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Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Llamas 2006

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center ( U.S.). Web Selections: Llama and Alpaca Production. 2006
URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/wsllama.htm
NAL call no.: aSF401.L6
Descriptors: llama, alpaca, production.

Alvarez, R.; Villca, S.; Liden, G. Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude.Biomass and Bioenergy. 2006; 30(1): 66-75. ISSN: 0961-9534
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09619534
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.10.001
Abstract: Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The "Altiplano") was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760 mmHg), temperature (11 and 35 degrees C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity and methane yields based on two 24-1 fractional factorial designs with 8 treatments for each kind of manure. The reactors were operated semi-continuously with daily manure feeding for periods between 50 and 100 days. Temperature was the main factor effect found, and the hydraulic retention time and the manure content in feed were also found significant whereas the effect of pressure was not significant in the range studied. The methane yield obtained with cow manure at 11 degrees C was between 6.4 and 33.61 CH< sub>4</ sub> kg-1 VS (volatile solids added) whereas at 35 degrees C the methane yield was between 49.6 and 131.31 CH< sub>4</ sub> kg-1 VS. The methane yield from llama manure was somewhat lower than for cow manure (between 3.3 and 19.31 CH< sub>4</ sub> kg-1 VS at 11 degrees C and between 35.6 and 84.11 CH< sub>4</ sub> kg-1 VS at 35 degrees C, respectively). However, overall llama manure was found to be the best raw material of the two for biogas production, due to its high content of volatile solid - higher than has been previously reported for most manures - and also its high nitrogen and phosphorous content.
Descriptors: cattle, llamas, animal manures, biofuels, biogas, cattle manure, dairy cattle, feedstocks, methane production, pressure, temperature, waste utilization, Bolivia.

Anderson , D.E. Periapical tooth root infections in llamas and alpacas.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 235-240. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Head and neck abscesses are a common complaint in llamas and alpacas in North America representing 3% of clinical cases presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Ohio State University (OSU-VTH). Approximately 20% of infected teeth have infection of the pulp cavity most often associated with a patent infundibulum, approximately 60% have evidence of periodontal disease and compromised periodontal ligament, and 20% are of unknown cause. Differential diagnosis includes tooth root abscess, osteomyelitis, soft tissue abscess (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis), foreign body, parotid duct lesion, facial bone fracture, retained food bolus, and malocclusion. The aim of this paper is to review available information and provide clinical observation on etiology, diagnosis, and treatment option for tooth root infection in llamas and alpacas.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, tooth pulp, tooth diseases, tooth abscesses, disease diagnosis, etiology, medical treatment, surgery, literature reviews, veterinary teaching hospital, Ohio State University, US.

Animal Welfare Information Center ( U.S.). Information Resources on Farm Animals. The Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD [2006]. Note: Farm animals. Title from disc label. "June 2006." "Induced molting, dairy cattle, beef cattle, swine, disposal of dead animals, swine housing, proceedings livestock and poultry handling and transport, Emus and ostriches, llamas, alpacas, guanacos and vicunas." System requirements: CD-ROM drive and Adobe Acrobat.

Anonymous. Innere Parasiten der Kleinwiederkauer.Internal parasites in small ruminants.Forum Kleinwiederkauer/Petits Ruminants. 2006; (3): 6-11. Note: In German and French.
URL: http://www.caprovis.ch
Descriptors: sheep, goats, deer, llamas, parasites, coccidia, liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, lung worm incidence, transmission, detection, symptoms, clinical picture, treatments

Anonymous Annual Conference of the Society for Theriogenology, St Paul, MN, USA, August 22 -26, 2006. Theriogenology. 2006; 66(3): 663-687. ISSN: 0093-691X. Note: Conference proceedings containing 37 abstracts, use of hormone drugs, fertility analysis, ejaculate sperm concentration in dogs, reproductive disease diagnosis, early pregnancy in cattle, castration of llamas.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0093691X
NAL acall no.: QP251.A1T5
Descriptors: mares, dogs, dairy cows, llamas, reproductive technologies, hormones, ovulation, fertility analysis, pregnancy diagnosis, castration of llamas, etc.

Ansaloni, F.; Pyszny, F.; Claros, A.L.; Marquina, R.; Zapana-Pineda, J.; Claros, A.J.; Quispe-Huanca, J.L. DECAMA-project: Analysis of farm income from South American camelids meat production in Latin American countries: Preliminary results of a comparison between case studies. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
Nal Call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: camelid meat production, economic development, hygiene status and quality of animal based products, income and production costs of camelid meat production, homogeneous questionnaire, visits and direct interviews with agricultural entrepreneurs, Andean rural areas, Peru, Bolivia, South America.

Balter, Vincent; Simon, Laurent; Fouillet, Helene; Lecuyer, Christophe Box-modeling of N-15/N-14 in mammals. Oecologia ( Berlin). 2006; 147(2): 212-222. ISSN: 0029-8549
URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/100458/
Abstract: The N-15/N-14 signature of animal proteins is now commonly used to understand their physiology and quantify the flows of nutrient in trophic webs. These studies assume that animals are predictably N-15-enriched relative to their food, but the isotopic mechanism which accounts for this enrichment remains unknown. We developed a box model of the nitrogen isotope cycle in mammals in order to predict the N-15/N-14 ratios of body reservoirs as a function of time, N intake and body mass. Results of modeling show that a combination of kinetic isotope fractionation during the N transfer between amines and equilibrium fractionation related to the reversible conversion of N-amine into ammonia is required to account for the well-established approximate to 4 parts per thousand N-15-enrichment of body proteins relative to the diet. This isotopic enrichment observed in proteins is due to the partial recycling of N-15-enriched urea and the urinary excretion of a fraction of the strongly N-15-depleted ammonia reservoir. For a given body mass and diet delta N-15, the isotopic compositions are mainly controlled by the N intake. Increase of the urea turnover combined with a decrease of the N intake lead to calculate a delta N-15 increase of the proteins, in agreement with the observed increase of collagen delta N-15 of herbivorous animals with aridity. We further show that the low delta N-15 collagen values of cave bears cannot be attributed to the dormancy periods as it is commonly thought, but inversely to the hyperphagia behavior. This model highlights the need for experimental investigations performed with large mammals in order to improve our understanding of natural variations of delta N-15 collagen.
Descriptors: llamas, foxes, horses, rats, seals, cave bears, urine, ammonia, nitrogen 15, nitrogen 14, hyperphagia, box modeling, computer technique.

Becerra, Jorge Alberto Bustamante. Grazing intensity, plant diversity, and rangeland conditions in the Southeastern Andes of Peru (Palccoyo, Cusco). In: Spehn E.M.; Liberman M.; Korner C [Editors]. Land Use Change and Mountain Biodiversity . CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, FL. 2006. 376p. ISBN: 084933523X. Note: Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment Workshop, Bolivia, Colombia; August 20 -23, 2003.
NAL call no.: QH541.5 M65 L36 2006
Descriptors: sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, Opuntia floccosa, Polylspis, primary production, grazin intensity, plant diversity, rangeland conditons, Peru.

Bromage, Gina. Llamas and Alpacas: A Guide to Management. Crowood in Ramsbury. 2006. 208 p. ISBN: 186126884X; 9781861268846
NAL call no.: SF401.L6.B76 2006
Abstract: This book serves as a guide to those who own llamas and alpacas or considering to own these animals. It is comprised of 13 chapters. The housing, fencing, routine husbandry procedures, welfare, behaviour and training of these animals are covered. The assessment of the animal, shearing, fleece evaluation and marketing are examined. The breeding, birth, care of newborn animals and common diseases are discussed. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, care, handling, breeding, housing, behavior, reproduction, etc.

Brown, R.A.li. Unusual findings in a Ilama.Veterinary Record-- London. 2006; 159(22): 755-756. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A llama in the UK which had shown previous clinical signs of teeth grinding, pneumonia and a parotid lymph node abscess died on 24 March 2006 despite treatment. Postmortem examination showed old, necrotic and black herbage in the nasal cavity above the soft and hard palate. The herbage caused inflammation to the pharyngeal area. The cause of death may have been due to bacteraemia and septicaemia as a result of chronic long-standing infection.
Descriptors: llamas, etiology, case report, causes of death, clinical aspects, diagnosis, foreign bodies, herbage, postmortem examinations, autopsy, causal agents, clinical picture, long standing chronic infection, Britain, UK.

Burkhalter, B.; Feldmann, H. Sichere Zaune.[Safe fencing.]Forum Kleinwiederkauer/Petits Ruminants. 2006; (3): 12-19. Note: In German and French.
URL: http://www.caprovis.ch
Descriptors: alpacas, goats, llamas, sheep, mobile and permanent fences, economic factors, illustrations, Switzerland.

Bustamante, Ana V.; Mate, Maria L.; Lamas, Hugo E.; Giovambattista, Guillermo; Zambelli, Andres; Vidal-Rioja, Lidia. Analisis de diversidad genetica en tres poblaciones de llamas (Lama glama) del noroeste Argentino. [Analysis of genetic diversity in three llama (Lama glama) populations from north-western Argentina.] Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 2006; 79(2): 175-184. ISSN: 0716-078X. Note: In Spanish.
URL: http://www.scielo.cl
Descriptors: 3 llama management units, 77 animals tested, DNA sampling, PCR amplification of 12 loci using microsatellite primers, specific to Lama glama, 142 allelles, Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium test/locus, significant deviation (P < 0.05) due to heterozygotes deficiency, 9-16 allele number/locus, heterzygosities/locus, obey to the natural polygynic behavior of the species, forcing male parents policy, Argentina.

Cebra, C.K.; Bildfell, R.J.; Fischer, K.A. Microanatomic features of pancreatic islets and immunolocalization of glucose transporters in tissues of llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006 Mar; 67(3): 524-528. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.67.3.524
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective - To describe the microanatomic features of pancreatic islets and the immunohistochemical distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT) molecules in the pancreas and other tissues of New World camelids. Animals - 7 healthy adult New World camelids, 2 neonatal camelids with developmental skeletal abnormalities, and 2 BALB/c mice. Procedure - Samples of pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, mammary gland, brain, and adipose tissue were collected postmortem from camelids and mice. Pancreatic tissue sections from camelids were assessed microscopically. Sections of all tissues from camelids and mice (positive control specimens) were examined after staining with antibodies against GLUT-1, -2, -3, and -4 molecules. Results - In camelids, pancreatic islets were prominent and lacked connective tissue capsules. Numerous individual endocrine-type cells were visible distant from the islets. Findings in neonatal and adult tissues were similar; however, the former appeared to have more non-islet-associated endocrine cells. Via immunostaining, GLUT-2 molecules were detected on pancreatic endocrine cells and hepatocytes in camelids, GLUT-1 molecules were detected on the capillary endothelium of the CNS, GLUT-3 molecules were detected throughout the gray matter, and GLUT-4 molecules were not detected in any camelid tissues. Staining characteristics of neonatal and adult tissues were similar. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - In New World camelids, microanatomic features of pancreatic islets are similar to those of other mammals. Data suggest that the poor glucose clearance and poor insulin response to hyperglycemia in adult camelids cannot be attributed to a lack of islet cells or lack of GLUT molecules on the outer membrane of those cells. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, Islets of Langerhans, microstructure, glucose transporters, immunohistochemistry, adult animals, neonates, mice, animal models, abnormal development, skeletal development, hepatocytes, central nervous system, brain, adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle, mammary glands.

Cebra, C.K.; Bildfell, R.J.; Lohr, C.V. Determination of internal organ weights in llamas and alpacas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: camelids, llamas, alpacas, organ weights, gender differences, species differences, first and second gastric compartments, third stomach, liver, pancreas, post mortem sampling, no gender differences found, species differences observed.

Cebra, C.K.; Tornquist, S.J. Meta-analysis of glucose tolerance in llamas and alpacas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: glucose tolerance, 5 adult female llamas, 9 adult llama geldings, 22 adult alpacas geldings, 0.5g/kg glucose in bolus after overnight fast, blood draws at various intervals, no difference for llama genders, alpacas had greater volume of distribution than llamas, potentially require different dosing regimens for medications that distribute throughout the extracellular fluid, lower insulin response to hyperglycemia in alpacas result of lower peak glucose concentrations, not pancreatic insufficiency.

Celedon, M.O.; Osorio, J.; Pizarro, J. Aislamiento e identificacion de pestivirus obtenidos de alpacas (Lama pacos) y llamas (Lama glama) de la Region Metropolitana, Chile. [Isolation and identification of pestiviruses in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) introduced to the Region Metropolitana, Chile.] Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria. 2006; 38(3): 247-252. ISSN: 0301-732X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.uach.cl/
Abstract: The natural habitat for more than 90% of the domestic South American camelids (SAC) in Chile, alpaca (Lama pacos) and llama (Lama glama), is located between 11 degrees and 21 degrees South latitude at 3800 and 5000 ms of altitude. Lately, alpacas and llamas have been introduced to other geographic parts of the country where they are in contact with domestic ruminants, making likely infection with BVDV, present in cattle, goats and sheep. The BVDV includes two species, BVDV genotype I (BVDV I) and BVDV genotype II (BVDV II), which along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) conforms the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. This study evaluates the hypothesis that SAC introduced to the Metropolitan Region (MR) of Chile are infected with pestiviruses. In order to perform viral isolation, samples were taken from 80 SAC (42 live alpacas, 35 live llamas, 2 dead llamas and 1 aborted fetus of llama), coming from 4 flocks suspected to be infected with pestivirus. The samples were inoculated in primary culture of bovine fetus lung cells (free of BVDV), passing each sample 5 times, and were then analysed by direct immunofluorescence and indirect immunoperoxidase techniques to detect the presence of pestivirus antigens. For molecular characterization, a fragment of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of RNA of the isolates was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and treated with restriction enzymes Pst I, Bgl I and Xho I in order to identify species of viruses. The results show that 18 SAC (10 alpacas and 8 llamas from the 4 studied flocks), were infected with pestivirus. All isolates were non cytopathogenic. BVDV I was isolated from 6 alpacas while BVDV II was isolated from 4 alpacas and 8 llamas. The viral samples were obtained from 8 healthy alpacas, 2 alpacas with abortion, 5 healthy llamas, 2 llamas with abortion and 1 dead llama without clinical history. It is concluded that alpacas and llamas from the MR of Chile are infected with BVDV I and BVDV II.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, amplification, disease prevalence, identification, isolation, molecular genetics, RNA, bovine diarrhea virus, Pestivirus, biochemical genetics, BVD, mucosal disease, mucosal disease virus, ribonucleic-acid, Chile.

D'Alterio, G.L. Skin lesions in UK alpacas (Lama pacos): Prevalence, aetiology and treatment. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: camelid breeders, llamas, alpacas, 3,520 animals counted, zinc deficiency, ectoparasitism, Chorioptes mite, mail survey, characterize the camelid population, features of skin disease, efficacy of eprinomectin vs ivermectin, anti-miticide, Britain.

De Simone, Emilio; Saccodossi, Natalia; Ferrari, Alejandro; Leoni,-Lucrecia; Leoni, Juliana. Immunochemical analysis of IgG subclasses and IgM in south American camelids.Small Ruminant Research. 2006; 64(1-2): 2-9. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
Abstract: Antibodies are glycoproteins comprising two heavy and two light chains. Surprisingly, all members of the family Camelidae possess a fraction of antibodies devoid of both light chains and the first constant domain (CH1). These kinds of antibodies are known as heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs). There are three subclasses of IgG in dromedaries, namely IgG(1), IgG(2) and IgG(3) Of which, IgG(2) and IgG(3) are of the HCAbs type. In the present work, the different IgG isotypes from guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama) and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) were purified and characterized. Interestingly, it was found that IgM was capable of binding to protein A. The different subclasses of immunoglobulins were also assayed for their ability to fix complement. Both IgG(1) and the total serum were able to fix complement, whereas IgG(2) and IgG(3) fixed complement even in the absence of antigen. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: vicuna; guanaco; llama; IgM immunoglobulin M G1, G2, and G3; immunologic techniques.

Di Rocco, Florencia; Parisi, Gustavo; Zambelli, Andres; Vida-Rioja, Lidia. Rapid evolution of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II in camelids (Tylopoda, Camelidae) Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes. 2006; 38(5-6): 293-297. ISSN: 0145-479X
URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/102584/
Descriptors: new and old camelids,mitochondrial aerobic energy production, mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II, III, replacement of amino acids inferred, transmembrane helices of proteins, hot dry adaption for camels, high altitude cold hypoxic environment of the Andean region.

Doerfler, R.L.; Peters, K.J. The relativity of ethical issues in animal agriculture related to different cultures and production conditions. Livestock Science. 2006 Sept; 103(3): 257-262. Note: In the special issue--M. Marie [Editor]. Ethics in Animal Agriculture. Literature review.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/18711413
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.05.013
NAL call no.: SF1.L5
Abstract: Initiatives to incorporate European animal welfare standards in international trade agreements raise issues of ethical relativism: (1) in the Fulani pastoral system the harsh environmental conditions result in a strong mutual dependency of pastoralists and their animals. Thus, animal ethics is vital to ensure the survival of the pastoral family, framed as ethic of securing survival; (2) the magnitude of human intervention, investigated in the Indian smallholder crop-livestock production system keeping oxen for work, determines the farmer's responsibility for adequate handling of animals. The apt anticruelty ethic prohibits deliberate cruelty to animals and neglect; (3) in intensive animal agriculture, such as intensive poultry and pig production in Thailand, the traditional ethical concept is no longer applicable and a new ethic encoded in law that respects the animals' natures is needed; (4) local moralities, as illustrated with the case of the llama system in the Andean highlands, deserve adequate attention independent of the production system. Therefore, the issue of animal welfare should be regarded relative in the global context and a dialogue between the cultures is encouraged to advance ethical concerns in animal agriculture.
Descriptors: bioethics, farmed animal species, llamas, animal welfare, livestock and meat industry, livestock production, animal husbandry, tropical agriculture, agroecology, hunger, Fulani, nationalities and ethnic groups, cultural differences, pastoralism, human animal relations, animal breeding, Nigeria, Thailand, Andes region.

Dykgraaf, S.; Pusterla, N.; Van Hoogmoed, L.M. Rattlesnake envenomation in 12 New World camelids. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006 July-Aug; 20(4): 998-1002. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL call no.: SF601.J65 .
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, snake bites, snake venoms, Crotalus atrox, antivenoms, antibiotics, fluid therapy, mortality, California.

Evermann, J.F Pestiviral infection of llamas and alpacas. Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 201-206. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: This review summarizes the literature pertaining to pestiviral infections of members of the camelid family. The exact nature of pestiviral infections, in particular bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), is the subject of active investigation especially in llamas and alpacas. Earlier reports based on serology-detected pestiviral (BVDV) antibodies in members of the camelid group ranging from a low 4% to a high of 53%. These studies indicate that members of the camelid group are susceptible to infection and do seroconvert. Over the past decade, clinical reports have documented disease conditions in llamas, alpacas and more recently, camels. These conditions range from respiratory and enteric diseases to chronic wasting and in utero infections resulting in stillbirths, and abortion. The review brings together some thoughts on whether infections of the camelid group are due to interspecies transmission and/or the potential that members of this group have their own unique pestiviral infections.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, Bovine viral diarrhea virus; viral diseases of animals and humans, literature reviews, seroprevalence, pestivirus, respiratory tract diseases, digestive system diseases, wasting syndrome, disease transmission, disease vectors.

Finucane, Brian; Agurto, Patricia Maita; Isbell, William H. Human and animal diet at Conchopata, Peru: stable isotope evidence for maize agriculture and animal management practices during the Middle Horizon. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2006; 33(12): 1766-1776. ISSN: 0305-4403
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03054403
Descriptors: prehistoric agricultural systems, humans, plant species, alpacas, llamas, guanacos, vicuna, Avaia porcellus, maize, various grasses, nitrogen 15, delta C 13, analysis of skeletal remains, Middle Horizon period (AD550-1000) Conchopata, Peruvian highlands, animal management strategies, no sex differences in diet, Peru.

Frank, E.N.; Hick, M.V.H.; Lamas, H.E.; Gauna, C.D.; Molina, M.G. Effects of age-class, shearing interval, fleece and color types on fiber quality and production in Argentine llamas.Small Ruminant Research:- The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 141-152. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Influence of animal age, shearing intervals and fleece and color types on the productivity and quality of the fiber were investigated in fleeces and skin samples of a Llama flock of the high altitude plateau in the province of Jujuy, Argentina. In this fiber and skin samples of Llama the following variables were evaluated (mean +/- S.D.): (i) fleece variables-greasy fleece weight (GFW), 1614.97 +/- 376.16 g; fiber weight per skin surface unit (FWSSU, mg/mm2), 122 +/- 28.7 mg; staple length (SL), 19.07 cm; mean fiber diameter (MFD), 22.91 +/- 1.55 micrometer; fiber diameter coefficient of variation (FDCV), 26.39 +/- 4.34%; weighted fiber diameter (WFD), 23.11 +/- 2.28 micrometer; total medullation degree (TMD), 28.3 +/- 4.7%; continuous medullation degree (CMD), 19.95 +/- 4.5%; non-continuous medullation degree (NCMD), 30.7% +/- 5.5; lattice medullae (La), 0.4 +/- 0.32%; continuous medullae (C), 15.8 +/- 4.01%; interrupted medullae (I), 11.0 +/- 4.3%, fragmented medullae (F), 22.8 +/- 5.8%, and non-medullated (NM), 51.9 +/- 3.77%. (ii) Horizontal sections variables-total follicular density (TFD), 20.69 +/- 4.38 No/mm2; secondary follicle density (SFD), 16.92 +/- 3.82 Nr/mm2; primary follicle density (PFD), 3.77 +/- 0.83 No/mm2; secondary/primary ratio (SPR), 4.52 +/- 0.82; fiber diameter within primary follicles (FDPF), 35.5 +/- 4.27 micrometer; fiber diameter within secondary follicles (FDSF), 19.92 +/- 3.82 micrometer; primary on secondary diameter ratio (PSDR), 1.77 +/- 0.82. (iii) Vertical sections variables-follicular length (FL), 2624.68 +/- 299.77 micrometer; follicular depth (FD), 1515.55 +/- 229.23 micrometer; grade of follicular curvature (GFC), 4.33%; follicular angle (FA), 35.9 +/- 6.86 degrees; bulbar papillae area (BPA), 962.90 +/- 230.47 micrometer 2. The analysis showed that age is the external effect that displays greater modifications (GFW, FWSSU, fundamentally MFD and WFD). The GFW increases significantly (p < 0.05) between ages, with a slight but constant tendency to 4 years old, and at the same time the SL and MFD also significantly (p < 0.05) increases. The shearing interval affects only the fiber productivity (GFW and SL), and significant (p < 0.05) differences are only between annual shearing and the rest. The fleece types show variations in SL between straight curled types or hemi lustre (HL) and straight or non-crimped or lustre (L) types and double coated (DC) fleece type. In this way, the HL and L have significance (p < 0.05) longer SL though do not show significant (p < 0.05) weight (GFW, FWSSU) differences in relation to the DC fleece type. The overall MFD does not show any variation between fleece types (p < 0.05), but the FDPF show significant (p < 0.05) differences. These results also are wider PSDR in DC, and narrower PSDR in HL and L fleece types. This has no relation with TFD and SFD, which is less (p < 0.05) in L and with FL, which is shorter in DC fleece type. We concluded that the increase of the GFW with age is mainly due to the increase of the MFD (diminution of the quality). This could be explained by the decrease of TFD that takes place as animal grows, since the points of inflection of the increases of MFD, diminution of SL and diminution of TFD agree into the same class of ages.
Descriptors: llamas, animal’s age, fleece, color, fiber quality, shearing interval, fiber staple luster, fiber diameter, wool production, productivity, sensory properties, altitude, Argentina.

Frank, E.N.; Hick, M.V.H.; Gauna, C.D.; Lamas, H.E.; Renieri, C.; Antonini, M. Phenotypic and genetic description of fibre traits in South American domestic camelids (llamas and alpacas). Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 113-129. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Even though llamas and alpacas are multipurpose animals, fibre production remains the main trait from an international market point of view. The objectives of this review are to describe the phenotypic traits that determine fibre quality, and to identify the genetic mechanisms governing them. The finer and lesser prickling effect the fibre has, the higher its value is. All these characteristics are related to fibre diameter and evenness, and to other traits such as color, type of fleece, fibre length and yield. Studies on genetic mechanisms for llama and alpaca fleece traits show that the white phenotype is dominant to the pigmented phenotype and to the spotted phenotype. Black face and extremities phenotypes are dominant to black and wild phenotypes. Lustre is dominant to non-lustre type and double coated is governed by an additive genetic mechanism. Heritabilities of fleece weight, staple length and fibre diameter are low to moderate in the high plateau environment and very high outside Altiplano conditions.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, fiber quality, phenotype, animal genetics, wool production, fiber color, fiber staple, fleece, yields, dominance (genetics), heritability, diameter, genotype, literature reviews.

Gall, David A.; Zekas, Lisa J.; Van Metre, David; Holt, Timothy. Imaging diagnosis--pulmonary metastases in new world camelids. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound. 2006 Oct-Nov; 47(6): 571-573. ISSN: 1058-8183
NAL call no.: SF757.8.A4
Abstract: The radiographic appearance of pulmonary metastatic disease from carcinoma is described in a llama and an alpaca. In one, a diffuse miliary pattern was seen. In the other, a more atypical unstructured interstitial pattern was recognized. Metastatic pulmonary neoplasia in camelids may assume a generalized miliary or unstructured pattern.
Descriptors: Doberman Pinscher dogs, llamas, alpacas, lymphoma, prostate-gland, ultrasonography, case studies, carcinoma, radiography, respiratory tract diseases.

Garcia-Pereira, F.L.; Greene, S.A.; McEwen, M.M.; Keegan, R. Analgesia and anesthesia in camelids.Small Ruminant Research The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 227-233. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references. A literature review.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: South American camelids, alpacas and llamas, are increasing in popularity. As a result, veterinarians in North American and European countries are treating increasing numbers of these species in their practices. This article reviews some of the common anesthetic and analgesic practices used in camelids.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, analgesia, anesthesia, veterinary medicine, tranquilizers.

Genin, D.; Alzerreca, H. Le Houerou, H.N. [Editors]. Campos nativos de pastoreo y produccion animal en la puna semiarida y arida andina. Entre fragilidad, saberes tradicionales y marginalidad, inverted-?cual desarrollo duradero? [Native pastures and animal production in the semi-arid puna and arid Andes. What type of sustainable development between fragility, traditional knowledge and marginalization?] Secheresse. 2006; 17(1/2): 265-274. ISSN: 1147-7806. Note: In Spanish with a French summary.
URL: http://www.secheresse.info
Abstract: Natural pasture types in the altiplano and altoandino regions of the Andes are described and precipitation and temperature data are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of sheep, lamas, and alpacas are discussed and linked to vegetation type and altitude. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, sheep, llamas, livestock farming at high altitudes, altiplano, indigenous knowledge, high pastures, dry zones, grazing lands, rural development, sustainability, Andes, South America.

Genin, D.; Tichit, M. Mixed camelids-sheep herds, management practices and viability analysis: some considerations for a sustainability framework of Andean pastoral systems.4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llama, sheep, mixed anagement strategies, herd composition, breeding, removal of individuals practices, rual household need, sustainability of mixed pastoral systems, balance between species, survey study, computer model developed, climatic uncertainty and long-term household survival, proposal of a conceptual framework, links of family wealth and range of strategies, Bolivia.

Gerken, M.; Renieri, C. [Editors]. South American Camelids Research, Volume 1. Proceedings of the 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids and DECAMA European seminar. Wageningen Academic Publishers. Wageningen, Netherlands: 2006; 308p. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF402.L35 E97 2004
Abstract: A series of papers on the current trends in reproduction, animal breeding, genetics, nutrition, health (including bacterial and parasitic infections) and fibre morphology of South American camelids, viz. llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is presented, including discussions on the potential of these camelids for meat production and commercialization in South America. The particular advantages of South American camelids for the sustainable use of fragile ecosystems with native pastures are outlined, and discussions on the interaction between wild and domestic species, management of alpaca populations outside South America and aspects of camelid health under European conditions are presented as well.
Descriptors: llamas, guanacos, vicunas, breeding, genetics, nutrition, bacterial diseases, bacterial infections, helminthoses, protozoal diseases, meat production, nature conservation, protozoal infections, reproduction, wildlife management, wool producing animals, South America.

Goitia, A. Claros; Quispe, J.L.; Liendo, A. Claros; Flores, J. DECAMA-Project: Women of mountain in business of charque of llama. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, women, production of llama jerky, ethnic food production, Chile.

Grubb, Tamara L.; Schlipf, John W.; Riebold, Thomas W.; Cebra, Christopher K.; Poland, Lisa; Zawadzkas, Xenia; Mailhot, Nicole. Minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane in llamas and alpacas.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2006 Nov; 33(6): 351-355. ISSN: 1467-2987
NAL call no.: SF914 .V47
Abstract: To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane in llamas and alpacas. Prospective study. Six healthy adult llamas and six healthy adult alpacas. Anesthesia was induced with desflurane delivered with oxygen through a mask. An endotracheal tube was inserted, and a port for continuous measurement of end-tidal and inspired desflurane concentrations was placed between the endotracheal tube and the breathing circuit. After equilibration at an end-tidal-to-inspired desflurane concentration ratio >0.90 for 15 minutes, a 50-Hz, 80-mA electrical stimulus was applied to the antebrachium until a response was obtained (i.e. gross purposeful movement) or for up to 1 minute. The vaporizer setting was increased or decreased to effect a 10-20% change in end-tidal desflurane concentration, and equilibration and stimulus were repeated. The MAC was defined as the average of the lowest end-tidal desflurane concentration that prevented a positive response and the highest concentration that allowed a positive response. Mean +/- SD MAC of desflurane was 7.99 +/- 0.58% in llamas and 7.83 +/- 0.51% in alpacas. The MAC of desflurane in llamas and alpacas was in the range of that reported for other species.
Descriptors: alpaca, llamas, desflurane, inhalant anesthesia.

Grubb, Tamara L.; Schlipf, John W.; Riebold, Thomas- W.; Cebra, Christopher K.; Poland, Lisa; Zawadzkas, Xenia; Mailhot, Nicole. Minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane in llamas and alpacas.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2006 Nov; 33(6): 351-355. ISSN: 1467-2987
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118516519/home
NAL call no.: SF914 .V47
Abstract: To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane in llamas and alpacas. Prospective study. Six healthy adult llamas and six healthy adult alpacas. Anesthesia was induced with desflurane delivered with oxygen through a mask. An endotracheal tube was inserted, and a port for continuous measurement of end-tidal and inspired desflurane concentrations was placed between the endotracheal tube and the breathing circuit. After equilibration at an end-tidal-to-inspired desflurane concentration ratio >0.90 for 15 minutes, a 50-Hz, 80-mA electrical stimulus was applied to the antebrachium until a response was obtained (i.e. gross purposeful movement) or for up to 1 minute. The vaporizer setting was increased or decreased to effect a 10-20% change in end-tidal desflurane concentration, and equilibration and stimulus were repeated. The MAC was defined as the average of the lowest end-tidal desflurane concentration that prevented a positive response and the highest concentration that allowed a positive response. Mean pl SD MAC of desflurane was 7.99 pl 0.58% in llamas and 7.83 pl 0.51% in alpacas. The MAC of desflurane in llamas and alpacas was in the range of that reported for other species.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, veterinary drugs, anesthetics, pulmonary alveoli, chemical concentration, drug evaluation, anesthesia, desflurane, inhalant anesthesia, minimum alveolar concentration, Internet resource

Guevara, J.C.; Bertiller, M.B.; Estevez, O.R..; Grunwaldt, E.G.; Allegretti, L.I.

Le Houerou, H.N. [Editor]. Pastizales y produccion animal en las zonas aridas de Argentina.[Pasture and animal production in the dry zones of Argentina.]Secheresse. 2006; 17(1/2): 242-256. ISSN: 1147-7806. Note: In Spanish with a French summary.
URL: http://www.secheresse.info
Abstract: Dry zones cover approximately 108 million ha (39% of land area). Drinking water is the main limiting factor for livestock farming. Sheep (59% of total sheep), goats (52% of total) and lamas, alpacas and vicunas (96% of total) are kept in the dry zones. The stocking density of livestock is 2.4 animal units/km2. The main production systems are rearing of cattle and sheep for meat,and sheep for wool.
Descriptors: cattle, goats, sheep, llamas, livestock farming dry zone pastures, availability of water, stocking density, Argentina.

Gunsser, I.; Haenichen, T.; Kiesling, C. Breeding and/or handling problems? Causes of death in camelids. In: M. Gerken and C. Renueri [Editors]. The 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: 179 camelids; 63 alpacas; 5 guanacos; 1 guanaco-llama mix; 5 dromedary camels; 3 Bactrian camels; 1 vicuna; post mortem sampling; causes of death; most common problems: pulmonary edema; next most common: liver, digestive system, abdomen, endoparasites, chronic feeding mistakes; pathology of other organs: urinary tract, head, spleen, skin; degeneration of parenchymas, teeth problems, spleen reactions, mites or other infections; less frequent pathology: genitals, neck, bones, limbs; general causes of death: infectious diseases (22.5%), euthanasia (17.1%), emaciation (9.5%), fatty degeneration of parenchyma (9.0%), diagnosis inconclusive (14.4%).

Gunsser, I.; Aigner, A.; Kiesling, C. Evaluation of laboratory results of camelids, made for import, export or participation in shows. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: 2,546 llamas and alpacas, importing, exporting, show animals, 9, 391 tests for ruminant diseases, brucellosis, leucosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, bovine herpes virus 1, and other diseases, testing products evaluated, negative for most ruminant diseases, false positives found, laboratories in Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, and Finland, United States, Chile, Peru.

Harrison, R.A.; Hasson, S.S.; Harmsen, M.; Laing, G.D.; Conrath, K.; Theakston, R.D.G. Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera. Toxicon 2006; 47(3): 364-368. ISSN: 0041-0101
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00410101
Abstract: Envenoming by snakes results in-severe systemic and local pathology. Intravenous administration of antivenom, prepared from IgG of venom immunised horses or sheep, is the only effective treatment of systemic envenoming. Conventional antivenoms, formulated as intact IgG, papain-cleaved (Fab) or pepsin-cleaved F(ab)(2) fragments, are however ineffective against the local venom effects because of their inability to penetrate the blood/tissue barrier. We have embarked on a new research program to examine (i) whether the unusually small (15 kDa) antigen-binding fragment of camelid heavy chain IgG (VHH) can be exploited to neutralise the local effects of envenoming and (ii) whether a novel antivenom to treat both the systemic and local effects of envenoming can be formulated by combining anti-snake venom VHH and conventional F(ab)(2). In this preliminary study, we demonstrate that camels and llamas respond to immunisation with Echis ocellatus venom with high antibody titres and broad antigen specificity. These encouraging immunological results were matched by the successful elimination of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from the venom-immunised camels and llamas. Unexpectedly, we report for the first time that camelid serum contains a non-IgG, highly potent inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage. (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Descriptors: camels, llamas, immunized with viper venom, immunoglobulin G, IgG, camelid serum, potent inhibitor of venom induced hemorrhage.

Hashimoto, K. Commodification of farm products in Andes highlands, production of llama meat of Bolivia. Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 2006; 50(5): 288-292. ISSN: 0021-5260. Note: In Japanese.
URL: http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/journal/J/F0874A/2005.php
Descriptors: llamas, livestock products, raising llamas for meat, Bolivia.

Hertzberg, H.; Kohler, L.: Prevalence and significance of gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa in South American Camelids in Switzerland. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2006; 119(7/8): 291-294. ISSN: 0005-9366. Note: In English with a German summary.
NAL call no.: 41.8 B45
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of endoparasitic infections in South American Camelids (SAC) in Switzerland. Qualitative and quantitative coproscopic examinations were performed in 38 farms during the grazing period. Management practices with possible interference with parasitic infections were analysed. On the farm level, prevalences of endoparasitic infections were: trichostrongyles, 87%; Trichuris sp., 74%; Capillaria sp., 68%; Nematodirus battus, 63%; Nematodirus sp., 53%; Dicrocoelium dendriticum, 34%; Moniezia sp., 8%; Fasciola hepatica, 5%; protostrongylids, 5%; Eimeria macusaniensis, 68%. The level of helminth egg excretion was generally low. The highest values were recorded for trichostrongyles with an average for all investigated farms of 53 eggs per gram of faeces. The mean trichostrongyle egg output was approximately three-fold in SAC on farms that also kept sheep and/or goats, although this difference was not significant (P=0.11). Clinical trichostrongylidosis was not reported from any of the farms. The low infection level with gastrointestinal nematodes is attributed to the defaecation behaviour of SAC, depositing their faeces focally on small spots on pasture. As a consequence, pasture infectivity is largely restricted to the area adjacent to the dung piles. Dicrocoeliosis is regarded as the most relevant parasitic infection of llamas and alpacas in Switzerland causing severe clinical symptoms and death in untreated animals. 16% of the owners regularly treated their herds against dicrocoeliosis using praziquantel at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight orally. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, animal parasitic nematodes, anthelmintics, disease control, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, fecal testing, disease surveillance, helminthoses, praziquantel, protozoal infections, Capillaria, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Eimeria macusaniensis, Fasciola hepatica, Moniezia, Nematodirus, Nematodirus battus, Protostrongylidae, Trichostrongylus, Trichuris, Enoplida, protozoal diseases, Switzerland.

Huanca, W.; Ratto, M.; Santiani, A.; Cordero, A.; Huanca, T. Embryo transfer in camelids: Study of a reliable superovulatory treatment in llamas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, females, embryos, embryo transfer, superovulatory treatment, clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, embryo recovery rate, pregnancy, genetic improvement.

Huanca, W.; Palomino, J.; Huanca, T. Effect of oestradiol on embryo mortality in llamas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, females, embryo mortality,corpus luteum, endocrine system, reproductive hormones, estradiol, proegestogen, progesterone, pregnancy, ovulation, conception rates.

Jensen, J M. Camelid Drug Formulary. Published by Game Ranch Health. San Antonio, USA: 2006, 405 p. ISBN: 9781424312177
NAL call no.: SF916.5.J46 2006
Abstract: The book is divided into two main sections, the first dealing with South American Camelids (SAC), llama (Lama glama), alpaca (Lama pacos), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna), and the second with dromedaries (Camelus dromedaries) and Bactrian camels (C. bactrianus). The drugs are grouped in the book according to clinical application (for example, Analgesia, Anaesthesia, Gastrointestinal, Immunization, Reproductive, Vitamins-Minerals). The information consists of a table with five columns entitled Drug, Species, Dosage, Comments, and Reference. For example the information for penicillin in the Reproduction - SAC section is: Drug: penicillin, Species: SAC, Dosage: 22,000 mg/kg, SC, q24h for 3 treatments, Comments: prevention of uterine infection, References: Johnson, L. 1989 [the full references are listed at the end of each of the SAC and Camel sections]. This book will be extremely useful to all veterinarians who come across camelids in their work.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, vicunas, guanacos, drug formulary, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, anti-infective agents, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-parasitic agents, drug therapy, gastrointestinal agents, pharmacology.

Lakritz, J.; Middleton, J.R.; Anderson, D.E.; Linden, D.R.; Sams, R.A.; Tessman, R.K.; Tyler, J.W. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered caffeine in healthy alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama).American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006 June; 67(6): 1063-1069. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective-To determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of IV administered caffeine in healthy Lama spp camelids. Animals-4 adult male alpacas and 4 adult female llamas. Procedures-Caffeine (3 mg/kg) was administered as an IV bolus. Plasma caffeine concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography in 6 animals and by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 2 llamas. Results-Median elimination half-life was 11 hours (range, 9.3 to 29.8 hours) in alpacas and 16 hours (range, 5.4 to 17 hours) in llamas. The volume of distribution at steady state was 0.60 L/kg (range, 0.45 to 0.93 L/kg) in alpacas and 0.75 L/kg (range, 0.68 to 1.15 L/kg) in llamas. Total plasma clearance was 44 mL/h/kg (range, 24 to 56 mL/h/kg) in alpacas and 42 mL/h/kg (range, 30 to 109 mL/h/kg) in llamas. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were suitable methods for determination of plasma caffeine concentrations in alpacas and llamas. Plasma caffeine concentration-time curves were best described by a 2-compartment model. Elimination half-lives, plasma clearance, volume of distribution at steady state, and mean residence time were not significantly different between alpacas and llamas. Intravenous administration of caffeine at a dose of 3 mg/kg did not induce clinical signs of excitement.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, females, pharmacokinetics, intravenous injection, caffeine, behavioral effects, half life, drug evaluation.

Leotta, Gerardo A.; Deza, Natalia; Origlia, Javier; Toma, Claudia; Chinen, Isabel; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Iyoda, Sunao; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rivas, Marta. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in captive non-domestic mammals. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006; 118(1-2): 151-157. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.08.019
NAL call no.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: ruminants, goast, giraffes, Taurotragus oryx, elands, Antilope cervicapra, blackbuck antelopes, Ovis musimon, mouflon sheep, Ovis aries somalicus, Somali sheep, Bos grunniensis, yaks, Lama pacos, alpacas, Lama guanicoe, guanacos, Lama guanico glama, llamas, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, capybaras, Dolichotis patagonus, Patagonian cavy, Cervus elaphus, red deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, pampas deer, Axis axis, axis deer, Mazama gouazoubira, fallow deer, Dama dama, paint deer, Elaphrus davidianus (Coleoptera-), pere david deer, Escherichia coli, serovar-O12:H25, serovar-O13:H6, strain 25 strains, strain 27 strains, strain O146:H28; Shiga toxin producing-Escherichia coli, 7 different sero-types, testing fecal samples, PCR, Shiga toxin gene sequences, natural reservoir, frequency in non-domestic animals, zoo habitat, living in a pit, Zoo and Botanical Garden, La Plata City, Argentina.

Li, PengFei; Dong, ChangSheng; Fan, RuiWen; Bai, Rui; Zhu, ZhiWei; Du HaiYan. Study on the relation of ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5) gene and alpaca fleece growth Journal of Economic Animal. 2006; 10(4): 215-218. ISSN: 1007-7448. Note: In Chinese with an English summary.
URL: http://jjdwxb.periodicals.net.cn
Abstract: The ribosomal protein S5 gene from the alpaca DNA library was studied using southern blotting. The gene was sequenced and the deduced nucleotide and amino acid sequences were compared with that of other mammals. The gene sequence was also analysed using bioinformatics to determine its special functional structure. The results will be used as basis for future research.
Descriptors: alpacas, amino acid sequences, fleece, genes, growth, nucleotide sequences, proteins, protein sequences.

Linden , D.R.; Anderson, D.E.; Ramsey, P.M. Seasonal variation in water intake in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) species. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(2): 201-205. ISSN: 0971-6777
NAL call no.: SF997.5.C3
Abstract: Water consumption was recorded during selected periods throughout the year to determine the variation that occurs with climactic changes and between species for llamas (L. glama) and alpacas (L. pacos) housed in North America ( Ohio, USA). Llamas had mean water consumption of 46.1 ml/kg during summer, 34.1 ml/kg during autumn, 25.0 ml/kg during winter and 33.2 ml/kg during spring. Alpacas had mean water consumption of 69.0 ml/kg during summer, 50.2 ml/kg during autumn, 40.6 ml/kg during winter and 46.1 ml/kg during spring. On a metabolic body weight basis, llamas and alpacas had mean water consumptions of 117.2 and 101.1 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively, during spring, 157.1 ml kg (0.75)-1 and 194.8 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively during summer, 116.2 ml kg (0.75)-1 and 141.6 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively, during autumn and 86.7 ml kg (0.75)-1 and 114.9 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively, during winter. Mean daily ambient temperature during summer, autumn, winter and spring sample periods were 25.4, 24.6, 4.4 and 21.0 degrees C, respectively. Mean relative humidity during the summer, autumn, winter and spring sample periods were 69.6, 64.2, 82.5 and 87.2%, respectively. This study showed that seasonal environmental variations correlated with variations in water consumption in llamas and alpacas (P<0.05). This study determined that alpacas consume greater amounts of water per kg body weight than llamas in any given season under the same temperature and humidity (P<0.05). Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, body weight, environmental temperatures, relative humidity, seasonal variation, seasonality, species differences, spring, summer, autumn, winter, water intake, seasonal changes, seasonal fluctuations, Ohio, USA.

Lusky, T.; Valbonesi, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Ayala, C.; Luan Weimin; Antonini, M. Skin follicular structure in Bolivian llamas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, young animals, males, females, type "Q'aras" (or carguera), "T'amphullis", born in January and April 1998, Patacamaya Experimental Station, hair follicles, skin follicular structure and activity among types, age of follicle maturity, skin biopsies, biopsies fixed in Bouin solution, stained by SACPIC procedure modified by Nixon, Bolivia.

Machaca, N. Cochi Yield and quality of the dehaired llama fibre of the community of Phujrata. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llama fleeces, 52, Phujrata, partial and complete manual de-hairing, tactile and visual method based on fiber fineness and length, de-haired fleeces, classified into 5 categories, medulalation percentage and fiber length analyzed, white fleeces vs colored fleeces, economic benefits, Department of La Paz, Bolivia.

Madaleno, I.M. Raising camelids up the Andes: Aymara indians animal and vegetable farming complementarities in Chile. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas,Indian camelid herders,Aymara Indian communities, 3,800 meter above sea level, lack of crops, quinoa, social structure, villages, ethnic pastoralism, bofedal, animals for meat, milk and wool fibers, traditional camelid husbandry, current status, Chile.

McKenna, P.B. Register of new host-parasite records.Surveillance Wellington. 2006; 33(4): 6-7. ISSN: 0112-4927
URL: www.biosecurity.govt.nz
Abstract: This article presents some new host-parasite records in domestic, zoo and wild animals in New Zealand, including Eimeria macusaniensis in an alpaca; Lamanema chavezi in llamas and alpacas; Nematodirus spathiger,Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Cooperia oncophora and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in llamas; T. vitrinus in an alpaca; Oxyuris karamoja in a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum); Syngamus trachea in a stitchbird (Notiomystis cincta) and Heterakis gallinarum in a guineafowl. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: domestic animals, wild animals, zoo animals, wild birds, poultry, guinea fowl, hosts, new host records, parasitoses, alpacas, llamas, birds, parasitic organisms, Camelostrongylus mentulatus,Ceratotherium simum, Cooperia oncophora, Eimeria macusaniensis, Heterakis gallinarum, Nematodirus spathiger, Syngamus trachea, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Lamanema chavezi,

Notiomystis cincta, Oxyuris karamoja, New Zealand.

Middleton, J.R.; Johnson, G.C.; Pardo, I.; Chigerwe, M; O' Brien,.D.P. Dysautonomia and salmonellosis in an 11-year-old female llama (Lama glama). Journal of Veterinary-Internal Medicine. 2006 Jan-Feb; 20(1): 213-216. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: case studies, histopathology, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona, gastrointestinal motility.

Middleton, J.R.; Johnson, G.C.; Pardo, I.; Chigerwe, .M; O'Brien, D.P. Dysautonomia and salmonellosis in an 11-year-old female llama (Lama glama). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006; 20(1): 213-216. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL Call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: llamas, Salmonella agona, salmonellosis, Clostridium perfringens, multiple infections, animal pathology, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, dysautonomia, therapy, therapeutics, histopathology, mixed infections, postmortem examinations, therapy, Missouri, US.

Middleton, J.R.; Chigerwe, M.; Fine, D.M.; Turk, J.R.; Lattimer, J.C. Pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure in an adult llama with hepatic disease.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2006 Mar 1; 228(5): 756-759. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Case Description-A 13-year-old llama was examined because of lethargy, inappetence, and syncope. Clinical Findings-Physical examination revealed muffled heart and lung sounds and peripheral edema. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, prerenal azotemia, mild hyponatremia, mild hypoalbuminemia, and high gamma-glutamyltransferase and creatine kinase activities. On ultrasonography, the liver appeared hyperechoic and ascites and pleural effusion were seen. Echocardiography revealed severe dilatation of the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery; severe tricuspid regurgitation; and high right ventricular systolic pressure consistent with right-sided heart failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension. Treatment and Outcome-Treatment with furosemide was attempted, but because of failing health, the llama was euthanized 4 weeks later. Macronodular cirrhosis of the liver, glomerulonephritis, and intimal fibrosis and medial hypertrophy of muscular pulmonary arteries were seen on histologic examination of postmortem specimens. Clinical Relevance-Findings in this case were similar to those reported for human patients with portopulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic cirrhosis. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right-sided heart failure.
Descriptors: llama, female, case study, hypertension, animal diseases, liver cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, level of physical activity, anorexia, edema, heart sounds, uremia, hyperglycemia, gamma glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase, enzyme activity, ascites, systolic blood pressure, drug therapy, glomerulonephritis, hypertrophy, pulmonary artery, furosemide.

Miglino, M.A.; Iturrizaga, D.; Morini, A.C.; Verechia, F.T.; o Kfoury, J.R. Jr; Monteiro, J.M.; Bazer, F.W. Iron transfer across the llama placenta (Lama guanicoe glama). Reproduction Fertility and Development. 2006; 18(1-2): 177. ISSN: 1031-3613. Note: 32nd Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society, Orlando, FL, USA; January 07-11, 2006.
URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/45.htm
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD07049
NAL Call no: QP251.R47
Descriptors: llamas, fetuses, placentas, iron transfer.

Miragaya, M.H.; Chaves, M.G.; Aguero, A. Reproductive biotechnology in South American camelids. Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 299-310. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Basic and applied research on physiology of reproduction in alpacas and llamas has gained much importance in the last decades because of their increasing economic value. Reproductive biotechnology would allow propagation of genetically superior individuals, especially those with excellent quality fiber. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the most relevant subjects related to reproductive biotechnology in female and the male. In the female, follicular synchronization, ovarian superstimulation, embryo recovery and transfer, oocyte maturation, assisted reproduction techniques (in vitro fertilization, ICSI), nuclear transfer and embryo cryopreservation are reviewed. In the male, this review concerns artificial insemination.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, females, animal reproduction, biotechnology, genetic improvement, estrus synchronization, fiber quality, literature reviews, embryo transfer, oocytes, in vitro fertilization, cryopreservation, germplasm conservation, artificial insemination.

Mosaad, A.A.; Elbagory, A.R.; Khalid, A.M.; Waters, W.R.; Tibary, A.; Hamilton, M.J.; Davis, W.C. Identification of monoclonal antibody reagents for use in the study of the immune response to infectious agents in camel and water buffalo.Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(2): 91-101. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: Progress in elucidating the mechanisms regulating the immune response to infectious agents and derived vaccines in domestic species, especially in camels and water buffaloes, has been impeded by the lack of monoclonal antibody (mAb) reagents needed to study the immune response in the species of interest. As a first step to address this problem, we conducted a study to determine how many existing mAbs developed against leukocyte differentiation molecules (LDM) in various species recognize conserved epitopes on orthologous (identical) molecules in two or more species of Artiodactyla. Analysis of 490 monoclonal antibodies raised against LDM in cattle, goat, sheep, llama, pig, dog and human revealed that many epitopes have been conserved on orthologous molecules in the course of evolution in closely related species in the suborder Ruminantia such as in cattle, bison and water buffalo, and fewer on more distantly related species such as goat and sheep. Only a few of the epitopes conserved in Ruminantia were conserved in the suborders Suiformes (pigs) and Tylopoda (llamas and camels). The highest level of conservation in all suborders was found with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (MHC I) and class II (MHC II) molecules. These findings show the potential as well as the limitations of screening existing mAbs for research in less use studied species. Importantly, the findings also provide further insight into the composition of the immune system in Artiodactyla and factors to be considered when studying the immune response to infectious agents and vaccines in the different suborders of Artiodactyla.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, Bison bison, buffalo, Bactrian camels, Camelus bactrianus, cattle, dogs, dromedaries, goats, human, pigs, rabbits, sheep, epitopes, evolution, immune response, immune system, immunity, major histocompatibility complex, monoclonal antibodies, antigenic determinants, histocompatibility complex, hogs, immunity reactions, immunological reactions.

Newman, K.D.; Anderson, D.E. Fracture management in llamas and alpacas. Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 241-258. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Fracture management in llamas and alpacas present a unique and interesting challenge to the veterinary surgeon compared to other species. Camelids are considered to be excellent patients for the treatment of orthopedic injuries because they have a relative low body weight, tolerate external coaptation devices, are able to ambulate on three legs post-operatively, and can tolerate prolonged periods of recumbency for recuperation after surgery. Reports in the literature on camelid fractures (28 cases) and the authors' experiences with an additional 38 fractures are reviewed. There are a number of repair techniques that can be employed, depending primarily on fracture configuration and the surgeon's experience. Complications to fracture repair include mal-union, delayed union, non-union, osteomyelitis, sequestrum formation, and implant failure. Complications are associated with damage to the neurovascular bundle, damage to adjacent soft tissue at the fracture site, and compound fractures. Complications may be managed through the use antibiotics, surgical debridement, and staged destabilization of the fixation device. When irreversible damage to the neurovascular bundle has occurred, limb amputation with or without a prosthetic device may be alternatives to euthanatizing the patient.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, bone fractures, fracture fixation, literature reviews, postoperative complications, osteomyelitis, risk factors, amputation.

Nolen-Walston, R.; Rushton, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Bedenice, D.; Del-Piero, F. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) in South American Camelids: 9 cases. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006; 20(3): 723-724. ISSN: 0891-6640. Note: “24th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA; May 31-June 03, 2006.”
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, infection with Eastern equine encephalitis virus (Togaviridae), clinical picture, blood sampling, neurological symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid, epidemiology, immunology, laboratory techniques.

Odbileg, R.; Purevtseren, B.; Batsukh, Z.; Konnai, S.; Ohashi, K.; Onuma, M. Complete cDNA sequences and phylogenetic analyses of the Th1 and Th2 cytokines of the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2006; 68(9): 941-946. ISSN: 0916-7250
URL: http://www.soc.nii.ac.jp/jsvs
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.68.941
Abstract: The complementary DNAs of the Th1 (IL-2, IL-12p35, and IFN- gamma ) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokine genes of the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p35, IL-13, and IFN- gamma were found to have 465, 402, 537, 669, 411, and 501 bp length open reading frames with 154, 133, 178, 222, 136, and 166 amino acid encodings, respectively. The homology ranged from 58.8% to 100% between the nucleotide sequences of the camel cytokine genes and the published sequences of other mammalian genes, including the llama, pig, cow, horse, human, and mouse. The cDNA had highest homology with orders Artiodactyla (pigs and cattle) and Perissodactyla (horses), especially to the recently cloned llama sequences.
Descriptors: Camelus bactrianus , cattle, horses, llamas, pigs, complementary DNA, cytokines, DNA cloning, genes, interferon, linkage, nucleotide sequences, open reading frames, phylogeny.

Pachao, N. DECAMA-Project: Characteristics of the supply and demand of charqui. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, charqui, meat product, jerky, Arequipa markets, volumes of production, characteristics of demand, commercialization of systems, financial margins, 443.4 MT/year, Peruvian markets.

Pacheco, C.; Soza, A. DECAMA-project: determination of the lactation curve and evaluation of the main chemical components of the milk of llamas (Lama glama). 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, lactating mature females, 2 nd lactation, lactation curve,milk composition, growth rate of crias, milk volume, levels of total solids, protein, fact, ash, whey protein, sampling at various days post partum, manual milking, volume (207.33 ml) peaked at 60 days, Andean pasture management system, changes in composition noted, crias with from 10.75 kg to 35kg at 120 days.

Panuska, C.; Rickard, L.G.; Rudolph, D.D. Isotype-specific serum IgG responses of llamas (Lama glama) to experimental liver fluke infection. Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 195-199. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: South American Camelids / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: The humoral immune system of South American camelids is unusual in that a large component of the IgG comprises heavy chains only. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of these and conventional four chain IgG antibodies to the immune response of llamas in the course of primary infections with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Isotypes of IgG were isolated by affinity chromatography and the production of various isotypes determined by ELISA. Both conventional and heavy-chain only isotypes of F. hepatica-specific IgG were detected in the course of the infection. The conventional four-chain antibody, IgG1, predominated but a marked increase was also detected in the heavy-chain only isotype IgG3. IgG2, another heavy-chain only isotype, was a minor component of the fluke specific response.
Descriptors: llamas, liver flukes, trematode infections, immune response, immunoglobulin G, humoral immunity, Fasciola hepatica, isotypes.

Patitucci, A.N.; Perez, M.J.; Barril, G.; Carcamo, C.M.; Munoz, A. Deteccion de anticuerpos sericos contra Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle y Manceaux, 1909) en llamas (Lama glama Linneaus, 1758) y alpacas (Lama pacos Linneaus, 1758) de Chile. [Serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in llamas and alpacas from Chile.] Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria. 2006; 38(2): 179-182. ISSN: 0301-732X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.uach.cl
Abstract: Serum samples from 113 llamas (Lama glama) and 127 alpacas (Lama pacos) from the IX and V Regions, respectively, of Chile were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used in both species and titres of 1:25 were considered diagnostically significant. Sera from 49 llamas (43.3%) and 15 alpacas (11.8%) were positive for T. gondii. Percentage seropositivity in serum dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, 1:500 and 1:5000 was 17.6, 7.9, 14.1 and 3.5% in llamas and 0, 2.3, 0.7 and 8.6% in alpacas. The rather low prevalence in alpacas may be associated with geographical conditions, management practices or contact with cats rather than different species susceptibility. As expected, older animals showed higher T. gondii reactivity than young animals. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts. Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, Toxoplasma gondii, antibodies, agglutination tests, blood serum, immune response, seroprevalence, susceptibility, immunity reactions, immunological reactions.

Ponce , R.; Farias, S.; Mitre, G.B.; Velez, D.; Montoro, R. Determinacion de arsenico total e inorganico en carne y visceras de camelidos (Lama glama) autoctonos de la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. [Determination of total and inorganic arsenic in muscular and visceral tissues of autochthonous camel (Lama glama) from Jujuy-Argentine.] Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia Universidad de Buenos Aires. 2006; 26(1): 105-109. ISSN: 0325-9250. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
NAL call no.: SB87.A7R48
Abstract: A study was carried out to determine the total arsenic and inorganic arsenic in muscle and liver of Lama glama. Samples were digested using "dry ash" technique to determine total arsenic. Arsenic was quantified through hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Inorganic arsenic was determined using acid digestion, subsequent extraction with chloroform and re-extraction with diluted acid. Inorganic arsenic was quantified by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption kspectrometry. Total arsenic content in the liver ranged from 0.19-0.45 Fg/g and was higher than those found in muscle (0.06-0.26 Fg/g). However, none exceeded the maximum allowed limits based on the legislation in Argentina. Inorganic arsenic in muscle was low (0.002-0.006 ng/g). This is thought to be the first report of inorganic arsenic content in this llamas' meat. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, arsenic, meat contamination, liver, meat quality, quantitative analysis, food contaminants, Argentina.

Popowics, T.E.; Herring, S.W. Teeth, jaws and muscles in mammalian mastication. In: V. Bels [Editor]. Feeding in Domestic Vertebrates: from Structure to Behaviour. 2006; 61-83. ISBN: 1845930630; 9781845930639
NAL call no.: SF95.F423 2006
Abstract: This chapter presents the structural features of the masticatory system in mammals (minks, sheep, llamas, rabbits and pigs). The contributions of these structures to are dealt with. The following topics are discussed in detail: anatomical components of the masticatory system; morphology of teeth and arrangement in jaws; modification of tooth morphology by wear; temporo-mandibular joint and masticatory movements; and muscles of mastication and jaw mechanics.
Descriptors: llamas, mink, pigs, rabbits, sheep, comparative animal anatomy, dentine, enamel, grazing, jaws, mastication, morphology, muscles, teeth

Ratto, Marcelo H.; Singh, Jaswant; Roesler, William; Adams, Gregg P. Partial chemical characterization of an ovulation-inducing factor present in the seminal plasma of llamas. Biology of Reproduction. 2006; (Sp. Iss. SI): 174-175. ISSN: 0006-3363. Note. 39th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Omaha, NE, USA; July 29 -August 01, 2006.
URL: http://www.biolreprod.org/
Descriptors: llamas, males, females, reproduction, seminal plasma, follicle development, ovulation producing factor in seminal plasma.

Ratto, M.; Huanca, W.; Singh, J.; Adams, G.P. Comparison of the effect of natural mating, LH, and GnRH on interval to ovulation and luteal function in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science. 2006 Feb; 91(3-4): 299-306. ISSN: 0378-4320
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784320
NAL call no.: QP251.A5
Abstract: Gonadotropins and GnRH have been used to electively induce ovulation in llamas and alpacas, but critical evaluation of the natural interval to ovulation after mating has not been performed nor has a direct comparison of the effects of natural mating versus hormone treatments on this interval and subsequent luteal development. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of hormonal treatments and natural mating on ovulation induction, interval to ovulation, and luteal development in llamas. The ovaries of llamas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography once daily. Llamas with a large follicle were assigned randomly to be: (1) mated with an intact male (mated; n=10); (2) given 5 mg of LH im (LH; n=11); or (3) 50 micro g of GnRH im (GnRH; n=10). Ultrasound examinations were performed every 4 h from treatment (day 0) to ovulation and thereafter once daily for 15 consecutive days to monitor CL growth and regression (n=5 per group). Plasma progesterone concentrations were measured at days 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 after treatment to evaluate CL function. The size of the largest preovulatory follicle at the time of treatment did not differ among groups (11+or-0.6, 10.5+or-0.8, 11.8+or-0.9 mm, for mated, LH, and GnRH groups, respectively; P=0.6). No differences were detected among groups (mated, LH, and GnRH) in ovulation rate (80%, 91%, 80%, respectively; P=0.6), or interval from treatment to ovulation (30.0+or-0.5, 29.3+or-0.6, 29.3+or-0.7 h, respectively; P=0.9). Similarly, no differences were detected among groups (mated, LH, and GnRH) in maximum CL diameter (14.2+or-0.3, 13.2+or-0.5, and 13.0+or-0.7 mm, respectively; P=0.5), the day of maximum CL diameter (7.6+or-0.2, 7.6+or-0.2, and 7.4+or-0.4 mm, respectively; P=0.6), or the day on which the CL began to regress (12.3+or-0.3 [non-pregnant, n=3], 11.8+or-0.6, 12.2+or-0.4, respectively; P=0.4). The diameter of the CL and plasma progesterone concentrations changed over days (P<0.0001) but the profiles did not differ among groups. In summary, ovulation rate, interval to ovulation, and luteal development were similar among llamas that were mated naturally or treated with LH or GnRH. We conclude that both hormonal preparations are equally reliable for inducing ovulation and suitable for synchronization for artificial insemination or embryo transfer program. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, females, ovulation, corpus luteum, luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin releasing hormone, insemination, progesterone, blood plasma, follicular development.

Ratto, M.H.; Huanca, W.; Singh, J.; Adams, G.P. Comparison of the effect of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas, alpacas, and bulls. Theriogenology. 2006 Sept 15; 66(5): 1102-1106. ISSN: 0093-691X
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0093691X
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.02.050
NAL call no.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: We have recently reported the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas--species characterized as induced ovulators. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the seminal plasma of bulls will induce ovulation in llamas, and to compare the ovulation-inducing effect of seminal plasma of conspecific versus hetero-specific males. The seminal plasma of alpacas, a closely related induced ovulator (Lama pacos), and cattle, a distantly related ruminant species (Bos taurus) considered to be spontaneous ovulators, were compared with that of the llama (Lama glama). Ovulation and maximum corpus luteum diameter were compared by ultrasonography among female llamas (n = 19 per group) treated intramuscularly with 2 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, negative control) and those treated with 2 mL of seminal plasma of bulls, alpacas, or llamas (conspecific control). The diameter of the preovulatory follicle did not differ among groups at the time of treatment. Bull seminal plasma induced ovulations in 26% (5/19) of llamas compared to 0% (0/19) in PBS group (P < 0.001). The proportion of females that ovulated was lower (P < 0.01) in bull seminal plasma group compared to the groups treated with alpaca or llama seminal plasma (100%). A corpus luteum was detected on Day 8 (Day 0 = treatment) in all llamas in which ovulation was detected earlier (Day 2) by ultrasonography. The diameter of the CL did not differ among groups. Results document the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of B. taurus. The interspecies effects of seminal plasma on ovulation and luteal development provide rationale for the hypothesis that OIF is conserved among both spontaneous and induced ovulating species.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, females, ovulation, seminal plasma, intramuscular injection, corpus luteum, Hereford beef bulls.

Riek, A.; Gerken, M. Changes in llama (Lama glama) milk composition during lactation.Journal of Dairy science. 2006 Sept; 89(9): 3484-3493. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL call no.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: Milk samples were collected weekly from 10 llamas during the first 27 wk after parturition under controlled stable conditions. Mean values for the concentrations of the major milk components across the lactation period were 4.70% fat, 4.23% protein, 5.93% lactose, 15.61% dry matter, and 22.62 mg/dL of milk urea N. All constituents were affected by the stage of lactation. There was an increase in fat to protein ratio as protein concentration declined and fat concentration increased. Fat, protein, and lactose concentrations changed during the transition from colostrum to milk. In the first month postpartum, fat concentration remained constant, protein decreased, and lactose increased. Starting with wk 5 postpartum, fat and protein increased and lactose decreased until the end of lactation. Among the major constituents fat had the highest variation. The mean gross energy concentration of milk was 3.88 kJ/g and showed a similar course as protein. Fat contributed 48.0%, protein 26.3%, and lactose 25.7% to the gross energy in the milk. Milk urea N values were higher than those found in ruminants and increased with stage of lactation, whereas the pH decreased. The analyzed milk components were not affected by the lactation number of the animal, except milk urea N. Somatic cell counts indicated the absence of mastitis and revealed that the average somatic cell count of uninfected llamas is lower than in animals usually used for milk production. The 2 algebraic models fitted by a nonlinear regression procedure to the data resulted in suitable prediction curves for the constituents (Rpo = 0.76 to 0.94). The courses of major milk constituents in llamas during lactation are similar to those in domesticated ruminants, although different in their values. The established curves facilitate the composition of milk replacers at different stages of lactation for nursing llamas whose dams died or are agalactic.
Descriptors: llamas, maternal milk, milk composition, lactation stage, colostrum, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, lactose, energy content, mathematical models.

Rodriguez, J.; Dodd, C.; Rosadio, R.; Wheeler, J.C.; Bruford, M.W. Paternity testing using microsatellite DNA in alpacas (Vicugna pacos). 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, microsatellites, amplified in 3 multiplex reactions, polymorphic, allele numbers, Cervus 2.0, paternity testing, parentage accuracy in records, IVTA Research Station, Marangani, Canchis Province, Cusco, Peru.

Rohbeck, Simone; Gauly, M.; Bauer, C. Course of gastro-intestinal parasite and lungworm infections in South American camelids on a farm in central Germany. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, parasites, Eimeria fauna, Moniezia, Haemonchus contortus,Trichuris, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia, Dictyocaulus viviparous, oocysts, coccidiosis, gastrointestinal parasitic infections, lungwork infections, epidemiology, Germany.

Rohbeck, S.; Bauer, C.; Gauly, M. Biology of Eimeria macusaniensis in llamas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, small intestinal parasite, Eimeria macusaniensis, epidemiology, symptoms, clinical picture, parasite levels.

Schoeniger, S.; Donner, L.R.; Van Alstine, W.G. Malignant nonteratoid ocular medulloepithelioma in a llama (Llama glama).Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Sept; 18(5): 499-503. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: A 6-year-old female llama presented with buphthalmos of its right eye owing to the presence of an intraocular mass. The affected globe was enucleated and submitted for microscopic examination. The intraocular mass was diagnosed as malignant medulloepithelioma. Within the following months, the llama developed soft tissue masses, which completely filled the right orbital cavity and expanded the cranial portion of the right mandibular bone, and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Euthanasia was elected 30 months after the initial diagnosis. The carcass was submitted for postmortem examination, which revealed the presence of medulloepithelioma metastases within the right orbit, mandible, mandibular lymph nodes, lungs, liver, and mesenteric and sublumbar lymph nodes. The primary intraocular tumor and its metastases were composed of neoplastic undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells, which formed tubules, Flexner-Wintersteiner and Homer Wright rosettes, and rare solid sheets. Electron microscopy showed that tumor cells were connected by desmosome-like junctions and contained rare intracytoplasmic basal bodies. Neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, nestin, microtubule-associated protein 1B, S-100 protein, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a malignant nonteratoid ocular medulloepithelioma with distant metastases in a llama and of the ultrastructural and extended immunohistochemical characterization of a nonteratoid medulloepithelioma in this species. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, eyes, eye diseases, neoplasms, animal diseases, disease diagnosis, metastasis, histopathology, epithelium, immunohistochemistry, nonteratoid ocular, medulloepithelioma.

Schwalm, A.; Erhardt, G.; Guly, M.; Gerken, M.; Bergmann, M. Changes in testicular histology and sperm quality in llamas (Lama glama) following exposure to high ambient temperature. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, males, heat stress, high ambient temperatures, heat effects on testicles and sperm, sperm quality, testicular histology, infertility.

Schwalm, A.; Erhardt, G.; Gerken, M.; Gauly, M. The influence of high ambient temperature on thermoregulation, thyroid hormone and testosteron levels in male llamas (Lama glama) depending on their fibre length. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas; intact males; influence of heat stress on physiological parameters: body temperatures, body surface temperature, thyroid hormones, testosterone levels, respiration, body fibers; heated stables, 5 animals shorn, 5 unshorn, 2 barrel cut; 30degrees C. for 7 weeks, heat loss through ventral body sections, reduced thyroid, reduced testosterone, shorn animals tolerated the heat better.

Simone, E. de; Saccodossi, N.; Ferrari, A.; Leoni, L.; Leoni, J. Immunochemical analysis of IgG subclasses and IgM in South American camelids. Small Ruminant Research. 2006 July; 64(1-2): 2-9. ISSN: 0921-4488
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.03.009
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Antibodies are glycoproteins comprising two heavy and two light chains. Surprisingly, all members of the family Camelidae possess a fraction of antibodies devoid of both light chains and the first constant domain (CH1). These kinds of antibodies are known as heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs). There are three subclasses of IgG in dromedaries, namely IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 of which, IgG2 and IgG3 are of the HCAbs type. In the present work, the different IgG isotypes from guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama) and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) were purified and characterized. Interestingly, it was found that IgM was capable of binding to protein A. The different subclasses of immunoglobulins were also assayed for their ability to fix complement. Both IgG1 and the total serum were able to fix complement, whereas IgG2 and IgG3 fixed complement even in the absence of antigen.
Descriptors: llamas, Lama guanicoe, vicunas, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, antibodies, chemical structure, complement, complement fixation tests, antigens, heavy chain antibodies, light chain antibodies.

Southey, B.R.; Rodriguez, T.; Thomas, D.L. An evaluation of the growth and change in body dimensions from birth to maturity of the llama (Lama glama) and the huarizo (crossbred camelid) in the Bolivian Andes. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, GERMANY; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, cross bred, huarizo, growth, structural differences, growth, birth, maturity, Andean region, Bolivia.

Taylor, P.; Taylor, S.; Sansinena, M.; Godke, R. Llama lama glama pregnancies from vitrified/warmed blastocysts using a novel coaxial cryoprotectant microinjection system. Reproduction Fertility and Development. 2006; 18(1-2): 164. ISSN: 1031-3613. 32nd Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society, Orlando, FL, USA; January 07 -11, 2006.
URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/45.htm
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD07049
NAL Call no: QP251.R47
Descriptors: llamas, embryo, blastula, glycerol, sucrose, cryoprotectant, fetal bovine serum, butanedial, ultraconography, coaxial cryopratectant microinjection device, lab techniques.

Tibary, A.; Parish, S.M. [Editors] South American camelids.Small Ruminant Research.The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006; 61(2/3): 221 pp.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Descriptors: alpacas, guanacos, Lama guanicoe, llamas, vicunas, etiology, anesthesia, anesthetics, analgesics, breeding, reproduction, diseases, feeding, nutrition, fibers, fleeces, wool production, genetics, disease diagnosis, immunity, immunology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, surgery, therapy.

Tibary, A.; Vaughan, J. Reproductive physiology and infertility in male South American camelids: a review and clinical observations.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 283-298. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” / edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Male South American camelids exhibit several distinctive behavioral and physiological reproductive characteristics. This paper describes the anatomical features of the male reproductive tract and a detailed review of puberty, spermatogenesis and factors affecting semen production. Methods of semen collection and parameters of sperm morphology and semen biochemistry are also described. The most common abnormalities and diseases associated with reduced fertility and infertility are presented based on the authors clinical experience.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, animal reproduction, male fertility, literature reviews, reproductive behavior, male reproductive system, puberty, spermatogenesis, semen, reproductive disorders, artificial insemination, breeding soundness.

Tibary, A.; Fite, C.; Anouassi, A.; Sghiri, A. Infectious causes of reproductive loss in camelids. Theriogenology. 2006 Aug; 66(3): 633-647. ISSN: 0093-691X
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0093691X
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.04.008
NAL call no.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Reproductive losses in camelids are due to infertility, pregnancy loss, udder diseases and neonatal mortality caused by a variety of infectious diseases. Uterine infection and abortion represent the major complaint in camelid veterinary practice. The major infectious organisms in endometritis and metritis are E. coli and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus. Abortion rates due to infectious diseases vary from 10% to more than 70% in some areas. Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and chlamydiosis have been diagnosed as the major causes of abortion in llamas and alpacas. In camels, brucellosis and trypanosomiasis represent the major causes of infectious abortion in the Middle East and Africa. Mastitis is rare in South American camelids. The prevalence of subclinical udder infection in camels can reach very high proportions in dairy camels. Udder infections are primarily due to Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. Neonatal mortality is primarily due to diarrhea following failure of passive transfer and exposure to E. coli, rotavirus, coronavirus, Coccidia and Salmonella. This paper reviews the etio-pathogenesis of these causes of reproductive losses, as well as the major risk factors and strategies to prevent their occurrence.
Descriptors: large animal practice, llamas, animal reproduction, alpacas, dromedaries, dairy animals, abortion, female fertility, mastitis, neonatal mortality, colostral immunity, endometritis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, toxoplasmosis, Chlamydia, etiology, pathogenesis, risk factors, disease control, disease diagnosis.

Troiano, J.C.; Gould, E.G.; Gould, I. Hemolitic action of Naja naja atra cardiotoxin on erythrocytes from different animals.Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropica Diseases. 2006; 12(1): 44-58. ISSN: 0104-7930
URL: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/jvatitd/v12n1/28300.pdf
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-91992006000100004
Abstract: A comparative study on the sensitivity of erythrocytes from different vertebrate species (avian, mammalian and reptilian) to the haemolytic action caused by cardiotoxin isolated from Naja naja atra venom was carried out. Cardiotoxin was able to induce direct haemolysis in washed erythrocytes from several animals, except for llama. The EC50 values from haemolysis of the most sensitive (cat) and the most resistant (snake) animal varied approximately tenfold. According to the cell behaviour, it was possible to characterize four types of behaviour: The first was observed in cat, horse and human cells; the second in rat, rabbit and dog erythrocytes; and the third only in llama erythrocytes, which were resistant to cardiotoxin concentrations up to 300 micro g/ml. Finally, avian and reptilian erythrocytes were more resistant to cardiotoxin III-induced haemolysis than those of the mammalian species. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, humans, reptiles, rats, poisonous snake venom, Naja atra, effects on red blood cells, hemolysis, comparisons, cardio-toxins.

Tyler , J.W.; Middleton, J.R.; Tessman, R.K.; Nagy, D.W. Risk of after-hours visits to an in-hospital food animal service by species. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2006 Mar-Apr; 20(2): 407-409. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Descriptors: large animal veterinary practice, veterinary clinics, cattle, swine, Vietnamese potbellied pigs, llamas, alpacas, goats, sheep, risk groups, risk factors, veterinary education, Missouri, US.

Valentine, B.A.; Saulez, M.N.; Cebra, C.K.; Fischer, K.A. Compressive myelopathy due to intervertebral disk extrusion in a llama (Lama glama). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2006 Jan; 18(1): 126-129. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: A 12-year-old intact female llama was euthanized following acute onset of spastic tetraparesis and recumbency with inability to rise. Postmortem examination revealed caudal cervical spinal cord compression due to a mass within the ventral spinal canal arising from the C6-C7 intervertebral disk space and attached to an irregularly thickened annulus fibrosis. On histopathologic examination, the mass was composed of amorphous acellular basophilic to amphophilic material admixed with irregularly arranged collagen bundles. The amorphous material was metachromatic and contained multiple small foci of markedly vacuolated round cells, characteristic of origin from the nucleus pulposus. Severe necrosis of all white matter tracts with astrocytic reaction was present in the overlying spinal cord segment. Ascending and descending Wallerian degeneration and dissecting interstitial astrogliosis were present within white matter tracts above and below the lesion, respectively. The diagnosis was compressive myelopathy due to chronic extrusion of the nucleus pulposus of the C6-C7 intervertebral disk. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of intervertebral disk disease in a camelid.
Descriptors: llamas, intact female, symptoms, spastic tetraparesis and recumbency, spinal diseases, intervertebral disks, case study, disease diagnosis, animal pathology, histopathology, euthanasia, myelopathy.

Van Saun, R.J. Nutrient requirements of South American camelids: a factorial approach.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 165-186. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Literature describing digestive physiology and defining specific nutrient requirements for llamas and alpacas was reviewed. Using data from studies defining maintenance energy and protein requirements, llamas and alpacas have lower energy and protein requirements compared to other ruminants; however, they have a greater protein requirement per unit of energy. This is consistent with observed differences in urea and glucose metabolism between camelids and other ruminants suggesting a reliance on protein catabolism to maintain blood glucose concentrations. Evidence suggests llamas and alpacas may have a greater requirement for Vitamin D, but no other evidence of significant differences in requirements between camelids and other ruminants. There are limited data defining other nutrient requirements or differences in requirements based on physiologic state for llamas and alpacas. In spite of limited data, a factorial approach to estimate nutritional requirements of llamas and alpacas was described. Defined maintenance energy and protein requirements were extrapolated to other physiologic states using beef cattle, sheep and goat data as templates. Models were developed to predict energy, protein, mineral and vitamin requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. Model development was based on determining beef cattle and sheep nutrient requirements on an amount per kg of body weight and assuming no inherent metabolic differences among species. An averaged value was calculated and used as a basis for defining requirements for llamas and alpacas. Amount per kg body weight requirements were converted to a recommended dietary nutrient density basis using an observed lower dry matter intake per unit body weight. Factorially derived models were in better agreement with North American feeding recommendations compared to predicted requirements using current North American-based requirement models. North American-based requirement equations over predicted energy and protein, resulting in required dietary nutrient densities in excess of practical feeding practices. The proposed factorial models need to be critically validated, but provides a starting point for discussion in advancing the study and application of llama and alpaca nutrient requirements. There are tremendous gaps in our knowledge of llama and alpaca requirements, requiring further basic research especially in the areas of neonatal and fetal growth and composition, lactational performance and mineral bioavailability.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, nutrient requirements, ruminant nutrition, literature reviews, dietary protein, urea, glucose, energy metabolism, vitamin D, dietary minerals, animal growth, pregnancy, lactation, animal models, beef cattle, sheep.

Van Saun, R.J. Nutritional diseases of South American camelids.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 153-164. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Literature describing nutritional or nutrition-related diseases of llamas and alpacas was reviewed. Case reports of copper toxicity, polioencephalomalacia, plant poisonings and urolithiasis accounted for the greatest number of literature citations relative to llamas and alpaca nutritional diseases. However, the overall number of published studies detailing nutritional disease of llamas and alpacas is very limited. Metabolic bone disease, associated with Vitamin D deficiency, and hepatic lipidosis were metabolic diseases for which controlled research studies were completed to address underlying mechanisms. Circumstantial evidence would suggest llamas and alpacas are similar to other ruminants relative to most nutrient deficiency or toxicity disease problems. Llamas and alpacas are unique compared to other ruminant animals in their susceptibility to zinc and Vitamin D deficiency diseases. A zinc-responsive dermatosis has been described, but the true role of zinc deficiency is debated. Llamas and alpacas show a seasonal deficiency in Vitamin D resulting in a hypophosphatemic rickets syndrome. Camelids may have a lower capacity to endogenously synthesize Vitamin D or higher requirement compared to other species. Although mechanisms are not fully understood, llamas and alpacas are somewhat different in metabolic responses to negative energy balance and subsequent hepatic lipidosis. Further research is necessary to better define llama and alpaca nutrient requirements and metabolism as they directly impact potential for nutritional disease.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, animal diseases, diet related diseases, literature reviews, copper, ruminant nutrition, encephalomalacia, poisonous plants, poisoning, developmental orthopedic disease, vitamin deficiencies, vitamin D, fatty liver, zinc, nutrient deficiencies, skin diseases, rickets, seasonal variation, energy balance.

Vaughan , J.L.; Tibary, A. Reproduction in female South American camelids: a review and clinical observations.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 259-281. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Female South American camelids present striking reproductive peculiarities compared to other domestic livestock. Characteristics such as induced ovulation, pregnancy recognition and maintenance make reproductive management relatively challenging for practitioners with limited exposure to these species. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of knowledge in reproductive physiology and infertility in these species. Following a brief review of the distinctive anatomical features, we describe the follicular wave patterns in non-mated and mated females, mechanisms of ovulation and corpus luteum development as well as fertilisation and pregnancy. Endocrinology of follicle growth, pregnancy, parturition and the post-partum period are described. The paper concludes with a review of the main causes of infertility, early embryonic death and abortion based on clinical observations by the authors.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, females, literature reviews, ovulation, pregnancy diagnosis, pregnancy outcome, female fertility, ovarian follicles, follicular development, corpus luteum, fertilization, parturition, endocrinology, embryonic mortality, abortion, reproductive disorders.

Webb, A.A.; Cullen, C.L.; Lamont, L.A. Brainstem auditory evoked responses and ophthalmic findings in llamas and alpacas in eastern Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal = La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2006 Jan; 47(1): 74-77. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a summary in French.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: Seventeen llamas and 23 alpacas of various coat and iris colors were evaluated for: 1) deafness by using brainstem auditory evoked response testing; and 2) for ocular abnormalities via complete ophthalmic examination. No animals were deaf. The most common ocular abnormalities noted were iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes and incipient cataracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, brain stem, evoked potentials, hearing, eyes, vision disorders, eye diseases, Canada.

Whitehead, C.E.; Anderson, D.E. Neonatal diarrhea in llamas and alpacas.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 207-215. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity in neonatal llamas and alpacas. Diarrhea may be multifactorial in etiology including management and nutritional factors as well as a variety of pathogens. Most of the pathogens involved affect other livestock species and some have host-adapted strains. However, the clinical signs, their expected severity and age of onset of disease varies between species in some cases. The most common pathogens causing diarrhea in neonatal camelids are coronavirus, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and coccidia. The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on neonatal diarrhea in camelids and to present clinical data from 55 cases seen at The Ohio State University.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, neonates, diarrhea, etiology, symptoms, disease severity, animal age, Coronavirus, viral diseases of animals and humans, Escherichia coli, Escherichia infections, Cryptosporidium, cryptosporidiosis, coccidiosis, salmonellosis, Giardia, giardiasis, literature reviews, disease diagnosis, Coccidia.

Wolt, D.; Gauly, M.; Huanca, W.; Cardenas, O.; Bauer, C.; Schares, G. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum und Toxoplasma gondii in South American camelids. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, vicunas, Neospora caninum, Toxiplasma gondii, post-natal infection routes, clinical significance, South America.

Wurzinger, M.; Delgado, J.; Nurnberg, M.; Valle-Zarate, A.; Stemmer, A.; Ugarte, G.; Solkner, J. Genetic and non-genetic factors influencing fibre quality of Bolivian llamas.Small Ruminant Research: The Journal of The International Goat Association. 2006 Feb; 61(2-3): 131-139. ISSN: 0921-4488. Note: In the special issue: “South American Camelids” edited by A. Tibary and S.M. Parish. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Fibre samples of 2378 llamas were analysed with the optical fibre diameter analyser (OFDA). The following traits were considered: mean fibre diameter (MFD), standard deviation (S.D.), diameter of fibre <30 micrometer (DF < 30), proportion fibre <30 micrometer (%F < 30), proportion of kemp (PK) and proportion of medullated fibre (PMF). The effects of type of llama, age, sex and coat colour were studied. The type of llama influenced all traits showing that Th'ampulli (fibre type) is better than Kh'ara (meat type). With increasing age of the animal MFD, S.D., DF < 30 and PK increased whereas %F < 30 decreased. Comparing the two sexes, females showed better fibre quality. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for fibre traits were estimated using animal model procedures where all information came from mother-offspring relationships. Heritability estimates were 0.33, 0.28, 0.36, 0.32 and 0.25 for MFD, S.D., DF < 30, %F < 30 and PK, indicating potential for genetic selection. Genetic correlations between fibre traits and some body measurements were also calculated. In conclusion, the llama population studied shows a high genetic potential for high quality fibre production. The information available allows further steps towards the design of a breeding program.
Descriptors: llamas, Th'ampulli llama breed, Kh'ara llama breed, animal genetics, fiber quality, fleece, diameter, animal age, gender differences, color, heritability, genetic correlation, traits, environmental factors, animal growth, selection criteria, animal breeding, Bolivia.

Zama , M.M.S.; Bhardwaj, H.R.; Tarunbir Singh; Gupta, A.K.; Chaudhary, R.N. Dorsal patellar fixation in large animals - a review.Indian Journal of Field Veterinarians. 2006; 1(4): 71-80. ISSN: 0973-3175
URL: http://www.ivri.nic.in
Abstract: alpacas, equines, camels, llamas, etiological factors, diagnosis, treatment, patellar fixation, tibio-femoral patellar articulation stifle joint, bone fractures, diagnosis, ultrasonography.

Zanolari, P. Neuweltkameliden - von der Geburtsvorbereitung bis zur Versorgung der Neugeborenen.[ New World camelidae: from birth preparations to care for newborn animals.] Forum Kleinwiederkauer/Petits Ruminants. 2006; (12): 6-12. Note: In German and French. A literature review.
URL: http://www.caprovis.ch
Abstract: This review deals with the gestation period and parturition of alpacas and lamas, and details are given of placental function, the role of colostrum in protecting young animals from infections, failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer and colostrum administration. A checklist of measures required before and after parturition includes the provision of a stress-free environment for dams, neonatal checks of the respiration and navel, ensuring that young animals stand up within 60 minutes of birth and that they suck within 4 h, regular checks of daily gain, the avoidance of extreme temperatures and the provision of selenium. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstract.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, colostrum, gestation, newborn immunity, vitelline immunity, maternal immunity, newborn animals, parturition, pregnancy, reviews.

Zogbi, A.P.; Frank, E.N.; Gauna, C.D. DECAMA-Project: Technological and nutritional parameters of fresh meat of Argentinean llamas (Lama glama). 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004 2006.
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors : DECAMA Project, evaluation of llama meat, Argentina.

 

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