shock, spasms, uraemia, urea, urine, azotaemia, azotemia, chemotherapy, clinical picture, dyspnea, glutamyl transferase, high blood glucose, hyperglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, hypovolemia, kidney failure, oliguria, protein feeds, tachycardia, uremia, Germany.

Hallowell, G.D.; Potter, T.J.; Mills, N.J. Labial fusion causing urinary tract obstruction in an alpaca cria. Veterinary Record— London. 2007 Dec 22-29; 161(25): 862. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: The first case of congenital vulval abnormality in alpacas in Europe was described. A 6-h-old female alpaca cria was presented at the Royal Veterinary College as an out-of-hours emergency due to a vulval swelling [ UK, date not given]. Physical examination was unremarkable other than the swollen vulva and absence of identifiable vulval opening. Increased lactate concentration, reduced total protein and increased creatinine and urea concentrations were observed. A diagnosis of labial fusion was made with secondary azotaemia and partial failure of passive transfer. The imperforate tissue was opened surgically by incising through the midline of the fused labia. At this stage, urine was passed. The animal was seen to urinate normally and was discharged 3 days after presentation with 3-day further treatment of oral trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and ranitidine. No further problems were reported with the animal, and 8 weeks later, it did well.
Descriptors: alpacas, crias, vulva, congenital abnormalities, case studies.

Hardefeldt, L.Y.; Textor, J.A.; Dart, A.J. Renal agenesis in an alpaca cria.Australian Veterinary Journal. 2007 May; 85(5): 185-187. ISSN: 0005-0423
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2007.00125.x
NAL call no.: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: A 4-day-old alpaca cria presented for inappetence that responded to symptomatic treatment. The cria re-presented with acute signs of inappetence and azotaemia. The azotaemia persisted despite intravenous fluid therapy. There was no right kidney on ultrasound and there appeared to be perirenal oedema around the left kidney. A diagnosis of right renal agenesis and acute renal failure of the left kidney was made. The cria failed to improve and was euthanased. Necropsy examination confirmed right renal agenesis and agenesis of the right ureter and right renal artery. A section of left kidney submitted for histological examination revealed diffuse, acute, marked tubular degeneration and nephrosis. The cause of the renal failure in the left kidney was not determined. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, neonates, renal failure, kidneys, kidney diseases, animal diseases, congenital abnormalities, case studies, anorexia, disease diagnosis, signs and symptoms of disease, histopathology, disease course, renal agenesis.

Hearn, F.P.D. [Editor]. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Society for Theriogenology, Monterey, California, USA, 7-11 August 2007. Theriogenology. 2007; 68(3): 295-520. ISSN: 0093-691X. Note: A special issue on reproduction—technologies and diseases.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.05.051
Descriptors: alpacas, buffalo, cats, cattle, dogs, pigs, horses, llamas, reproduction, reproductive technologies, reproductive diseases, etiology, animal breeding, semen handling, artificial insemination, AI, cryopreservation, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, domestic animals, drug therapy, embryo transfer, embryos, fertility, in vitro fertilization, livestock, pharmacodynamics, pregnancy, reproductive disorders, reproductive performance, gestation, drugs.

Henrich, M.; Reinacher, M.; Hamann, H.P. Lethal bluetongue virus infection in an alpaca. Veterinary Record. 2007; 161(22): 764. ISSN: 0042-4900. Note a correspondence.
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: The clinical, pathological, postmortem and histopathological features of bluetongue virus infection in a 5-year-old alpaca in Germany are described.
Descriptors: alpacas, clinical picture, case study, postmortem organ sampling, animal pathology, histopathology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, histopathology, Bluetongue virus, viral diseases, Germany.

Heuer, C.; French, N.P.; Jackson, R.; Mackereth, G.F. Application of modelling to determine the absence of foot-and-mouth disease in the face of a suspected incursion.

New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2007; 55(6): 289-296. ISSN: 0048-0169
URL: http://www.vetjournal.org.nz
Abstract: AIM: To use disease modelling to inform a response team about the number of animals per herd/flock to be examined, and the start date and duration of clinical surveillance required to be confident that foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was not present on an island in New Zealand with a population of approximately 1,600 cattle, 10 000 sheep and a small number of pigs, goats and alpacas. METHODS: Because the probability of detecting clinical disease in (the) primary case(s) in larger herds and flocks was extremely low, deterministic and stochastic mathematical SLIR (susceptible, latent, infectious, recovered) models for the transmission of infection were constructed to estimate the date when clinical lesions in herds and flocks would be detected with 95% confidence. Surveillance targeted the first wave of infections following a suspect index case. RESULTS: If 70 cattle in herds of about 400 cattle were examined it was estimated it would take approximately 13 (90% stochastic range 9-19) days from first exposure before it would be possible to achieve 95% confidence for detecting clinical signs for a low-virulence virus, and 9 (7-14) days for a high-virulence virus. The duration of sufficiently accurate clinical detection was 17 (15-19) days and 13 (12-14) days for low- and high-virulence viruses, respectively. A sample of 70 sheep from flocks of >1,000 would be required to achieve clinical detection at about the same time but with a shorter period of detection than for cattle. The duration of effective detection could be increased by examining a larger sample in most sheep flocks, however the small size of many cattle herds in the study population limited the confidence of detecting group-level disease in cattle, therefore necessitating repeated herd inspections. The model suggested that group-level detection was not feasible if it was based on elevated body temperature alone because of short durations of fever in infected animals. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Simulation modelling is a useful and powerful tool for informing ongoing surveillance activities in the face of an exotic disease incursion. Results of modelling suggested to start clinical inspection activities at 4 days and to continue regular inspection twice a week for about 35 days after the date of first exposure, to satisfy the required 95% confidence threshold of clinical detection of FMD in cattle herds and sheep flocks.
Descriptors: alpacas, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, livestock diseases, foot and mouth disease, virulence, body temperature, clinical aspects, disease models, disease surveys, disease transmission, livestock, mathematical models, simulation models, New Zealand.

Hongo, A.; Toukura, Y.; Choque, J.L.; Aro, J.A.; Yamamoto, N. The role of a cleft upper lip of alpacas in foraging extremely short grasses evaluated by grazing impulse.Small Ruminant Research. 2007 May; 69(1-3): 108-114. ISSN: 0921-4488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.12.020
Abstract: The role of a cleft upper lip of alpaca (Lama pacos) in foraging short pastures was investigated using biting forces and associated impulses in animal grazing. Three Merino wethers and three castrated alpacas were used. Ten (10L), 20 (20L), 30 (30L), 40 (40L) or 50 (50L) leaves of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) per load cell were offered to animals, and three-directional biting forces were digitally recorded at 5 s-1000. From the total biting force/time curve, grazing impulse was calculated, equivalent to the area surrounded by the curve. The grand mean of the number of grazed leaves per bite was 9.8 pl 0.53 in alpaca and 17.9 pl 1.31 in sheep. Remaining leaf length after grazing trial was significantly lower in alpaca than in sheep (11.9 pl 0.19 mm versus 18.5 pl 0.41 mm). Alpaca grazed leaves with significantly lower mean biting force (7.0 pl 0.69 N versus 20.0 pl 1.80 N) and significantly shorter duration time per one biting force (0.11 pl 0.005 s versus 0.18 pl 0.19 s) than sheep. The grand mean of sum of grazing impulse was lower (P < 0.002) in alpaca (2.8 pl 0.42 N s) than in sheep (9.4 pl 1.95 N s). Grazed DM weight increased with increasing leaf densities, but there was no difference between alpaca and sheep. The ratio of DM intake to grazing impulse was significantly higher in alpaca than in sheep (0.18 pl 0.016 g DM/N s versus 0.08 pl 0.010 g DM/N s). The grazing strategy in alpaca seems to be an adaptation for foraging extremely short grasses. Alpacas may push aside cleft upper lips when trying to grasp short leaves, resulting in keeping incisors at lower insertion position near the ground surface.
Descriptors: sheep, alpacas, Lama, cleft palate, lips, mechanics, forces, sensation, animal feeding, browsing, foraging, dry matter intake, forage, pasture plants, leaves, height, grazing, grazing species differences, grazing impulse.

Hustace, J.L.; Firshman, A.M.; Villarroel, A.; Cebra, C.K. Prognostic indicators for survival in crias aged <= 60 days.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2007; 21(3): 584. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 25th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary International Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; June 06 -09, 2007
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpacas, females, males, crias survival, indicators of survival in neonates, blood cells, platelets, white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, immune system, fibrinogen creatinine, liver enzymes, blood urea, non-esterifies fatty acids, beta hydroxybutyrate, blood gas analysis, heart rate, respiration rate, clinical techniques.

Jin, L.; Cebra, C.K.; Baker, R.J.; Mattson, D.E.; Cohen, S.A.; Alvarado, D.E.; Rohrmann, G.F. Analysis of the genome sequence of an alpaca coronavirus.Virology. 2007 Aug 15; 365(1): 198-203. ISSN: 0042-6822
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00426822
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2007.03.035
NAL call no.: 448.8 V81
Abstract: Coronaviral infection of New World camelids was first identified in 1998 in llamas and alpacas with severe diarrhea. In order to understand this infection, one of the coronavirus isolates was sequenced and analyzed. It has a genome of 31 076 nt including the poly A tail at the 3' end. This virus designated as ACoV-00-1381 (ACoV) encodes all 10 open reading frames (ORFs) characteristic of Group 2 bovine coronavirus (BCoV). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ACoV genome is clustered closely (>99.5% identity) with two BCoV strains, ENT and LUN, and was also closely related to other BCoV strains ( Mebus, Quebec, DB2), a human corona virus (strain 043) (>96%), and porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (>93% identity). A total of 145 point mutations and one nucleotide deletion were found relative to the BCoV ENT. Most of the ORFs were highly conserved; however, the predicted spike protein (S) has 9 and 12 amino acid differences from BCoV LUN and ENT, respectively, and shows a higher relative number of changes than the other proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that ACoV shares the same ancestor as BCoV ENT and LUN. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas,Camelidae, Coronaviridae, genome, molecular cloning, complementary DNA, sequence analysis, viral diseases of animals, diarrhea, bovine coronavirus.

Johnson, J.L.; Bishop, M.A.; Jenner, F. The effects of oral omeprazole on third compartment pH in healthy male alpacas.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2007; 21(3): 584. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: “25th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary International Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; June 06 -09, 2007.“
DOI:http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, effects on digestive system, effects of antibiotics, ranitidine, drug, anti-ulcer drug, antihistamine, histamine H2 receptor antagonist drug, cimetidine, omeprazole, enzyme inhibitor drug, gastic secretions, oral administration, surgery.

Kaufmann, C.; Meli,.M L.; Robert, N.; Willi, B.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Wengi, N.; Lutz, H.; Zanolari, P. Haemotrophic mycoplasmas in South American camelids in Switzerland. In: G. Wibbelt; N. Bergholz ; S. Seet; and H. Hofer. Management of cryptosporidiosis in a hoofstock contact area.Proceedings of the Institute or Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin. 2007; (7): 14-17. ISSN: 1431-7338. Note: “Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 43. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Edinburgh, UK, 19-20 May, 2007. “
URL: http://www.izw-berlin.de
Abstract: 140 South American camelids imported from Peru in 2004 was raised in a farm located in the southern part of Switzerland on an altitude of 850 to 1000 meters above sea level. The animals were divided into 6 groups on different pastures and were subjected to a regular coprological monitoring for parasites and were given adequate treatment. For breeding reasons group 1 was separated from the other groups from the date of importation. The distance between pastures ranged from 50 to 750 meters. From the parasites that were examined, Candidatus haemolamae was identified using PCR. In June 2006, a female alpaca from group 1 died unexpectedly after giving birth to a foal. Parasitological investigation revealed Eimeria spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and nematodes from the faeces of the animal. A sample of blood from the heart was analysed and was positive for Candidatus M. haemolamae. One month later another female alpaca form group 1 died and histopathological examination of the liver showed Dicrocoelium dendriticum as the culprit. Further coprological analysis revealed the presence of Eimeria,Nematodirus and Trichuris. Of the ten infected animals that were treated with oxytetracycline, four continued to be infected after two weeks and even after re-treatment the remaining three infected animals was positive for candidatus haemolamae. This incident was the first recorded case of Candidatus M. haemolamae infections in alpacas in Europe. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, farm raised animals, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease transmission, epidemiology, histopathology, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Eimeria, Nematoda, Nematodirus, Trichuris, Adenophorea, Candidatus haemolamae, disease surveillance, Enoplida, parasite control, Secernentea, Strigeida, Strongylida, Switzerland.

Lau, Peri; Hill, Peter B.; Rybnc#ek, Jan; Steel, Lynne. Sarcoptic mange in three alpacas treated successfully with amitraz. Veterinary Dermatology. 2007 Aug; 18(4): 272-277. ISSN: 0959-4493
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/117989328/home
NAL call no.: SF901.V47
Abstract: Sarcoptic mange is a serious skin disease in alpacas that can result in high morbidity and even mortality. Three alpacas were presented with sarcoptic mange that had previously failed to respond to repeated topical applications of eprinomectin, and an injection of doramectin. They were moderately to severely pruritic, had extensive lesions of alopecia, erythema, scaling and crusting, and had lost weight. As no drug is currently licensed for the treatment of sarcoptic mange in alpacas in the UK, they were treated with a topical solution of amitraz (50 mL in 10 L) after initial bathing with antibacterial or keratolytic shampoos. The clinical signs completely resolved with no relapse over a 10-month follow-up period. In this small group of alpacas, amitraz was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for sarcoptic mange.
Descriptors: alpacas, animal skin parasites, scabies, Sarcoptes scabiei, amitraz, topical application, aqueous solutions, combination drug therapy, pretreatment, washing with antitbacterial or keratolytic shampoos, antimicrobial agents, dosage, disease course, drug resistance, doramectin, eprinomectin, case studies, United Kingdom.

Llanos, Anibal J.; Riquelme, Raquel A.; Herrera, Emilio A.; Ebensperger, German; Krause, Bernardo; Reyes, Roberto V.; Sanhueza, Emilia A.; Pulgar, Victor M.; Behn, Claus; Cabello, Gertrudis; Parer, Julian T.; Giussani, Dino A.; Blanco, Carlos E.; Hanson, Mark A. Evolving in thin air - Lessons from the llama fetus in the altiplano. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology. 2007; 158(2-3): 298-306. ISSN: 1569-9048
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, vicunas, guanacos, fetal life, high altitude animals, fetal response to acute hypoxia, peripheral vasoconstriction mediated by alpha adrenergic mechanisms, high plasma concentration of catecholamines, high plasma concentration of neuropeptide Y, NO and endothelin 1, local blood flows, cerebral hypometabolic response, reduced oxygen consumption, Na-K-Atpase activity, temperature, absence of seizures and apoptosis of neural cells, Andean altiplano.

Lyashchenko, K.P.; Greenwald, R.; Esfandiari, J.; Meylan, M.; Burri, I.H.; Zanolari, P. Antibody responses in New World camelids with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti.Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Dec 15; 125(3-4): 265-273. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.026
NAL call no.: SF601.V44
Abstract : Antibody responses in New World camelids (NWC) infected with Mycobacterium microti were studied by two serological methods, multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) and lateral-flow-based rapid test (RT). Serum samples were collected during 2004-2006 from 87 animals including 1 alpaca and 7 llamas with confirmed or suspected M. microti infection, 33 potentially exposed but clinically healthy animals from known infected herds, and 46 control NWC from herds where infection had not been previously diagnosed. The serological assays correctly identified infection status in 97% (MAPIA) or 87% (RT) cases. In three llamas with confirmed M. microti infection and one llama with gross pathology suggestive of disease, for which multiple serum samples collected over time were available, the antibody-based tests showed positive results 1-2 years prior to the onset of clinical signs or being found dead. In MAPIA, MPB83 protein was identified to be an immunodominant serological target antigen recognized in NWC infected with M. microti. With the limited number of animals tested in this study, the serological assays demonstrated the potential for convenient, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of M. microti infection in live llamas and alpacas.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, Lama, animal diseases, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium microti, disease detection, serodiagnosis, immunologic techniques, new methods, rapid methods, antibody detection, immunoassay, accuracy, validity, epidemiological studies, herds, screening, seroprevalence, multi-antigen print immunoassay, lateral-flow-based rapid test.

Maass, D.R.; Sepulveda, J.; Pernthaner, A.; Shoemaker, C.B. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs). Journal of Immunological Methods. 2007; 324(1/2): 13-25. ISSN: 0022-1759
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00221759
Abstract: Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the smaller, more tractable and widely available alpaca is an excellent source of VHH coding DNA. Alpaca sera IgG consists of about 50% HCAbs, mostly of the short-hinge variety. Sequencing of DNA encoding more than 50 random VHH and hinge domains permitted the design of PCR primers that will amplify virtually all alpaca VHH coding DNAs for phage display library construction. Alpacas were immunized with ovine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha ) and a VHH phage display library was prepared from a lymph node that drains the sites of immunizations and successfully employed in the isolation of VHHs that bind and neutralize ovine TNF alpha .
Descriptors: alpacas, antibodies, bacteriophages, DNA, DNA sequencing; IgG, immunization, recombination, tumor necrosis factor, cachectin, cachexin, deoxyribonucleic acid, genetic recombination, immune sensitization, nucleotide sequence analysis, nucleotide sequencing.

Mangan, Brendan G; Gionfriddo, Juliet R.; Powell, Cynthia C. Bilateral nasolacrimal duct atresia in a cria.Veterinary Ophthalmology. 2008 Jan; 11(1): 49-54. ISSN: 1463-5216
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118507707/home
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2007.00595.x
NAL call no.: SF891.V47
Abstract: A 2-month-old, male alpaca had a 1-month history of mucoid ocular discharge from the left eye. Signalment, history and clinical findings were suggestive of a congenital nasolacrimal outflow obstruction. A dacryocystorhinogram confirmed bilateral nasolacrimal duct atresia, which involved the distal half of both nasolacrimal ducts. In order to establish alternative outflow, a conjunctivomaxillosinusotomy and conjunctivorhinostomy were performed on the right and left eye, respectively. The surgical openings remain patent after 11 months, and there have been no clinical signs of nasolacrimal disease.
Descriptors: alpaca, male cria, case study, signalment, history and clinical findings, congenital nasolacrimal outflow obstruction, nasolacrimal duct atresia.

Marai, I.F.M.; Zeidan, A.E.B. Artificial insemination in Camelidae.Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2007; 7(1): 1-13. Note: In English with a Spanish summary. Literature review.
URL: http://www.veterinaria.uady.mx/publicaciones/journal/2007-1/128-camels2.pdf
Abstract: The most important problems of Artificial Insemination (AI) in Camelidae is its timing in relation to ovulation in the she-camel. The present article reviewed collection of semen, processing of semen, manipulation of the female and semen deposition technique in Camelidae species. Commonly, semen is collected by electroejaculation, artificial vagina (AV), flushing of the epididymus with saline solution, while the more accepted methods are the former two methods. Semen is usually used in raw condition or after extension, depending on the method of semen processing. In the fresh raw method, whole semen is used within minutes or after few hours. Extension of the semen ejaculate is carried out by adding extenders and it is required in more efficient use of AI, in short-term preservation or liquid semen (within a few hours or days) and long-term preservation or frozen semen (months or years). In short-term preservation, semen is used extended under different temperatures (30, 25 or 4 degrees C). Long-term preservation is carried out by cryopreservation. Packaging methods such as pellets, ampoules or in plastic straws with different volumes (0.25, 0.5 or 4 ml) represent different freezing procedures. The quality and survival of spermatozoa of post-thaw semen are highly variable from one male to the other, even after using the same freezing technique. To ensure that the inseminated females ovulate, hormonal manipulation of ovarian activity is used such as the induction of follicular activity and ovulation, as well as, synchronization of these phases in a group of females. The best time for insemination can only be determined by ultrasonography and/or rectal palpation of the ovaries. The other alternative is to inseminate at known intervals following induction of ovulation by hormonal treatment with human-chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH).
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, guanacos, vicunas, artificial insemination, cryopreservation, deposition site, freezing, frozen semen, GnRH, HCG, estrus, ovulation, reproduction, semen, semen diluent additives, semen preservation, spermatozoa, synchronization, synchronized females, gonadoliberin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, techniques.

Marin, Juan C.; Zapata, Beatriz.; Gonzalez, Benito A.; Bonacic, Cristian; Wheeler, Jane C. ; Casey, Ciara; Bruford, Michael W.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Poulin, Elie; Alliende, M. Angelica; Spotorno, Angel E. Sistematica, taxonomia y domesticacion de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosomica y molecular. [Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence.] Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 2007; 80(2): 121-140. ISSN: 0716-078X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.cl
Abstract: Four camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the vicuna (Vicugna vicugna), and two domestic, the alpaca (Lama pacos) and the llama (Lama glama). However, the origin of the domestic species has been a matter of debate. In the present study, variations in chromosome G banding patterns and in two mitochondrial gene sequences have been used to study the origin and classification of the llama and alpaca. Similar patterns in chromosome G band structure were observed in all four Lamini species, and these in turn were similar to the bands described for camels, Camelus bactrianus. However, fine and consistent differences were found in the short arms of chromosome 1, separating camels, guanacos and llamas from vicunas and alpacas. This pattern was consistent even in a hybrid guanaco x alpaca. Equivalent relationship showed the complete cytochrome b gene sequences, and the minimum expansion tree of the partial control region sequence, grouping guanaco with llama and vicuna with alpaca. Phylogenetic analyses showed V. vicugna and L. guanicoe as monophyletic groups. Analysis of both gene sequences revealed two clades within vicuna, concordant with the two described subspecies, but the results for guanaco did not confirm existence of the four previously proposed subspecies. The combined analysis of chromosomal and molecular variation showed close genetic similarity between alpacas and vicunas, as well as between llamas and guanacos. Although directional hybridization was revealed, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the llama would have derived from L. guanicoe and the alpaca from V. vicugna, supporting reclassification as V. pacos. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: camelids, Bactrian camels, 2 wild species, guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and vicunas (Victigna vicugna), 2 domesticated species, alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama), classification of species, chromosome G banding pattern variations, 2 mitochondrial gene sequences variations, analysis showed close genetic similarity of alpacas and vicunas and of llamas and guanacos, hypothesize llama derived from L. guanicoe, alpaca derived from V. vicugna, supporting reclassification as V. pacos, genetic variability, South American camelids.

Mate, M.L.; Di Rocco, F.; Zambelli, A.; Vidal-Rioja, L. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy in Control Region DNA of Small Ruminant Research.South American camelids. 2007 Aug; 71(1-3): 123-129. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.04.016
NAL call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: In the present work, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing were used to investigate the length and nucleotide variability in the Control Region mitochondrial DNA of the four South American camelid species from Argentina. To asses these the complete Control Region of 20 animals, 5 each of guanaco, llama, alpaca and vicuna species were cloned. Seventy-three clones corresponding to the 20 animals were screened and 7 different SSCP patterns were identified. Sequencing of all clones showed 9 different haplotypes contained in the 350 bp hypervariable segment of the Control Region. Interestingly, 3 guanacos, 3 vicunas, 3 alpacas and 1 llama were heteroplasmic for different nucleotide positions. The screening of the Control Region mitochondrial DNA in blood samples from about 200 wild guanacos from Argentine Patagonia supported the above results. After comparison with other vertebrate species, we concluded that nucleotide substitutions are the main cause of heteroplasmy found in Control Region mitochondrial DNA of these taxa.
Descriptors: Lama, llamas, alpacas, vicunas, Lama guanicoe, phylogeny, genetic variation, genetic-markers, mitochondrial DNA, molecular cloning, clones, nucleotide sequences, polymerase chain reaction, single stranded conformational polymorphism, mutation, single nucleotide polymorphism, genome, genomics, heteroplasmy, molecular sequence data, Argentina.

Merriwether, D.A. Domestication of alpacas: Genetics of the North American herd.American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2007; (Suppl. 44): 171. ISSN: 0002-9483. Note: 76th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Philadelphia, PA, USA; March 28 -31, 2007.
Descriptors: vicunas, llamas, alpacas, guanacos, domesticated animals, breeding, genetics, North America.

Mey, Eberhard; Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel. Ueber einen Massenbefall von Bovicola (Lepikentron) breviceps (Rudow) (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Ischnocera, Bovicolidae) auf einem Alpaka Vicugna vicugna forma pacos in Thueringen (Deutschland), mit Anmerkungen zur Parthenogenese bei Tierlaeusen. [On a mass infestation of Bovicola (Lepikentron) breviceps (Rudow) (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Ischnocera, Bovicolidae) on an alpaca Vicugna vicugna forma pacos in Thueringen ( Germany), with remarks on parthenogenesis in animal lice.] Rudolstaedter Naturhistorische Schriften. 2007 January; 14: 71-82. ISSN: 0863-0844. Note: In German with summaries in English, German, and Spanish.
Descriptors: alpaca, female imported from Chile, lice infectation, Bovicola (Lepikentron) breviceps, shearing of infected fleece, 231 female lice, 2 male lice 637 larvae, 500 nits and husks, confirms thelytoky (obligatory parthenogenesis) dominant method of reproduction, Central Germany.

Morgante, Massimo; Stelletta, Calogero; Costa, Anna; Bevilacqua, Francesca; Piccione, Giuseppe. Daily rhythms of some physiological variables in alpaca (Lama pacos).Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2007; 6(3): 335-339. ISSN: 1680-5593
Abstract: Circadian rhythmicity, an intrinsic characteristic of some physiological parameters in livestock, may be influenced by different exogenous synchronizers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of environmental temperature on the circadian pattern of some hormonal, haematochemical, urinary and physiological parameters in Alpaca (Lama pacos). For this purpose, 6 clinically healthy adult female alpacas aged 7[plus or minus]1 years and bred under similar conditions on a farm 400 meters above sea level were used. Twice, at two different environmental temperatures (5-13.5[degree]C vs. 11.5-33.5[degree]C), blood samples were collected by means of a jugular puncture and urine samples were collected by means permanent catheters on each subject every 2 h during 24 h. A trigonometric statistic model has been applied to the records' mean values obtained during the experimental sessions to describe analytically the periodic phenomenon; furthermore, the singles Cosinor method was applied to the periodic parameters. The application of the periodic model enabled us to point out the circadian pattern of the following blood parameters: Melatonin, glucose, triglycerides, urea, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium. The same model was applied to the following urinary and physiological parameters: Creatinine, magnesium, sodium, fractional clearance of magnesium and potassium and body temperature. Rhythm stability and periodicity keeping under natural environmental conditions (characterized by variable temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod), though with different acrophases, enable us to establish that periodical parameters pattern shows a strong rhythm. This one can be influenced by exogenous factors (daylength and temperature in this particular instance) able to modify its synchronicity but not its intrinsic periodicity.
Descriptors: alpacas; Lama pacos; circadian rhythms; physiological parameters; effect of 2 environmental temperatures on hormones, blood chemistry, urinary changes, melatonin, glucose, triglycerides, urea, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, creatinine, clearance, body temperature.

Morton, K.M.; Bathgate, R.; Evans, G.; Maxwell, W.M.C. Cryopreservation of epididymal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) sperm: a comparison of citrate-, Tris- and lactose-based diluents and pellets and straws. Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 2007; 19(7): 792-796. ISSN: 1031-3613
URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/45.htm
DOI: doi:10.1071/RD07049
NAL Call no: QP251.R47
Abstract: Epididymal spermatozoa were harvested from male alpacas and frozen after extension and cooling to 4 degrees C in citrate-, Tris- and lactose-based diluents (Experiment 1) and as pellets in 0.25- and 0.5-mL straws on either dry ice or over liquid nitrogen vapour (Experiment 2) to determine the effects diluents and packaging on their motility and acrosome integrity. In Experiment 1, sperm motility was higher after cooling to 4 degrees C and after freeze-thawing (0 but not 3 h post-thaw) for spermatozoa extended in the lactose- than the citrate- or Tris-based diluent (P<0.05). Post-thaw acrosome integrity after cooling to 4 degrees C and post-thaw 0 (h) was reduced for spermatozoa frozen in citrate- compared with lactose- or Tris-based diluents, but was similar for all groups 3 h after thawing. In Experiment 2, sperm motility immediately after thawing was higher for pellet freezing than for 0.25- or 0.5-mL straws on dry ice or liquid nitrogen vapour (P<0.05), although by 3 h post-thaw motility was similar for pellets and straws (P>0.05). Acrosome integrity was similar for all groups immediately after thawing and 3 h post-thaw. Cryopreservation of epididymal alpaca spermatozoa is feasible, with retained motility and acrosome integrity post-thaw. Freezing as pellets in a lactose-based diluent is recommended. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, acrosome, artificial insemination, citric acid, milk sugar, sperm motility, cryopreservation, epididymis, freezing, frozen semen, lactose, sperm motility, semen diluents, semen preservation, spermatozoa, techniques.

Navarre , C.B. Fluid therapy in small ruminants. In R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 20-22 September, 2007. 2007; 176-178. Note: In English with a French summary.
Abstract: Methods for fluid therapy in adult and neonatal sheep, goats and camelids are presented, as well as catheters and key formulas. Fluid therapy regimes for common clinical situations, such as diarrhea and sepsis, are provided. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, goat kids, llamas, sheep, lambs, catheters, dehydration physiological, diarrhea, scouring, dehydration, rehydration, fluid therapy, methodology, sepsis.

Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.L. Detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in llama (Lama glama). Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry. 2007; 28(1): 61-66. ISSN: 1532-1819.
Descriptors: 7llamas, killed vaccine of Brucella abortus S1119.3, 299 other llamas and 2075 apaca sera tested, buffered antigen plate agglutination test, complement fixation test, indirect enzyme immunoassays using smooth and rough lipopolysaccharides, competitive enzyme immunoassay, fluorescence polarization assays, results compared, specificity values, false positives.

Nes, E. van; Pieterse, M.C. Voortplanting bij lama en alpaca. [Reproduction in the llama and alpaca.]Veehouder en Dierenarts. 2007; 21(2): 20-22. ISSN: 1381-8007. Note: In Dutch.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, reproduction, anatomy, pregnancy, gestation, semen, reproductive organs, birth.

Newman, Kenneth D.; Anderson, David E. Humerus fractures in llamas and alpacas: Seven Cases(1998-2004).Veterinary Surgery. 2007 Jan; 36(1): 68-73. ISSN:
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118532623/home
Abstract: To describe treatment and outcome of humerus fractures in llamas and alpacas. Retrospective study. Llamas (n=4) and alpacas (3) with humerus fracture. Medical records (January 1, 1998-August 1, 2004) were reviewed for small camelids with a humeral fracture. Retrieved data were signalment, history, physical examination and radiographic findings, surgical and medical treatment, and outcome. Humeral fracture occurred in 7 of 38 (18%) camelids admitted with fractures. Affected animals were aged from 1 month to 3 years old. Fracture configuration included long-oblique (n=4), short-oblique (2), and Salter-Harris Type II fracture of the proximal physis (1). One adult llama was managed by stall confinement and surgical repair was attempted in the other camelids: fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion (n=3), intramedullary pinning and fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion (1), rush pinning (1), and bone plating (1). A Velpeau sling was used for additional support in 3 animals. All fractures healed but temporary radial nerve paresis occurred in 3 animals. Limb shortening and permanent lameness occurred in the llama managed conservatively. Humerus fractures in small camelids are amenable to surgical repair which may offer better long-term outcome than medical treatment alone. Surgical treatment of humerus fractures should have a good prognosis in llamas and alpacas. In select cases, minimally invasive techniques, such as rush pinning or fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion are sufficient for fracture healing.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, bone fractures, humerus, fracture fixation, screws, nails (equipment), disease course, postoperative complications, lameness, paralysis, case studies, recommendations.

Niehaus, A.J.; Anderson,.D.E. Tooth root abscesses in llamas and alpacas: 123 cases (1994-2005). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 July 15; 231(2): 284-289. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.231.2.284
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Objective - To determine features, outcome, and complications of surgical treatment of camelid tooth root abscesses. Design - Retrospective case series. Animals - 123 camelids with tooth root abscesses. Procedures - Signalment, history, teeth involved, surgery performed, ancillary diagnostic tests, and short-term complications were recorded from each medical record. An owner questionnaire was used to obtain long-term (>1 year) follow-up information. Results - The most common surgical treatments included tooth extraction (n=106) and apicoectomy (13). Owners provided follow-up information on 84 animals. Postoperative complications were reported in 42 of 84 animals. The most common complications included reinfection (n=15), chronic draining tract (14), and osteomyelitis (14). Significantly more camelids that were in good or obese body condition at the time of surgery were alive at the time of follow-up, compared with those with thin body condition at the time of surgery. Camelids with 2 teeth extracted had significantly more complications than those with 1 tooth extracted. Thirty-four of 47 owners reported that they were completely satisfied with the outcome. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Owners of camelids in poor body condition should be forewarned that such animals are at greater risk for complications following dental surgery. Clinicians should recognize that the number of teeth affected was not associated with a poorer outcome. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, teeth, dental caries, dental abscess, surgery, postoperative complications, disease diagnosis, risk factors, body condition, tooth extraction, apicoectomy, prognosis.

Nolen-Walston, R.; Bedenice, D.; Rodriguez, C.; Rushton, S.; Bright, A.; Fecteau, M.E.; Short, D.; Majdalany, R.; Tewari, D.; Pedersen, D.; Kiupel, M.; Maes, R.; Piero, F.del Eastern equine encephalitis in 9 South American camelids. Journal of Veterinary Internal-Medicine. 2007; 21(4): 846-852. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1892/0891-6640(2007)21[846:EEEISA]2.0.CO;2
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Abstract: Background: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a mosquito-borne togavirus (alphavirus) that causes severe (often fatal) encephalitis in many mammalian species, but it has not been reported previously in South American camelids. Hypothesis: South American camelids can become naturally infected with EEE virus and show encephalitic signs similar to those observed in other affected species. Animals: Nine cases (8 alpacas and 1 llama, aged 3.5 weeks to 12 years) were identified; 4 of 9 were <=10 weeks old. All cases were from the East Coast of the United States and presented in late summer and fall. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to include confirmed cases of EEE in camelids in North America before 2006. Results: Eight of nine (89%) camelids died or were euthanized in extremis, with the mean time to death of 2 days. Clinical signs were consistent with encephalitis and included fever, lethargy, ataxia, seizures, recumbency, torticollis, opisthotonus, and vestibular signs. No consistent hematologic abnormalities were identified, and cerebrospinal fluid contained an increased protein concentration in the single camelid analyzed. No successful therapy was identified. EEE was confirmed by alphavirus detection by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the central nervous system (CNS) and by serology. Findings included polioencephalitis with lymphocytic perivascular cuffing; neutrophil infiltration; gliosis; neuron satellitosis; necrosis; and edema, with intracytoplasmic alphavirus within neurons and glial cells. No virus was detected in extraneural tissues. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: In endemic areas, EEE should be considered a differential diagnosis for young and adult camelids with CNS disease. Brain histopathology with indirect IHC or PCR is diagnostic. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas,animal pathology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, encephalitis, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, postmortem examinations, autopsy, clinical picture, encephalomyelitis, PCR, postmortem inspections, viral diseases, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, US.

Parillo, F.; Mancuso, R.; Catone, G. Glycohistochemistry of the alpaca epididymis. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2007; 42(Suppl. 2): 77. ISSN: 0936-6768. Note: 11th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction, Celle, Germany; September 21 -22, 2007
Descriptors: alpaca; immature male reproduction; lectin staining; sperm; epididymis; sialoglycoconjugates; glycoconjugates; secretion; horseradish conjugates: Con A, LTA, UEA I, DBA, ECA, PNA, SBA, GSA IB4, GSA II, WGA; sialidase degradation; lectin binding.

Parillo, F.; Mari, S.; Tortora, G.; Catone, G. Glycoconjugate features of the alpaca Ductuli efferentes. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2007; 42(Suppl. 2): 77. ISSN: 0936-6768. Note: “11th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction, Celle, Germany; September 21-22, 2007.”
Descriptors: alpacas; testis; reproduction system; ductuli efferentes; endocytosis; sialic acid; alpha D mannose; glycoconjugate; L fucose; alpha D glucose; alpha D galactose; sialoglycoconjugate; horseradish peroxidase; lectin conjugants: LTA, UEA I, DBA, ECA, PNA, SBA, GSA IB4, GSA II, WGA, Con A; sialidase; enzymatic digestion; glucidic residue; oligosaccharidic sequence; South America.

Parry, A.J.; Dart, A.J. Surgical correction of metacarpophalangeal valgus deformity in an alpaca. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2007 Sept; 85(9): 368-370. ISSN: 0005-0423
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2007.00169.x
NAL call no.: 41.8 AU72
Abstract: A 1-month-old alpaca cria presented with a 13 degree valgus deformity of the left metacarpophalangeal joint. The angular limb deformity was centered on the distal metacarpal physes. Transphyseal bridging of the physes was recommended. Two 2.7 mm cortical bone screws were placed either side of the distal metacarpal physes and a figure of eight wire was placed medially around the screw heads. The screws extended through the medial metacarpus into the axial cortex of the lateral metacarpus. Seven weeks after surgery the limb was straight and the screws and wire were removed. Transphyseal bridging of the distal metacarpal physes can be effectively used for the treatment of metacarpophalangeal valgus in crias with open physes.
Descriptors: alpacas, young animals, case studies metacarpus, phalanges, joints, congenital abnormalities, surgery, screws, metacarpophalangeal joint, metacarpophalangeal valgus.

Plant, Jon D.; Kutzler, Michelle A.; Cebra, Christopher K. Efficacy of topical eprinomectin in the treatment of Chorioptes sp. infestation in alpacas and llamas. Veterinary Dermatology. 2007 Feb; 18(1): 59-62. ISSN: 0959-4493
NAL call no.: SF901.V47
Abstract: Chorioptes sp. mite infestation is increasingly recognized as a cause of skin disease in New World camelids and there is a need for an effective treatment protocol to eliminate herd infestation. In this field trial, eprinomectin applied topically at the rate of 0.5 mg kgp# weekly for 10 weeks was found to be ineffective in a herd of 12 llamas and 16 alpacas.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, alternative livestock herds, animal parasitic diseases, mange, mites, Chorioptes, chorioptic mange, eprinomectin, topical application, drug evaluation, in vivo studies, dosage, dose response, acaricidal properties, drug resistance.

Polidori, P.; Antonini, M.; Torres, D.; Beghelli, D.; Renieri, C. Tenderness evaluation and mineral levels of llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) meat.Meat Science. 2007. Dec; 77(4): 599-601. ISSN: 0309-1740
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03091740
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.05.011
NAL call no.: TX373.M4
Abstract: Tenderness and mineral levels were determined in the Longissimus thoracis taken from 20 llama and 30 alpaca males reared in Peru and slaughtered at 25 months of age. Mineral contents were determined using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. Tenderness evaluation was determined two and seven days post slaughter using a Warner-Bratzler shear force device. Potassium is the mineral with the highest content, with a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the two species of camelids. The other mineral contents were, in decreasing order, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium and calcium, in addition to smaller percentages of zinc and iron. Shear force values determined seven days post slaughter were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in both the species compared with the results obtained two days post slaughter.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, meat quality, slaughter animals, mineral content, tenderness, Peru.

Rainwater-Lovett, K.; Pauszek, S.J.; Kelley, W.N.; Rodriguez, L.L. Molecular epidemiology of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus from the 2004-2005 US outbreak indicates a common origin with Mexican strains. Journal of General Virology. 2007; 88(7): 2042-2051. ISSN: 0022-1317
URL: http://vir.sgmjournals.org
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.82644-0
Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis (VS) outbreaks of unknown origin occur at 8-10-year intervals in the south-western USA with the most recent outbreak beginning in 2004. A previous study has suggested that strains causing US outbreaks are closely related to strains causing outbreaks in Mexico [Rodriguez (2002) Virus Res 85, 211-219]. This study determined the phylogenetic relationships among 116 vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) strains obtained from the 2004 outbreak and from endemic areas in Mexico. All 69 US viruses showed little sequence divergence (<=1.3%), regardless of their location or time of collection, and clustered with 11 Mexican viruses into a genetic lineage not previously present in the USA. Furthermore, viruses with identical phosphoprotein hypervariable region sequences to those causing the US outbreaks in 1995-1997 and 2004-2005 were found circulating in Mexico between 2002 and 2004. Molecular adaptation analysis provided evidence for positive selection in the phosphoprotein and glycoprotein genes during a south-to-north migration among 69 US viruses collected between the spring and autumn of 2004 and 2005. Phylogenetic data, temporal-spatial distribution and the finding of viral strains identical to those causing major outbreaks in the USA circulating in Mexico demonstrated that VS outbreaks in the south-western USA are the result of the introduction of viral strains from endemic areas in Mexico.
Descriptors: alpacas, asses, cattle, horses, donkeys, vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus, viral disease outbreaks, genes, glycoproteins, molecular epidemiology, nucleotide sequences, phosphoprotein, phylogeny, US Pacific Island Trust Territory, American Oceania, Mexico.

Ramsay, E.C.; Sykes, J.M.; Schumacher, J.; James, E.; Chapman, A.; Patton, S. In: G. Wibbelt; N. Bergholz ; S. Seet; and H. Hofer. Management of cryptosporidiosis in a hoofstock contact area.Proceedings of the Institute or Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin. 2007; (7): 37-41. ISSN: 1431-7338. Note: “Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 43. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Edinburgh, UK, 19-20 May, 2007. “
URL: http://www.izw-berlin.de
Abstract: A 7-month-old Dexter heifer with projectile watery dysentery, cough and nasal discharge is reported. The animal was bought by the Knoxville Zoo, Tennessee, USA for exhibition in the Kid's Zoo contact yard. The animal arrived on 29 October 2004, but due to the lack of available quarantine space, the animal was placed in an enclosure on public display which were adjacent to the alpaca and goat stalls. It was observed that the animal had an unformed faeces a day after its arrival in the zoo. Faecal cultures were negative for Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium pseudotuberculosis. Faecalysis revealed the presence of Strongyloides sp. eggs, trichostongyle eggs, Eimeria sp. oocysts, and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The faeces was negative for Giardia sp. antigen, but positive for Cryptosporidium sp. antigen when tested. The animal was treated with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole at 1920 mg p.o. twice a day and was given an electrolyte. The animal's diarrhoea resolved but the cough continued, and was given with an immunoglobulin supplement. The trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was discontinued and florphenicol was administered to the animal. On 4 December 2004, the animal was clinically normal was shipped from the zoo on 24 December 2005. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstacts.
Descriptors: Dexter cattle, heifers, alpacas, goats, captive zoo animals, case reports, clinical aspects, protozoal diseases, cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Strongyloides, Trichostrongylidae, electrolytes infusion, florfenicol, protozoal infections, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, Rhabditida, Secernentea, sulphamethoxazole, Tennessee, US.

Ratto, M.; Gomez, C.; Berland, M.; Adams, G.P. Effect of ovarian superstimulation on COC collection and maturation in alpacas. Animal Reproduction Science. 2007 Feb; 97(3-4): 246-256. ISSN: 0378-4320
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784320
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2006.02.002
NAL call no.: QP251.A5
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to compare the ovarian follicular response, cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) collection rate, and maturational status of COC collected from alpacas subsequent to treatment with two different superstimulatory protocols. Alpacas (n=7 per group) were treated with: (1) 200 mg of FSH im divided bid for 3 d, plus a single i.v. dose of 1000 IU hCG 24 h after the last FSH treatment, or (2) 1200 IU of eCG as a single i.m. dose, plus a single i.v. dose of 1000 IU of hCG on day 3 after eCG treatment (day 0=start of superstimulatory treatment). At 20-24 h post-hCG treatment, the ovaries were surgically exposed and COC were collected by needle aspiration of all follicles >=6 mm. The FSH and eCG treatment groups did not differ with respect to the number of follicles >=6 mm at the time of COC collection (20.0+or-7.5 versus 27.0+or-3.3; P=0.5), the number of COC collected (26.2+or-8.4 versus 23.3+or-3.7; P=0.7), or the collection rate per follicle aspirated (89% versus 87%; P=0.7). No differences were detected between FSH- and eCG-treated alpacas in the number of expanded COC collected per alpaca (11.5+or-2.9 versus 8.8+or-2.8; P=0.54), the number of expanded COC in metaphase II (8.5+or-1.9 versus 6.0+or-2.1; P=0.1), or the number of compact COC with >=3 layers of cumulus cells (12.5+or-4.3 versus 14.3+or-2.6; P=0.72). A greater proportion (P<0.05) of compact COC collected after FSH treatment matured in vitro to the metaphase II stage than after eCG treatment. Eight expanded alpaca COC were fertilized in vitro with llama sperm, three of which were fixed and stained 18 h after exposure to sperm and five were cultured in vitro. Two of the three stained oocytes were in the pronuclear stage, and all five of the cultured oocytes developed to the two-cell and morula stages at 2 and 7 days, respectively, after in vitro fertilization. In summary, FSH and eCG treatments were equally effective for ovarian superstimulation and oocyte collection. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from more than 80% of follicles aspirated during laparotomy. Nearly one third of the COC collected after superstimulation were in metaphase II, and more than 70% of the remaining COC progressed to metaphase II after in vitro maturation for 26 h, bringing the mean number of oocytes available for in vitro fertilization to 16 per alpaca. Preliminary results support the hypothesis that alpaca oocytes obtained after superstimulation in the absence of progesterone are developmentally competent since morulae developed from all five COC fertilized and cultured in vitro.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, ovarian development, ovaries, superovulation, cumulus oophorus, ovarian follicles, oocytes, follicle stimulating hormone, equine chorionic gonadotropin, in vitro culture, in vitro fertilization, spermatocytes, embryogenesis, morula, metaphase, in vitro maturation.

Richter, M.; Grest, P.; Spiess, B. Bilateral lipid keratopathy and atherosclerosis in an alpaca (Lama pacos) due to hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006 Nov-Dec; 20(6): 1503-1507. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: alpacas, cornea, corneal diseases, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, heart, aorta, histopathology, blood lipids, high cholesterol.

Riek, Alexander; Van Der Sluijs, Leendert; Gerken, Martina Measuring the energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging alpacas (Lama pacos) in the Peruvian Andes using the doubly labelled water technique. Journal of Experimental Zoology. 2007; 307A(12): 667-675. ISSN: 1932-5223
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/102521318/home
Descriptors: 16 alpacas, males, free ranging, natural pastures at 4,400 m above sea level, energy expenditure, metabolic rate, water flux rate, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, similar to other wild ruminants in harsh climates, Peruvian Andes, Peru.

Rodriguez, C.T.; Quispe, J.L. Domesticated camelids, the main animal, genetic resource of pastoral systems in the region of Turco, Bolivia. In: K.A. Tempelman; R.A. Cardellino. People and Animals, Traditional Livestock Keepers: Guardians of Domestic Animal Diversity. 2007; 33-45. ISBN: 9789251056844
NAL call no.: SF105.3 P46 2007
Abstract: The Turco region has a harsh, microthermal, semi-arid climate, but people make a living there from llamas and alpacas which have advantages over exotic species and are managed in a transhumant system. These camelids are the main source of food and income for herders. The inhabitants have a holistic world view and see themselves, the land and their animals as an integrated unit. Group selection is being done by herders assisted by the Camelid Research and Improvement Centre. There is little conservation activity by government agencies or NGOs. A programme, compatible with the maintenance of genetic diversity and the producers' interests and economic needs, is needed to focus primarily on in situ conservation, inventorying, characterization and utilization. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, agropastoral systems, livestock farming systems, animal genetic resources, conservation, ecology, ecosystems, food security, genetic diversity, livestock farming, policy, selection, selection criteria, traditional farming, Bolivia.

Ross, Callum F.; Dharia, Ruchi; Herring, Susan W.; Hylander, William L.; Liu, Zi Jun; Rafferty, Katherine L.; Ravosa, Matthew J.; Williams, Susan H. Modulation of mandibular loading and bite force in mammals during mastication. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2007; 210(6): 1046-1063. ISSN: 0022-0949
URL: http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/210/6/1046
Descriptors: goats, pigs, horses, alpacas, mammalian mastication,bite force modulation, rhythmic and cyclic behaviors, bone strain, duration of force production, varying rate of force produced, rosette strain data, chew cycle, species comparison study, Aotus trivigatus, owl-monkey, Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaque, Chlorocebus aethiops, vervet monkey, Macaca fascicularis, long tailed macaque, bivariate correlation, multiple regression methods.

Rubio-Martinez, L.M.; Koenig, J.B.; Halling, K.B.; Wilkins, K.; Schulz, K. Use of a circular external skeletal fixator for stabilization of a comminuted diaphyseal metatarsal fracture in an alpaca.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 Apr 1; 230(7): 1044-1048. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.230.7.1044
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Case Description - A 3-year-old male alpaca was evaluated because of non-weight-bearing lameness (grade 5/5) in the left hind limb. Clinical Findings - Clinical and radiographic examination revealed a closed, comminuted, nonarticular, displaced diaphyseal fracture of the left third and fourth metatarsal bones. Treatment and Outcome - Initial attempts at treatment via reduction of the fracture under traction and subsequent application of a cast were unsuccessful, and more stable fracture fixation was pursued. The alpaca underwent closed reduction of the fracture, which was stabilized by the application of a 3-ring circular external skeletal fixator (CESF). Improved weight bearing on the affected limb was evident soon after surgery and gradually increased; full weight bearing was evident by the seventh day after discharge from the hospital (day 20 after application of the CESF). Lameness was hardly noticeable during walking at that time. After 3 months, complete fracture healing was evident and the CESF was removed; mild outward rotation of the distal fragment and metatarsophalangeal joint was present. A Robert Jones bandage was applied to the limb, and the alpaca was kept in a stall for another 4 weeks. Eleven months after CESF application, the owners and referring veterinarian reported that the alpaca was healthy, not lame, and serving as a stallion without apparent impediment. Clinical Relevance - Although mostly restricted to small animals, application of a CESF can be a viable alternative for management of long bone fractures in South American camelids.
Descriptors: bone fractures, fracture fixation, alpacas, metatarsus, case studies, males, animal-age, lameness, veterinary equipment, diaphyseal metatarsal fracture, circular external skeletal fixator.

Russo, M.; Catone, G.; Cocchia, N.; England, G.C.W. Doppler ultrasonography of the alpaca's testis: Normal values. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2007; 42(Suppl. 2): 66. ISSN: 0936-6768. Note: 11th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction, Celle, Germany; September 21-22, 2007.
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118521993/home
Descriptors: alpacas, male, reproductive structures, doppler ultrasonography, clinical techniues, diagnostic techniques, testicular morphology, testes, normal values.

Saitone, Tina L.; Sexton, Richard.J. Alpaca lies? Speculative bubbles in agriculture: Why they happen and how to recognize them.Review of Agricultural Economics. 2007 Summer; 29(2): 286-305. ISSN: 1058-7195
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9353.2007.00343.x
NAL call no.: HD1773.A3N6
Abstract: The speculative bubble phenomenon has been studied extensively by economists and psychologists in recent years. The recent literature is surveyed and extended to enhance the understanding of speculative bubbles in agricultural industries. The analysis is applied to the U.S. alpaca industry, where prices for breeding stock are many times higher than in Peru, home of the world's largest alpaca herd. We present a framework to assess whether current prices for U.S. alpaca stock are supported by market fundamentals or are likely to represent a speculative bubble. Finally, we identify "warning signs" common to agricultural bubbles.
Descriptors: alpacas, speculative bubble, U.S. alpaca industry, breeding stock prices, current places, market fundamentals, warning signs of such bubbles, US.

Schock, A.; Bidewell, C.A.; Duff, J.P.; Scholes, S.F.; Higgins, R.J. Coccidiosis in British alpacas (Vicugna pacos).Veterinary Record— London. 2007 June 9; 160(23): 805-806. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: alpacas, coccidiosis, Eimeria, case studies, United Kingdom.

Serrano-Martinez, E.; Collantes-Fernandez, E.; Chavez-Velasquez, A.; Rodriguez-Bertos, A; Casas-Astos, E.; Risco-Castillo, V.; Rosadio-Alcantara, R.; Ortega-Mora, L.M. Evaluation of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) aborted foetuses from Peru.Veterinary parasitology. 2007 Nov 30; 150(1-2): 39-45. ISSN: 0304-4017
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.08.048
NAL call no.: SF810.V4
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in abortion cases of Peruvian llamas and alpacas. Fifteen aborted foetuses were recovered from two main rearing areas of camelids in Peru (Central or South Andean region). Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in target organs. N. caninum and T. gondii infections were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) combined with PCR and by PCR alone, respectively. The influence of the species (llama and alpaca), foetal age (first, second and third gestational periods) and geographical location (Central or South Andean region) of the foetuses was also studied. Thirteen of the samples (26%, 13/50) showed lesions suggestive of protozoal infection. N. caninum infection was detected by either IHC or specific PCR in 14 out of 50 foetuses (28%), of which 8 also showed protozoal-associated lesions. T. gondii DNA was not detected in any of the foetuses analysed. Protozoal infection was more frequent in the foetuses from the second gestational period (P<0.05, Fisher F-test). No significant association was observed between protozoal infection and species or geographical location (P>0.05, chi 2 test). The results of the present study indicate that neosporosis should be included during the differential diagnosis of abortion in llamas and alpacas.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, vicuna, Vicugna, Lama, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, animal abortion, fetus, disease prevalence, disease detection, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, gestational age, Peru, Andes region.

Shoemaker, R.W.; Wilson, D.G. Surgical repair of femoral fractures in New World camelids: five cases (1996-2003). Australian Veterinary Journal. 2007 Apr; 85(4): 148-152. ISSN: 0005-0423
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2006.00099.x
NAL call no.: 41.8 AU72
Abstract: Five New World camelids were admitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine between 1996 and 2003 for evaluation of femoral fractures. There were three alpacas and two llamas. Four of the animals were female and three were less than 3 months of age. Fracture configurations consisted of distal physeal fractures (three), a comminuted diaphyseal/metaphyseal fracture, and a transverse diaphyseal fracture. Fractures were diagnosed with a combination of physical examination and radiographs in all cases. All five fractures were repaired with internal fixation and three animals were discharged from the hospital with fractures that healed. One cria underwent successful internal fixation but died from pulmonary oedema during recovery from anaesthesia. Postoperative complications were rare and limited to inadequate fracture stability in one alpaca and prolonged recovery to weight bearing in another. One llama with a comminuted metaphyseal fracture, repaired with a 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate, subsequently had catastrophic failure of the bone 17 days after surgery. Overall the clients were pleased with the outcome of discharged animals. Although femoral fractures are considered rare, they pose a unique opportunity for the large animal veterinarian to successfully achieve fracture union with the aid of internal fixation. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, females, males, age differences, case studies, bone fractures, surgical repairs, fracture fixation, femur.

Snyder, J.H. Small ruminant tips for small animal practitioners. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 21, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2007. 2007; 664-667
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, deer, goats, sheep, adverse effects, anesthesia, anesthetics, analgesics, anthelmintics, disease prevention, drug therapy, drug toxicity, adverse drug reactions, euthanasia, foot rot, grooming, lidocaine, non steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS), opioids, pain control, parasitoses, quarantine, rumen, surgery, vaccination, Clostridium perfringens, Dichelobacter nodosus, parasitic infections.

Spire, Mark F. Update on the USDA National Animal Identification System (NAIS) program. Bovine Practitioner. 2007; 41(1): 66-69. ISSN: 0524-1685
NAL Call no. SF779.5.A1B5
Abstract: The National Animal Identification System proposed and under development by the USDA-APHIS is a comprehensive program designed to provide rapid response following the introduction of a foreign animal disease (accidental or intentional), the discovery, of an emerging pathogen or within the framework of existing regulatory programs for currently known domestic animal diseases. It is being planned as a three-part voluntary program: premises registration, individual or group/lot animal identification and animal movement tracking. The premises and animal identification components of the program fit well with other USDA programs, particularly the Agricultural Marketing Service source and age verification program, for use by producers for value discovery in animals entering marketing channels.
Descriptors: sheep, cattle, goats, llamas alpacas, cervids, equines, tuberculosis, brucellosis, USDA, National Animal Identification System program, identification program, tracking to deal with introduced diseases. US.

Starkey, S.R.; Johnson, A.L.; Ziegler, P.E.; Mohammed, H.O. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among alpaca crias and their human caregivers.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 Nov 15; 231(10): 1562-1567. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.231.10.1562
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Case Description - 6 alpaca crias from a single farm were examined because of diarrhea (n=4) or decreased fecal production (n=2). Clinical Findings - Cryptosporidium parvum was identified by means of fecal flotation in samples from 5 of the 6 crias, and a diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis was made. In the remaining cria, a presumptive diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis was made. Three people involved in caring for the crias from this farm were subsequently confirmed to have cryptosporidiosis, and 3 other people were suspected to have cryptosporidiosis. Sequence analysis of the ssu rDNA gene loci confirmed C. parvum as the causative agent in 4 of the 6 crias. Subsequent evaluation of the farm revealed 2 additional crias confirmed to have cryptosporidiosis. Stocking densities on the farm were high, with approximately 20 adults/acre in some pastures. Treatment and Outcome - All 6 hospitalized crias were given supportive treatment consisting of antimicrobials, gastroprotectants, and fluids. All but 1 survived. Farm owners were advised to decrease stocking density on the farm. Clinical Relevance - Findings suggested that zoonotic transmission of C. parvum from alpacas to humans can occur.
Descriptors: alpacas, zoonoses, young animals, crias, disease outbreaks, cryptosporidiosis, case studies, diarrhea, Cryptosporidium parvum, feces, disease diagnosis, humans, nucleotide sequences, loci, drug therapy, antiprotozoal agents, molecular sequence data.

Storz, Jay F. Hemoglobin function and physiological adaptation to hypoxia in high-altitude mammals. Journal of Mammalogy. 2007; 88(1): 24-31. ISSN: 0022-2372. Note: A review.
URL: http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-archive&issn=1545-1542&ct=1
Descriptors: sheep, Bactrian camels, dromedaries, alpacas, guanacos, vicunas, deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, Peromyscus maniculatus nebracensis, Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus, humans, hemoglobin, hemoglobin function, species variation in hemoglobins, chronic hypoxia, physiological adaptation, physiological performance, high altitude adaptations, hemoglobin polymorphism in North American deer mice, evolutionary changes.

Talbot, C.E.; Mueller, K.; Granger, N.; Jeffery, N.D. Diagnosis and surgical removal of brain abscesses in a juvenile alpaca. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 Nov 15; 231(10): 1558-1561. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Case Description - A 1-month-old female alpaca was examined because of progressive clinical signs consistent with an intracranial lesion. Clinical Findings - Clinical signs included signs of depression, lethargy, tetraparesis, and neck weakness. Two large isointense intracranial masses could be seen on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. On T2-weighted images, the masses contained concentric rings of hypointense and hyperintense material. Treatment and Outcome - 2 abscesses were removed via a craniotomy that incorporated removal of the sagittal crest and surrounding skull and transection of the sagittal sinus. The bony deficit was replaced with polypropylene mesh. The alpaca recovered within 2 weeks and was fully integrated into the herd within 1 month after surgery. Clinical Relevance - Findings indicated that surgical removal is a feasible means of successfully treating intracranial abscesses in juvenile alpacas.
Descriptors: juvenile alpaca, brain abscess, surgical excision, disease diagnosis, case study clinical signs and symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging, medical treatment, craniotomy, intracranial abscess.

Tibary, A.; Semrad, Susan, University of Wisconsin,Madison. School of Veterinary Medicine. Reproduction and Diseases of the Alpaca and Llama. Published by the Veterinary School. Madison, WI. 2007. Note: Cover title. "March 2007".Contents: Overview of physiology and infertility in the male and female camelid / by Ahmed Tibary -- Diagnostic imaging in camelid theriogenology / by Ahmed Tibary -- Reproductive surgery in the male and female / by Ahmed Tibary -- Pregnancy complications and obstetrical management / by Ahmed Tibary -- Postpartum care of the dam and neonate / by Ahmed Tibary -- Update on selected medical conditions / by Susan Semrad -- Supplemental notes.
NAL call no.: SF745.5 .M64 2006
Descriptors: see contents in the note above.

Valdivia, Martha; Alvarez, Cristian; Rodriguez, Claudia; Canorio, Nadia; Reyes, Fanny; del Pilar Suyo, Maria; Perez, Susan; Guzman, Luis; Conislla, Javier. Molecular recognition of fresh and frozen alpaca's spermatozoas with zona pellucida. Biology of Reproduction. 2007; (Sp. Iss. SI): 238. ISSN: 0006-3363. Note: 40th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, San Antonio, TX, USA; July 21 -25, 2007.
URL: http://www.biolreprod.org/
Descriptors: alpacas, sperm evaluation, with mouse embryos, determining between fresh and frozen spermatozoas.

Valentine, B.A.; Martin, J.M. Prevalence of neoplasia in llamas and alpacas (Oregon State University, 2001-2006). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007 Mar; 19(2): 202-204. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Prevalence and type of neoplastic disease were determined in 551 camelid submissions (368 alpacas [Lama pacos], 180 llamas [Lama glama], and 3 cases in which species was not identified) over a 5-year period. Forty neoplasms were identified in 38 animals (6.9%). Prevalence of neoplasia in llamas was higher (11%) than in alpacas (4.9%). Mean age of camelids with neoplasia was 9.42+or-4.9 years. Mean age of alpacas with neoplasia (5.48+or-3.7 years) was significantly less than of llamas with neoplasia (12.53+or-3.2 years; P<0.001). Cutaneous and mucocutaneous fibroma/fibropapilloma was most common (10 animals), followed by cutaneous and mucocutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (6 animals), disseminated lymphoma (5 animals), and fibrosarcoma (4 animals). Four of 5 animals with lymphoma were alpacas, aged 0.21 to 4 years. Lymphoma occurred in 1 aged llama (15 years). Disseminated carcinoma and adenocarcinoma occurred in 4 llamas and 2 alpacas, and included biliary (2), gastrointestinal (2), mammary gland (1), and unknown (1) origin. Mean age of camelids with any type of carcinoma or adenocarcinoma (12.36+or-2.8 years) was significantly greater than that of camelids with lymphoma (4.24+or-6.2 years; P=0.02). Results indicate that neoplasia is relatively common in camelids and that there are differences between llamas and alpacas as regards prevalence of neoplasia, tumor types, and age at diagnosis. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, neoplasms, disease prevalence, animal age, species differences, fibroma, squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma, fibrosarcoma, Oregon, US.

Vandeweerd, J.M.; Clegg, P.; Wawra, E.; Dugdale, A. Treatment of recurrent luxation of the shoulder in an alpaca. Veterinary Record-- London. 2007 Mar 3; 160(9): 304-306. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: alpacas, shoulders, dislocations injuries, surgery, case study.

Waldron, I.; Alpacas, L. Alpacas and general husbandry.GVJ Government Veterinary Journal. 2007; 17(1): 32-34. ISSN: 0269-5545
URL: http://www.defra.gov.uk
/gvs/publications/gvj/pdf/gvj-vol1701.pdf (PDF | 731KB)

Descriptors: alpacas, animal husbandry, breeding programs, animal fibers, profitability, fiber producing animals, wool production, Britain, UK.

Williams, Susan H.; Vinyard, Christopher J.; Wall, Christine E.; Hylander, William L. Masticatory motor patterns in ungulates: A quantitative assessment of jaw-muscle coordination in goats, alpacas and horses. Journal of Experimental Zoology. 2007; 307A(4): 226-240. ISSN: 1932-5223
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/102521318/home
Descriptors: alpacas, goats, horses, jaw muscle coordination, rhythmic mastication, electromyograms, superficial masseter, deep masseter, posterior temporalis, medial pterygoid muscles, timing differences, evolutionary model of jaw muscle function, species comparison, muscles used in different functions, chewing, masticatory patterns, inter-specific differences, transverse jaw movements.

Wolff, P.L. The geriatric small ruminant - dental care, body condition scoring, and nutrition. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 21, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2007. 2007; 290-292.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: alpacas, deer, goats, llamas, sheep, physical exam, animal nutrition, arthritis, body condition, body weight, dental health, feeding, geriatrics, lameness, lifespan, teeth, teeth diseases, periodontal diseases.

Wang, Hai Dong; Xue, Lin Li; Dong, Chang Sheng. Anatomy and histology of auxiliary sex glands in alpacas. Veterinary Science in China. 2007; 37(11): 987-989. ISSN: 1673-4696. Note: In Chinese with an English summary.
URL: http://www.zgsykx.com/
Abstract: A report on a study conducted to study the anatomy and physiology of the male alpacas was discussed. Emphasis of the report focused on the auxiliary sex glands of the male alpacas. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas,access, accessory glands, animal anatomy, bulbo urethral gland, morphology, physiological functions, prostate, body components.

Zielinska, P.; Jurka, P. Charakterystyka rozrodu lam i alpak. [Characteristics of llamas and alpacas reproduction.]Zycie Weterynaryjne. 2007; 82(3): 202-207. ISSN: 0137-6810. Note: In Polish with and English summary.
URL: http://www.vetpol.org.pl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=
59&Itemid=61

Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, reproductive physiology, production performance, reproductive disorders, common conditions.

 

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