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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on the South American Camelids  / Alpacas 2008  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Alpacas 2008

Agapito, J.; Rodrcguez, J.; Herrera Velit, P.; Timoteo, O.; Rojas, P.; Boettcher, P.J.; Garcca, F.; Espinoza, J.R. Parentage testing in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) using semi-automated fluorescent multiplex PCRs with 10 microsatellite markers. Animal Genetics. 2008 Apr; 39(2): 201-203. ISSN: 0268-9146
NAL call no.: QP98.A1A5
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess and apply a microsatellite multiplex system for parentage determination in alpacas. An approach for parentage testing based on 10 microsatellites was evaluated in a population of 329 unrelated alpacas from different geographical zones in Perc. All microsatellite markers, which amplified in two multiplex reactions, were highly polymorphic with a mean of 14.5 alleles per locus (six to 28 alleles per locus) and an average expected heterozygosity (HE) of 0.8185 (range of 0.698-0.946). The total parentage exclusion probability was 0.999456 for excluding a candidate parent from parentage of an arbitrary offspring, given only the genotype of the offspring, and 0.999991 for excluding a candidate parent from parentage of an arbitrary offspring, given the genotype of the offspring and the other parent. In a case test of parentage assignment, the microsatellite panel assigned 38 (from 45 cases) offspring parentage to 10 sires with LOD scores ranging from 2.19 x 10p#pd to 1.34 x 10p#e and values ranging from 2.80 x 10p#po to 1.34 x 10p#e with an estimated pedigree error rate of 15.5%. The performance of this multiplex panel of markers suggests that it will be useful in parentage testing of alpacas.
Descriptors: alpacas, microsatellite repeats, determination of parentage, genotyping, microsatellite multiplex system.

Cebra, C.K.; Tornquist, S.J.; Reed, S.K. Collection and analysis of peritoneal fluid from healthy llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2008 May 1; 232(9): 1357-1361. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Objective - To compare relative sensitivity and overall yields of various methods of fecal examination for gastrointestinal parasites in llamas and alpacas. Design - Prospective study. Sample Population - Fecal samples from 42 alpacas and 62 llamas. Procedures - Fecal samples were analyzed via direct smear, a modified McMaster technique with sucrose solution or saturated saline (approx 36% NaCl) solution, and a centrifugation-flotation procedure. McMaster flotation chambers were examined 15 and 60 minutes after loading. Centrifugation-flotation samples were examined after 10 and 60 minutes of flotation. The proportions of samples with positive results and concentrations of parasites were compared among methods. Results - The centrifugation-flotation technique yielded more positive results than other methods for all parasites except small coccidia. Longer flotation time increased the proportion of positive results and parasite concentrations for all parasites except Nematodirus spp. Longer time in the McMaster chamber made little difference. By use of the modified McMaster technique, sucrose solution yielded more positive results for Trichuris spp., Eimeria macusaniensis, and strongyles, whereas saline solution yielded more positive results for Nematodirus spp. and small coccidia. The saline solution McMaster test yielded more positive results for small coccidia than did most other methods, and the sucrose McMaster technique yielded more positive results for Trichuris spp. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - The centrifugation-flotation technique appeared to offer clear advantages in detecting infection with E. macusaniensis, Trichuris spp., Nematodirus spp., and capillarids. The saline McMaster technique appeared to offer an advantage in detecting small coccidia.
Descriptors: healthy llamas (17), alpacas (5), abdominocentesis, peritoneal fluid biochemical and cytologic findings, collected safely, compared with blood, peritoneal fluid had a low cell count, low protein concentration, some individual differences, electrolyte concentrations resembled blood, high values of some animals may complicate interpretation of peritoneal fluid values.

Cebra, C.K.; Stang, B.V. Comparison of methods to detect gastrointestinal parasites in llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2008 Mar 1; 232(5): 733-741. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call no. : 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: 62 llamas; 42 alpacas; gastrointestinal parasites; detection methods; comparison study; direct smear; McMaster technique with sucrose solution or saturated saline; centrifugation-flotation procedure; centrifugation-flotation detected E macusaniensis, Trichuris spp, Nematodirus spp, and capillarids; saline McMaster technique detected small coccidian, strongyles.

Conesa, C.; Sanchez, L.; Rota, C.; Perez, M.D.; Calvo, M.; Farnaud, S.; Evans, R.W. Isolation of lactoferrin from milk of different species: calorimetric and antimicrobial studies. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2008; 150(1): 131-139. ISSN: 1096-4959
Abstract: Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein found in different biological fluids of mammals and in neutrophils. It has been proposed to be involved in many functions, including protection from pathogens. In this work, purification of lactoferrin using an ion-exchange chromatography (SP-Sepharose) was attempted for the milk of the following animals: sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), camel (Camelus bactrianus), alpaca (Lama pacos), elephant (Elephas maximus) and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), as well as human (Homo sapiens). Lactoferrin was identified in all the milks apart from that from grey seal. The thermal stability of the purified lactoferrins, in their native and iron-saturated forms, was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Maximum temperature, onset temperature and enthalpy change of denaturation were higher when lactoferrins were saturated with iron than in their native form, indicating an increase in the stability of the protein structure upon iron-binding. Human lactoferrin was found to be the most heat-resistant and the other lactoferrins presented different degrees of thermoresistance, that of elephant being the least resistant. The antimicrobial activity of the different isolated lactoferrins was investigated against Escherichia coli 0157:H7. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by measuring the absorbance at 620 nm. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were also measured and it was found that camel lactoferrin was the most active lactoferrin against E. coli 0157:H7, whereas alpaca and human lactoferrins were the least active. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: goats, sheep, alpacas, elephants, Bactrian camels, humans, Halichoerus grypus, antibacterial properties, calorimetry, lactoferrin, milk, protein analysis, bactericidal properties, calorimetric methods.

Cranwell, M.P.; Josephson, M.; Willoughby, K.; Marriott, L. Louping ill in an alpaca.Veterinary Record— London. 2008; 162(1): 28. ISSN: 0042-4900. Note: A correspondence.
NAL Call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A case of Louping ill virus infection in an 8-month-old male alpaca with nervous signs in Dartmoor, UK, in June 2007 is reported. The animal improved after supportive therapy and was clinically normal 2 weeks after presentation. None of the other 20 alpacas were affected and no further illness has been reported in the herd. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpaca, young male, case report, clinical aspects, diagnosis, viral diseases. Louping ill virus, UK.

Firshman, A.M.; Wconschmann, A.; Cebra, C.K.; Bildfell, R.; McClanahan, S.L.; Valentine, B.A.; McKenzie, E.; Waitt, L.; Margiocco, M.; Sisson, D.D. Thrombotic endocarditis in 10 alpacas.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2008 Mar-Apr; 22(2): 456-461. ISSN: 0891-6640
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Abstract: Background: A description of the clinical signs and necropsy findings in 10 alpacas with thrombotic endocarditis. Animals: Clinical cases admitted to 2 veterinary referral hospitals between May 1998 and December 2006. Methods: A retrospective study was performed by searching hospital records to identify alpacas diagnosed with endocarditis. Results: Common clinical findings included sternal recumbency, tachycardia, tachypnea, and abdominal distension. Heart sounds were recorded as normal in 7 of 10 alpacas. Pleural and pericardial effusion and ascites were often present. Complete blood cell counts often suggested inflammation, and liver enzyme activity was often increased. When echocardiography was performed, a soft tissue density was imaged within the right ventricle. All alpacas died or were euthanized. Necropsy revealed mural endocarditis with right ventricular or biventricular fibrinous thrombi obliterating the ventricular lumina with no valvular involvement in 6 of 10 affected animals. Bacteria were not consistently identified as a cause for the endocarditic lesions. Eight of the 10 alpacas had evidence of hepatic fluke infestation. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Valvular and mural thrombotic endocarditis should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for hepatomegaly, abdominal distension, and other signs of right-sided congestive heart failure in alpacas. The prognosis of this disease is grave. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, heart conditions, thrombotic endocarditis, symptoms, prognosis.

Foster, A.P.; Otter, A.; Barlow, A.M.; Pearson, G.R.; Woodward, M.J.; Higgins, R.J. Naturally occurring intestinal lesions in three alpacas (Vicugna pacos) caused by attaching and effacing Escherichia coli.Veterinary Record— London. 2008 Mar 8; 162(10): 318-320. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: alpacas, intestinal lesions, bacterial pathogen, Escherichia coli, digestive system diseases, case studies.

Gamarra, G.; Gallegos, A.; Alvarado, E.; Asparrin, M.; Vivanco, W. Techniques for ovum pick-up in gonadotropin-treated alpacas. Reproduction Fertility and Development. 2008; 20(1): 159-160. ISSN: 1031-3613. Note: Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society, Denver, CO, USA; January 05 -09, 2008.
NAL call no: QP251.R47
Descriptors: alpaca females, reproductive hormones, oocytes, ovum, follicular fluid, progesterone intravaginal administration, estradiol, estrogen drugs, intramuscular administration, leutinizing hormone, intramuscular administration, laparotomy, transvaginal follicular aspiration, Peru.

Gerspach, C.; Hull, B.L.; Rings, D.M.; Chew, D.J.; Beamer, G.L.; Hubbell, J.A.E.; Lakritz, J. Hematuria and transitional cell papilloma of the renal pelvis treated via unilateral nephrectomy in an alpaca.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2008 Apr 15; 232(8): 1206-1209. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Case Description - An 11-year-old 72-kg (158-lb) sexually intact female alpaca was examined for diagnosis and treatment of hematuria of 4 months' duration. Clinical Findings - Pigmenturia was detected by the owner when the alpaca was 8 months pregnant. Radiographic, ultrasonographic, vaginal speculum, and cystoscopic evaluation of the urinary tract revealed normal vaginal and urethral epithelia and increased bladder vessel tortuosity, with pulses of hemorrhage from the left ureter. Regenerative anemia and mild leukopenia were detected and serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were within reference ranges. Treatment and Outcome - Chronic hematuria resolved after unilateral nephrectomy of the left kidney, and no dysfunction was detected in the remaining kidney. Histologic evaluation of the kidney revealed a transitional cell tumor in the renal pelvis. Clinical Relevance - Although anemia is common in South American camelids, hematuria is an uncommon sign of this condition. Chronic urinary tract infection, toxin ingestion, and neoplasia causing hematuria or hemoglobinuria should be considered in South American camelids with pigmenturia. Thorough and systematic evaluation of the urinary tract should be performed to locate the site of hemorrhage to treat hematuria appropriately. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: sexually intact pregnant female alpaca, case study, hematuria, diagnosis and treatment, pigmenturia while pregnant, pulses of hemorrhage from left ureter, nephectomy of left kidney, histology of kidney showed transitional cell tumor.

Hill, F.I.; Mirams, C.H. Intracranial teratoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in New Zealand. Veterinary Record— London. 2008 Feb 9; 162(6): 188-189. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A four-year-old breeding female alpaca was presented with a gradual onset of lethargy, anorexia, ill-thrift, blindness and ataxia. Haematological examination revealed a non-regenerative anaemia and neutrophilic leukocytosis. Seven days after initial presentation, the alpaca became recumbent with a right head tilt, opisthotonos and increased respiratory sounds on thoracic auscultation. Because of the poor prognosis, the animal was euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed a multilobular, irregular, firm, black mass on the left ventral dura mater adjacent to the caudal sylvian gyrus of the left temporal lobe. Histopathologically, the tumour was confined to the dura mater, encapsulated by a layer of organized connective tissue and had characteristic features of a teratoma. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of an intracranial teratoma in an alpaca or camelid. The dural location of the teratoma is also atypical, but reflects the potential for these tumours to arise in any tissue. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpaca, case study, brain tumor, teratoma, intracranial tumor, clinical aspects, diagnosis, neoplasms, postmortem examination, New Zealand.

Larenza, M.P.; Zanolari, P.; Jaggin-Schmucker, N. Balanced anesthesia and ventilation strategies for an alpaca (Lama pacos) with an increased anesthetic-risk. SAT--Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde. 2008; 150(2): 77-81. ISSN: 0036-7281. Note: In English with a German summary.
NAL call no.: 41.9 SCH9
Abstract: We report the use of a balanced anesthetic technique in a three-year-old, female Huacaya alpaca with an increased anesthetic risk that underwent an extensive dental surgery. Anesthesia was provided with an infusion of midazolam, fentanyl, S-ketamine and low concentrations of isoflurane in oxygen. The mandibular alveolar nerve was desensitized with a lidocaine-bupivacaine combination. The alpaca showed signs of hypoxemia fifteen minutes after anesthesia induction and arterial blood gases confirmed severe venous admixture. Application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 6-9 cm H< sub>2</ sub>O improved the arterial oxygenation. Other cardiopulmonary variables remained within the normal range. At the end of surgery, sarmazenil was administered to antagonize the effects of midazolam and emergence from anesthesia was smooth and uneventful. Flunixine meglumine and a transdermal delivery system for fentanyl were administered for post-operative analgesia. This method of balanced anesthesia allowed for an adequate anesthetic plane and a safe recovery, however, special ventilation strategies (PEEP) had to be applied.
Descriptors: Huacaya alpaca, tooth diseases, dental surgery, balanced anesthesia, fentanyl, isoflurane, ketamine, arterial blood gases, special ventilation strategies, analgesia, case reports, clinical aspects, risks.

Ledbetter, Eric C.; Scarlett, Janet M. Isolation of obligate anaerobic bacteria from ulcerative keratitis in domestic animals.Veterinary Ohthalmology. 2008 Mar; 11(2): 114-122. ISSN: 1463-5216
NAL call no.: SF891.V47
Abstract: To determine the frequency of obligate anaerobic bacterial isolation from corneal samples of domestic animals with ulcerative keratitis and to characterize the historical, clinical, cytological, and microbiological features of culture-positive cases. Three hundred and thirty domestic animals with ulcerative keratitis. Anaerobic bacteriologic culture and Gram stain were performed on corneal samples from consecutive animals examined with suspect septic ulcerative keratitis. Additional corneal diagnostics included: aerobic bacteriologic culture for all species; fungal culture for ungulates; Mycoplasma culture and virus isolation or feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for cats. Historical, clinical, and cytological findings were correlated with microbiologic data. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 13.0% of corneal samples (dogs: 14.0%; horses: 12.9%; cats: 7.9%; alpacas: 18.8%). The most frequent isolates were Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides species. The majority of these infections were mixed anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, unless antimicrobial therapy had been administered prior to presentation. The clinical appearance of anaerobic bacterial culture-positive cases was highly variable. Ocular trauma, pre-existing corneal disease, previous corneal surgery, and chronic dermatological disease were significantly ( P ≤ 0.05) correlated with positive anaerobic cultures in one or more species. The results of the present study demonstrate that obligate anaerobic bacteria are present within the intralesional flora of ulcerative keratitis in domestic animals. In most species evaluated, these bacteria were identified infrequently. Anaerobic bacterial infection of the cornea most frequently occurs in association with other ocular pathogens and previous corneal abnormalities.
Descriptors: alpacas, dogs, cats, horses, ulcerative keratitis, corneal sampling, clinical picture, microbial features, anaerobic bacterial culture, fungal culture, Gram stain, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Bacteroides.

Mangan, Brendan G.; Gionfriddo, Juliet R.; Powell, Cynthia C. Bilateral nasolacrimal duct atresia in a cria. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 2008 Jan; 11(1): 49-54. ISSN: 1463-5216
NAL call no.: SF891.V47
Abstract: A 2-month-old, male alpaca had a 1-month history of mucoid ocular discharge from the left eye. Signalment, history and clinical findings were suggestive of a congenital nasolacrimal outflow obstruction. A dacryocystorhinogram confirmed bilateral nasolacrimal duct atresia, which involved the distal half of both nasolacrimal ducts. In order to establish alternative outflow, a conjunctivomaxillosinusotomy and conjunctivorhinostomy were performed on the right and left eye, respectively. The surgical openings remain patent after 11 months, and there have been no clinical signs of nasolacrimal disease.
Descriptors: alpacas, animal diseases, congenital abnormalities, young animals, nasal cavity, lacrimal apparatus, mucus, case studies, signs and symptoms, disease diagnosis, image analysis, resection, disease course, abnormal development, nasolacrimal duct atresia, dacryocystorhinography.

Marques, F.J. Fluid therapy: general practical recommendations for camelids.Large Animal Veterinary Rounds. 2008; 8(1): 6 pp.
Abstract: The camelid industry is relatively new and ever-evolving, as is our knowledge about these animals. Camelids differ from ruminants in several ways and in many situations they must be treated differently. Llama and alpaca caseloads tend to rise from year to year, both in the Western College of Veterinary Medicine hospital and in other referral practices, and it is essential that veterinarians keep up with the latest information available in this developing medical field. Further, since recommendations given today may not be valid in the near future, veterinarians must remain open to considering new ideas. This issue of Large Animal Veterinary Rounds reviews general fluid therapy principles and indicates some practical recommendations for camelids. The concepts discussed are based on current literature, research, the available reference material and the personal experience of well-respected camelid veterinarians around the world. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, dehydration, rehydration, fluid therapy for camelids, clinical aspects, complications, intravenous injection, oral administration, literature review.

McKenzie, Erica C.; Tornquist, Susan J.; Gorman, M. Elena; Cebra, Christopher K.; Payton, Mark E. Hematologic effects of subcutaneous administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) in healthy alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2008; 69(6): 770-776. ISSN: 0002-9645
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective-To determine the effects of SC administration of filgrastim on cell counts in venous blood and bone marrow of healthy adult alpacas. Animals-10 healthy alpacas. Procedures-Alpacas were randomly assigned to receive treatment with filgrastim (5 mu g/kg, SC; n = 5) or an equivalent volume of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5) once a day for 3 days. Blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture 1 day prior to treatment and once a day for 5 days commencing 24 hours after the first dose was administered. Complete blood counts were performed for each blood sample. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from the sternum of each alpaca 48 hours before the first treatment was administered and 72 hours after the third treatment was administered. Myeloid-to-erythroid cell (M:E) ratio was determined via cytologic evaluation of bone marrow aspirates. Results-In filgrastim-treated alpacas, substantial increases in counts of WBCs and neutrophils were detected within 24 hours after the first dose was administered. Band cell count and percentage significantly increased 24 hours after the second dose. Counts of WBCs, neutrophils, and band cells remained high 48 hours after the third dose. Red blood cell counts and PCV were unaffected. The M:E ratio also increased significantly after treatment with filgrastim. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Filgrastim induced rapid and substantial increases in numbers of circulating neutrophils and M:E ratios of bone marrow in healthy alpacas. Therefore, filgrastim may be useful in the treatment of camelids with impaired bone marrow function.
Descriptors: alpacas, filgrastim, hematologic drug, drug dosage, recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor, pharmacokinetics.

Montes, M.; Quicano, I.; Quispe, R.; Quispe, E.; Alfonso, L. Quality characteristics of Huacaya alpaca fibre produced in the Peruvian Andean Plateau region of Huancavelica. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 2008; 6(1): 33-38. ISSN: 1695-971X. Note: In English with a Spanish summary.
Abstract: The quality of alpaca fibre produced in the region of Huancavelica ( Peru) is described based on a sample of 203 animals belonging to eight herding communities located between 4,100 and 4,750 m above sea level. The mean fibre diameter, 22.7 micro m (SE 0.2), was lower than values reported for Huacaya alpacas from other areas and varied with sex, age, and community origin (P<0.01). In contrast with results from other studies, males had finer fibre than females, but this may be because they represent selected breeding stock brought from Puno and Cusco. No linear relationship was found between fibre diameter and staple length. Further research is needed to better characterise fibre production traits and quantify their economic values prior to establishing a breeding program to improve fibre production in the region. Although conducting this type of research in the Peruvian Andean Plateau might seem difficult, the active participation of alpaca owners and development promoters made it feasible. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Huacaya breed alpacas, fleece, fiber characteristics, staple, fiber diameters, stable length, quality, age differences, sex differences, animal breeding, selective breeding, animal fibers, geographical variation, selection, Peru.

Pinares-Patino, C.S.; Clark, H. Reliability of the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for methane emission measurement from individual animals: an overview. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2008; 48(1/2): 223-229. ISSN: 0816-1089
Abstract: Measurements of enteric methane (CH< sub>4</ sub>) emissions from individual animals have traditionally been made with indirect calorimetry techniques, which are both accurate and reliable. However, the expense and need for animal training and the extent to which calorimetric results can be extrapolated to free-ranging animals have been questioned and stimulated the development of the sulfur hexafluoride (SF< sub>6</ sub>) tracer technique. The tracer technique is now widely used in New Zealand and many other countries for CH< sub>4</ sub> emission measurements on grazing and pen-fed cattle, sheep, deer and alpacas. Few studies with cattle and sheep have examined the validity of the SF< sub>6</ sub> tracer technique. Most of these studies have concluded that estimations of CH< sub>4</ sub> emission by this technique do not differ from those of calorimetric techniques, though some exceptions have been reported. There is general agreement that the tracer technique is associated with large between-animal variability in the CH< sub>4</ sub> emission estimates from animals on the same diet, but it remains unknown whether this is due to the environment, housing conditions or the technique itself. High within-animal variability has also been reported from tracer CH< sub>4</ sub> measurements. There is growing evidence that CH< sub>4</ sub> emission estimates by the tracer technique are positively influenced by the permeation rate (PR) of the SF< sub>6</ sub> gas from permeation tubes and it has been suggested that fate of the tracer in the rumen rather than unrepresentative breath sample collection is the likely reason for the latter. It is concluded that although some issues related to the tracer technique need to be clarified, using a narrow range in PR and balancing of PR between treatments should be practised in order to overcome the relationship between PR and CH< sub>4</ sub> emission estimates.
Descriptors: alpacas, cattle, deer, sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, pastured livestock, air pollutants, air pollution, air quality, emission, grazing, methane, sulfur, tracer techniques, tracers, atmospheric pollution, elemental sulphur, New Zealand.

Prado, Tulio M.; DuBois, William R.; Ko, Jeff C.H.; Mandsager, Ronald E.; Morgan, Gregor L. A comparison of two combinations of xylazine-ketamine administered intramuscularly to alpacas and of reversal with tolazoline. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2008 May; 35(3): 201-207. ISSN: 1467-2987
NAL call no.: SF914.V47
Abstract: To evaluate the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of two doses of intramuscular (IM) xylazine/ketamine in alpacas, and to determine if tolazoline would reduce the anesthetic recovery time. Prospective randomized crossover study. Six castrated male alpacas. Each alpaca received a low dose (LD) (0.8 mg kgp# xylazine and 8 mg kgp# ketamine IM) and high dose (HD) (1.2 mg kgp# xylazine and 12 mg kgp# ketamine IM) with a minimum of one week between trials. Time to sedation, duration of lateral recumbency and analgesia, pulse rate, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, arterial blood pressure, blood-gases, and the electrocardiogram were monitored and recorded during anesthesia. With each treatment three alpacas were randomly selected to receive tolazoline (2 mg kgp# IM) after 30 minutes of lateral recumbency. Onset of sedation, lateral recumbency and analgesia was rapid with both treatments. The HD was able to provide >=30 minutes of anesthesia in five of six alpacas. The LD provided >=30 minutes of anesthesia in three of six alpacas. Respiratory depression and hypoxemia occurred with the HD treatment during the first 10 minutes of lateral recumbency: two animals were severely hypoxemic and received nasal oxygen for 5 minutes. Heart rate decreased, but there were no significant changes in arterial blood pressure. Tolazoline significantly shortened the duration of recumbency with the HD. The HD provided more consistent clinical effects in alpacas than the LD. Intramuscular tolazoline shortened the duration of lateral recumbency in alpacas anesthetized with the HD combination. Both doses of the combination were effective in providing restraint in alpacas and the duration of restraint was dose dependent. Supplemental oxygen should be available if using the HD and IM administration of tolazoline will shorten the recovery time.
Descriptors: alpacas, 6 castrated males, anesthesia, ketamine, xylazine, tolazoline.

Semevolos, Stacy A.; Huber, Michael J.; Parker, Jill E.; Reed, Shannon K. Complications after orthopedic surgery in alpacas and llamas: 24 cases (2000-2006).Veterinary Surgery. 2008 Jan; 37(1): 22-26. ISSN: 0161-3499
NAL call no.: SF911.V43
Abstract: To report complications associated with orthopedic surgery in alpacas and llamas. Retrospective study. Alpacas (n=18) and llamas (n=6) that orthopedic surgery using internal or external fixation. Medical records (January 2000-December 2006) and radiographs were reviewed and owners contacted for follow-up information for alpacas and llamas that had orthopedic surgery involving internal or external fixation. Fourteen camelids had internal fixation, 7 had external fixation, and 3 had a combination of internal and external fixation. Twenty-two animals (92%) were discharged after surgery (mean hospitalization, 15 days). Of 20 animals with >=1 year follow-up information, 18 were alive (82%). Postoperative complications related to fracture healing, infection, soft tissue structures, or joints occurred in 21 camelids (87%). Thirteen animals returned to their intended use, 4 animals returned to breeding but not their intended use, 4 were euthanatized, and 3 were only able to be used as pets. Fixation type (internal, external) did not have any significant effect on complications involving fracture healing, infection, soft tissue structures, or chronic lameness. Camelids with open fractures were more likely to have complications associated with fracture healing, repair, and infection than closed fractures. Complications after orthopedic surgery in alpacas and llamas are more common than previously reported and may result in chronic lameness or prevent return to their intended use.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, musculoskeletal diseases, bone fractures, surgery, veterinary equipment, disease course, postoperative complications, morbidity, lameness, inflammation, data analysis, image analysis, radiography.

Slack, Joann; Johns, Imogen; Van Eps, Andrew; Reef, Virginia B. Imaging diagnosis--tricuspid atresia in an alpaca. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound—The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association. 2008 May-June; 49(3): 309-312. ISSN: 1058-8183
NAL call no.: SF757.8.A4
Descriptors: 8 day old alpaca cria, clinical picture when presented to veterinary care, electrocardiography performed, tricuspid heart valve leaflets absent, ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, congestive heart failure, septicemia, pneumonia, humane euthanasia recommended.

Trout, James M.; Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald. Detection of Assemblage A, Giardia duodenalis and Eimeria spp. in alpacas on two Maryland farms. Veterinary Parasitology. 2008; 153(3-4): 203-208. ISSN: 0304-4017
NAL call no.: SF810.V4
Descriptors : adult alpacas, males and females, crias, suri and Huacaya breeds, fecal sampling, density gradient centrifugation, intestinal parasite sampling and identification, immuno-fluorescent and differential interference contrast microscopy, oocysts, Eimeria punoensis, Eimeria alpacas, single and mixed infections, no clinical signs, PCR utilizing specific primers ssu-rRNA gene, Cryptosporidium, Giardia duodenalis, zoonotic potential of Giardia, 2 farms in Maryland, US.

Twomey, D.F.; Barlow, A.M.; Hemsley, S. Immunophenotyping of lymphosarcoma in South American camelids on six British premises.Veterinary Journal. 2008 Jan; 175(1): 133-135. ISSN: 1090-0233
NAL call no.: SF601.V484
Abstract: Six cases of lymphosarcoma (LSA) in South American camelids (SACs) were selected from submissions to a diagnostic laboratory network servicing England and Wales. Immunophenotyping was carried out using anti-human CD3 and anti-human CD5 for T-cells; and anti-human CD79a and anti-human CD79b for B-cells/plasma cells. On the basis of labelling with mainly anti-CD3, four of the tumours were classified as T-cell tumours. One case was labelled with anti-CD79a and anti-CD79b, and was classified as a B-cell tumour. In the other case the majority of cells were labelled with anti-CD3, anti-CD79a and anti-CD79b, and was classified as a mixed T- and B-cell tumour. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported attempt at immunophenotyping LSA in SACs on British premises and is only the second time that a presumptive mixed T- and B-cell LSA has been reported in alpacas and the veterinary literature in general.
Descriptors: South American camelids, alpacas, lymphosarcoma, immunophenotyping, T cell tumors, B cell tumor, mixed T and B cell tumors, England, Wales.

Twomey, D.F.; Barlow, A.M.; Bell, S.; Chalmers, R.M.; Elwin, K.; Giles, M.; Higgins, R.J.; Robinson, G.; Stringer, R.M. Cryptosporidiosis in two alpaca (Lama pacos) holdings in the South-West of England.Veterinary Journal. 2008 Mar; 175(3): 419-422. ISSN: 1090-0233
NAL call no.: SF601.V484
Abstract: Cryptosporidiosis was investigated on two alpaca (Lama pacos) holdings in the South-West of England. Diagnosis was initially confirmed in a cria with diarrhoea from each holding. Cohort faeces samples were subsequently collected and examined for presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescence microscopy. On the first holding, 30 samples (24 adults, 6 crias) were tested, and oocysts were detected in three of the cria samples but in none of the adults. On the second holding, 14 floor faeces samples representing apparently healthy crias and one faeces sample from a cria with diarrhoea were collected. Oocysts were detected in four of the healthy faeces samples and the sample of diarrhoeic faeces. All isolates were confirmed as Cryptosporidium parvum using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism of the cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and ssu rRNA genes. Sequence analysis of a 741 bp region of ssu rDNA was carried out on nine of these and revealed high sequence homology with previously reported isolates. This investigation highlights the possibility of alpaca crias subclinically shedding oocysts, which has implications for epidemiology and transmission in animals as well as raising zoonotic concerns for human contacts. Gene sequencing of UK isolates from South American camelids is also described for the first time.
Descriptors: alpacas, crias, diarrhea, fecal sampling, testing for Cryptosporidiumparvum, PCR diagnostic test, oocysts, subclinical infections possible, epidemiology, transmission, zoonotic risk to humans, England.

Waitt, L.H.; Cebra, C.K. Characterization of hypertriglyceridemia and response to treatment with insulin in llamas and alpacas: 31 cases (1995-2005).Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2008 May 1; 232(9): 1362-1367. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors : 23 alpacas, 8 llamas, 7 pregnant alpacas and 1 lactating, hypertriglyceridemic, multiple triglycerides concentration, treated and non-treated with insulin, insulin seems to reduce serum and plasma triglycerides, can affect all ages and both sexes.

Waitt, Laura H.; Cebra, Christopher K.; Firshman, Anna M.; McKenzie, Erick C.; Schlipf, John W. Jr. Cryptosporidiosis in 20 alpaca crias. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2008; 233(2): 294-298. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL Call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Case Description-20 alpaca crias (13 females and 7 males) were examined for diarrhea (n = 20), weight loss (15), and poor appetite (5). Fourteen crias were between 8 and 18 days of age at time of admission. Clinical Findings-Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in all crias. Common biochemical abnormalities included acidemia, hyperlactemia, azotemia, and hyperglycemia and increases in aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities. Serum sodium and chloride concentrations were high or low. Other potential gastrointestinal tract pathogens were identified in only 7 crias. Treatment and Outcome-Supportive care was instituted, including IV administration of fluids with partial parenteral administration of nutrients (n = 19 crias), antimicrobials (19), supplemental orally administered nutrients (11), administration of plasma (10), and insulin treatment (9). Other palliative treatments used by attending clinicians were sucralfate, flunixin meglumine, vitamin A/D/E/B complex, antiparasitic agents, antidiarrheal agents, and azithromycin. Three crias with inadequate urine production and severe azotemia were treated with furosemide administered IV as a bolus or as a constant-rate infusion. Treatment resulted in a successful outcome in 16 of 20 crias. Weight loss and refractory azotemia were common in nonsurvivors but not in surviving crias. Clinical Relevance-Findings suggested that Cryptosporidium spp may be a diarrheal pathogen of unweaned alpaca crias that may be more widespread than has been recognized and can become endemic on some farms. Metabolic derangements were unpredictable and should be determined by biochemical analysis before fluid and electrolyte replacement is initiated. Cryptosporidiosis has zoonotic potential, and the infection can be self-limiting in alpacas receiving supportive treatment. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, crias, females, males, cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium, clinical picture, symptoms, treatment, outcomes, antiparasitic agents, zoonotic parasite.

Watts , Ashlee E.; Fortier, Lisa A.; Nixon, Alan J.; Ducharme, Norm G. A technique for internal fixation of scapulohumeral luxation using scapulohumeral tension sutures in three alpacas and one miniature steer.Veterinary Surgery. 2008 Feb; 37(2): 161-165. ISSN: 0161-3499
NAL call no .: SF911.V43
Abstract: To report a technique for open reduction and internal fixation of scapulohumeral joint luxation in large animals, and outcome. Clinical case reports. Mature alpacas (n=3) and immature miniature steer (1). Shoulder joint luxation was diagnosed by physical examination and confirmed by radiography. Open reduction was performed with internal fixation using lateral tension band sutures. Animals maintained shoulder joint reduction and were sound with radiographically normal shoulder joints (n=2) and normal range of motion without appreciable gait abnormalities (4) at follow-up 8-36 months later. In contrast to previous reports of open reduction with internal fixation of shoulder joint luxation in large animals, open reduction and use of lateral scapulohumeral tension sutures resulted in functionally normal shoulder joints. Stabilization of the shoulder joint with lateral scapulohumeral tension sutures after open reduction is effective, technically simple, and should be considered in large animal species weighing <100 kg.
Descriptors: immature miniature steer, mature alpacas, animal injuries, shoulder joint diseases, humerus, scapula, surgery, veterinary equipment, sutures, case studies, disease course, musculoskeletal system physiology, physical activity, functional status.

Webster, J.D.; Miller, M.A.; Vemulapalli, R. Encephalitozoon cuniculi-associated placentitis and perinatal death in an alpaca (Lama pacos). Veterinary Pathology. 2008 Mar; 45(2): 255-258. ISSN: 0300-9858
NAL call no.: 41.8 P27
Abstract: Placentitis, premature birth, and perinatal death were associated with Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in an alpaca. Histologically, chorionic trophoblasts contained many Gram-positive, period acid-Schiff positive, variably acid-fast spores. Multifocal necrosis and infiltration by lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils were scattered throughout the chorionic membrane. Spores in trophoblasts were approximately 1 om x 2 om, thick-walled, and contained polar filaments and polar vacuoles consistent with microsporidia. The presence of E. cuniculi DNA was confirmed by sequencing the polymerase chain reaction amplicon from frozen placental tissue. A few glial nodules were scattered throughout the cerebrum, and mild lymphocytic inflammation was present in the heart, liver, and lung. No organisms were detected in tissues other than the placenta. This is the first reported case of E. cuniculi infection in an alpaca.
Descriptors: alpaca, Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection, placentitis, premature birth, perinatal death, first report of pathogen in alpaca.


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