National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
HomeAbout AWICPublicationsWorkshopsServicesNews and EventsHelpContact Us
Search AWIC
Search all of the United States Department of Agriculture
Advanced search
Browse by Subject
Research Animals
Farm Animals
Zoo, Circus and Marine Animals
Companion Animals
Government and Professional Resources
Literature Searching and Databases
Pain and Distress
Humane Endpoints and Euthanasia
You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on the South American Camelids  / Guanacos  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>


Guanacos - 2008  | 2007  |  2006  |  2005  |  2004


Marin, Juan C.; Spotorno, Angel E; Gonzalez, Benito A.; Bonacic, Cristian; Wheeler, Jane C.; Casey, Ciara S.; Bruford, Michael W.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Poulin, Elie. Mitochondrial DNA variation and systematics of the guanaco (Lama guanicoe, Artiodactyla : Camelidae). Journal of Mammalogy. 2008; 89(2): 269-281. ISSN: 0022-2372
Descriptors: guanacos (Lama guanicoe), 2 and 4 subspecies, mitochondrial DNA variation, analyzed complete cytochrome-b and partial control region mitochondrial DNA sequences, analysis supports monophyly, did not distinguish subspecies, some differentiation in northernmost compared to more southern populations, demographic history, recent population expansion suggested, 22 localities in Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile.

Marino, Andrea; Baldi, Ricardo. Vigilance patterns of territorial guanacos (Lama guanicoe): The role of reproductive interests and predation risk. Ethology. 2008 Apr; 114(4): 413-423. ISSN: 0179-1613
Abstract: We conducted focal observations of territorial guanacos, a highly polygynous and social mammal, to compare time budgets between sexes and test the hypothesis that the differences in reproductive interests are associated with differential group size effects on male and female time allocation patterns. In addition, we used group instantaneous sampling to test the hypothesis that grouping improves detection capacity through increased collective vigilance. We fit GLM to assess how group size and group composition (i.e., presence or absence of calves) affected individual time allocation of males and females, and collective vigilance. As expected from differences in reproductive interests, males in family groups devoted more time to scan the surroundings and less to feeding activities compared to females. Both sexes benefited from grouping by reducing the time invested in vigilance and increased foraging effort, according to predation risk theory, but the factors affecting time allocation differed between males and females. Group size effects were significant when females were at less than five body-lengths from their nearest neighbour, suggesting that grouping benefits arise when females are close to each other. Female time budgets were also affected by season, topography and vegetation structure. In contrast to our expectation, males reduced the time invested in vigilance as the number of females in the group increased, supporting the predation risk theory rather the intrasexual competition hypothesis. The presence of calves was associated with an increase in male individual vigilance; and vegetation type also affected the intensity of the group size effect over male time allocation. In closed habitats, collective vigilance increased with the number of adults but decreased with the number of calves present. Although male and female guanacos differed in their time allocation patterns, our results support the hypothesis that both sexes perceive significant antipredator benefits of group living.
Descriptors: guanacos (Lama guanicoe), males, females, calves, territorial members, time budgets, sex differences, effects of group size and composition on detecting predators, foraging efforts, predation risk theory, effects of topography and vegetation structure on predation, collective vigilance, South America.

Puig, Silvia; Videla, Fernando; Cona, Monica I.; Roig, Virgilio G. Habitat use-by guanacos (Lama guanicoe, Camelidae) in northern Patagonia ( Mendoza, Argentina). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 2008; 43(1): 1-9. ISSN: 0165-0521
Descriptors: Lama guanicoe ; guanacos; spatial patterns; seasonal habitat use; early and late summer; parturition and lactation nutritional needs; predation risks; daily distribution; scan sampling; habitat factors: relief, soil, vegetation by point quadrant method; terrain preferences: gentle terrain, grasslands, low hiding cover; population density associated with grass Panicun urvilleanum, avoided: rocky soils, high shrublands and avoided plants, high populations changed avoidance patterns, Patagonia, South America.

Sarno, Ronald J.; Grigione, Melissa M.; Arvidson, Lance D. Lack of response of an open-habitat ungulate to the presence of predator urine. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 2008; 81(2): 179-183. ISSN: 0716-078X
Descriptors:Lama guanicoe, guanacos, behavioral responses, odors of dangerous predators, open habitat, exposure to urine of various predators, only reacted to mountain lion urine (Puma concolor), may use vision for predator detection.

Zapata, B.; GonzcLlez, B.A.; Marin, J.C.; Cabello, J.L.; Johnson, W.E.; Skewes, O. Finding of polydactyly in a free-ranging guanaco (Lama guanicoe).Small Ruminant Research. 2008 May; 76(3): 220-222. ISSN: 0921-4488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Polydactylism, a genetic defect characterized by partial or complete duplication of the digit, has been described in a wide range of vertebrates. Among ungulates, polydactyly appears to be relatively common in domestic camelids, with reports in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos). However, in wild South American camelids polydactyly has been reported only in a vicuna kept in a zoo (Vicugna vicugna), but not in wild populations. Here a finding of polydactyly in a free-ranging guanaco is described. We propose the hypothesis that this malformation has an atavistic-genetic origin.
Descriptors: guanaco, free ranging animal, genetic mutation, polydactyly, domestic camelids, camels, llamas, alpacas, vicunas.

Back to Top


Balmus, Gabriel; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Biltueva, Larisa.S.; O' Brien,.Patricia.C.M.; Alkalaeva, Elena.S.; Fu, Beiyuan; Skidmore, Julian.A.; Allen, Twink; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A. Cross-species chromosome painting among camel, cattle, pig and human: further insights into the putative Cetartiodactyla ancestral karyotype. Chromosome Research. 2007 June; 15(4): 499-514. ISSN: 0967-3849
NAL call no.: QH600 .C47
Abstract: The great karyotypic differences between camel, cattle and pig, three important domestic animals, have been a challenge for comparative cytogenetic studies based on conventional cytogenetic approaches. To construct a genome-wide comparative chromosome map among these artiodactyls, we made a set of chromosome painting probes from the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) by flow sorting and degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR. The painting probes were first used to characterize the karyotypes of the dromedary camel (C. dromedarius), the Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus), the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), the alpaca (L. pacos) and dromedary x guanaco hybrid karyotypes (all with 2n = 74). These FISH experiments enabled the establishment of a high-resolution GTG-banded karyotype, together with chromosome nomenclature and idiogram for C. dromedarius, and revealed that these camelid species have almost identical karyotypes, with only slight variations in the amount and distribution patterns of heterochromatin. Further cross-species chromosome painting between camel, cattle, pig and human with painting probes from the camel and human led to the establishment of genome-wide comparative maps. Between human and camel, pig and camel, and cattle and camel 47, 53 and 53 autosomal conserved segments were detected, respectively. Integrated analysis with previously published comparative maps of human/pig/cattle enabled us to propose a Cetartiodactyla ancestral karyotype and to discuss the early karyotype evolution of Cetartiodactyla. Furthermore, these maps will facilitate the positional cloning of genes by aiding the cross-species transfer of mapping information.
Descriptors: camels, alpacas, guanacos, cattle, pigs, cytogenetics, evolution, Cetartiodactyla, chromosome painting, karyotype.

Llanos, Anibal J.; Riquelme, Raquel A.; Herrera, Emilio A.; Ebensperger, German; Krause, Bernardo; Reyes, Roberto V.; Sanhueza, Emilia A.; Pulgar, Victor M.; Behn, Claus; Cabello, Gertrudis; Parer, Julian T.; Giussani, Dino A.; Blanco, Carlos E.; Hanson, Mark A. Evolving in thin air - Lessons from the llama fetus in the altiplano. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology. 2007; 158(2-3): 298-306. ISSN: 1569-9048
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, vicunas, guanacos, fetal life, high altitude animals, fetal response to acute hypoxia, peripheral vasoconstriction mediated by alpha adrenergic mechanisms, high plasma concentration of catecholamines, high plasma concentration of neuropeptide Y, NO and endothelin 1, local blood flows, cerebral hypometabolic response, reduced oxygen consumption, Na-K-Atpase activity, temperature, absence of seizures and apoptosis of neural cells, Andean altiplano.

Marai, I.F.M.; Zeidan, A.E.B. Artificial insemination in Camelidae.Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2007; 7(1): 1-13. Note: In English with a Spanish summary. Literature review.
Abstract: The most important problems of Artificial Insemination (AI) in Camelidae is its timing in relation to ovulation in the she-camel. The present article reviewed collection of semen, processing of semen, manipulation of the female and semen deposition technique in Camelidae species. Commonly, semen is collected by electroejaculation, artificial vagina (AV), flushing of the epididymus with saline solution, while the more accepted methods are the former two methods. Semen is usually used in raw condition or after extension, depending on the method of semen processing. In the fresh raw method, whole semen is used within minutes or after few hours. Extension of the semen ejaculate is carried out by adding extenders and it is required in more efficient use of AI, in short-term preservation or liquid semen (within a few hours or days) and long-term preservation or frozen semen (months or years). In short-term preservation, semen is used extended under different temperatures (30, 25 or 4 degrees C). Long-term preservation is carried out by cryopreservation. Packaging methods such as pellets, ampoules or in plastic straws with different volumes (0.25, 0.5 or 4 ml) represent different freezing procedures. The quality and survival of spermatozoa of post-thaw semen are highly variable from one male to the other, even after using the same freezing technique. To ensure that the inseminated females ovulate, hormonal manipulation of ovarian activity is used such as the induction of follicular activity and ovulation, as well as, synchronization of these phases in a group of females. The best time for insemination can only be determined by ultrasonography and/or rectal palpation of the ovaries. The other alternative is to inseminate at known intervals following induction of ovulation by hormonal treatment with human-chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH).
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, guanacos, vicunas, artificial insemination, cryopreservation, deposition site, freezing, frozen semen, GnRH, HCG, estrus, ovulation, reproduction, semen, semen diluent additives, semen preservation, spermatozoa, synchronization, synchronized females, gonadoliberin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, techniques.

Marin, Juan C.; Zapata, Beatriz.; Gonzalez, Benito A.; Bonacic, Cristian; Wheeler, Jane C. ; Casey, Ciara; Bruford, Michael W.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Poulin, Elie; Alliende, M. Angelica; Spotorno, Angel E. Sistematica, taxonomia y domesticacion de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosomica y molecular. [Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence.] Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 2007; 80(2): 121-140. ISSN: 0716-078X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
Abstract: Four camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the vicuna (Vicugna vicugna), and two domestic, the alpaca (Lama pacos) and the llama (Lama glama). However, the origin of the domestic species has been a matter of debate. In the present study, variations in chromosome G banding patterns and in two mitochondrial gene sequences have been used to study the origin and classification of the llama and alpaca. Similar patterns in chromosome G band structure were observed in all four Lamini species, and these in turn were similar to the bands described for camels, Camelus bactrianus. However, fine and consistent differences were found in the short arms of chromosome 1, separating camels, guanacos and llamas from vicunas and alpacas. This pattern was consistent even in a hybrid guanaco x alpaca. Equivalent relationship showed the complete cytochrome b gene sequences, and the minimum expansion tree of the partial control region sequence, grouping guanaco with llama and vicuna with alpaca. Phylogenetic analyses showed V. vicugna and L. guanicoe as monophyletic groups. Analysis of both gene sequences revealed two clades within vicuna, concordant with the two described subspecies, but the results for guanaco did not confirm existence of the four previously proposed subspecies. The combined analysis of chromosomal and molecular variation showed close genetic similarity between alpacas and vicunas, as well as between llamas and guanacos. Although directional hybridization was revealed, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the llama would have derived from L. guanicoe and the alpaca from V. vicugna, supporting reclassification as V. pacos. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: camelids, Bactrian camels, 2 wild species, guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and vicunas (Victigna vicugna), 2 domesticated species, alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama), classification of species, chromosome G banding pattern variations, 2 mitochondrial gene sequences variations, analysis showed close genetic similarity of alpacas and vicunas and of llamas and guanacos, hypothesize llama derived from L. guanicoe, alpaca derived from V. vicugna, supporting reclassification as V. pacos, genetic variability, South American camelids.

Mate, M.L.; Di Rocco, F.; Zambelli, A.; Vidal-Rioja, L. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy in Control Region DNA of Small Ruminant Research.South American camelids. 2007 Aug; 71(1-3): 123-129. ISSN: 0921-4488
NAL call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: In the present work, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing were used to investigate the length and nucleotide variability in the Control Region mitochondrial DNA of the four South American camelid species from Argentina. To asses these the complete Control Region of 20 animals, 5 each of guanaco, llama, alpaca and vicuna species were cloned. Seventy-three clones corresponding to the 20 animals were screened and 7 different SSCP patterns were identified. Sequencing of all clones showed 9 different haplotypes contained in the 350 bp hypervariable segment of the Control Region. Interestingly, 3 guanacos, 3 vicunas, 3 alpacas and 1 llama were heteroplasmic for different nucleotide positions. The screening of the Control Region mitochondrial DNA in blood samples from about 200 wild guanacos from Argentine Patagonia supported the above results. After comparison with other vertebrate species, we concluded that nucleotide substitutions are the main cause of heteroplasmy found in Control Region mitochondrial DNA of these taxa.
Descriptors: Lama; llamas, alpacas, vicunas, Lama guanicoe, phylogeny, genetic variation, genetic-markers, mitochondrial DNA, molecular cloning, clones, nucleotide sequences, polymerase chain reaction, single stranded conformational polymorphism, mutation, single nucleotide polymorphism, genome, genomics, heteroplasmy, molecular sequence data, Argentina.

Merriwether, D.A. Domestication of alpacas: Genetics of the North American herd.American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2007; (Suppl. 44): 171. ISSN: 0002-9483. Note: 76th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Philadelphia, PA, USA; March 28 -31, 2007.
Descriptors: vicunas, llamas, alpacas, guanacos, domesticated animals, breeding, genetics, North America.

Back to Top


Ansaloni, F.; Pyszny, F.; Claros, A.L.; Marquina, R.; Zapana-Pineda, J.; Claros, A.J.; Quispe-Huanca, J.L. DECAMA-project: Analysis of farm income from South American camelids meat production in Latin American countries: Preliminary results of a comparison between case studies. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
Nal Call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: camelid meat production, economic development, hygiene status and quality of animal based products, income and production costs of camelid meat production, homogeneous questionnaire, visits and direct interviews with agricultural entrepreneurs, Andean rural areas, Peru, Bolivia, South America.

Ayala, J.E. Size and growth of the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) population at the Calipuy National Reserve. In: M. Gerken and C. Renueri [Editors]. The 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: guanaco population; census data; 462 counted in June of 2002; 484 counted in 2003; 436 counted in July 2004; growth of 4.5%; average population: 40% adults, 6% juveniles, 5% crias, 19% single males, 30% male bachelor groups; females 4-5X higher than adult males; wild life management; Calipuy National Reserve, Peru, South America.

Cajal, Jorge L.; Tonni, Eduardo P. Re-wilding in South America: Is it possible?Mastozoologia Neotropical. 2006; 13(2): 281-282. ISSN: 0327-9383
Descriptors: guanacos, vicunas, horses, conservation policy, trophic structure, re-wilding animals, fauna conservation, Argentina.

D'Alterio, G.L.; Bazeley, K.J. Referral service for South American camelids at the University of Bristol Veterinary School: A review of cases from 1999 to 2002. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF601.I4
Descriptors: vicunas, llamas, alpaca, guanaco, veterinary medicine, clinical and surgical camelid cases, Farm Animal Practice & Hospital of the University of Bristol, Britain, UK.

De Simone, Emilio; Saccodossi, Natalia; Ferrari, Alejandro; Leoni,-Lucrecia; Leoni, Juliana. Immunochemical analysis of IgG subclasses and IgM in south American camelids.Small Ruminant Research. 2006; 64(1-2): 2-9. ISSN: 0921-4488
Abstract: Antibodies are glycoproteins comprising two heavy and two light chains. Surprisingly, all members of the family Camelidae possess a fraction of antibodies devoid of both light chains and the first constant domain (CH1). These kinds of antibodies are known as heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs). There are three subclasses of IgG in dromedaries, namely IgG(1), IgG(2) and IgG(3) Of which, IgG(2) and IgG(3) are of the HCAbs type. In the present work, the different IgG isotypes from guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama) and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) were purified and characterized. Interestingly, it was found that IgM was capable of binding to protein A. The different subclasses of immunoglobulins were also assayed for their ability to fix complement. Both IgG(1) and the total serum were able to fix complement, whereas IgG(2) and IgG(3) fixed complement even in the absence of antigen. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: vicunas; guanacos; llamas; IgM immunoglobulin M G1, G2, and G3; immunologic techniques.

Di Rocco, Florencia; Parisi, Gustavo; Zambelli, Andres; Vida-Rioja, Lidia. Rapid evolution of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II in camelids (Tylopoda, Camelidae) Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes. 2006; 38(5-6): 293-297. ISSN: 0145-479X
Descriptors: new and old camelids,mitochondrial aerobic energy production, mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II, III, replacement of amino acids inferred, transmembrane helices of proteins, hot dry adaption for camels, high altitude cold hypoxic environment of the Andean region.

Donadio, Emiliano; Buskirk, Steven W. Flight behavior in guanacos and vicunas in areas with and without poaching in western Argentina. Biological Conservation. 2006; 127(2): 139-145. ISSN: 0006-3207
Descriptors: wild South American camelids, guanacos, vicunas, effects on populations, flight behavior, surveys of 299 groups form a vehicle, flight distance, time of first flight, flight distance, species, groups size, presence or absence of juveniles, 70% ran where poaching was common, 30% when reserve without poaching, inside and outside preserves, poaching from roads common, recommend some road closures as conservation measure, Argentina.

Finucane, Brian; Agurto, Patricia Maita; Isbell, William H. Human and animal diet at Conchopata, Peru: stable isotope evidence for maize agriculture and animal management practices during the Middle Horizon. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2006; 33(12): 1766-1776. ISSN: 0305-4403
Descriptors: humans, plant species, alpacas, llamas, guanacos, vicuna, Avaia porcellus, maize, various grasses, nitrogen 15, delta C 13, analysis of skeletal remains, Middle Horizon period (AD550-1000) Conchopata, Peruvian highlands, animal management strategies, no sex differences in diet, ancient times, Peru.

Gerken, M.; Renieri, C. [Editors]. South American Camelids Research, Volume 1. Proceedings of the 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids and DECAMA European seminar. Wageningen Academic Publishers. Wageningen, Netherlands: 2006; 308p. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF402.L35 E97 2004
Abstract: A series of papers on the current trends in reproduction, animal breeding, genetics, nutrition, health (including bacterial and parasitic infections) and fibre morphology of South American camelids, viz. llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is presented, including discussions on the potential of these camelids for meat production and commercialization in South America. The particular advantages of South American camelids for the sustainable use of fragile ecosystems with native pastures are outlined, and discussions on the interaction between wild and domestic species, management of alpaca populations outside South America and aspects of camelid health under European conditions are presented as well.
Descriptors: llamas, guanacos, vicunas, breeding, genetics, nutrition, bacterial diseases, bacterinections, helminthoses, protozoal diseases, meat production, nature conservation, protozoal infections, reproduction, wildlife management, wool producing animals, South America.

Gunsser, I.; Haenichen, T.; Kiesling, C. Breeding and/or Handling Problems? Causes of Death in Camelids. In: M. Gerken and C. Renueri [Editors]. The 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: 179 camelids; 63 alpacas; 5 guanacos; 1 guanaco-llama mix; 5 dromedary camels; 3 Bactrian camels; 1 vicuna; post mortem sampling; causes of death; most common problems: pulmonary edema; next most common: liver, digestive system, abdomen, endoparasites, chronic feeding mistakes; pathology of other organs: urinary tract, head, spleen, skin, degeneration of parenchymas, teeth problems, spleen reactions, mites or other infections; less frequent pathology: genitals, neck, bones, limbs; general causes of death: infectious diseases (22.5%), euthanasia (17.1%), emaciation (9.5%), fatty degeneration of parenchyma (9.0%), diagnosis inconclusive (14.4%).

Jensen, J M. Camelid Drug Formulary. Published by Game Ranch Health. San Antonio, USA: 2006, 405 p. ISBN: 9781424312177
NAL call no.: SF916.5.J46 2006
Abstract: The book is divided into two main sections, the first dealing with South American Camelids (SAC), llama (Lama glama), alpaca (Lama pacos), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna), and the second with dromedaries (Camelus dromedaries) and Bactrian camels (C. bactrianus). The drugs are grouped in the book according to clinical application (for example, Analgesia, Anaesthesia, Gastrointestinal, Immunization, Reproductive, Vitamins-Minerals). The information consists of a table with five columns entitled Drug, Species, Dosage, Comments, and Reference. For example the information for penicillin in the Reproduction - SAC section is: Drug: penicillin, Species: SAC, Dosage: 22,000 mg/kg, SC, q24h for 3 treatments, Comments: prevention of uterine infection, References: Johnson, L. 1989 [the full references are listed at the end of each of the SAC and Camel sections]. This book will be extremely useful to all veterinarians who come across camelids in their work.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, vicunas, guanacos, drug formulary, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, anti-infective agents, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-parasitic agents, drug therapy; gastrointestinal agents, pharmacology.

Leotta, Gerardo A.; Deza, Natalia; Origlia, Javier; Toma, Claudia; Chinen, Isabel; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Iyoda, Sunao; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rivas, Marta. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in captive non-domestic mammals. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006; 118(1-2): 151-157. ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL call no.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: ruminants, goats, giraffes, Taurotragus oryx, elands, Antilope cervicapra, blackbuck antelopes, Ovis musimon, mouflon sheep, Ovis aries somalicus, Somali sheep, Bos grunniensis, yaks, Lama pacos, alpacas, Lama guanicoe, guanacos, Lama guanico glama, llamas, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, capybaras, Dolichotis patagonus, Patagonian cavy, Cervus elaphus, red deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, pampas deer, Axis axis, axis deer, Mazama gouazoubira, fallow deer, Dama dama, paint deer, Elaphrus davidianus (Coleoptera), pere david deer, Escherichia coli, serovar-O12:H25, serovar-O13:H6, strain 25 strains, strain 27 strains, strain O146:H28; Shiga toxin producing-Escherichia coli, 7 different serotypes, testing fecal samples, PCR, Shiga toxin gene sequences, natural reservoir, frequency in non-domestic animals, zoo habitat, living in a pit, Zoo and Botanical Garden, La Plata City, Argentina.

Montes, M.C.; Carmanchahi, P.D.; Rey, A.; Funes, M.C. Live shearing free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in Patagonia for sustainable use. Journal of Arid Environments. 2006 Mar; 64(4): 616-625. ISSN: 0140-1963
Descriptors: Lama guanicoe, 55 guanacos (13 females, 38 males, and 4 calves) captured, live-sheared 30 animals, shearing, shearing machines, no mortalities, animal injuries, sustainable agriculture, applied and field techniques, mobile corral traps, trapping, field equipment, fleece weight of 307.15g for females and 338.12 g for males, population levels, management scheme, sheep ranching, overhunting, management implications, Patagonia, South America.

Rosati, Victoria R. Seleccion de Dieta de Mamiferos Herbivoros Silvestres de Regiones Aridas y Semiaridas. [Diet Selection of Wild Herbivore Mammals in Arid and Semi-arid Regions.] Cid M.S.; Bonino N.; Cassini M.; Anchorena J.; DeSbriller A.P.; Arriaga M. [Editors]Macn-Museo Argentino Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 2006. ISSN: 1666-5503. ISBN: 9879640837. Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: vicunas, guanacos, Pediolagus salinicola, Mazama gouazoubira, Lagostomus maximus, Ctenomys opimus, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, Lepus europaeus, semi arid zones, diet selection of wild herbivores, South America.

Sacchero, D.; Maurino, M.J.; Lanari, M.R. Diferencias de calidad y proporcion de down en muestras individuales de vellones de guanaco (Lama guanicoe) en distintas ecoregiones de Argentina. [Differences on quality and proportion of down in individual fleece samples of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) from different ecoregions of Argentina.] Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2006; 26(3): 211-216. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
Descriptors: guanacos, animal fibers, fiber quality, fiber diameter, fleece quality, down levels, individual variance in fiber quality, Argentina.

Sarno, Ronald J.; Bank, Michael S.; Stern, Hal S.; Franklin, William L. Effects of age, sex, season, and social dynamics on juvenile guanaco subordinate behavior. Journal of Mammalogy. 2006; 87(1): 41-47. ISSN: 0022-2372
Descriptors: guanacos, crias and juveniles, conflict resolution behaviors, age effect—birth to 9 months, sex effects, group size effect, seasonal effects, appearance, ontogenetic differences, subordinate behaviors; submissive crouch behaviors, body postures, Torres del Paine National Park, Chile.

Simone, E. de; Saccodossi, N.; Ferrari, A.; Leoni, L.; Leoni, J. Immunochemical analysis of IgG subclasses and IgM in South American camelids. Small Ruminant Research. 2006 July; 64(1-2): 2-9. ISSN: 0921-4488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Antibodies are glycoproteins comprising two heavy and two light chains. Surprisingly, all members of the family Camelidae possess a fraction of antibodies devoid of both light chains and the first constant domain (CH1). These kinds of antibodies are known as heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs). There are three subclasses of IgG in dromedaries, namely IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 of which, IgG2 and IgG3 are of the HCAbs type. In the present work, the different IgG isotypes from guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama) and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) were purified and characterized. Interestingly, it was found that IgM was capable of binding to protein A. The different subclasses of immunoglobulins were also assayed for their ability to fix complement. Both IgG1 and the total serum were able to fix complement, whereas IgG2 and IgG3 fixed complement even in the absence of antigen.
Descriptors: llamas, Lama guanicoe, vicunas, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, antibodies, chemical structure, complement, complement fixation tests, antigens, heavy chain antibodies, light chain antibodies.

Back to Top


Bulgarella, Mariana; de Lamo, Daniel. Thermal conductance of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) pelage. Journal of Thermal Biology. 2005; 30(8): 569-573. ISSN: 0306-4565
Descriptors: Lama guanicoe , guanacos, comparison of winter and summer sheared pelts, thermal conductance, guarded hot plate technique was used, winter was 1.64W/m(2) degrees C, summer 1.79W/m(2) degrees C, mean heat loss free convective conditions, natural pelage 1.74 W/m(2) degrees C, sheared pelts 2.3W/m(2) degrees C. indications of a seasonal molt (moult), Patagonia, South America.

Bulgarella, M.; Lamo, D.A. de. Datos de esquila de guanacos (Lama guanicoe) en el sudeste de Chubut, Argentina. [Shearing of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in south east of Chubut, Argentina.] Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2005; 25(Supl. 1): F1. Note: 28 Congreso Argentino de Produccion Animal "Hacia un Incremento en la Demanda global de Productos de Origen Animal", Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 19-21 October 2005. In Spanish.
Descriptors: Lama guanicoe , animal fibers, shearing, fiber producing animal production, Argentina.

Cavieres, L.A.; Fajardo, A. Browsing by guanaco (Lama guanicoe) on Nothofagus pumilio forest gaps in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Forest Ecology and Management. 2005 Jan. 17; 204(2-3): 237-248. ISSN: 0378-1127
NAL call no.: SD1.F73
Descriptors: guancos, Lama guanicoe, feeding behavior, Nothofagus pumilio, browsing behavior, forest gap environments, Tierra del Fuego, Chile.

Daley, L.P.; Gagliardo, L.F.; Duffy, M.S.; Smith, M.C.; Appleton, J.A. Application of monoclonal antibodies in functional and comparative investigations of heavy-chain immunoglobulins in New World camelids. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 2005; 12(3): 380-386. ISSN: 1071-412X
Abstract: Of the three immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes described to occur in camelids, IgG2 and IgG3 are distinct in that they do not incorporate light chains. These heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) constitute approximately 50% of the IgG in llama serum and as much as 75% of the IgG in camel serum. We have produced isotype-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in order to investigate the roles of HCAbs in camelid immunity. Seventeen stable hybridomas were cloned, and three MAbs that were specific for epitopes on the gamma chains of llama IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3 were characterized in detail. Affinity chromatography revealed that each MAb bound its isotype in solution in llama serum. The antibodies bound to the corresponding alpaca IgGs, to guanaco IgG1 and IgG2, and to camel IgG1. Interestingly, anti-IgG2 MAbs bound three heavy-chain species in llama serum, confirming the presence of three IgG2 subisotypes. Two IgG2 subisotypes were detected in alpaca and guanaco sera. The MAbs detected llama serum IgGs when they were bound to antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and were used to discern among isotypes induced during infection with a parasitic nematode. Diseased animals, infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, did not produce antigen-specific HCAbs; rather, they produced the conventional isotype, IgG1, exclusively. Our data document the utility of these MAbs in functional and physiologic investigations of the immune systems of New World camelids.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, guanacos, camels, Bactrian camels, antigens, epitopes, hybridomas, IgG, immune response, immune system, immunity, immunoglobulins, isotypes, monoclonal antibodies, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, antigenic determinants, antigenicity, gamma globulins, immune globulins, immunity reactions, immunogens, immunological reactions, Secernentea.

Franklin, William L.; Grigione, Melissa M. The enigma of guanacos in the Falkland Islands: the legacy of John Hamilton . Journal of Biogeography. 2005 Apr; 32(4): 661-675. ISSN: 0305-0270.
NAL call no.: QH1.J62
Descriptors:  guanacos, success of transplanted/relocated animals, conservation measures, genetics, inbreeding, population dynamics, social behavior, zoogeography, introduced from Rio Gallegos, Argentina, restricted genetic pool, inbreeding, historical research, John Hamilton, Falkland Islands Government Archives, personal interviews, herd size, distribution on islands, behaviors, animals social structure, Falkland Islands.

Franklin , W.L.; Poncet , S.; Poncet , J. The history of Staats Island in the West Falkland Islands: its guanacos, foxes, shanty, and sojourners. The Falkland Islands Journal. 2005; 8(4): 21-64 + front cover.
Descriptors:  guanacos, foxes, introduced wildlife, historical perspective, John Hamilton, Staats Island, West Falkland Islands.

Izeta, Andres D. South American camelid bone structural density: what are we measuring? Comments on data sets, values, their interpretation and application. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2005; 32(8): 1159-1168. ISSN: 0305-4403
Descriptors: llama, vicuna, guanaco, bone density sets, five archaeofaunal assemblages, Formative Period archaeological sites, southern Calchaquies valleys, Catamarca, Argentina.

Mate, M.L.; Bustamante, A.; Giovambattista, G.; Lamo, D. de; Thungen, J. von; Zambelli, A.; Vidal-Rioja, L. Genetic diversity and differentiation of guanaco populations from Argentina inferred from microsatellite data. Animals Genetics. 2005 Aug; 36(4): 316-321. ISSN: 0268-9146
NAL call no.: QP98.A1A5
Abstracts: Genotype data from 14 microsatellite markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and differentiation of four guanaco populations from Argentine Patagonia. These animals were recently captured in the wild and maintained in semi-captivity for fibre production. Considerable genetic diversity in these populations was suggested by the finding of a total of 162 alleles, an average mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 6.50 to 8.19, and H(e) values ranging from 0.66 to 0.74. Assessment of population differentiation showed moderate but significant values of F(ST) = 0.071 (P = 0.000) and R(ST) = 0.083 (P = 0.000). An AMOVA test showed that the genetic variation among populations was 5.6% while within populations it was 94.4%. A number of 6.6 migrants per generation may support these results. Unambiguous individual assignment to original populations was obtained for the Pilcaniyeu, Las Heras and La Esperanza populations. The erroneous assignment of 18.75% Rio Mayo individuals to the Las Heras population can be explained by the low genetic differentiation found between these two populations. Thirty-nine of 56 loci per population combinations were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium because of guanaco heterozygote deficiency, which may be explained by population subdivision. The high level of genetic diversity of the guanacos analysed here indicates that the Patagonian guanaco constitutes an important genetic resource for conservation or economic utilization programmes.
Descriptors: Lama guanicoe , guanacos, genetic variation, geographical variation, microsatellite repeats, genetic markers, alleles, loci, population genetics, heterozygosity, Argentina.

Novaro, Andres J.; Walker, R.Susan. Human-induced changes in the effect of top carnivores on biodiversity in the Patagonian Steppe. In: Ray, Justina C. Ray; Kent H. Redford; Robert S. Steneck; Joel Berger [Editors]. Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Island Press, Washington. 2005. 2005: 268-288. ISBN: 1559630809
NAL call no.: QL737.C2 L34
Descriptors: loss of native camelids, habitat losses, human competition, livestock and exotic species competition, European hares, red deer, habitat degradation, overgrazing by sheep, after 20 years of reduced hunting and sheep number, native guanacos, choiques, mountain viz-cachas have not recovered, puma and the culpeo numbers have increased, introduced species replaced natural prey, puma keeping guanacos populations low, top predator adaption and changes, Patagonia.

Sarno, R.J.; Bank, M.S.; Stern, H.A.; Franklin W.L. Forced dispersal of juvenile guanacos (Lama guanicoe): causes, variation, and fates of individuals dispersing at different times. 2005 (in press). Submitted to Journal of Mammalogy . ISSN: 1545-1542
NAL call no.:  410 J823
Descriptors:  guanacos, forced dispersal of young animals, causes, outcomes, seasonal differences.

Sosa, Ramon Alberto; Sarasola, Jose Herna. Habitat use and social structure of an isolated population of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in the Monte Desert, Argentina. European Journal of Wildlife Research. 2005; 51(3): 207-209. ISSN: 1612-4642
NAL call no.:
Descriptors: wild guanacos; abundance; habitat use; social structure; foot surveys during 1998-2000; habitat: hills, valleys and piedmonts, and lowlands; types of social groups: solitary males, family groups and male groups; hills used preferentially, followed by valley and piedmont; lowlands avoided; predator avoidance behavior; Lihue Calel National Park, central Argentina.

Wernery, U.; Joseph, M.; Johnson, B.; Kinne, J. Wry-neck - a form of tetanus in camelids. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2005; 12(2): 75-79. ISSN: 0971-6777
NAL call no.: SF997.5.C3 J68
Descriptors: Clostridium tetani , Lama guanicoe, bacterial-toxins, lockjaw, clinical aspects. experimental infections, tetanus toxicity.

Back to Top


Al Ani, F.K.  Classification and breeds. In: Camel: Management and Diseases. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq. 2004; 61-68.
Descriptors: alpacas, guancos, llamas, vicunas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, taxonomy, draft animals, riding animals, dual purpose animals, hybrids, breeds, adaptation, anatomy, physiology, milk and meat production.

Al Ani, F.K.; Ababneh, M.M. South American camelids (SAC). In: Camel: Management and Diseases. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq. 2004; 121-136.
Descriptors:  alpacas, guancos, llamas, vicunas, draft animals, riding animals, breeding, crossbreeding, diseases, husbandry, hematology, meat and milk production, reproduction, pregnancy diagnosis, parturition, physiology, surgery, wool producing animals, South America.

Baldi, Ricardo; Pelliza-Sbriller, Alicia; Elston, David; Albon, Steve. High potential for competition between guanacos and sheep in Patagonia.Journal of Wildlife Management. 2004; 68(4): 924-938. ISSN: 0022-541X.
NAL call no.: 410 J827
Descriptors: guanacos, sheep, diets in sympatric conditions, interspecific competition, fecal sampling, potential species comparison of diet at 9 sites and 2 seasons, diet plants overlap, competition with sheep may have played a role in guanaco populations, arid zones, impact on current management practices, Patagonia.

Campero, J.R. Lama (Lama glama L.) and Guanaco (Lama guanicoe M.): general perspective. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 11-18. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.
Abstract: The highlands of South America form a special ecosystem with an important biodiversity. Since 4 000 or 5 000 years ago, two species of domesticated camelids have developed in this region: the llama and the alpaca, as well as two non-domesticated ones, the guanaco and the vicuna. During the Incas period, these genetic resources played an important role in the development of this ancient culture, but the protagonistic role of Camelids ended abruptly with the Spanish conquest of that South American region five centuries ago. The Spaniards initiated their colonization with the systematic elimination of the camelids and replaced them with their own domestic species, principally sheep and cattle. Along with the Spanish conquest, the mines period begins in these highlands as well; the mines' development requested not only an important quantity of camelids' meat, vegetables and natural energy but also large llama caravans, in order to transport the mines products from highlands to the coast. However, the pastoral communities in those high-risk environments have played a major role in conserving the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuna species. The mining activity along with human pressure on the fragile ecosystem resulted not only in an important loss of biodiversity but also, and most importantly, in the reproduction of poverty. Consequently, today like five centuries ago, the highlands of South America are characterized by three elements: poverty, soils of low quality and camelids. And it is through these elements that they try to resolve their main problem, that is poverty. The analysis of market trends, the review of the historical context of the use of native breeds, and the efforts of highlands people suggest that the rational use of South American Camelids, both domestic and wild ones, can be an economic alternative in many production systems in the South American highlands, on the condition that the regional governments in co-operation with the producers are able to find new markets with fair prices and improve the quality of camelids' products. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, vicunas, guanacos, animal production, biodiversity, ecosystems, socioeconomics, socioeconomic aspects, South America.

Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors]. Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.ICAR-Technical Series. 2004; (11): 163 pp. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
Abstract: This proceedings contains 14 conference papers on the breeding, handling systems and milk, meat and fibre production of Bactrian and dromedary camels, llamas, guanacos, alpacas and vicunas in Asia, Africa, Arab Gulf countries and South America. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, guanacos, llamas, vicunas, fiber producing animals, animal breeding, animal fibers; meat production, milk production, wool production, Africa, Arab Countries, Asia, South America.

De Nigris, Mariana E. Guanaco and huemul in Patagonian hunter-gatherers diet. BAR International Series. 2004; 1298: 11-37. Note: In English with an English and Spanish summary.
Descriptors: guanacos, huemul, Hippocamelus bisulcus, hunter gathers, food animals, South America.

Gonzalez, F.; Smulders, F.J.M.; Paulsen, P.; Skewes, O.; Konig, H.E. Anatomical investigations on meat cuts of guanacos (Lama guanicoe, Muller, 1776) and chemical composition of selected muscles. Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift. 2004; 91(3): 77-84. ISSN: 0043-535X. Note: In English with a German summary.
NAL call no.: 41.8 T345
Descriptors: 70 young male guanacos, wild animals, animal anatomy, body fat, carcass composition and weight, carcass yield, chemical composition, longissimus dorsi muscle, meat composition, meat cuts, meat quality, meat yield, saturated fatty acids, Tierra del Fuego, Chile.

Mate, M.L.; Di Rocco, F.; Zambelli, A.; Vidal-Rioja, L. Mitochondrial DNA structure and organization of the control region of South American camelids.Molecular Ecology Notes. 2004; 4(4): 765-767. ISSN: 1471-8278
NAL call no.: QH541.15.M632
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, vicunas, guanaco, mitochrondrial DNA molecular organization of control region, conserved sequence blocks, potential as a molecular marker to infer data for camelid genetic relationships, population diversity tool.

Medina , Mirta A.; Fernandez, Francisco; Saad, Silvia; Rebuffi, Gustavo; Yapur, Jose. Inmunoglobulinas G de Cadenas pesadas en la leche de los camelidos sudamericanos. [Heavy-chain IgG in the milk of South American camelids.]Mastozoologia Neotropical. 2004; 11(1): 19-26. ISSN: 0327-9383. Note: In Spanish with an English and Spanish summary.
Descriptors: camelids, llama, vicuna, alpaca, guanaco, conventional IgG, IgG with two heavy chains, identify types of IgG in milk, PAGE-SDS, immunoblotting, immunoblotting assays, both types of IgG found.

Mercado, E.C.; Rodriguez, S.M.; Elizondo, A.M.; Marcoppido, G.; Parreno, V. Isolation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from a South American camelid (Lama guanicoe) with diarrhea. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2004; 42(10): 4809-4811 ISSN: 0095-1137
NAL call no.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: 2 year oldguanaco, bacterial infection, clinical picture, case report, bacterial toxins, diagnosis, diarrhea, genes, hemolysins, lipopolysaccharides, PCR, Escherichia coli, O26:H1 1 serotype, toxicity, Argentina.

Middleton, J.R. Haematology of South American camelidae. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition The Camelid Publishers, Bakaner, India. 2004: 400-408. ISBN 8190114123
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: Bactrian camels, alpacas, vicunas, guanacos, llamas, blood chemistry, blood disorders, hematocrit, anemia, blood cells morphology, basophils, bone marrow, dissolved oxygen, eosinophilia, eosinophils, erythrocyte cou nt, erythrocytes, erythropoietin, transferring, hematology, hemoglobin, iron deficiency anemia, leukocyte count, lymphocytes, monocytes, morphology, neutrophils, normal values, platelets, South America.

Otazu, D.A. Alpaca and vicuna: general perspectives. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 31-36. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
Abstract: In the landscapes of the high plains at over 4 000 meters above sea level, thousands of years ago the Incas domesticated two species of the South American camelids: Alpaca and Llama, using techniques that are a mystery to these days. The first one would later be used as a source of soft, fine and resistant fibre and the second one as a mean of transportation. From the two species that continued being wild: Guanaco and especially Vicuna, a fantastic and very fine fibre was obtained, which was reserved only for nobility. Its threads were mixed with gold threads to create varied work of art. It was the fibre of the gods. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, guanacos, vicunas, animal fibers, fiber quality, wool producing animals.

Parreno, V.; Bok, K.; Fernandez, F.; Gomez, J. Molecular characterization of the first isolation of rotavirus in guanacos (Lama guanicoe).Archives of Virology. 2004 Dec; 149(12): 2465-2471. ISSN: 0304-8608
NAL call no.: 448.3 AR23
Descriptors: guanacos, phylogeny, neonates, rotovirus causing diarrhea, molecular structure of virus, first record of guanco pathogen, strain G8, strain GRV Arg-RioNegro 98, strain GRV Arg-Chubut 99, strain P (14-), strain P (1-) Argentina.

Wernery, U.; Kaaden, O.R. Foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review. Veterinary Journal. 2004; 168(2): 134-142. ISSN: 1090-0233
NAL call no.: SF601.V484
Descriptors: South American camelids, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, foot and mouth diseases, infectability, disease transmission risks, dromedaries may contact the disease in experimental infection and close contact with infected animals, camels not FMDV carriers, llamas and alpacas infected by direct contact, not very susceptible and no risk of transmitting to susceptible species, Bactrians have similar lesions, but no samples have been positive, recommend further research in camelids.

Young, Julie K.; Franklin, William L. [Activity budget patterns in family-group and solitary territorial male guanacos.]Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 2004; 77(4): 617-625. ISSN: 0716-078X. Note: In Spanish with an English and Spanish summary.
NAL call no.: QH119.R48
Descriptors: male guanacos, behavioral patterns, aggressive and miscellaneous, territorial, mata barrosa, Mulinum spinosum, resources defended, Torres del Paine National Park, Chile.

Young, Julie K.; Franklin, William L. Territorial fidelity of male guanacos in the patagonia of southern Chile. Journal of Mammalogy. 2004; 85(1): 72-78. ISSN: 0022-2372. Note: In English with an English and Spanish summary.
Descriptors: territorial male guanacos, 10 year study, resource defense polygyny, fluid movement of females between male territories, data on various territory parameters, type, location, size, usage, known age males, solo males, family group m ales, patterns relevant to management and conservation, Torres del Paine National Park, Chile.

Zapata, B.; Gimpel, J.; Bonacic, C.; Gonzalez, B.A.; Riveros, J.L.; Ramirez, A.M.; Bas, F.; Macdonald, D.W. The effect of transport on cortisol, glucose, heart rate, leukocytes and body weight in captive-reared guanacos (Lama guanicoe). Animal Welfare. 2004 Nov; 13(4): 439-444. ISSN: 0962-7286
NAL call no.: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: captive animal transport, guanacos, Lama guanicoe, travel stress factors tested, cortisol, glucose, heart rate, leukocytes, body weight, animal welfare concerns.


Back to Top  
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>
Last Modified: Jan 23, 2014  
AWIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | AgNIC | ARS | Web Policies and Important Links | RSS Feeds | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | | White House