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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on the South American Camelids  / Llamas 2004  Printer Friendly Page
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Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Llamas 2004

Al Ani, F.K. Classification and breeds. In: Camel: Management and Diseases. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq. 2004; 61-68.
Descriptors: alpacas, guancos, llamas, vicunas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, taxonomy, draft animals, riding animals, dual purpose animals, hybrids, breeds, adaptation, anatomy, physiology, milk and meat production.

Al Ani, F.K. Domestication, distribution and population. In: Camel: Management and Diseases. 2004; 1-24. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.
Descriptors: camels, llamas, vicunas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, domestication, geographical distribution, livestock numbers, population dynamics, Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates.
 

Al Ani, F.K.; Ababneh, M.M. South American camelids (SAC). In: Camel: Management and Diseases. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq. 2004; 121-136.
Descriptors: alpacas, guancos, llamas, vicunas, draft animals, riding animals, breeding, crossbreeding, diseases, husbandry, hematology, meat and milk production, reproduction, pregnancy diagnosis, parturition, physiology, surgery, wool producing animals, South America.

Al Izzi, S.A.; Abdouslam, O.E.; Al Bassam, L.S.; Azwai, S.M. Haematological parameters in clinically normal llamas (Lama glama). Praxis Veterinaria Zagreb. 2004; 52(3): 225-232. ISSN: 0350-4441. Note: In English with a summary in Croatian.
Descriptors: llamas, sex and age differences, blood base values, blood composition, proteins, fibrinogen, hemoglobin, prothrombin, thromboplastin, blood cells, basophils, eosinophils, erythrocyte count, leukocyte counts, lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets, reticulocytes.

Alwood, A.J.; Downend, A.B.; Slensky, K.A.; Fox, J.A.; Simpson, S.A.; Donahue, S.M.; Waddell, L.S.; Otto, C.M. 10th international veterinary emergency and critical care symposium, September 8-12, 2004. San Diego, California, USA. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care . 2004; 14(Supplement 1): 18 p. ISSN: 1534-6935. Note: Conference proceedings.
NAL call no.: SF778.J68
Descriptors:  cats, dogs, donkeys, horses, llamas, Clostridium tetani, Escherichia coli, emergency and intensive care, acepromazine, albumins, anesthesics, anticoagulants, antioxidants, antibiotic resistance, benzodiazepines, blood chemistries, transfusions, cardiac diseases, catheterization convulsions, diagnostic techniques, disease control, drug resistance, electrocardiography, electroencephalograms, gastric acid, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhage, heparin, hyperkalaemia, ketamine, morphine, ketoacidosis, lithium, naltrexone, neoplasms, neuroleptics, obstructions, oxygen, respiratory diseases, septicaemia, spinal diseases, tetanus, therapy, transport of animals, troponins, urethra, respiratory distress syndrome, ventilation, seizures, thoracotomy, thromboelastography, thromboembolism, tramadol.
 

Andelt, W.F. Use of livestock guarding animals to reduce predation on livestock. Sheep and Goat Research Journal. 2004; 19(19): 72-75. ISSN: 1535-2587. Note: In the special issue: “Predation.” Includes references.
Descriptors: livestock, predation, working animals, predator control, predators, pest control equipment, dogs, llamas, asses, control methods, literature reviews, wildlife management, livestock production, wildlife livestock relations, sheep, cattle, attachment behavior, goats, loss prevention, guard dogs, US.

Andelt, William F.; Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension Service. Livestock guard dogs, llamas, and donkeys. 2004. Note: "no. 1.218.".
URL:http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/LIVESTK/01218.html
NAL call no: SF428.6
Descriptors: livestock, protection from predators, protective animals, comparison study, llamas, guard dogs, donkeys.

Anderson , D.E. Common surgical procedures in camelids. In: Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, 23-25 September, 2004. 2004: 118-125. ISSN: 0743-0450
NAL call no.: SF961.A5
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedary camels, llamas, surgical procedures, teeth, tooth diseases, abscesses, bone diseases, castration, digestive tract, limb bones, limbs, postoperative care.

Anderson , D.E. Comparison of trace mineral concentration in the various lobes of the liver of alpacas and llamas. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2004; 3(3): 162-164. ISSN: 1680-5593
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, postmortem study, site of liver collection, affects on selected trace metals postmortem study, left lobe, right lobe, caudate lobe, analysed via inductively coupled argon plasma emission, spectroscop y, calcium, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, zinc, potassium.

Anderson , D.E.; Silveira, F.; Grubb, T. Effects of venipuncture and correlation of plasma, serum and saliva cortisol concentration with transportation stress in camelids. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers.  Bikaner, India. 2004: 160-168. ISBN: 8190114123
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedary camels, llamas, camels, animal transport related stress effects, blood chemistry, saliva hydrocortisone, effects of venipuncture, intravenous injection, restraint of animals, stress response.

Anderson , D.E. Liver disease, metabolism and digestion in llamas and alpacas. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers. Bakaner, India. 2004:.545-554. ISBN: 8190114123
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, liver disease, hepatitis, lipidosis, diagnosis, etiology, clinical aspects, therapy, digestion, disease prevalence surveys, disease prevention, energy requirements, epidemiology, metabolism, neoplas ms, poisoning, therapy, toxicity.

Antonini, M.; Gonzales, M.; Valbonesi, A. Relationship between age and postnatal skin follicular development in three types of South American domestic camelids.Livestock Production Science. 2004; 90(2-3): 241-246. ISSN: 0301-6226
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03016226
NAL call no.: SF1.L5
Descriptors: 15 alpaca kids, (10 huacaya and 5 suri types), 10 llama kids (chaku type), age of secondary follicle maturity, skin follicular structure, difference in types, fiber study, shearing recommendation, "Alpaquero" Developing Centre of Toccra, Arequipa Plateau, Caylloma Province, Peru.

Bird, K.E.; Parker, J.E.; Andreasen, C.B.; Watrous, B.J.; Heidel, J.R. Keratinizing ameloblastoma in a 9-month-old llama (Lama glama). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2004; 16(1): 89-92. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: 9 month old llama, odontogenic disease, destruction of bony structure, epithelial neoplasms, mass on face, clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, keratinizing ameloblastoma, treatment via surgical excision at early stage, case report, Oregon, United States.

Burkholder, Tanya H.; Jensen, James; Chen, Hong; Junkins, Katherine; Chatfield, Jenifer; Boothe, Dawn. Plasma evaluation for ivermectin in llamas (Lama glama) after standard subcutaneous dosing. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2004; 35(3): 395-396. ISSN: 1042-7260
URL: http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-archive&issn=1042-7260
Descriptors: 5 llamas, pesticide levels, ivermectin, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, brainworm nematode, meningeal worm, 200 micrograms/kg s.c. injections pharmacokinetics, plasma levels after 4 weeks post injection, dosage not adequate for therapeutic concentration, pharmacokinetics.  

Buttolph, Lita P.; Coppock, D. Layne. Influence of deferred grazing on vegetation dynamics and livestock productivity in an Andean pastoral system. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2004; 41(4): 664-674. ISSN: 0021-8901
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0021-8901
NAL call no.: 410 J828
Descriptors: sheep, llamas, alpacas, rangeland management, range degradation, livestock productivity, equilibrium and non-equilibrium theory, key grazing resources, Andean pastoral ecosystem, fencing of bofedal and gramadal (wet and dry meadows) seasonally deferred grazing practices, peak standing crop, plant species, enclosures increased survival of young alpacas and sheep, different finding for meadow systems, negative effects of privitizing communal resources, Bolivia.

Campero, J.R. Lama (Lama glama L.) and guanaco (Lama guanicoe M.): general perspective. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 11-18. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
URL:http://www.icar.org/DOCS/technical_series_11_sousse.pdf
Abstract: The highlands of South America form a special ecosystem with an important biodiversity. Since 4 000 or 5 000 years ago, two species of domesticated camelids have developed in this region: the llama and the alpaca, as well as two non-domesticated ones, the guanaco and the vicuna. During the Incas period, these genetic resources played an important role in the development of this ancient culture, but the protagonistic role of Camelids ended abruptly with the Spanish conquest of that South American region five centuries ago. The Spaniards initiated their colonization with the systematic elimination of the camelids and replaced them with their own domestic species, principally sheep and cattle. Along with the Spanish conquest, the mines period begins in these highlands as well; the mines' development requested not only an important quantity of camelids' meat, vegetables and natural energy but also large llama caravans, in order to transport the mines products from highlands to the coast. However, the pastoral communities in those high-risk environments have played a major role in conserving the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuna species. The mining activity along with human pressure on the fragile ecosystem resulted not only in an important loss of biodiversity but also, and most importantly, in the reproduction of poverty. Consequently, today like five centuries ago, the highlands of South America are characterized by three elements: poverty, soils of low quality and camelids. And it is through these elements that they try to resolve their main problem, that is poverty. The analysis of market trends, the review of the historical context of the use of native breeds, and the efforts of highlands people suggest that the rational use of South American Camelids, both domestic and wild ones, can be an economic alternative in many production systems in the South American highlands, on the condition that the regional governments in co-operation with the producers are able to find new markets with fair prices and improve the quality of camelids' products. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, vicunas, guanacos, animal production, biodiversity, ecosystems, socioeconomics, socioeconomic aspects, South America.

Campero, J.R. Camelids in South America. Lama (Lama pacos) production systems in Bolivia. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 145-158. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
URL:http://www.icar.org/DOCS/technical_series_11_sousse.pdf
Abstract: In this paper, a review about the historical and actual context of the lama production systems, with special focus in the Bolivian Altiplano Lama Production Systems (BALPS) is presented. The BALPS are possible to include in two general systems manned Pastoral (lama, or/and alpaca and sheep) System and Agropastoral System, and gather near 54 thousands productive units. During the last five centuries, the life of many people in these systems was very hard, and the poverty and social exclusion are the principal results. Lama is the principal livestock component and has historically been used for their high protein meat, transporting merchandise along the Incan, colonial and republican roads, and in religious rituals; it provides the family with economic security, manure, traction and transport and has and specific cultural significance; moreover, in those Agropastoral Systems, the quantity of manure determined the extension of agricultural activities. In Bolivia as in other countries, the llamas' productive systems are, still, traditional and based on the extensive used of the native pastures. The productivity of the grasslands, not only is scare but too it has low quality as a result of the extreme climatic fluctuations, characterized for periods prolonged of frosts and droughts, and depended of a ecosystem fragile, marginal and inaccessible. However, the Altiplano, also presents opportunities as its biological diversity and the extreme conditions have generated traditional practices and knowledge that joint with modern technologies should be used to improve the actual low productive systems. The planners of Ministery of Rural Affairs and Agricultural of Bolivia consider that the successful developed of the camelid chain with fiber, meat, and leather productions require to develop of special markets as organic or ecological markets, and consider that this can be a one of a few opportunities that have the Altiplano people in order to resolved the secular poverty cycle. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llama,alpacas, agropastoral systems, animal production, ecosystems, pastoralism, poverty, socioeconomic aspects, reviews, Bolivia.

Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors]. Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.ICAR-Technical-Series. 2004; (11): 163 pp. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
URL:http://www.icar.org/DOCS/technical_series_11_sousse.pdf
Abstract: This proceedings contains 14 conference papers on the breeding, handling systems and milk, meat and fibre production of Bactrian and dromedary camels, llamas, guanacos, alpacas and vicunas in Asia, Africa, Arab Gulf countries and South America. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, guanacos, llamas, vicunas, fiber producing animals, animal breeding, animal fibers, meat production, milk production, wool production, Africa, Arab Countries, Asia, South America.

Castellaro G., G.; Ullrich R., T.; Wackwitz, B.; Raggi S., A. Composicion botanica de la dieta de alpacas (Lama pacos L.) y llamas (Lamaglama L.) en dos estaciones del ano, en praderas altiplan icas de un sector de la Provincia de Parinacota, Chile.[ Botanical composition of alpaca (Lama pacos) and llama (Lama glama) diets in two seasons of the year on highland ranges of Parinacota Province, Chile.] Agricultura Tecnica. 2004; 64(4): 353-363. ISSN: 0365-2807. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0365-2807
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, botanical composition of diets, grazing, winter dry and summer wet seasons, matter, dry matter, grazing, Deschampsia cespitosa, Agrostis tolucensis, Festuca nardifolia, Festuca orthophylla, Oxychloe, Oxychloe andina, Parastrephia lucida, Ranunculus uniflorus, highland range of Parinacota, Chile.

Cebra, C.K.; Tornquist, S.J. Assessment of the effects of epinephrine and insulin on plasma and serum biochemical variables in llamas and alpacas.American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2004 Dec; 65(12): 1692-1696. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, blood values, plasma, serum biochemical variables, effects of epinephrine and insulin.
 

Cebra, C.K.; Tornquist, S.J.; Jester, R.M.; Stelletta, C. Assessment of the effects of feed restriction and amino acid supplementation on glucose tolerance in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2004 Jul; 65(7): 996-1001. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: llamas, glucose tolerance, effects of feed restriction, amino acid supplementation.

Cebra, C.K.; Tornquist, S.J.; Jester, R.M.; Stelletta, C. Assessment of the metabolic effects of hydrocortisone on llamas before and after feed restriction.American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2004 Jul; 65(7): 1002-1005. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: llamas, comparison study, pre and post feed restriction, metabolic effects of hydrocortisone.

Cecchi, Teresa; Cozzali, Claudia; Passamonti, Paolo; Ceccarelli, Piero; Pucciarelli, Filippo; Gargiulo, Anna Maria; Frank, Eduardo-Nargiso; Renieri, Carlo. Melanins and melanosomes from llama (Lamaglama L.). Pigment Cell Research. 2004; 17(3): 307-311. ISSN: 0893-5785
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=1755-1471
Descriptors: adult pigmented Argentine llamas, analysis of melanins and melanosomes, hair and skin samples, eumelanins, pheomelanins, alkali-soluable melanins, eumelanosome shapes, black, reddish brown, dark brown, melanosomes a t stages I, II, III, IV described.

Centeno-Condori, Raul; Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit. Manual de Capacitacion en Sanidad y Crianza de llamas. [ La Paz?]: GTZ Cooperacion Tecnica Alemana, [2004]. Note: In Spanish.
NAL call no.: SF401.L6.C46 2004
Descriptors: llamas, health and care.

Chavez-Velasquez, A.; Alvarez-Garcia, G.; Collantes-Fernandez, E.; Casas-Astos, E.; Rosadio-Alcantara, R.; Serrano-Martinez, E.; Ortega-Mora, L.M. First report of Neospora caninum infection in adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas (Lama glama). Journal of Parasitology. 2004 Aug; 90(4): 864-866. ISSN: 0022-3395
URL: http://www.journalofparasitology.org/perlserv/?request=index-html
NAL call no.: QH547.I55
Descriptors:Vicugna, vicunas, alpacas, llamas, Neospora caninum, protozoal disease, neosporosis, new host records, adult animals, seroprevalence, antibody detection, fluorescent antibody technique, immunoblotting, Western blotting, Peru.

Clauss, M.; Lendl, C.; Schramel, P.; Streich, W.J. Skin lesions in alpacas and llamas with low zinc and copper status - a preliminary report. Veterinary Journal. 2004; 167(3): 302-305. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233
NAL call no.: SF601.V484
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, species differences, breed differences, sex differences, 13 llamas, 17 huacaya alpacas, 18 suri alpacas predisposition to skin lesions, dry scaly lesions, dietary deficiencies of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies, fleece color, non-white colors, wool, Germany.
 

Coates, W.; Ayerza, R. Comparison of llama fiber obtained from two production regions of Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments. 2004 Sep; 58(4): 513-524. ISSN: 0140-1963
URL: http://www.elsevier.com
NAL call no.: QH541.5.D4J6
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, farmed animal species, arid zones, overgrazing, environmental degradation, animal production, animal breeding, fiber differences, fleece, color, fiber quality, selection criteria, sustainable agricu lture, Argentina.
 

Coates, Wayne; Ayerza, Ricardo. Fatty acid composition of llama muscle and internal fat in two Argentinian herds.Small Ruminant Research. 2004; 52(3): 231-238. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Descriptors: castrated llama male, muscle meat composition, internal fats, fatty acids, cholesterol and fats than beef, higher 3 fatty acid content, castration improves meat quality.

Cristofanelli, S.; Antonini, M.; Torres, D.; Polidori, P.; Renieri, C. Meat and carcass quality from Peruvian llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos). Meat Science. 2004 Mar; 66(3): 589-593. ISSN: 0309-1740
URL: http://www.elsevier.com
NAL call no.: TX373.M4
Abstract: An experiment based on 20 llama males and 40 alpaca males reared in Peru has been carried out with the aim to evaluate the live growth performances, carcass quality, the nutritional characteristics of meat from animals slaughtered at 25 months of age, and to determine the physica l and chemical parameters of meat obtained from these animals. The live body weights registered during the 25 months of the experiment were significantly lower in alpaca compared with llama. In llama carcasses were significantly h igher both warm and cold carcass weight (P < 0.001) but dressing percentage was higher in alpacas (P < 0.01). The glycolityc fine-course was very similar both in llama and in alpaca muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum. C hemical composition of muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum taken from llama and alpaca carcasses was significantly different (P < 0.01) in ash content; cholesterol content was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in llama meat compared with alpaca.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, male animals, alternative livestock, growth, body weight, 25 months old at slaughter, longissimus dorsi, physical and chemical parameters of meat, postmortem changes. pH, nutritional value of meat, carcass quality and weight, dressing percentage, meat quality, moisture content, lipid content, protein content, ash content, cholesterol, water holding capacity, species comparison, Peru.

Deforges, L.; Boulouis, H.J.; Thibaud, J.L.; Boulouha, L.; Sougakoff, W.; Blot, S.; Hewinson, G.; Truffot-Pernot, C.; Haddad, N. First isolation of Mycobacterium microti (Llama-type) from a dog. Veterinary Microbiology. 2004 Nov 15; 103(3-4): 249-253. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.08.019
NAL call no.: SF601.V44
Abstract: We report the first isolation of Mycobacterium microti from a dog with lesions of acute peritonitis. The isolate was demonstrated to be M. microti of Llama-Type by spoligotyping. Epidemiological implications of the isolation of this possibly zoonotic agent from a dog are discussed.
Descriptors: dogs, Mycobacterium microti, dog diseases, mycobacterial diseases, case studies, lesions, peritonitis, llamas, zoonoses, epidemiology, host-range.
 

Dixon, Amy. Animal management at Auckland Zoo. 1. Clicker training llamas.IZN International Zoo News. 2004 Jan-Feb; 51(1): 14-17; no. 330. ISSN: 0020-9155
URL: http://www.zoonews.ws/IZN/
Descriptors: llamas, zoo animals, animal training techniques, care in captivity, clicker conditioning, Auckland Zoo, New Zealand.

Drew, M.L.; Johnson, L.; Pugh, D.; Navarre, C.B.; Taylor, I.T.; Craigmill, A.L. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur in llamas and alpacas.Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2004; 27(1): 13-20. ISSN: 0140-7783
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com
NAL call no.: SF915.J63
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, ceftiofur sodium, pharmacokinetics, antiobiotics, dosages based on other domestic species, disposition studies, intramuscular administration in llamas, intravenous and intramuscular administration in alpacas, ser ial timed blood sampling, similar to values in sheep and goats.
 

DuBois, W.R.; Prado, T.M.; Ko, J.C.H.; Mandsager, R.E.; Morgan, G.L. A comparison of two intramuscular doses of xylazine-ketamine combination and tolazoline reversal in llamas. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2004; 31(2): 90-9 6. ISSN: 1467-2987
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=1467-2987&site=1
NAL call no.: SF914.V47
Descriptors: llamas, animal restraint, surgery, analgesia, anesthetics, xylazine, tolazoline, ketamine, blood gases, blood pressure, arterial pressure, heart rate, conduction anesthesia, dosage effects, electrocardiograms, animal restraint, hemoglobin, intramuscular injection, respiration, pharmacodynamics, pharmacology.
 

Graziotti, Guillermo H.; Palencia, Pablo; Delhon, Gustavo; Rivero, Jose Luis L. Neuromuscular partitioning, architectural design, and myosin fiber types of the M. vastus lateralis of the llama (Lama glama).Journal of Morphology. 2004; 262(2): 667-681. ISSN: 0362-2525
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/109627426/PDFSTART
Descriptors: adult llamas, locomotory muscles, three fast myosin heavy chain isoforms (i.e., IIA, IIX, IIB), morphological and functional skeletal musculature, neuromuscular partitioning, architectural design, myosin fiber types, M. vastus late ralis, description of the muscle, Sihler’s technique, femoral nerve, deep partitions, functional adaptions.
 

Graziotti, G.H.; Rodriguez-Menendez, J.; Montesano, A.; Jalley, S.; Affricano, N.O.; Victorica, C.L. Tipos fibrilares en diversos musculos de llama (Lama glama) de interes zootecnico. [Fibre types in different llama (Lama glama) muscles used as meat source.]InVet--Investigacion Veterinaria. 2004; 6(1): 21-27. ISSN: 1514-6634. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: www.fvet.uba.ar/invet/contendos.htm
Descriptors: llamas, muscle fiber types, meat production, meat quality, biceps femoris, gluteus medius, rectus femoris and semitendinosus muscles, staining with myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase, taste, juiciness, pH postmortem.

Gauly, M.; Erhardt, G; Dzapo ,V.  Annual changes in serum levels of thyroid hormones in mal e llamas (Lama glama) and their correlation with reproduction parameters. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers, Bakaner, India. 2004: 186-194. ISBN: 8190114123
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors:  male llamas, male fertility, factors affecting reproductive efficiency, reproductive performance, blood chemistry, ejaculate volume, semen, spermatozoa, environmental temperature, hormone secretion, seasonal variation, thyroid gland, thyroxine, triiodothyronine.

Gauly, M. Tierschutzaspekte bei der Haltung Neuweltkameliden. [Aspects of animal welfare in South American Camelids husbandry.] DTW-Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift. 2004; 111(3): 127-130.  ISSN: 0341-6593. Note: In German.
NAL call no.: 41.8 D482
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, animal welfare, guidelines development, husbandry, feeding, lack of basic knowledge about requirements, veterinary care, education needed, Germany.
 

Hunter, Robert P.; Isaza, Ramiro; Koch, David E.; Dodd, Charles C.; Goately, Marie A. Moxidectin plasma concentrations following topical administration to llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos).Small Ruminant Research. 2004; 52(3): 275-279. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, extra label usage of pharmaceuticals, pharmacokinetic parameters between species, study of pour-on moxidectin, clipped along dorsal midline, serial blood sampling post dosing, variability in absorption, moxidectin not well absorbed, no adverse affects, pharmacokinetic parameters not determined.
 

Hunter, R.P.; Isaza, R.; Koch, D.E.; Dodd, C.C.; Goatley, M.A. The pharmacokinetics of topical doramectin in llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2004; 27(3): 187-189. ISSN: 0140-7783
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=1467-2987&site=1
NAL call no.: SF915.J63
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, avermectin, doramectin,avermectin encectocide, milbecycin, moxidectin, plasma concentration, pharmecokinectics, topical treatments.
 

Kalicki, M. Powikania ciazy i porodu u ssakow z gdanskiego zoo w latach 1995-1999. [Pregnancy complications and cases of dystocia in mammals in Gdansk Zoo in 1995-1999.]Zycie Weterynaryjne. 2004; 79(3): 152-153. ISSN: 0137-6810. Note: In Polish.
URL: http://www.vetpol.org.pl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59
&Itemid=61

NAL call no.: SF604.Z9
Descriptors: captive zoo animals, includes 1 pony, 1 zebra, 1 llama, 2 dromedaries,687 mammalian pregnancies, spontaneous miscarriage, dystocia, pregnancy complications.
 

Knight, A.P. Plant poisoning of small ruminants. In: Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, 23-25 September, 2004. 2004: 127-134. ISSN: 0743-0450
NAL call no.: SF961.A5
Descriptors: sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, grazing and browsing toxic plants, grazing behavior, toxic plant danger when overgrazing, drought, access to high levels of toxic plants, oxalates, nitrates, cyanogenic glycosides, photosensitizing compounds, Halogeton glomeratus, Cicuta douglasii, Conium maculatum, Eupatorium rugosum, Xanthium, Karwinskia, North America.

Kraus, M.S.; Calvert, C.A.; Spier, A.W.; Meurs, K.M.; Anderson, D.E. Determination of electrocardiographic parameters in healthy llamas and alpacas.American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2004 Dec.; 65(12): 1719-1723. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, healthly animals, cardiac scanning, electrocardiographic parameters.
 

Kutzler, Michelle A.; Baker, Rocky J.; Mattson, Donald E. Humoral response to West Nile virus vaccination in aluiacas and llamas.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004; 225(3): 414-416. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/javma
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, horses, equine West Nile virus vaccine, humoral responses, clinical trial, vaccine intervals varied, results indicate the vaccine is safe.
 

Leroy, J.L.; Flahou, T.; Moerloose, K.; de Kruif, A. De voortplanting bij de llama- en de alpacamerrie. [The reproduction in llama and alpaca mares.]Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift. 2004; 73(5): 31 0-316. ISSN: 0303-9021. Note: In Dutch with an English summary.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, females, care in those imported into Europe, veterinary care, reproduction and breeding, assisted reproductive techniques, pregnancy, pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive efficiency, reproductive performance, Belgium.

Long, P. A practitioner approach to llama and alpaca nutrition. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers, Bakaner, India. 2004; 747-749. ISBN: 8190114123
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, animal husbandry, animal nutrition, body condition, nutrient requirements, wool producing animals, Arab countries.

Majewska, M.; Panasiewicz, G.; Klisch, K.; Olivera, L.; Abd Elnaeim, M.M.; Borkowski, K.; Szafranska, B. Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) in camelids.Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2004; 39(4): 282-283. ISSN: 0936-6768. Note 8th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction (ESDAR), Warsaw, Poland; September 23-25, 2004
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0936-6768&site=1
NAL call no.: SF105.A1Z8
Descriptors: camelids, camels, llamas, alpaca, reproductive biochemistry, glycoproteins, pregnancy, PAG gene.

Mate, M.L.; Di Rocco, F.; Zambelli, A.; Vidal-Rioja, L. Mitochondrial DNA structure and organization of the control region of South American camelids.Molecular Ecology Notes. 2004; 4(4): 765-767. ISSN: 1471-8278
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=1755-098X&site=1
NAL call no.: QH541.15.M632
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, vicunas, guanaco, mitochrondrial DNA molecular organization of control region, conserved sequence blocks, potential as a molecular marker to infer data for camelid genetic relationships, population diversity tool.
 

McClelland, Grant B. Fat to the fire: the regulation of lipid oxidation with exercise and environmental stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2004; 139(3): 443-460. ISSN: 1096-4959
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10964959
NAL call no.: QP501.C3
Descriptors: rats, horses, humans, fish, birds, llamas, dogs, squids, submaximal aerobic exercise, lipid oxidation, fatty acids, exercise, environmental stress, muscles.

Medina , Mirta A.; Fernandez, Francisco; Saad, Silvia; Rebuffi, Gustavo; Yapur, Jose.   Inmunoglobulinas G de Cadenas pesadas en la leche de los camelidos sudamericanos.  [Heavy-chain IgG in the milk of South American camelids.]Mastozoologia Neotropical. 2004; 11(1): 19-26. ISSN: 0327-9383. Note: In Spanish with an English and Spanish summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar
Descriptors: camelids, llamas, vicunas, alpacas, guanacos, conventional IgG, IgG with two heavy chains, identify types of IgG in milk, PAGE-SDS, immunoblotting, immunoblotting assays, both types of IgG found.

Middleton, J.R. Haematology of South American camelidae. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers, Bakaner, India. 2004: 400-408. ISBN: 8190114123
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: Bactrian camels, alpacas, vicunas, guanacos, llamas, blood chemistry, blood disorders, hematocrit, anemia, blood cells morphology, basophils, bone marrow, dissolved oxygen, eosinophilia, eosinophils, erythrocyte cou nt, erythrocytes, erythropoietin, transferring, hematology, hemoglobin, iron deficiency anemia, leukocyte count, lymphocytes, monocytes, morphology, neutrophils, normal values, platelets, South America.

Odbileg, R.; Konnai, S.; Ohashi, K.; Onuma, M. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of inflammatory cytokines of Camelidae (llama and camel). Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2005; 67(9): 921-925. ISSN: 0916-7250
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.67.921
Abstract: We cloned, sequenced and analysed the complementary DNAs encoding Camelidae inflammatory cytokines, including llama (Lama glama) interleukin (IL)-1 alpha , IL-1 beta , IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha and camel (Camelus bactrianus) IL-6 and TNF- alpha. The similarity levels of the deduced amino acid sequences of IL-1 alpha , IL-1 beta , IL-6 and TNF- alpha from llama (camel) to those from other mammalian species, ranged from 60.7-87.7%, 52.8-75.3%, 41.4-98.6 and 72.9-99.6%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on nucleic acid sequences showed that llama IL-1 alpha , IL-1 beta , IL-6 and TNF- alpha were more closely related to those of camel, pig, cattle, sheep and horse than to those of human, dog, cat, mouse and rat. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, Bactrian camel, cachectin, cachexin, cytokines. amino acid sequences, complementary DNA, DNA cloning, immune system, immunity, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, nucleotide sequences, phylogenetics, tumor necrosis factor.

Odbileg, R.; Lee, SungIl; Yoshida, R.; Chang, KyungSoo; Ohashi, K.; Sugimoto, C.; Onuma, M. Cloning and sequence analysis of llama cytokines related to cell-mediated immunity. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2004; 99(1/2): 1-10. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://www.elsevier.com
NAL call no.: SF757.2.V38
Descriptors: llamas, pigs, cattle, amino acid sequences, cell mediated immunity, complementary DNA, cytokines, DNA cloning, genes, interferon, interleukin 12, interleukin 12p35, interleukin 12p40, interleukin 2, nucleotide sequences, open rea ding frames, species differences, T lymphocytes.

Oevermann, A.; Pfyffer, G.E.; Zanolari, P.; Meylan, M.; Robert, N. Generalized tuberculosis in llamas (Lama glama) due to Mycobacterium microti. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2004; 42(4): 1818-1821
URL:  http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/4/1818
NAL call no.: QR46.J6
Descriptors: 2 llamas, caseous nodules, acid fast bacilli in various organs, tuberculosis, spoligotyping, Mycobacterium microti (vole type), infectivity, post mortem study.

Otazu, D.A. Alpaca and vicuna: general perspectives. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 31-36. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
URL:http://www.icar.org/DOCS/technical_series_11_sousse.pdf
Abstract: In the landscapes of the high plains at over 4 000 meters above sea level, thousands of years ago the Incas domesticated two species of the South American camelids: Alpaca and Llama, using techniques that are a mystery to these days. The first one would later be used as a source of soft, fine and resistant fibre and the second one as a mean of transportation. From the two species that continued being wild: Guanaco and especially Vicuna, a fantastic and very fine fibre was obtained, which was reserved only for nobility. Its threads were mixed with gold threads to create varied work of art. It was the fibre of the gods. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, guanacos, vicunas, animal fibers, fiber quality, wool producing animals.

Patel, J.H.; Kosheluk, C.; Nation, P.N. Renal teratoma in a llama.Canadian Veterinary Journal - La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2004 Nov; 45(11): 938-940. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a summary in French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=545984
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: llamas, renal teratoma, diseases, diagnosis, treatment, case study.

Pugh, D.G.; Waldridge, B.M. Goat and llama trace mineral nutrition. In: “Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Forth Worth, Texas, City, USA, 23-25 September, 2004.” 2004: 112-113.
NAL call no.: SF961.A5
Descriptors: goats, llamas, mineral nutrition, nutritional edema, trace element deficiencies, copper, selenium, zinc.

Pugh, D.G.; Waldridge, B.; Wenzel, J.G.W. Trace mineral nutrition in llamas. In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers, Bikaner, India. 2004: 728-737. ISBN: 8190114123
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: llamas, trace mineral nutrition, nutrient requirements, mineral deficiency diseases, copper, zinc, iodine, iron, selenium, clinical aspects, dietary minerals, disease prevention, mineral nutrition, reviews.

Ramos Vara, J.A.; Loiacono, C.M.; Williams, F. III; Pardo, I.; Lakritz, J. Pulmonary neoplasia in two llamas (Lama glama). Veterinary Pathology. 2004; 41(5): 520-523. ISSN: 0300-9858
URL: http://vet.sagepub.com/content/41/5/520.full
NAL call no.: 41.8 P27
Descriptors: llamas, pulmonary tumors, description of the types of cells and nodules, neoplasms, adenosquamous carcinoma, clinical aspects, histopathology, diagnosis, case reports.

Ray, W.M.; Gustafson, S.B.; Huber, M.J. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in a llama with a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004 Dec 1; 225(11): 1739-1742. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: A 3-year-old 155-kg (342-lb) castrated male llama was examined because of left hind limb lameness of acute onset. A diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament rupture was made, and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy was recommended. The tibial plateau leveling osteotomy procedure was performed as described for dogs, except that 2 orthopaedic plates were used to stabilize the osteotomy because of the size of the llama. The medial collateral ligament was sutured and reinforced with 2 strands of size-2 polypropylene placed in a figure-8 fashion between cancellous bone screws in the femur and tibia. Four days after surgery, failure of the medial collateral ligament repair was evident. Approximately 3.5 years after surgery, the llama was reexamined. The owners reported that the llama had full use of its left hind limb, and only mild lameness (grade 1 of 5) was evident. Results suggest that tibial plateau leveling osteotomy may be applicable in camelids with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. However, additional study is needed before tibial plateau leveling osteotomy can be routinely recommended. In particular, additional information is needed on the tibial plateau slope in healthy camelids, the role of the fibula in tibial plateau leveling osteotomy procedures, and the prevalence of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in camelids.
Descriptors: llama, case study, ruptured cranial cruciate ligament, treatment, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy, recovery.

Reggiani, C.; Mascarello, F. Fibre type identification and functional characterization in adult livestock animals. In: Muscle Development of Livestock Animals: Physiology, Genetics and Meat Quality. 2004; 39-68. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. ISBN: 0851998119
NAL call no.: SF768.M87 2004
Descriptors: llamas, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, adult animals, livestock, myofibrils, muscle contraction, muscle fatigue, muscle fibers, muscle physiology.

Rojas, X.; Munoz, S.; Otto, B.; Perez, B.; Nielsen, K. Utilizacion de los test de Fluorescencia Polarizada (FP) y Elisa de Competencia (C-Elisa) en el diagnostico de brucelosis de camelidos. [The use of polarized fluorescence as say (PF) and competitive ELISA test (C-ELISA) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in South American camelids.] Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria. 2004; 36(1): 59-64. ISSN:  0301-732X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.cl
NAL call no.: SF604.A75
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, Brucella, bacterial disease, diagnostic techniques, detection of antibodies, assays, camelid sera, fluorescence polarization assay (PF), competitive ELISA (C-ELISA), rose Bengal (RB), seroagglutination (SAT), comple ment fixation (CF) tests.

Serrano Martinez, E.; Collantes Fernandez, E.; Rodriguez Bertos, A.; Casas Astos, E.; Alvarez Garcia, G.; Chavez Velasquez, A.; Ortega Mora, L.M. Neospora species-associated abortion in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas (Lama glama).Veterinary Record— London. 2004 Dec 4; 155(23): 748-749. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: alpacas, Vicugna pacos, llamas, Lama glama, abortion associated with Neospora sp.

Spinelli, Silvia; Desmyter, Aline; Frenken, Leon; Verrips, Theo; Tegoni, Mariella; C ambillau, Christian. Domain swapping of a llama VHH domain builds a crystal-wide beta-sheet structure.FEBS Letters. 2004; 564(1-2): 35-40. ISSN: 0014-5793
URL: http://www.febsletters.org/
NAL call no.: QD415.F4
Descriptors: camelids, llamas, VHH-R9 heavy chair functional antibodies, description of the structure, domain swapping, molecular properties, hapten, immunoglobulin proteins.

Tichit, M.; Ingrand, S.; Moulin, C.H.; Cournut, S.; Lasseur, J.; Dedieu, B. Analyser la diversite des trajectoires productives des femelles reproductrices: interets pour modeliser le fonctionnement du troupeau en elevage allaitant. [Analysis of the diversity of breeding female productive trajectories: interest for modelling the functioning of suckling herds.] Productions Animales (Paris). 2004; 17(2): 123-132. ISSN: 0990-0632. Note: In French.
URL: http://www.inra.fr
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, llamas, variable animal productivity, production trajectory herd model, based on 6 case studies, breeding and replacement practices, decreasing or increasing within herd diversity of female productive trajectories, consequences for modelling herd functioning are reviewed.

Tichit, Muriel; Hubert, Bernard; Doyen, Luc; Genin, Didier. A viability model to assess the sustainability of mixed herds under climatic uncertainty.Animal Research. 2004; 53(5): 405-417. ISSN: 1627-3583
URL: http://animres.edpsciences.org/
Descriptors: llamas, sheep, herd diversification strategies, breeding rate control, unpredictable environmental conditions, dynamic mathematical model, different levels of care practices, efficiency measurements, animal producti on system sustainability, pastoral system management in arid conditions, Bolivia.

Vaughan , J.L. Eradication of the carnelid biting louse, Bovicola breviceps.Australian Veterinary Journal. 2004; 82(4): 218-219. ISSN: 0005-0423
URL: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com:443/journal.asp?ref=0005-0423&site=1
NAL call no.: 41.8 AU72
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, sheep, camelid biting louse, Bovicola breviceps, common parasite, pesticide, egg counts, shearing, treatment, Extinosad (spinosad 25 g/l spinosad suspension concentrate) with wetting agent, efficacy of treatment.

Waldridge, B.M.; Duran, S.H.; Ravis, W.R.; Paxton, R.; Herdt, T.H.; Pugh, D.G. Pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous selenium in adult llamas.Veterinary Therapeutics Research in Applied Veterinary Medicine. 2004 Winter; 5(4): 272-278. ISSN: 1528-3593
NAL call no.: SF601.V4
Abstract: Selenium (Se) deficiency disease has been described in camelids, and only clinical data are available for administration of parenteral Se supplements. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic effects of subcutaneous Se injection (0.1 mg/kg) in llamas fed a diet adequate in Se. Absorption of Se was rapid, with peak whole blood Se concentration at the first sampling time. Significant differences in whole blood Se concentration before versus after injection of Se were not found beyond 2 days after injection. Parenteral Se is unlikely to have a long-term effect on whole blood Se concentration in llamas fed adequate dietary Se. 745
Descriptors: llamas, subcutaneous selenium, pharmacokinetics, deficiency diseases, dietary mineral supplements.

Wauters, J.J.M.; Duchi, N.; Guevara, P.; Onate, W.; Castillo, P.; Lopez, J.; de Wilde, R. Comparison of the digestibility of paja de paramo and barley straw between sheep (Ovis aries), llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama paco). In: Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition. The Camelid Publishers, Bakaner, India. 2004: 766-769. ISBN: 8190114123
NAL call no.: SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors: sheep, llamas, alpacas, animal nutrition, forage, feed digestibility study, barley straw, Hordeum vulgare, lignin, nutritive value, species differences, Calamagrostis rigida, Festuca dolichophyla, Festuca humilior, Muhlembergia angustata.

Webb, A.I.; Baynes, R.E.; Craigmill, A.L.; Riviere, J.E.; Haskell, S.R.R. Drugs approved for small ruminants.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004; 224(4): 520-523. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: alpacas, deer, goats, llamas, sheep, drugs for small ruminants, pharmacology, regulations.

Wernery, U.; Kaaden, O.R. Foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review. Veterinary Journal. 2004; 168(2): 134-142. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233
NAL call no.: SF601.V484
Descriptors: South American camelids, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, foot and mouth diseases, infectability, disease transmission risks, dromedaries may contact the disease in experimental infection and close contact with infected animals, camels not FMDV carriers, llamas and alpacas infected by direct contact, not very susceptible and no risk of transmitting to suspectible species, Bactrians have similar lesions, but no samples have been positive, recommend further research in camelids.

 

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