National Agricultural Library
Animal Welfare Information Center
HomeAbout AWICPublicationsWorkshopsServicesNews and EventsHelpContact Us
Search AWIC
Search all of the United States Department of Agriculture
Advanced search
Browse by Subject
Research Animals
Farm Animals
Zoo, Circus and Marine Animals
Companion Animals
Government and Professional Resources
Literature Searching and Databases
Pain and Distress
Humane Endpoints and Euthanasia
You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on the South American Camelids  / Llamas 2005  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>


Llamas 2005

Adams, G.P.; Ratto, M.H.; Huanca, W.; Jaswant Singh. Ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas.Biology of Reproduction. 2005; 73(3): 452-457. ISSN: 0006-3363
Abstract: Studies were conducted to document the existence of an ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas (experiment 1) and llamas (experiment 2) and to determine if the effect is mediated via the pituitary (experiment 3). In experiment 1, female alpacas (n=14 per group) were given alpaca seminal plasma or saline intramuscularly or by intrauterine infusion. Only alpacas that were given seminal plasma i.m. ovulated (13/14, 93%; P<0.01). In experiment 2, ovulation was detected in 9/10 (90%) llamas at a mean of 29.3+or-0.7 h after seminal plasma treatment. Plasma progesterone concentrations were maximal by Day 9 and were at nadir by Day 12 post-treatment. In experiment 3, female llamas were given llama seminal plasma, GnRH, or saline i.m., and ovulation was detected in 6/6, 5/6, and 0/6 llamas, respectively (P<0.001). Treatment was followed by a surge (P<0.01) in plasma LH concentration beginning 15 min and 75 min after treatment with GnRH and seminal plasma, respectively. Plasma LH remained elevated longer in the seminal plasma group (P<0.05) and had not yet declined to pre-treatment levels after 8 h. Compared with the GnRH group, corpus luteum tended to grow longer and to a greater diameter (P=0.1) and plasma progesterone concentration was twice as high in the seminal plasma group (P<0.01). Results document the existence of a potent factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas that elicited a surge in circulating concentrations of LH and induced an ovulatory and luteotropic response. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, blood chemistry, blood plasma, corpus luteum, GnRH, LH, ovaries, ovulation, ovulation rate, pituitary, progesterone, semen, seminal plasma, gonadoliberin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, hypophysis, pituitary gland.

Alexander,.K.; Drost, W.T.; Mattoon, J.S.; Anderson, D.E. 99mTC-ciprofloxacin in imaging of clinical infections in camelids and a goat. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound. 2005; 46(4): 340-347. ISSN: 1058-8183
Abstract: 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was used to image five adult camelids and a juvenile goat with clinical and/or radiographic signs of infection. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin (range 10-33 MBq/kg) was injected intravenously and a series of 2-min static images were acquired at 1- and 4-h postinjection. At 24-h postinjection, 5-min static images were acquired. Only the skull or abdomen was imaged in the adults; the whole body was imaged in the goat. The quality of the 1-, 4-, and 24-h studies was evaluated subjectively. Normal and abnormal areas of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin uptake were recorded and subjectively graded as mild, moderate or intense. Image quality was best 4-h postinjection. Twenty-four-hour images were poor because of insufficient radioactivity. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin imaging resulted in true positive or true negative scans in four of six animals. Two false-negative studies occurred. Intense 99mTc-ciprofloxacin activity was seen in the lungs and urinary bladder, moderate/intense activity in the kidneys, and mild activity in the physes/epiphyses, liver and intermittently in the gastrointestinal tract. The normal distribution of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in camelids/small ruminants differed from people. Further studies to determine the sensitivity and specificity of infection detection using 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in animals are warranted.
Descriptors: alpacas, goats, goat kids, llamas, glue ear infections, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus, abscesses, clinical aspects, etiology, antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, drug therapy, osteomyelitis, otitis media, radiography, scintigraphy, tissue distribution, Ohio, US.

Anna, M.V.; Aurelia, R.R. Characteristics of selected parameters of hair from llamas (Lama glama) kept at Warsaw Zoo. Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University, Animal Science. 2005; (43): 35-39. ISSN: 0208-5739. Note: In English with a Polish summary.
NAL call no.: SF15.B7 A62
Abstract: The main characteristics of hair fibre from llamas kept in Warsaw Zoo were analysed. Two fractions were observed: thin inner (down) and thicker outer (medullated). Thin hair from the down fraction accounted for 93.96% of the samples examined. The thickness of the hair from the down fraction and thick medullated fraction was 23.35 and 70.70 micro m, respectively. The difference in diameter allowed easy hair separation. The length of both fractions was 13.40 cm for down and 19.50 cm for medullated.
Descriptors: llamas, zoo animals, wool producing animals, animal fibers, hair characteristics, length, thickness, wool, Poland.

Bruford, M.W. Molecular approaches to understanding animal domestication: what have we learned so far? World Poultry Science Association, 4 th European Poultry Genetics Symposium, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 6-8-October, 2005. 2005; No.10.
Descriptors: livestock, llamas, vicunas,buffalo, cattle, sheep, donkeys, asses, goats, guinea pigs, dogs, ancestors, animal genetic resources, domestic animals, domestication, genetic analysis, genetic diversity, history, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics.

Burri, I.H.; Martig, J.; Sager, H.; Liesegang, A.; Meylan, M. Neuweltkameliden in der Schweiz. I. Population, Haltung und Gesundheitsprobleme.[South American camelids in Switzerland. I. Population, management and health problems.] SAT- Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde. 2005; 147(8): 325-334. ISSN: 0036-7281. Note: In German with English, French, and Italian summaries.
NAL call no.: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: At the beginning of 2000, a population of 1622 South American camelids in 257 herds was living in Switzerland. The origin of the animals, their age, the management systems, their feeding habits, their use as well as the observed medical conditions and the indications for treatment were assessed with a questionnaire. It was shown that 60% of the South American camelid population in Switzerland consisted of llamas (999 animals) and 40% of alpacas (623), and that females younger than 4 years of age made up the majority of the animals. South American camelids were predominantly kept as a hobby, for breeding or trekking. The most frequent health problems were related to the digestive tract, the skin, the eyes and metabolism. Veterinarians were consulted for deworming, vaccinations, castrations or obstetric interventions. The parasitological examination of 204 faecal samples showed that llamas and alpacas were infested with the same endoparasites as ruminants (i.e. nematodes, trematodes and protozoa). Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, herd size, animal diseases, animal feeding, animal health, livestock numbers, parasitoses, parasitic diseases, parasitic infestations, population dynamics, Nematoda, Protozoa, Trematoda, Switzerland.

Burri, I.H.; Tschudi, P.; Martig, J.; Liesegang, A.; Meylan, M. Neuweltkameliden in der Schweiz. II. Referenzwerte fur hamatologische und blutchemische Parameter.[South American camelids in Switzerland. II. Reference values for blood parameters.] SAT-Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde. 2005; 147(8): 335-343. ISSN: 0036-7281. Note: In German with English, French, and Italian summaries.
NAL call no.: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: In order to establish reference values for blood parameters of South American camelids in Switzerland, 273 blood samples were collected from 141 llamas and 132 alpacas. These animals were classified in three categories (young animals <six months, adult females and males). Forty-one parameters were measured (red blood cell count, white blood cell count, electrolytes, metabolites and enzymes). Significant differences between llamas and alpacas were evident for 26 parameters. This study also showed that differences between young animals, females and males must be taken into consideration. A comparison of blood values with the results of faecal analysis for parasite eggs showed that an infestation with Dicrocoelium dendriticum was associated with elevated activity of two liver enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma -GT), in the serum. In contrast, no differences were found in the results of blood analyses between animals shedding eggs of gastrointestinal strongyles or not. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, age differences, sex differences, species differences, animal parasitic nematodes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, blood chemistry, electrolytes, enzymes, erythrocyte count, gamma glutamyltransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, hematology, helminth ova, helminthoses, leukocyte count, liver, metabolites, normal values, Strongylidae, Switzerland.

Camenzind, D. Gehauftes Auftreten von Aktinomykose in einem Lamabestand in der Schweiz.[Accumulation of actinomycosis in a llama herd in Switzerland.]SAT-Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde. 2005; 147(8): 351-356. ISSN: 0036-7281. Note: In German with an English summary.
NAL call no.: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: The symptoms of actinomycosis (caused by Actinomyces bovis) in several llamas in a herd raised in Switzerland and its management are presented. Haematological and chemical blood examinations were conducted in 5 llamas, which showed low calcium and partially low iron and copper levels. Various reasons which influence bone metabolism and lead to a higher susceptibility of bone infection are also discussed.
Descriptors: llamas, actinomycosis diagnosis, Actinomyces bovis, blood chemistry, bone diseases, clinical aspects, calcium, copper, iron, disease prevalence, epidemiology, hematology, susceptibility, therapy, Switzerland.

Cebra, C.K.; Tornquist, S.J. Evaluation of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in llama crias.American Journal of Veterinary Research . 2005; 66(6): 1013-1017. ISSN: 0002-9645
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective - To investigate glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in llama crias. Animals - 7 llamas (age range, 14 to 30 days). Procedure - On each of 2 sequential days, crias were administered glucose (0.5 g/kg) via rapid IV injection. On 1 day (randomly determined for each cria), regular insulin (0.2 U/kg) or 0.9% NaCl solution (0.002 mL/kg) was administered IV 15 minutes after glucose administration. Blood samples were collected before (baseline) and at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after glucose administration for determination of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations; fractional turnover rates and plasma half-life of glucose were calculated. The data were compared over time and between days (ie, between glucose treatments with and without insulin administration). Results - A peak plasma glucose concentration of 342+or-47 mg/dL was detected at 5 minutes after glucose administration and llamas cleared glucose from plasma within 60 minutes; at 15 minutes, plasma insulin concentration attained a peak value of 33+or-13 micro U/mL (ie, triple the baseline value). During the 15- to 45-minute interval, fractional turnover rate of glucose was 1.10+or-0.24%/min and plasma half-life was 65.7+or-13.4 minutes. Insulin significantly increased glucose turnover and resulted in hypoglycemia within 75 minutes of administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Healthy immature llamas have glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity superior to that of adults. However, whether sick crias retain the pancreatic sufficiency and tissue responsiveness that are likely responsible for the rapid glucose clearance in healthy individuals is not known.
Descriptors: llamas, young animals, blood plasma, blood sugar, blood glucose, glucose tolerance, dextrose, hypoglycemia, low blood sugar, insulin, metabolism.

Cristofanelli, S.; Antonini, M.; Torres, D.; Polidori, P.; Renieri, C. Carcass characteristics of Peruvian llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) reared in the Andean highlands. Small Ruminant Research:The journal of The International Goat Association. 2005 June; 58(3): 219-222. ISSN: 0921-4488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: An experiment based on males from 20 llama and 40 alpaca reared in Peru evaluated the carcass characteristics from animals slaughtered at 25 months of age, at a final body weight of 46.1 kg for alpaca and 63.2 kg for llama. Warm carcass weight was significantly higher in llama carcasses compared with alpaca, while dressing percentage was higher in alpacas. In the llama carcasses, leg, thorax and chops were heavier compared with the same cuts taken from the alpaca carcasses (P < 0.05). In contrast, the shoulder and neck were proportionately heavier in the alpaca compared with the llama carcasses. Full digestive tract was the heaviest component found in the carcasses. In the llama carcasses, both full digestive tract and digestive content were significantly heavier than in the alpaca carcasses. Significant differences were observed in the proportion of muscle and bone in the shoulder and in the leg of the llama and alpaca carcasses. Llama and alpaca slaughtered at similar age showed different carcass characteristics; considering the results of this study, llama can be more easily bred as animal for meat production.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, carcass quality, legs, thorax, shoulders, neck, bones, gastrointestinal system, carcass characteristics, livestock production, carcass composition, carcass evaluation, Peru.

Daley, L.P.; Gagliardo, L.F.; Duffy, M.S.; Smith, M.C.; Appleton, J.A. Application of monoclonal antibodies in functional and comparative investigations of heavy-chain immunoglobulins in New World camelids. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 2005; 12(3): 380-386. ISSN: 1071-412X
Abstract: Of the three immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes described to occur in camelids, IgG2 and IgG3 are distinct in that they do not incorporate light chains. These heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) constitute approximately 50% of the IgG in llama serum and as much as 75% of the IgG in camel serum. We have produced isotype-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in order to investigate the roles of HCAbs in camelid immunity. Seventeen stable hybridomas were cloned, and three MAbs that were specific for epitopes on the gamma chains of llama IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3 were characterized in detail. Affinity chromatography revealed that each MAb bound its isotype in solution in llama serum. The antibodies bound to the corresponding alpaca IgGs, to guanaco IgG1 and IgG2, and to camel IgG1. Interestingly, anti-IgG2 MAbs bound three heavy-chain species in llama serum, confirming the presence of three IgG2 subisotypes. Two IgG2 subisotypes were detected in alpaca and guanaco sera. The MAbs detected llama serum IgGs when they were bound to antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and were used to discern among isotypes induced during infection with a parasitic nematode. Diseased animals, infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, did not produce antigen-specific HCAbs; rather, they produced the conventional isotype, IgG1, exclusively. Our data document the utility of these MAbs in functional and physiologic investigations of the immune systems of New World camelids.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, guanacos, camels, Bactrian camels, antigens, epitopes, hybridomas, IgG, immune response, immune system, immunity, immunoglobulins, isotypes, monoclonal antibodies, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, antigenic determinants, antigenicity, gamma globulins, immune globulins, immunity reactions, immunogens, immunological reactions, Secernentea.

Eastern States Veterinary Association. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. Large Animal. Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. Published by the Association. 2005; 530 pp
Abstract: This proceedings is comprised of the papers presented in the North American Veterinary Conference on Large Animals. 38 papers generally deal with bovines, with emphasis given on viral and bacterial diseases and their diagnosis and control, metabolism and lameness disorders, fluid therapy, peripartum disorders, surgical procedures and serological testing. 91 papers on horses are included with following topics: dermatology; incisor reduction; wound healing; managing wounds; skin grafting; diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy of the coffin, pastern and temporomandibular joints; limb deformities; urinary problems; anaesthesia; myositis; colitis; dental care; sinus disease; guttural pouch disease; castration complications; reproductive emergencies; emergency procedures in equine critical care; alternative medicine in equine practice; strangles; reproductive disorders; acupuncture; behaviour; foot problems; viral diseases; zoonotic diseases; pain management; heart failure and corneal diseases. 16 papers on small ruminants are presented, dealing with lameness and foot care, dermatological problems; pregnancy diagnosis; neonatology, infertility, mineral nutrition, artificial rearing, endophytes in forages, chronic wasting disease, techniques for removal of brainstem for TSE testing, myopathy in cervids and small ruminants and diseases of free ranging and captive North American cervids. Diagnosis and control of bacterial and viral diseases in pigs are discussed in 10 papers. 78 papers on practice management and legal issues are also included.
Descriptors: alpacas, cattle, goats, horses, llamas, sheep, pigs, Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis,Streptococcus equi, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, acupuncture, anesthesia, anesthetics, animal behavior, animal nutrition, bacterial diseases, prognosis, colic, colitis, customer relations, dermatology, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, disease prevention, drug therapy, eye diseases, fluid therapy, foot-diseases, heart diseases, joint diseases, lameness, law, management, marketing, metabolic disorders, myositis, Arterivirus, personnel management, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive disorders, skin diseases, surgery, tooth diseases, urinary tract diseases, vaccination, veterinary practice, viral diseases, wounds, zoonoses, prognosis, anesthesia, anesthetics, arthropathy, bacterial infections, bacterioses, chemotherapy, coronary diseases, legal aspects, legal principles, humane euthanasia, metabolic diseases, rehydration therapy; surgical techniques, zoonotic infections, emergencies, healing.

Ebensperger, G.; Ebensperger, R.; Herrera, E.A.; Riquelme, R.A.; Sanhueza, E.M.; Lesage, F.; Marengo, J.J.; Tejo, R.I.; Llanos, A.J.; Reyes, R.V. Fetal brain hypometabolism during prolonged hypoxaemia in the llama.Journal of Physiology. 2005; 567(3): 963-975. ISSN: 0022-3751
Abstract: In this study we looked for additional evidence to support the hypothesis that fetal llama reacts to hypoxaemia with adaptive brain hypometabolism. We determined fetal llama brain temperature, Na+ and K+ channel density and Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Additionally, we looked to see whether there were signs of cell death in the brain cortex of llama fetuses submitted to prolonged hypoxaemia. Ten fetal llamas were instrumented under general anaesthesia to measure pH, arterial blood gases, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and brain and core temperatures. Measurements were made 1 h before and every hour during 24 h of hypoxaemia (n=5), which was imposed by reducing maternal inspired oxygen fraction to reach a fetal arterial partial pressure of oxygen (P< sub>a,O</ sub>< sub>2</ sub>) of about 12 mmHg. A normoxaemic group was the control (n=5). After 24 h of hypoxaemia, we determined brain cortex Na+-K+-ATPase activity, ouabain binding, and the expression of NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.3, NaV1.6, TREK1, TRAAK and K< sub>ATP</ sub> channels. The lack of brain cortex damage was assessed as poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) proteolysis. We found a mean decrease of 0.56 degrees C in brain cortex temperature during prolonged hypoxaemia, which was accompanied by a 51% decrease in brain cortex Na+-K+-ATPase activity, and by a 44% decrease in protein content of NaV1.1, a voltage-gated Na+ channel. These changes occurred in absence of changes in PARP protein degradation, suggesting that the cell death of the brain was not enhanced in the fetal llama during hypoxaemia. Taken together, these results provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal llama responds to prolonged hypoxaemia with adaptive brain hypometabolism, partly mediated by decreases in Na+-K+-ATPase activity and expression of NaV channels. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, pregnancy, fetuses, fetal development, gestation, cerebrum, hypoxemia, brain diseases, adenosinetriphosphatase, blood gases, blood pressure, brain diseases, heart rate, ions, metabolism, neurophysiology, oxygen, pH, potassium, sodium, ATPase, hydrogen ion concentration, potential of hydrogen.

Frank, E.N.; Hick, M.V.H.; Gauna, C.D.; Molina, M.G. Determinacion de parametros geneticos en variables de produccion de fibra en Llamas Argentinas. [Genetic parameters estimation for fiber production traits of Argentine Llamas.]Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2005; 25(Supl. 1): GM7. ISSN: 0326-0550. Note: 28 Congreso Argentino de Produccion Animal "Hacia un Incremento en la Demanda Global de Productos de Origen Animal", Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 19-21 October 2005. Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: llamas, fiber animals, animal fibers, fleece, estimation, genetic correlation, genetic parameters, heritability, phenotypic correlation, heritable fiber characteristics, wool production, Argentina.

Fugaro, M.N.; Kiupel, M.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Hawkins, J.F.; Janovitz, E.B. Retinoblastoma in the eye of a llama (Llama glama). Veterinary Ophthalmology. 2005; 8(4): 287-290. ISSN: 1463-5216
NAL call no.: SF891.V47
Abstract: Animal studied: A 6-year-old, pregnant female llama experienced a 6-month history of epiphora, buphthalmos, and acute loss of vision in the left eye. The condition was unresponsive to topical antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy and progressed to corneal rupture. Procedures: Transpalpebral enucleation was performed and an intraorbital silicone prosthesis was implanted. The eye was fixed in formalin and processed according to routine paraffin technique. Sections of a mass were immunohistochemically prepared routinely and stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-antigen, and rhodopsin. Results: Gross, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a retinal tumor consistent with a retinoblastoma. The neoplastic tissue formed Flexner-Wintersteiner and Homer-Wright rosettes, originated from the retina, and demonstrated photoreceptor differentiation with S-antigen and rhodopsin expression. Neoplastic cells were negative for GFAP. Four years after enucleation, the llama showed no signs of recurrent neoplasia. Conclusions: This report describes the diagnosis and successful treatment of the first known retinoblastoma in a llama.
Descriptors: llamas, cancer of the eye, retinoblastoma, case report, clinical picture, clinical aspects, diagnosis, enucleation surgery, histopathology, immunology, histochemistry, neoplasms, therapy, Indiana, US.

Gauna-Anasco, L.; Oliva, G.; Affricano, O.; Montesano, A.; Graziotti, G. Morfologia del linfocentro cervical superficial de la llama (Lama glama).[Morphology of the superficial cervical lymph center of the llama (Lama glama).]InVet Investigacion Veterinaria. 2005; 7(1): 25-30. ISSN: 1514-6634. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
Abstract: The superficial cervical lymph centre of the llama was studied through macroscopic dissections and light microscopy, offering scientific bases about lymph drainage from the anatomical regions of the forelimb, which has implications for meat inspection. The thoracic limbs were injected with modified Gerota's mass and fixed using a 10% buffered formalin solution. For light microscopy, traditional methods were used. The afferent lymph vessels come from the forefoot, antebrachial and brachial regions. The lymph nodes have a flat surface and are smaller than those of other species. They do not have a characteristic pattern of cortex, paracortex and medulla. Lymph nodules, dense anodular lymphatic and diffuse lymphatic tissues are distributed through the primary and secondary lymph nodules. The capsule does not present smooth muscle fibres and the peritrabecular sinuses are surrounded by diffuse lymphatic tissue. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, animal anatomy, lymph nodes, lymphatic system, morphology.

Gauly, M.; Vaughan, J; Hogreve, S.K.; Erhardt, G. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential assessment of auditory function and congenital deafness in llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (L. pacos). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2005; 19(5): 756-760. ISSN: 0891-6640
NAL Call no.: SF601.J65
Abstract: Auditory function of llamas and alpacas was assessed objectively by means of brainstem auditory-evoked response audiometry (BAER) to establish the normal hearing range and to test the hypothesis of a correlation between blue eyes, white coat, and deafness. Sixty-three camelids were available for the study. Thirteen animals had blue irides; 1 animal had 1 blue and 1 pigmented iris. Wave latencies, amplitudes, and interpeak latencies were measured under general anesthetic. Click stimuli (dB [HL]) were delivered by an insert earphone. Four to five positive peaks could be detected; waves I, II, and V were reproducible; wave II appeared infrequently; and wave IV generally merged with wave V to form a complex. Peak latencies decreased and peak amplitudes increased as stimulus intensity increased. A hearing threshold level of 10-20 dB (HL) was proposed as the normal range in llamas and alpacas. None of the animals with pigmentation of coat and iris showed any degree of hearing impairment. Seven of the 10 blue-eyed, pure-white animals were bilaterally deaf and one of them was unilaterally deaf. However, 2 blue-eyed, white animals exhibited normal hearing ability. Three blue-eyed animals with pigmented coat did not show any hearing impairment. All white animals with normal iris pigmentation had normal auditory function; so did the 1 animal with 1 normal and 1 blue iris. The high frequency (78%) of bilaterally deaf animals with pure white coat and blue iris pigmentation supports the hypothesis of a correlation between pigmentation anomalies and congenital deafness in llamas and alpacas.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, auditory threshold, brain stem, coat, congenital abnormalities, deafness, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, eyes, hearing, pigmentation, techniques, birth defects, congenital malformations, threshold of hearing.

Geurden, T.; Hemelrijk, K. van. Ivermectin treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes in New World camelids in Belgium. Small Ruminant Research. 2005; 58(1): 71-73. ISSN: 0921-4488
Abstract: Gastrointestinal parasites are a major clinical and economical threat to New World camelids (NWC) throughout the world. Since there are no anthelmintics approved for use in NWC, there is only limited information about the efficacy and safety of these products. In this study, the reduction of the faecal egg output following treatment with an injectable formulation of ivermectin in NWC was evaluated. Therefore, a group of 10 llamas and a group of eight alpacas, naturally infested with Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp., were randomly divided into a treated and a control group, and injected with ivermectin subcutaneously at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg bodyweight. Faecal samples were collected per rectum immediately prior to treatment from each individual animal in the study, and every week thereafter for the next 5 weeks. Both for the llamas and the alpacas, there was a 100% reduction in faecal egg output during at least 3 weeks. None of the animals showed adverse reactions to the ivermectin treatment.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, fecal sampling, Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., nematode infestation, fecal egg count, digestive tract, ivermectin, nematode control.

Geurden, T. .; Claerebout, E.; Vercruysse, J. Parasitaire infecties bij lama's in gematigde streken.[Parasite infections in llamas in temperate zones.]Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift. 2005; 74(5): 347-354. ISSN: 0303-9021. Note: In Dutch.
Descriptors: llamas, occurrence of scabies, Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes, clinical picture, liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica, Helminths and Moniezia spp. treatment and prevention are described, protozoal infections and ectoparasites are minimal, risks for Belgian llama keepers.

Grubb, T.L.; Gold, J.R.; Schlipf, J.W.; Craig, A.M.; Walker, K.C.; Riebold, T.W. Assessment of serum concentrations and sedative effects of fentanyl after transdermal adminstration at three dosages in healthy llamas.American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2005 May; 66(5): 907-909. ISSN: 0002-9645
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: healthy llamas, sedative effects, serum concentrations, fentanyl transdermal administration, 3 dose levels.

Izeta, Andres D. South American camelid bone structural density: what are we measuring? Comments on data sets, values, their interpretation and application. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2005; 32(8): 1159-1168. ISSN: 0305-4403
Descriptors: llamas, vicunas, guanacos, bone density sets, five archaeofaunal assemblages, Formative Period archaeological sites, southern Calchaquies valleys, Catamarca, Argentina.

Johnson, L.W. Neonatology of llamas and alpacas. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 306-308.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, animal health, congenital abnormalities, diarrhea, maternal immunity, newborn animals, parturition, umbilical hernia, birth defects, congenital malformations, diarrhea, newborn immunity, scouring, vitelline immunity.

Johnson, L.W. Small ruminant tips for the small animal practitioner.Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12-January, 2005. 2005; 301-303.
Descriptors: alpacas, goats, llamas, sheep, abortion, anesthetics, gestation, polling, anesthetics, animal breeding, animal diseases, animal health, antihelmintics, blood sampling, castration, coccidiosis, dehorning, disease control, mycoses, posthitis, pregnancy, pregnancy complications, pregnancy diagnosis, small animal practice, urolithiasis, vaccination-

Johnson, L.W. Dermatologic problems of small ruminants. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 299-300.
Descriptors: goats, llamas, sheep, skin diseases, etiology, alopecia, scabby mouth, sore mouth, ulcerative dermatosis, dermatomycoses, dermatophytes, drug therapy, hyperkeratosis, mange, mineral deficiencies, copper, pododermatitis, treatment, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, contagious ecthyma virus, causal agents, Corynebacterium renale,Dermatophilus congolensis, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Microsporum, Phthiraptera, Trichophyton, chemotherapy, contagious pustular dermatitis, CPD virus, etiology, Onygenales.

Johnson, L.W. Alpaca infertility cases.Proceedings of the North AmericanVeterinary Conference Large Animal Volume 19, Orlando, Florida, USA, 8-12 January, 2005. 2005; 309.
Descriptors: alpacas, case reports, diagnosis, dysplasia, infertility, pseudo-hermaphroditism, reproductive disorders, testes, testicles, treatment, Colorado, US.

Krebs, J.W.; Mandel, E.J.; Swerdlow, D.L.; Rupprecht, C.E. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2004.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005; 227(12): 1912-1925. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: During 2004, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,836 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings to the CDC, representing a 4.6% decrease from the 7,170 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2003. Approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals (compared with 91% and 9%, respectively, in 2003). Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,564 raccoons (37.5%), 1,856 skunks (27.1%), 1,361 bats (19.9%), 389 foxes (5.7%), 281 cats (4.1%), 115 cattle (1.7%), and 94 dogs (1.4%). Compared with the numbers of reported cases in 2003, cases in 2004 decreased among all groups, except bats, cattle, human beings, and "other domestics" (1 llama). Decreases in numbers of rabid raccoons during 2004 were reported by 12 of the 20 eastern states in which raccoon rabies was enzootic. In the East, Massachusetts reported the first cases of raccoon rabies detected beyond the Cape Cod oral rabies vaccine barrier. Along the western edge of the raccoon rabies epizootic ( Ohio in the north and Tennessee in the south), cases of rabies were reported from unexpected new foci beyond oral rabies vaccine zones. On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2004 decreased by 12.1% from the number reported in 2003. Once again, Texas reported the greatest number (n=534) of rabid skunks and the greatest overall state total of rabies cases (913). Texas reported only 1 case of rabies in a dog that was infected with the dog/coyote rabies virus variant and only 22 cases associated with the Texas gray fox rabies virus variant (compared with 61 cases in 2003). The total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes and raccoons declined 14.7% and 2.7%, respectively, during 2004. The 1,361 cases of rabies reported in bats during 2004 represented a 12.3% increase over the previous year's total of 1,212 cases for this group of mammals. Cases of rabies reported in cats, dogs, horses and mules, and sheep and goats decreased 12.5%, 19.7%, 31.8%, and 16.7%, respectively, whereas cases reported in cattle increased 174%. In Puerto Rico, reported cases of rabies in mongooses decreased 4.1% and rabies in dogs (9 cases) remained unchanged from those reported in 2003. Among the 8 cases of rabies in human beings, 1 person from Oklahoma and 3 from Texas died following receipt of infected organs and tissues from an Arkansas donor. In California, a person originally from El Salvador and, in Florida, a person originally from Haiti both died of canine rabies infections acquired outside the United States. In Wisconsin, a teenager contracted rabies from a bat bite and became the first known person to survive rabies despite not having received rabies vaccine prior to symptom onset. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas,humans, cats, cattle, bats, Chiroptera, dogs, foxes, Procyon, rabies virus, skunks, disease prevalence, disease surveys, rabies, zoonoses, zoonotic infections, US.

Kriegl, C.; Klein, D.; Kofler, J.; Fuchs, K.; Baumgartner, W. Haltungs und Gesundheitsaspekte bei Neuweltkameliden. [South American Camelid husbandry in Austria.]. Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift. 2005; 92(5): 119-125. ISSN: 0043-535X. Note: In German with an English summary.
Abstract: Introduction: South American Camelids have gained popularity over the last few years in Austria. Therefore veterinarians are often asked about their husbandry, breeding or to intervene in clinical management of different problems. The aim of this work is to get an overview of the development of the current state of new world camelidae husbandry in Austria. Material and methods: At the end of 2002 a 12-page questionnaire was sent to all owners of South American camelids in German-speaking countries. It contained general questions on the animals and their husbandry, questions on preventive measures and on diseases. 179 of the 760 questionnaires that had been sent out were returned, which corresponds to a rate of return of 23.6%. At the same time post mortem findings of the last 6 years were collected and analysed. Results and conclusion: In contrast to Switzerland where alpacas account for 47.6%, in Austria llamas are much more dominant with 89.7%. The average herd size in Austria is 9.5 animals, with the majority of animals being held as a hobby. The animals are mainly used for hiking and trekking tours, breeding, pasture farming and/or wool production. Diseases of the digestive tract and endoparasites constitute the most frequent problems of husbandry. Regular preventive medication against endoparasites led to significantly fewer diseases of the digestive tract. The most frequently used supplements are avermectins with 74.4%. In general breeders with no more than 5 animals had significantly (p<=0.001) less diseases than those with more animals. 42.6% of the post mortem examinations of tylopods showed that the animals had died below reproduction age. The share of infectious diseases was particularly high with 18.5%. Altogether 30 parasite findings were recorded from 21 animals (38.9%). Nematodes of the digestive tract were found most frequently with 43.3%. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, dromedaries, fiber producing animals, camelids, animal husbandry, endoparasites, avermectins, digestive-tract, Austria.

Liesegang, A.; Burri, I.H.; Meylan, M. Neuweltkameliden in der Schweiz. III. Verdaulichkeit der Futtermittel in verschiedenen Betrieben von Neuweltkameliden in der Schweiz.[South American camelids in Switzerland. III. Digestibilities of different feedstuff.]SAT-Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde. 2005; 147(8): 345-349. ISSN: 0036-7281. Note: In German with English, French and Italian summaries.
NAL call no.: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: Faeces from 15 adult llamas were collected in 4 herds in Switzerland and the exact diet was determined, either of the group or of individual animals, to examine apparent digestibility. A questionnaire was submitted to the animal owners. The questionnaire included questions about the animals in the herd (number, age, gender, origin), management methods, pastures, watering and feeding facilities for the animals, hay supplementation, composition of the ration and fodder additives used. Analysis of the feed revealed an average apparent digestibility for dry matter of 81+or-4%, for organic matter 77+or-7%, for crude protein 69+or-10%, for nitrogen-free extract 83+or-5%, for calcium 60+or-17%, for phosphorus 54+or-11% and 81+or-9% for crude fibre. All feed components seem to be digested similarly to domestic ruminants, whereas the apparent digestibility of crude fibre was high, which indicates that the digestive system seems to be more effective in llamas compared to ruminants.
Descriptors: llamas, animal feeding, feeds, crude fiber, nutritional value, quality for nutrition, calcium, crude fiber, crude protein, digestibility, dry matter, feeds, organic matter, phosphorus, Switzerland.

Macaldowie, C.; Patterson, I.A.P.; Nettleton, P.F.; Low, H.; Buxton, D. Louping ill in llamas (Lama glama) in the Hebrides.Veterinary Record. 2005; 156(13): 420-421. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL Call no.: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: llamas, disease vectors, Ixodes ricinus, louping ill disease, viral brain disease, cerebrum, clinical aspects; diagnosis, postmortem examinations, tissue sampling, histopathology, Scotland, Britain, UK.

Moses, V.L. Llamas and sheep and farm tours. Oh my! Small Farm Today. 2006 Mar-Apr; 23(2): 28-29. ISSN: 1079-9729
NAL call no.: S1.M57
Descriptors: llamas, small farms, small scale farming, sheep, Ovis, intensive livestock farming, tourism, Washington Georgia, Second Time Around Mini Farm, Babydoll sheep, USA.

Odbileg, R.; Lee, S.I.; Ohashi, K.; Onuma, M. Cloning and sequence analysis of llama (Lama glama) Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokines.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2005 Apr 8; 104(3-4): 145-153. ISSN: 0165-2427
NAL call no.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: This paper describes the cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNAs encoding the T helper (Th) 2 cytokines of llama including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10 and IL-13. The cDNAs encoding for IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were amplified using specific primers designed from reported sequences of bovine cytokine genes. The cDNAs for llama IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were found to be 402, 537 and 411 bp in length, with open reading frames encoding 133, 178 or 136 amino acids, respectively. Homology analyses of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of llama IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 and phylogenetic analysis based on their nucleotide sequences indicated the close relationship in these cytokine genes between llama and eutherian mammalian order Artiodactyla (pig, cattle) and Perissodactyla (horse).
Descriptors: llamas, cytokines, interleukin 4, interleukin 10, complementary DNA, nucleotide sequences sequence, homology, sequence analysis, phylogeny, amino acid sequences, interleukin 13, molecular sequence data.

Odbileg, Raadan; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Onuma, Misao. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of inflammatory cytokines of Camelidae (llama and camel.)Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2005; 67(9): 921-925. ISSN: 0916-7250
Abstract: We cloned, sequenced and analyzed the cDNAs encoding Camelidae inflammatory cytokines, including llama (lama glama) interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and camel (Camelus bactrianus) IL-6 and TNF-alpha. The similarity levels of the deduced amino acid sequences of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha from llama (camel) to those from other mammalian species, ranged from 60.7% to 87.7%, 52.8% to 75.3%, 41.4% to 98.6%, and 72.9% to 99.6%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on nucleic acid sequences showed that llama IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were more closely related to those of camel, pig, cattle, sheep and horse than to those of human, dog, cat, mouse and rat.
Descriptors: llama, camel, pig, cattle, sheep, horse, dog, cat, mouse, rat, humans, inflammatory cytokines, phylogenetic analysis.
Sequences: AB107645: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; AB107644: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; AB107647: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; AB107646: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; M37210: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; M37211: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; X57317: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; AF011926 : GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; X60167: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; X56972: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; X68723: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; X56756: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; D42146: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; U92481: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; U12234: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; Z70046: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; BC003727: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; M98820: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; D00403: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence; X66539: GenBank, EMBL, DDJB, amino acid sequence.

Odbileg, R.; Konnai, S.; Usui, T.; Ohashi, K.; Onuma, M. Quantification of llama inflammatory cytokine mRNAs by real-time RT-PCR.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2005; 67(2): 195-198. ISSN: 0916-7250
NAL call no.: SF604.J342
Descriptors: llamas, real time PCR, complementary DNA, messenger RNA, cytokines, gene expression, immune system, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, lipopolysaccharides, tumor necrosis factor.

Pereyra, J.E.; Campero, L.M. Determinacion de antigenos carnicos de llama (Lama glama) y ovino (Ovis aries) por el metodo de inmunodifusion.[Determination of meat antigens in llamas (Lama glama) and sheep Ovis aries, using the immunodiffusion method.] Veterinaria Argentina. 2005; 22(215): 344-351. ISSN: 0326-4629. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
NAL call no.: SF604.V63
Abstract: A method of obtaining sera reacting against llama and sheep meat is described. Although the sera presented transverse immunity, their identification was attained by comparing different precipitation patterns. Data are presented in 7 graphs.
Descriptors: llamas, sheep, antigens, identification, immunodiffusion, meat, sheep meat, lamb meat, mutton, antigenicity, immunogens.

Poulsen, K.P.; Smith, G.W.; Davis, J.L.; Papich, M.G. Pharmacokinetics of oral omeprazole in llamas. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2005 Dec; 28(6): 539-543. ISSN: 0140-7783
NAL call no.: SF915.J63
Descriptors: llamas, pharmacokinetics, oral administration, drug formulations, dosage, half life, gastric acid, bioavailability, dose response, omeprazole.

Poulsen, K.P.; Smith, G.W.; Davis, J.L.; Papich, M.G. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oral omeprazole in llamas.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2005; 19(3): 412. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: 23rd Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; June 01 -04, 2005.
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: llama, oral dosing with omeprazole, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, third compartment ulcer treatment.

Radi, Z.A.; Miller, D. L.; Liggett, A.D. Cutaneous melanocytoma in a llama (Lama glama).Veterinary Research Communications. 2005; 29(2): 137-14 0. ISSN: 0165-7380.
NAL call no.: SF601.V38
Descriptors: male llamas, skin tumor, tumor biology, diagnosis, treatment, case study.

Ratto, Marcelo H.; Huanca, Wilfredo; Singh, Jaswant; Adams, Gregg P. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2005; 3. ISSN: 1477-7827
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas,ovulation factor, seminal plasma, females, seminal plasma or phosphate buffered saline, intramuscular injection intrauterine infusion, intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage, transrectal ultrasonography, ovulation detection, follicular and luteal diameters, conclusion was systemic effect of seminal plasma.

Ratto, Marcelo; Berland, Marco; Huanca, Wilfredo; Singh, Jaswant; Adams, Gregg P. In vitro and in vivo maturation of llama oocytes. Theriogenology. 2005; 63(9): 2445-2457. ISSN: 0093-691X
NAL call no.: QP251.A1T5
Descriptors: llamas oocytes, postmortem collection of ovaries, in vitro culture for 28, 30, 36 hours, incubation conditions, reproductive technologies, FSH and eCG added, COC in metaphase II, in vitro fertilization.

Sanhueza, E.M.; Riquelme, R.A.; Herrera, E.A.; Giussani, D.A.; Blanco, C.E.; Hanson, M.A.; Llanos, A.J. Vasodilator tone in the llama fetus: the role of nitric oxide during normoxemia and hypoxemia. American Journal of Physiology. 2005; 289(3(2): R776-R783. ISSN: 0002-9513
NAL call no.:
Abstract: The fetal llama responds to hypoxemia, with a marked peripheral vasoconstriction but, unlike the sheep, with little or no increase in cerebral blood flow. We tested the hypothesis that the role of nitric oxide (NO) may be increased during hypoxemia in this species, to counterbalance a strong vasoconstrictor effect. Ten fetal llamas were operated under general anesthesia. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, cardiac output, total vascular resistance, blood flows, and vascular resistances in cerebral, carotid and femoral vascular beds were determined. Two groups were studied, one with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and the other with 0.9% NaCl (control group), during normoxemia, hypoxemia, and recovery. During normoxemia, L-NAME produced an increase in fetal MAP and a rapid bradycardia. Cerebral, carotid, and femoral vascular resistance increased and blood flow decreased to carotid and femoral beds, while cerebral blood flow did not change significantly. However, during hypoxemia cerebral and carotid vascular resistance fell by 44% from its value in normoxemia after L-NAME, although femoral vascular resistance progressively increased and remained high during recovery. We conclude that in the llama fetus: (1) NO has an important role in maintaining a vasodilator tone during both normoxemia and hypoxemia in cerebral and femoral vascular beds and (2) during hypoxemia, NOS blockade unmasked the action of other vasodilator agents that contribute, with nitric oxide, to preserving blood flow and oxygen delivery to the tissues. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, fetuses, hypoxemia, effects, vasoconstriction, heart rate, cardiac output, vasodilation, arteries, blood, blood flow, blood pressure; brain, nitric oxide synthase, oxygen, oxygen transport.

Semevolos , S.A. ; Cope, R.B. Determination of the anatomic communications among compartments within the carpus, metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints, stifle joint, and tarsus in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2005 Aug; 66(8): 1437-1440. ISSN: 0002-9645
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective - To determine the anatomic communications among compartments within the carpus, metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints, stifle joint, and tarsus in llamas. Sample Population - 88 limbs from 22 llamas necropsied because of reasons unrelated to disease of the carpus; tarsus; or metacarpophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal, or stifle joints. Procedure - 1 compartment (randomly assigned) of each joint was injected with blue latex solution. Communication between joint compartments was determined by observation of latex in adjacent compartments following frozen sectioning. Results - Of the 44 carpi, 30 (68%) had anatomic separation between the radiocarpal and middle carpal joints, whereas the remaining 14 (32%) had communication between the radiocarpal and middle carpal joints. In the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints, medial and lateral joint compartments remained separate in 83 of 88 (94%) joints injected. The tibiotarsal and proximal intertarsal joints communicated in all tarsi examined, whereas 14 of 38 (37%) communicated between the proximal intertarsal and distal intertarsal joints. Communication between the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints was detected in 17 of 25 (68%) specimens; all 4 tarsal joints communicated in 11 of 42 (26%) specimens examined. Examination of 33 stifle joints that were successfully injected revealed communication between the femoropatellar, medial femorotibial, and lateral femorotibial joints. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - These data suggest that it is important to determine the joint communications specific to each llama prior to treatment of septic arthritis. The metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joint compartments may be considered separate, although the lateral and medial compartments infrequently communicate along the proximal palmar or plantar aspect. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, bone joints, carpus, metacarpus, metatarsus, stifle, tarsus bone, latex, injection, animal diseases, sepsis (infection), arthritis, veterinary medicine, necropsy.

Shapiro, J.L.; Watson, P.; McEwen, B.; Carman, S. Highlights of camelid diagnoses from necropsy submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, from 1998 to 2004.Canadian Veterinary Journal. 2005; 46(4): 317-318. ISSN: 0008-5286
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, camelids, age differences, animal diseases, diagnoses, bacterial diseases, causes of death, diseases of gastrointestinal and nervous systems, liver, neoplasms, postmortem examinations, Ontario, Canada.

Smith, M.C. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of common small ruminant parasites. R.A. Smith, [Editor]. Proceedings of the Thirty Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005. 2005; 123-127
NAL call no.: SF961.A5
Abstract: External parasites of small ruminants include lice, keds and mange mites. They cause pruritus, fleece damage, and in some instances blood loss anemia. The most important internal parasite of sheep and goats is Haemonchus, a blood sucking strongyle that can kill animals on contaminated pasture in a matter of weeks. Overuse of dewormers has caused the development of parasite resistance, and currently recommended programs emphasize selective treatment and eventual culling of animals that show severe clinical signs. Untreated animals are left in the herd to provide unselected parasites in refugia. Other strongyle species contribute to production loss by causing weight loss and diarrhea. Tapeworms are of minimal clinical importance but, regionally, liver flukes cause ill thrift or death. Fencing off ponds and stream is often more effective than deworming for fluke control. In regions where whitetail deer abound on pastures, the meningeal worm Parelaphostrongylus tenuis causes neurologic disease and sporadic losses of small ruminants and guard llamas.
Descriptors: goats, sheep, llamas, parasitic diseases, parasitic infestations, liver flukes, mites, mange, Eucestoda, Haemonchus, Hippobosca, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, Phthiraptera, Secernentea,Strongylid, clinical picture, clinical care, antihelmintics, diagnosis, culling, losses, disease prevention, treatments, fencing.

Stemmer, A.; Zarate, A.V.; Nuernberg, M.; Delgado, J.; Wurzinger, M.; Soelkner, J. La llama de Ayopaya: descripcion de un recurso genetico autoctono.[The llama of Ayopaya: description of an indigenous genetic resource.]Archivos de Zootecnia. 2005; 54(206/207): 253-259. ISSN: 0004-0592. Note: special issue. “Recursos Zoogeneticos Iberoamericanos: Conservacion y Uso Sostenible.” In Spanish with English summary.
Abstract: The genetic resource of the llama of Ayopaya, department of Cochabamba, Bolivia, was evaluated in 6 communities according to trait. Data of 730-2821 llamas were used in this study. Genetic parameters were estimated using 860 dam-progeny pairs. The system of production was agropastoral. The larger part of the products was consumed by the household, and only a small percentage was sold in local markets. As for reproduction and production aspects, fertility was 55.3%, mortality up to one year of age was 35%, birth weight was 8 kg, height at withers at birth was 64 cm, weight of mature animals was 73 kg and height at withers was 101 cm. The Th'ampulli type and uniform colours predominated with 89 and 78%, respectively. The average total fibre diameter, standard deviation of total fibre diameter, proportion of fine fibres and diameter of fine fibres were 22.2 mm, 7.46 mm, 91.3 p.100 and 20.47 mm, respectively. Proportions of medullated fibres and kemps were 21.92 and 0.44%, respectively. The fleece weight was 1.77 kg and the staple length was 14.8 cm. Heritabilities for liveweight, height at withers, circumference of chest, body length and circumference of abdomen were estimated as 0.36, 0.27, 0.15, 0.09 and 0.11, respectively. Estimated heritabilities for total fibre diameter, standard deviation of total fibre diameter, diameter of fine fibres, proportion of fine fibres and proportion of kemps were 0.33, 0.28, 0.36, 0.32 and 0.25, respectively. Genetic correlations ranged from -0.94 to 0.96. It was concluded that the excellent quality of the fibre produced by the llamas of Ayopaya gave rise to many hopes for the future. In order to better utilize this resource, it was necessary to continue the selection programme and strategies for improved marketing. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, agropastoral systems, animal fibers, animal genetic resources, heritable characters, birth weight, coat, fertility, genetic correlation, heritability, mortality, Bolivia.

Sullivan, E.K.; Callan, R.J.; Holt, T.N.; Van Metre, D.C. Trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids.Veterinary Surgery. 2005 Sept-Oct; 34(5): 524-529. ISSN: 0161-3499
NAL call no.: SF911.V43
Abstract: Objective-To describe clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcome associated with trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids. Study Design-Retrospective study Animals-Alpacas (7) and 1 llama. Methods-Historical and clinical data were obtained from the medical records of New World camelids with a diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction confirmed by surgical exploration or necropsy. Results-Seven camelids were <1 year old. Abnormal clinical findings included anorexia, reduced fecal output, recumbency, colic, abdominal distension, regurgitation, decreased serum chloride concentration, increased serum bicarbonate concentration, and/or elevated first gastric compartment chloride concentration. Survey abdominal radiographs obtained (4 animals) revealed gastric distension (4) and/or visualization of the obstruction (2). Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy (1) or surgery (7). Right paracostal celiotomy was performed on all animals and duodenotomy (3) or retropulsion of the trichophytobezoar combined with third compartment gastrotomy (4) was used to remove the obstruction. Six animals survived to discharge and 5 were healthy at follow-up, 8-20 months later. The remaining discharged alpaca was healthy at 12 months but subsequently died of unrelated causes. Conclusions-Diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction should be considered in juvenile New World camelids with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Right paracostal celiotomy can be used for access to the descending duodenum and third gastric compartment for surgical relief of obstruction. Clinical Relevance-Duodenal obstruction from bezoars should be considered in New World camelids <1year of age with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Surgical relief of the obstruction by right paracostal celiotomy has a good prognosis.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, juveniles, duodenum, intestinal obstruction, trichobezoars, surgery, clinical examination, animal age, symptoms, anorexia, defecation, colic, chlorides, blood chemistry, bicarbonates, disease diagnosis.

Wolf, D.; Schares, G.; Cardenas, O.; Huanca, W.; Cordero, Aida; Baerwald, Andrea; Conraths, F.J.; Gauly, M.; Zahner, H.; Bauer, C. Detection of specific antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected alpacas (Lama pacos), llamas (Lama glama) and vicunas (Lama vicugna) from Peru and Germany. Veterinary Parasitology. 2005; 130(1-2): 81-87. ISSN: 0304-4017
NAL call no.: SF810.4.V4
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, wild vicunas, experimental infection, protozoal parasite, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, sera testing, immunoblot, ELISA, IFAT, antibody detection against N. caninum tachyzoites, routes of infection, natural infections in South American camelids, Peru, Germany .

Wurzinger, M.; Delgado, J.; Nurnberg, M.; Zarate, A.V.; Stemmer, A.; Ugarte, G.; Solkner, J. Growth curves and genetic parameters for growth traits in Bolivian llamas. Livestock Production Science. 2005; 95(1/2): 73-81. ISSN: 0301-6226
NAL call no.: SF1.L5
Abstract: The present study was carried out in the High Andes of the Department Cochabamba, Bolivia. Two types of llamas were found in the study area: Th'ampullis with higher fleece yields and fitting a fibre type; Kh'aras used as pack animals and fitting a meat-type. Growth curves for height at withers (HW), body length (BL), chest circumference (CC), abdomen circumference (AC) and body weight (BW) were described with the non-linear Brody function. The differences between sexes or types, except in the case of BW, were small. Equations for predicting body weight from different body measurements that could be easily obtained under field conditions were calculated. Reasonable fits were obtained with the inclusion of chest circumference and body length or chest circumference alone. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated using animal model procedures based on mother-offspring relationships. Heritabilitiy estimates were 0.36, 0.27, 0.15, 0.09 and 0.11 for BW, HW, CC, BL and AC, genetic correlations ranged from 0.55 to 0.94.
Descriptors: Th'ampullisllamas, Kh'aras llamas, wool producing animals, body length, body measurements, body weight, genetic correlation, genetic parameters, growth, growth curve, heritability, live weight, mathematical models, prediction, sex differences, thorax, Bolivia.

Wurzinger, M.; Delgado, J.; Nuernberg, M.; Valle-Zarate, A.; Stemmer, A.; Ugarte, G.; Solkner, J. Genetic parameters for coat characteristics in Bolivian llamas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: 1,869 llamas; 2 breeds Th'ampulli (fibre type) and Kh'ara (meat type); fiber characteristics; fleece; variability; mean fibre diameter (MFD); standard deviation (SD); diameter of fine fibre (DFF); proportion of fine fibre (PFF); proportion of kemp (PK); proportion of medullated fibre (PMF); effects of age, sex, and coat color; heritability; genetic correlations observed.

Zacari, M.A.; Pacheco, L.F. Depredacion vs. problemas sanitarios como causas de mortalidad de ganado camelido en el Parque Nacional Sajama. [Depredation versus disease problems as causes of mortality in camelid livestock in the Sajama national park.] Ecologia en Bolivia. 2005; 40(2): 58-61. ISSN: 1605-2528. Note: In Spanish.
Abstract: This article discusses the causes of mortality among camelid livestock (llamas and alpacas) in the Sajama National Park in Bolivia. The problems of predation by pumas and foxes are described, including losses recorded, as well as animal diseases as causes of mortality. The incidence, potential mortality percentage and the numbers of animals at risk of death for the following diseases in a sample of 2078 llamas and alpacas in the national park are presented: conjunctivitis, ocular orbit infections, keratitis, pediculosis, diarrhoea, scabies, fractures, fever (in alpacas), pneumonia and malnutrition. Among these diseases, the most significant were malnutrition (30.22%), followed by scabies (3.22%) and pediculosis (3.22%).
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, animal diseases, animal nutrition, death rate, causes of death, livestock, malnutrition, mortality, pediculosis, predation, scabies, Bolivia.

Zarebski, Laura M.; Urrutia, Mariela; Goldbaum, Fernando A. Llama single domain antibodies as a tool for molecular mimicry.Journal of Molecular Biology. 2005; 349(4): 814-824. ISSN: 0022-2836
Descriptors: llamas, antibodies, heavy chain IgGs (hcIgGs), variable region one polypeptide chain suitable for engineering, immunized with anti-DNA mouse mAb develop anti-ld response, immuno-stimulant, excellent tool for molecular mimicry.


Back to Top  
<< Table of Contents << Previous |  Next >>
Last Modified: Jan 23, 2014  
AWIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | AgNIC | ARS | Web Policies and Important Links | RSS Feeds | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | | White House