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Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Llamas 2007

Abd El Aty, A.M.; Goudah, A.; Shah, S.S.; Shin, H.C.; Shimoda, M.; Shim, J.H. Pharmacokinetic variables of moxifloxacin in healthy male camels following intravenous and intramuscular administration. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2007; 30(6): 586-591. ISSN: 0140-7783
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, camels, males, Chlamydia infection, Mycoplasma infection, drug therapy, moxifloxacin, fluoroquinolone, moxidectin, mocifloxacin, antibiotics, intravenous administration, intramuscular administration, pharmacokinetics.

Adams, G.P. Theriogenology in llamas and alpacas.Large Animal Veterinary Rounds. 2007; 7(10): 6 pp
URL: http://www.larounds.ca
Abstracts: The reproductive characteristics of llamas and alpacas are similar, and clinical management need not distinguish between the two. Camelids are the only large domestic species that are induced ovulators. Sexual behaviour and copulation time is strikingly different from any other domestic species. In addition, gestation is unusually long and uterine anatomy, placentation, and birthing distinctly differ from any other species. This issue of Large Animal Rounds discusses the reproductive management of South American camelids. The paper covers sexual and mating behaviour, ultrasonography of the ovaries and uterus, follicular dynamics, luteal dynamics, ovarian irregularities, breeding shemes, puberty and postpartum period, synchronization and fixed-time breeding and pregnancy diagnosis. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, breeding camelids, reproduction, mating behavior, sexual behavior, corpus luteum, ovarian follicles, ovaries, ovulation, uterus, pregnancy gestation period, sexual maturity, synchronization, pregnancy diagnosis, ultrasonography, postpartum period.

Altenbrunner-Martinek, B.; Klein, D.; Kofler, J.; Baumgartner, W. Kongenitale Extremitatenmissbildungen bei einem Lama (Lama glama): Polydactylie kombiniert mit Arthrogryposis.[Congenital malformation of the front limbs in a llama (Lama glama): polydactyly in combination with arthrogryposis.] Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 2007; 120(11/12): 508-512. ISSN: 0005-9366. Note: In German with an English summary.
NAL call no.: 41.8 B45
Abstract: A 10-month-old male llama with malformation of both front limbs was presented [ Austria, date not given]. Both front limbs had one more digit located medially. The distal phalanx of this additional digit at the left front limb reached the ground by the tip of the keratinized pad and toenail. The accessory digit at the right front limb was bent in a 90 degrees angle caudolaterally. Beside the digital bones of the accessory digits, the second metacarpal bone and the first carpal bone could be detected in both front limbs by radiological examination. A bilateral slight carpal valgus deformity could be seen.
Descriptors: llamas, birth defects, clinical picture, congenital malformations, arthrogryposis, carpus, case report, clinical aspects, congenital abnormalities, diagnosis, digits, limbs, metacarpus, polydactylia, radiography, Austria.

Azwai, S.M.; Abdouslam, O.E.; Al Bassam, L.S.; Al Dawek, A.M.; Al Izzi, S.A.L. Morphological characteristics of blood cells in clinically normal adult llamas (Lama glama). Veterinarski Arhiv. 2007; 77(1): 69-79. ISSN: 0372-5480. Note: In English with a Croatian summary.
URL : http://www.vef.hr/vetarhiv
NAL call no.: 41.8 V6416
Abstract: Morphological characteristics, including the number, differentiation and features of blood cells were determined in 10 male and 10 female clinically normal adult llamas. Haematological parameters included erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte indices, reticulocyte count, platelet count, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. It appeared that the llama haemogram was characterized by the presence of numerous but small erythrocytes, high total leukocyte count and a high number of mainly immature eosinophils. Unique cellular morphological characteristics commonly observed in May-Grunwald-Giemsa stained blood smears were folded erythrocytes, Cabot's rings, hypersegmented neutrophil nuclei, granular lymphocytes and immature eosinophils.
Descriptors: llamas, blood cells, normal values, eosinophils, erythrocyte count, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hematology, hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocyte count, leukocytes, lymphocytes, morphology, neutrophils, platelets.

Bangari, D.S.; Stevenson, G.W. Carcinoma in a mixed mammary tumor in a llama (Lama glama).Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007 July; 19(4): 450-453. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: A 13-year-old female llama was presented to the referring veterinarian for swelling and firmness of the right rear mammary gland, for a duration of 2 months, which had been unresponsive to antibiotics. A formalin-fixed wedge biopsy specimen from the affected quarter was submitted to Purdue University Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for histopathology. Histopathologic examination revealed tubulopapillary acinar or solid nest-like clusters of neoplastic epithelial cells surrounded by whorls and sheets of proliferative myoepithelial cells. Histologic criteria for malignancy observed in neoplastic epithelial cells included marked cellular and nuclear atypia, high mitotic index, and numerous bizarre mitoses. The presence of osseous metaplasia in the proliferative mesenchymal component justified classification as a mixed tumor. Positive immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic epithelial cells with anticytokeratin antibody, and proliferative spindloid cells with antiviemtin and antismooth muscle actin antibodies supported the histopathologic diagnosis. The llama was in good health after about 1 year of initial presentation, and metastasis to regional lymph nodes was not reported. Mammary neoplasia is rare in camelids. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a carcinoma in a mixed mammary tumor in a llama. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, mammary neoplasms, carcinoma, disease diagnosis, case studies, veterinarians, antibiotics, biopsy, epithelial cells, cell proliferation, histopathology, mitosis, metastasis.

Bianchi, C.P.; Meikle, A.; Sartore, I.; GonzcLlez, F.; Aba, M.A. Uterine estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor during the follicular and luteal phase in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science. 2007 May; 99(1-2): 117-126. ISSN: 0378-4320
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784320
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2006.04.042
NAL call no.: QP251.A5
Abstract: Estrogen receptor- alpha (ER alpha ) and progesterone receptor (PR) were characterized in different endometrial cell types as luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma during the follicular (FP) and the luteal phase (LP) in llamas. Animals were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography for the determination of the presence of an ovulatory follicle and ovulation was immediately induced by a GnRH injection (Day 0). Endometrial samples were obtained by transcervical biopsies from the left uterine horn on Day 0 (FP) and 9 days after the GnRH injection (Day 9, LP). Blood samples were collected on these days for estradiol 17 beta and progesterone determination by RIA. An immunohistochemical technique was used to visualize ER alpha and PR immunostaining which was then analyzed by two independent observers. Total positive area and average staining for ER alpha were affected by the phase of the ovarian activity: in the three cell types there was more positive area and intense staining during the FP than during the LP. Similar findings were observed for PR, more positive stained areas were found during the FP than during the LP in the epithelia. In addition, the three cell types had more intense staining during the FP than during the LP. An effect of the cell type for ER alpha and PR was observed; epithelia (luminal and glandular) had more positive stained areas and greater intensity than stromal cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that in llamas, like in other ruminants, estradiol has a stimulatory effect while progesterone downregulates the ER alpha and PR and that the receptor is cell type specific.
Descriptors: llamas, ovulation, estrous cycle, hormonal regulation, hormone receptors, estrogens, estradiol, progesterone, tissue distribution, uterine tissue, endometrium, epithelial cells, ovarian follicles, follicular development, corpus luteum, luteolysis, stromal cells, immunohistochemistry, differential staining.

Birgel Junior, E.H.; Santos, M.C. dos; Ramos, J. de A.C.; Pogliani, F.C.; Birgel, D.B.; Della-Libera, A.M.M.P.; Gregory, L.; Araujo, W.P. de; Benesi, F.J. Secondary hepatogenous photosensitization in a llama (Lama glama) bred in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Canadian Veterinary Journal = La-Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2007 Mar; 48(3): 323-324. ISSN: 0008-5286
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: llamas, photosensitivity disorders, skin lesions, animal diseases, disease outbreaks, case studies, liver, ultrasonography, disease diagnosis, poisonous plants, toxicity, liver function, Urochloa decumbens, Brazil.

Bolton , M. Counting llamas and accounting for people: livestock, land and citizens in southern Bolivia. Sociological Review. 2007; 55(1): 5-21. ISSN: 0038-0261
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2007.00680.x
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2007.00680.x
Abstract: This paper examines the struggles that surround livestock enumeration in highland Bolivia. Based on historical and ethnographic data, colonial officials counted llamas for purposes of taxation, while present-day government agencies and NGOs enumerate animals to attract money from aid agencies and promote entrepreneurial activity. In both instances, livestock enumeration serves not just to count animals but to render accountable their owners. It is argued that such enumerative procedures carried out by experts do not simply record a reality, but by rendering herders accountable, seek to produce particular kinds of people within particular economic realities. Far from being a culturally neutral practice, the enumeration of llamas can constitute an act of symbolic violence that seeks to erase specific relationships between herders and animals and to prioritise the individual over the communal. In conclusion, in both colonial and contemporary cases, Andean people seek to produce themselves in ways that contest those in which others would produce them.
Descriptors: llamas, humans, pastoral ethnic groups, cultural values, ethnography, highlands, development aid, commercialization, livestock pastoral systems, livestock numbers, common lands, accountability, accounting, development aid, entrepreneurship, history, taxes, Bolivia.

Borkowski, R.; Moore, P.A.; Mumford, S.; Carastro, S. Adaptations of subpalpebral lavage systems used for llamas (Lama glama) and a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2007; 38(3): 453-459. ISSN: 1042-7260
URL: http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-archive&issn=1042-7260
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2006-0065.1
Abstract: Subpalpebral lavage systems (SPLSs) were adapted for use in zoo llamas (Lama glama) and a wild harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) during therapy for severe ulcerative keratitis or corneal perforation. One llama presented with a melting corneal ulcer caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which necessitated frequent application of a topical ophthalmic antibiotic. The lavage system was used routinely during the day and was connected to a balloon infusion system at night to allow for continuous medication administration. The ulcer healed soon after therapy was extended to include overnight treatment with the infusion system. A SPLS system was also combined with a balloon infusor during postoperative treatment of a second llama that had sustained a corneal perforation. Both llamas tolerated the infusor/lavage systems well and regained vision. One llama had minor conjunctival irritation from the SPLS that resolved quickly without treatment. Bilateral SPLS were placed in a wild harbor seal for treatment of severe ulcerative keratitis associated with Candida albicans infection. The seal tolerated the lavage systems well throughout 14 wk of their use in an aquatic environment with other seals. Partial detachment of the lavage systems from the skin of the seal occurred a few times during treatment and was easily corrected. Severe keratitis resolved with administration of antimicrobials through the lavage systems, and the seal was returned to the wild. The use of SPLSs alone or in combination with balloon infusion systems warrants consideration for exotic, wild, and aquatic animals that cannot tolerate repetitive manual applications of topical ophthalmic medication.
Descriptors: llamas, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, zoo animals, eyes, cornea, eye diseases, ulcers, Candida albicans, drug therapy, ulcers.

Byers, S.R.; Parish, S.M.; Holmes, S.P.; Donahoe, S.L.; Barrington, G.M. A fungal granuloma of the frontal sinus in a llama. Canadian Veterinary Journal-=-La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2007 Sept; 48(9): 939-941. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: llamas, males, Lama, granuloma, case studies, mycoses, disease diagnosis, brain, sinuses, computed tomography, diagnostic techniques, microscopy, necropsy.

Cebra, C. Diarrhea in llama and alpaca crias. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 20-22-September 2007. 2007; 170-173. Note: In English with a French summary.
Abstract: Neonatal and juvenile diarrhea are common complaints among owners of cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and goats. Microbial causes are usually blamed, although in some cases nutritional or other considerations come in to play. The most commonly identified pathogens are viruses and protozoa. These are relatively self-limiting, and clinical signs are more related to fluid and electrolyte loss than anything else. For ruminants and pigs especially, various products have been developed which specifically address water, base and salt loss. Various antibody and vaccine preparations are available to directly combat the causative organisms, but with the exception of Eimeria, antimicrobial treatment is usually not considered necessary. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas,protozoal agents of disease, etiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diarrhea, disease control, disease prevention, drug therapy, fluid therapy, therapy, clinical picture, rehydration, therapeutics.

Cebra, C. Uterine torsion in llamas and alpacas. In: R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 20-22 September, 2007. 2007; 174-175. Note: In English with a French summary.
Abstract: Uterine torsion is a recognized cause of dystocia in large animals. Relative frequency and severity vary between species, but both dam and offspring can be saved and torsion corrected if the condition is diagnosed in a timely fashion. Uterine torsion is recognized as a cause of colic and dystocia in llamas and alpacas, but is usually regarded as less common than malpresentations involving the long neck and limbs of crias. In fact, uterine torsion may be responsible for some of those malpresentations.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, etiology, clinical aspects, colic, diagnosis, dystocia, malpositions, prognosis, surgery, therapy, torsion, uterine diseases, uterine torsion.

Cebra, C.K.; Valentine, B.A.; Schlipf, J.W.; Bildfell, R.J.; McKenzie, E.; Waitt, L.H.; Heidel, J.R.; Cooper, B.J.; Lohr, C.V.; Bird, K.E. Eimeria macusaniensis infection in 15 llamas and 34 alpacas.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 Jan 1; 230(1): 94-100. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animal diseases, llamas, alpacas, coccidiosis, Eimeria macusaniensis, digestive system diseases, gastrointestinal system, case studies, animal disease outbreaks, signs and symptoms, disease detection, disease diagnosis, fecal egg count, disease course, alternative livestock, Oregon, US.

Cebra, C. Internal parasites in llamas and alpacas: importance and detection methods. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 21, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2007. 2007; 251-252.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, internal parasites, importance, economic impact, detection methods, Capillaria, Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Fasciola, Fasciola hepatica, Giardia, Strongylidae, Trichuris, Adenophorea, Enoplida.

Cecchi, T.; Valbonesi, A.; Passamonti, P.; Frank, E.; Renieri, C. Quantitative variation of melanins in llama (Lama glama L.).Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Aug; 71(1-3): 52-58. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.04.011
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: The amount of melanin pigments was investigated in 80 Argentinean llama, representative of seven phenotypes and four different fleece colours, by means of spectrophotometric assays: SpEM (spectrophotometric eumelanin), SpPM (spectrophotometric pheomelanin), SpASM (spectrophotometric alkali soluble melanin), and SpTM (spectrophotometric total melanin). It was found that, although to a different extent, the quantitative variation of these pigments was affected both by phenotypes and fleece colours and, hence, it was possible to identify and to distinguish homogeneous groups on the basis of these two factors. In particular, SpEM revealed the most reliable parameter for a discrimination among these groups. Low concentrations of this pigment characterize red, wild, and red black phenotypes and distinguish them from black and tan and non-agouti black ones, both showing high concentrations; low concentrations also distinguish reddish brown fleece colour from very dark red and black ones.
Descriptors: llamas, melanization, phenotype, fleece, eumelanin, fleece colors, spectroscopy, spectrophotometers, melanin, reference standards, Argentina

Chigerwe, M.; Middleton, J.R.; Williams, F., III; Tyler, J.W.; Kreeger, J.M. Atypical coccidiosis in South American camelids.Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007; 19(1): 122-125. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Reported clinical signs of coccidiosis in South American camelids include anorexia of a few days duration, sudden death, and diarrhoea. Antemortem diagnosis of clinical coccidiosis is usually based on clinical signs and supported by detection of coccidial oocysts in faeces. This report describes 2 atypical cases of coccidiosis in South American camelids that had no coccidial oocysts detected on antemortem faecal flotation, prolonged weight loss, and normal faecal consistency.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, Eimeria macusaniensis anorexia, case report, clinical picture, coccidiosis, diagnosis, diarrhea, differential diagnosis, histopathology, oocysts, sudden death.

Conde, P.A.; Herrera, C.; Chaves, M.G.; Giuliano, S M.; Director, A.; Trasorras, V.L.; Pinto, M.; Sarchi, M. I.; Stivale, D.; Rutter, B.; Aguero, A.; Miragaya, M.H.; Pasqualini, R.S. In vitro production of llama embryos by IVF or ICSI.Reproduction Fertility and Development. 2007; 19(1): 237-238. ISSN: 1031-3613. Note: “33rd Annual Conference of the Internatinal Embryo Transfer Society, Kyoto, Japan; January 06, 2004 January 10, 2007.”
URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au/?nid=45&aid=35
NAL call no: QP251.R47
Descriptors: llamas, in vitro fertilization, in vitro embryos, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, flank laparotomy, clinical techniques, fertility drugs.

Davies, H.L.; Robinson, T.F.; Roeder, B.L.; Sharp, M.E.; Johnston, N.P.; Christensen, A.C. Plasma metabolites and nitrogen balance in Lama glama associated with forage quality at altitude.Small Ruminant Research. 2007 May; 69(1-3): 1-9. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.11.016
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of forage quality on blood metabolites and nitrogen balance in mature, intact male llamas (n = 4, 36 pl 4.4 months, 87 pl 17 kg) at high altitude (4267 m Letanias, Bolivia). Llamas were randomly fed barley hay (B), 80% barley/20% alfalfa hay (BA) and fresh cut grass pasture (P). Animals were housed in metabolism crates and diets were fed for a 7-day adjustment period followed by a 5-day collection period. Feed, feed refusal, feces and urine were collected, dried and N content determined by combustion analysis. Venous blood samples were collected on day 12 at 30 min intervals over a 6 h period. Plasma was harvested and analyzed for electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, Ca, Ca2+, P, Mg) and metabolites (glucose, NEFA, urea N, creatinine, albumin, total protein (TPP), osmolality (Osm)). Plasma electrolytes (Na, K, Mg, P, Cl) and metabolites (glucose, Osm, albumin, creatinine, TPP) were unaffected by forage treatment. Dry matter digestibility was greater for the B and BA than P forage, and N digestibility was significantly higher for BA than either the B or P forages. Nitrogen balance varied significantly between diets. N intake was significantly different between each diet (P < 0.0001), with B having the least N (7.1 g/day), followed by P (14.4 g/day) and BA (19.0 g/day), which provided the most N. Urine N excretion was similar between P (7.7 g/day) and BA (10.6 g/day), similar between P (7.7 g/day) and B (6.2 g/day), but was different (P < 0.04) between B (6.2 g/day) and BA (10.6 g/day). Fecal N excretion was similar between BA (7.4 g/day) and P (8.9 g/day). Both of these treatments produced significantly higher quantities of fecal N than B (4.1 g/day; P < 0.0004). Nitrogen excretion followed the same trend as N intake. Total N excretion was highest in BA followed by P and B forages. Llamas were in negative N balance on the B and P diets. Llamas had an estimated daily maintenance requirement value of 0.58 g crude N/W0.75 and a daily maintenance requirement of 106.2 g CP/day. Mineral intake varied significantly between diets. Overall, pasture provided higher amounts of minerals than the barley forages, except for copper, phosphorus and zinc. These data demonstrate the effects of feeding forages of varying quality on whole-body N utilization, and trends in blood metabolite and electrolyte patterns in llamas at altitude.
Descriptors: llamas, Lama, ruminant nutrition, forage, feed barley, hay, alfalfa, forage grasses, forage quality, digestibility, energy metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, altitude, biomarkers, excretion, blood plasma, metabolites, electrolytes, mineral content, nutritive value, Bolivia.

Davies, H.L.; Robinson, T.F.; Roeder, B.L.; Sharp, M.E.; Johnston, N.P.; Christensen, A.C.; Schaalje, G.B. Digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) fed barley or barley alfalfa diets. Small Ruminant Research. 2007 Nov; 73(1-3): 1-7. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.10.006
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: To determine the effect of barley diets on digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites, mature gelded llamas and alpacas (n = 8; 4 llamas, 36 pl 4 months, 90 pl 10.7 kg; 4 alpacas, 24-36 months, 50 pl 4 kg) were randomly fed 100% barley (B) and 20% alfalfa/80% barley (BA) hay. Animals were housed in metabolism crates and diets were fed for a 7 days adjustment period followed by a 5 days collection period. Feed, feed refusal, feces and urine were collected, dried and N content determined by combustion analysis. Blood samples were collected on day 12 at 30 min intervals over a 6 h period. Plasma was harvested and analyzed for electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, Ca, Capo, P, Mg), metabolites glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), urea N, creatinine, albumin, total protein (TPP), osmolality (Osm). Plasma glucose, urea N, albumin, osmolality, electrolyte and metabolite levels were similar between species, and were unaffected by diet. On a metabolic weight basis, only diet was significant for N intake, urinary and fecal N, and total N excreted. Dry matter intake was not significantly different; however, BA consumption was greater than B, (B) 1272 g N/day and (BA) 1636 g N/day for llamas, and for alpacas (B) 835 g N/day and (BA) 1034 g N/day, respectively. Nitrogen intake followed the same pattern, (B) 21.4 g N/day and (BA) 33.9 g N/day, respectively for llamas, and (B) 13.6 g N/day and (BA) 20.6 g N/day, respectively for alpacas (diet, P < 0.002). Diet affects were significant for urine N excretion (P < 0.02), (B) 11.2 g/day and (BA) 18.2 g/day for llamas, and (B) 6.8 and (BA) 10.8 g N/day for alpacas. Fecal N excretion was different for diet (P < 0.03), with fecal excreted N of 9.0 g N/day and 11.9 g N/day for B and BA in llamas, and 5.9 g N/day and 9.1 g N/day for B and BA respectively in for alpacas, respectively. Nitrogen retention, DM digestibility and N digestibility were unaffected by diet or species. However, the llamas in this study displayed an increase in nitrogen intake of 64.6% between the B and BA diets with a 381% increase in N retention. Alpacas increased their N intake by 57.4% when they consumed the BA forage, which only increased N retention by 22.2%. These species differences indicate that alpacas have a lower N requirement to meet metabolic needs than llamas, which are likely related to the smaller body size of the alpaca. When examining the biological value of N from the respective diets, alpacas and llamas had a value of 56.2% when consuming barley. The BA diet had a higher biological value of 65.0% in llamas compared to 57.4% in alpacas. Therefore, on the basis of this study, extrapolations between llamas and alpacas with respect to nitrogen requirement and balance are not valid.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, ruminant nutrition, dietary protein, forage, barley, alfalfa, nutritive value, nutrient utilization, digestibility, digestible protein, energy requirements, protein requirement, nitrogen balance, nitrogen metabolism, biomarkers, blood chemistry, electrolytes, species differences.

Davis, W.C.; Drbal, K.; Mosaad, A.E.A.A.E.; Elbagory, A.R.M.; Tibary, A.; Barrington, G.M.; Park, Y.H.; Hamilton, M.J. Use of flow cytometry to identify monoclonal antibodies that recognize conserved epitopes on orthologous leukocyte differentiation antigens in goats, lamas, and rabbits.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 Sept 15; 119(1-2): 123-130. ISSN: 0165-2427. Note: In the special issue. A. Saalmuller and B. Aasted [Editors]. “HLDA8 Animal Homologues.”
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01652427
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.06.024
NAL call no.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Flow cytometry was used to screen a panel of 320 mAbs, submitted to the Animal Homologues Section of the HLDA8, for mAbs that recognize epitopes conserved on orthologous leukocyte differentiation antigens (LDA) in goats, lamas, and rabbits. Nineteen mAbs specific for CD11a (1), CD14 (3), CD18 (1), CD21 (1), CD29 (2), CD44 (2), CD47 (3), CD49d (1), CD172a (1), CD45RB (1), CD61 (1), RACT48A, and GBSP71A reacted with goat LDA. Twenty three mAbs specific for CD7 (1), CD9 (2), CD11a (1), CD14 (3), CD18 (4), CD29 (1), CD32 (1), CD44 (1), CD47 (4), CD49d (2), CD50 (1), CD80 (1), CD172a (1), and GBSP71A reacted with llama LDA. Eighteen mAbs specific for CD9 (2), CD11a (1), CD14 (2), CD18 (4), CD21 (1), CD44 (2), CD45RB (1), CD49d (1), CD209 (1), RACT48A, and GBSP71A reacted with rabbit LDA. The specificities of two cross reactive mAbs that recognize different conserved epitopes on all leukocytes in two species (RACT48A) and all three species (GBSP71A) have not been determined. The patterns of reactivity of most of the mAbs were consistent with patterns of reactivity noted on human leukocytes. The specificity of some cross reactive mAbs generated in non-human species were validated on human leukocytes. Further studies are needed to verify that CD7, CD32, CD45RB, CD50, and CD209 recognize orthologous molecules in the indicated species.
Descriptors: goats, llamas, Lama, rabbits, flow cytometry, monoclonal antibodies, epitopes, species differences, sequence homology, leukocytes, cell differentiation, antigens, cross reaction, cell lines, human cell lines, antibody detection, human CD antigens, orthologous antigens.

Dukti , S.A. ; Southwood, L.L.; Metre, D.C. van. Survival and factors affecting survival in small ruminants and camelids attacked by dogs: 62 cases (1994-2004). Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 2007; 17(3): 257-261. ISSN: 1479-3261
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/vec
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-4431.2007.00229.x
Abstract: Objective: To determine the survival rates and factors affecting survival in small ruminants and camelids attacked by dogs. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Two university teaching hospitals. Animals: Thirty goats, 28 sheep, 3 alpacas, and 1 llama. Measurements and main results: Medical records were reviewed to obtain signalment, time between injury and admission, hospitalization length, lesion site, treatment, complications, survival rate, and cost. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone conversation with the owner. Sixty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. Six animals were euthanized at admission and thus excluded. Of the 56 animals that were treated, 43 (77%) were discharged, 5 (9%) died, and 8 (14%) were euthanized. Animals that had thoracic or abdominal injuries, required surgery, or received more potent analgesic therapy were less likely to survive to discharge from hospital compared with animals that did not. Complications developed in 50 (82%) animals. Animals with respiratory complications were also less likely to survive to discharge from hospital than animals that did not. Long-term follow up was available on 38/43 (88%) animals that were discharged. Thirty-five of 38 (92%) animals were discharged and recovered from their injuries and 5 animals had long-term complications. Conclusions: Small ruminants and camelids that are attacked by dogs have a good prognosis for short-term survival. Short-term survival is affected by lesion location and complications. Reproduced with permission from CAB abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, goats, llamas, sheep, dog bites, dog attacks, chemotherapy, traumas, complications, therapeutics, drug therapy, lesions, prognosis, risk factors; surgery, long term survival, Colorado, US.

Emmanuel, F.X.; Seagar, A.L.; Doig, C.; Rayner, A.; Claxton, P.; Laurenson, I. Human and animal infections with Mycobacterium microti, Scotland.Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007; 13(12): 1924-1927. ISSN: 1080-6040
URL: http://www.cdc.gov/eid
Abstract: During 1994-2005, we isolated Mycobacterium microti from 5 animals and 4 humans. Only 1 person was immunocompromised. Spoligotyping showed 3 patterns: vole type, llama type, and a new variant llama type.
Descriptors: badgers, cats, ferrets, llamas, humans, immunocompromised hosts, Mycobacterium microti clinical aspects, etiology, bacterial pathogen, case reports, disease course/progression, spoligotyping, genotypes molecular, genetics techniques, zoonoses, UK.

Ferrari, A.; Rodriguez, M.M.; Power, P.; Weill, F.S.; Simone, E.A. de; Gutkind,.G ; Leoni, J. Immunobiological role of llama heavy-chain antibodies against a bacterial o-lactamase. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2007 June 15; 117(3-4): 173-182. ISSN: 0165-2427
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01652427
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.03.003
NAL call no.: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: In 1993, a fraction of antibodies (Abs) devoid of L chain was found naturally occurring in the Camelidae. They were found to lack L chains, as well as the first constant heavy-chain domain (CH1) and therefore they were named heavy-chain Abs (HCAbs). Subsequent studies focused on the functional, structural and biochemical properties of recombinant variable fragments (rVHHs) of HCAbs. It was stated that rVHHs have an augmented capacity to interact with partially hidden epitopes, like enzymes active sites, and have an increased stability to thermal and chemical aggression. It has been suggested that these unconventional Abs could represent an evolutionary advantage, being more efficient than conventional Abs to inhibit microbial enzymes, and thus exerting a more protective immune response against pathogens. The present work focuses on the immunobiological role of HCAbs, in their capacity to inhibit microbial enzymes. Two animal models were selected, comprising a model for common vertebrates without HCAbs (rabbits), and a model for vertebrates with both conventional and unconventional Abs (Lama glama). A recombinant bacterial o-lactamase (CTX-M-2) was selected as the microbial enzymatic antigen. After conventional immunization schedules, neither serum titers nor serum inhibitory capacity showed significant differences when rabbits and llamas were compared. These results indicate that the a priori assumption that the adaptive immune system of camelids could be better prepared to respond to bacterial enzymes because of the presence of HCAbs, is not always accurate. Furthermore, when the different llama antibody isotypes and subclasses were purified, it was demonstrated that the inhibitory capacity of total serum was due exclusively to IgG1. HCAbs not only failed to inhibit CTX-M-2, but instead they activated its enzymatic activity. Altogether, these results indicate that the hypotheses extrapolated from the rVHHs properties need to be revised; the real role of HCAbs in vivo remains unknown, as well as their evolutionary cause.
Descriptors: llamas, Lama, animal physiology, immune system, antibodies, immune response, antigen-antibody reactions, enzyme inhibitors, enzyme inhibition; bacterial enzyme, disease resistance, animal models, in vivo studies, immunization, enzyme activity, immunoglobulins, beta lactamas, heavy chain antibodies.

Frank, E.N.; Hick, M.V.H.; Ahumada, M.R. Clasificacion de vellones de llamas argentinas en base a regiones corporales identificadas objetiva y subjetivamente. [Argentine llama fleece grading by subjective and objective assessment by identified body regions.] Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2007; 27(Suppl.1): 358-359. ISSN: 0326-0550. Note: 30 Congreso Argentino de Produccion Animal "La produccion animal, un pilar del desarrollo nacional", Santiago del Estero, Argentina, 3-5 October 2007. In Spanish.
URL: http://www.aapa.org.ar/congresos/2007/TppPDF/TPP09.pdf
Descriptors: llamas, fleece, grading, body differences in fleece quality, animal fiber quality assessment, wool, wool production.

Graziotti, G.H.; Rodriguez-Menendez, J.M.; Rios, C.M.; Victorica, C.L. Distribution of the internal pudendal artery in male and female llama (Lama glama).Annals of Anatomy. 2007; 189(3): 295-298. ISSN: 0940-9602
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2006.10.004
Abstract: The aim of this research has been to describe the internal pudendal artery distribution in male and female llama and to compare it with that of other domestic animals including the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). The arterial system was perfused with a solution of 14% coloured plaster and preserved in a solution of a 10% formalin, 3% carbolic acid and 3% glycerine. The systematic dissection was made using traditional working techniques and standard instruments. The internal pudendal artery is the ventral terminal branch of the internal iliac artery at the level of the third sacral vertebra. The main supply of the pelvic organs comes from the prostatic or vaginal arteries; notwithstanding these arteries arise from the internal pudendal artery, showing an important difference between ruminants and pig (long iliac type). Similarities between the distribution of the internal pudendal artery of the llama and those obtained in the camel provide strong evidence of a common phylogenetic origin.
Descriptors: llamas, dromedary camels, animal anatomy, males and females, arteries, blood vessels, cardiovascular system, phylogentic origins, prostate, vagina, circulatory system, pudendal arteries.

Grimes, M.; Kutzler, M.; Tyson, R.; Timm, K. Determination of testicular blood flow in llamas using vascular casting and Doppler color flow ultrasonography.Theriogenology. 2007 Aug; 68(3): 493-494. ISSN: 0093-691X. Note: “Proceedings of the 2007 Annual Conference of the Society for Theriogenology held in Monterey, California.” Edited by P. Hearn. Includes references.
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0093691X
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.05.007
NAL call no.: QP251.A1T5
Descriptors: llamas, testicles, testicular blood flow, vascular casting, techniques, ultrasound, Doppler color flow.

Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Mine, Shouhei; Uegaki, Koichi. Stabilization of an immunoglobulin fold domain by an engineered disulfide bond at the buried hydrophobic region. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2007 Dec 14; 282(50): 36489-36495. ISSN: 0021-9258
URL: http://www.jbc.org/
NAL call no.: 381 J824
Abstract: We report for the first time the stabilization of an immunoglobulin fold domain by an engineered disulfide bond. In the llama single-domain antibody, which has human chorionic gonadotropin as its specific antigen, Alat# and Ile" are buried in the structure. A mutant with an artificial disulfide bond at this position showed a 10 pC higher midpoint temperature of thermal unfolding than that without the extra disulfide bond. The modified domains exhibited an antigen binding affinity comparable with that of the wild-type domain. Alat# and Ile" are conserved in camel and llama single-domain antibody frameworks. Therefore, domains against different antigens are expected to be stabilized by the engineered disulfide bond examined here. In addition to the effect of the loop constraints in the unfolded state, thermodynamic analysis indicated that internal interaction and hydration also control the stability of domains with disulfide bonds. The change in physical properties resulting from mutation often causes unpredictable and destabilizing effects on these interactions. The introduction of a hydrophobic cystine into the hydrophobic region maintains the hydrophobicity of the protein and is expected to minimize the unfavorable mutational effects.
Descriptors: llamas, camels, single domain anitibody, fold domains, thermodynamic analysis, internal interaction, hydration, stability of domains.

Harmsen, M.M.; Solt, C.B. van; Fijten, H.P.D.; Keulen, L..van; Rosalia, R.A.; Weerdmeester, K.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Bruin, M.G.M. de; Eble, P.L.; Dekker, A. Passive immunization of guinea pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease.Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 Mar 10; 120(3-4): 193-206. ISSN: 0378-1135
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.08.019
NAL call no.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that occasionally causes outbreaks in Europe. There is a need for therapies that provide rapid protection against FMD in outbreak situations. We aim to provide such rapid protection by passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs). Twenty-four VHHs binding serotype O FMDV in vitro were isolated from immunized llamas by phage display and expressed in bakers yeast for further characterization. They recognized four functionally independent antigenic sites. Six strongly FMDV neutralizing VHHs bound to a peptide representing the GH-loop of viral protein 1 known to be involved in binding to the cellular receptor of FMDV. Clone M8, recognizing this antigenic site, and clone M23, recognizing another antigenic site, showed synergistic in vitro virus neutralization. Three FMDV specific VHHs were PEGylated in order to decrease their rapid blood clearance and thus enable in vivo guinea pig protection experiments. Passive immunization with individual VHHs showed no protection, but a mixture of M8 and M23 showed partial transient protection. The protection afforded by these VHHs was however low as compared to the complete protection afforded by convalescent guinea pig serum. In contrast, these VHHs showed far more efficient in vitro FMDV neutralization than convalescent guinea pig serum. This lack of correlation between in vitro neutralization and in vivo protection lends further credence to the notion that opsonophagocytosis of FMDV is important for protection in vivo.
Descriptors: immunization, guinea pigs, llamas, antibodies, vaccines, foot and mouth disease virus, amino acid sequences, animal models, in vivo studies, epitopes, serotypes, immunotherapy, neutralization tests, molecular sequence data.

Hearn, F.P.D. [Editor]. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Society for Theriogenology, Monterey, California, USA, 7-11 August 2007. Theriogenology. 2007; 68(3): 295-520. ISSN: 0093-691X. Note: A special issue on reproduction—technologies and diseases.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.05.051
Descriptors: alpacas, buffalo, cats, cattle, dogs, pigs, horses, llamas, reproduction, reproductive technologies, reproductive diseases, etiology, animal breeding, semen handling, artificial insemination, AI, cryopreservation, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, domestic animals, drug therapy, embryo transfer, embryos, fertility, in vitro fertilization, livestock, pharmacodynamics, pregnancy, reproductive disorders, reproductive performance, gestation, drugs.

Horacio-Graziotti, Guillermo; Manuel-Rodriguez Menendez, Jose; Maria-Rios, Clara; Lisandro-Victorica, Carlos. Distribution of the internal pudendal artery in male and female llama (Lama glama). Annals of Anatomy. 2007; 189(3): 295-298. ISSN: 0940-9602
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09409602
Abstract: The aim of this research has been to describe the internal pudendal artery distribution in mate and female llama and to compare it with that of other domestic animals including the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). The arterial system was perfused with a solution of 14% coloured plaster and preserved in a solution of a 10% formalin, 3% carbolic acid and 3% glycerine. The systematic dissection was made using traditional working techniques and standard instruments. The internal pudendal artery is the ventral terminal branch of the internal iliac artery at the level of the third sacral vertebra. The main supply of the pelvic organs comes from the prostatic or vaginal arteries; notwithstanding these arteries arise from the internal pudendal artery, showing an important difference between ruminants and pig (long iliac type). Similarities between the distribution of the internal pudendal artery of the Llama and those obtained in the camel provide strong evidence of a common phylogenetic origin. (c) 2006 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: dromedaries, llamas, males, females, iliac artery, pudendal artery, dissection, perfused arteries, comparative anatomy.

Iturrizaga, D.M.; Verechia, F.T.; Santos, T.C.; Bombonato, P.P.; Teixeira, D.G.; Miglino, M.A. The materno-fetal interface in llama (Lama guanicoe glama). Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. 2007; 27(6): 221-228. ISSN: 0100-736X. Note: In English with a Portuguese summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.br
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2007000600001
Abstract: Samples from 9 llamas (28 through 36 weeks of gestation) were collected and fixed in 4% buffered paraformaldehyde (light microscopy) and in 2.5% buffered glutaraldehyde (transmission and scanning electron microscopy). The material was processed in paraplast and slides (5im) were stained with HE, PAS, Masson-Trichrome, acid phosphatase and Perl's. The uteroferrin was immunolocalized. The results show that llama placenta is chorioallantoic, diffuse, folded and epitheliochorial, and the fetus is covered with an epidermal membrane. The trophoblast cells have variable morphology: cubic, rounded and triangular cells, with cytoplasm containing PAS-positive granules. Binucleated cells with large cytoplasm and rounded nuclei, as well as giant trophoblastic cells with multiple nuclei were also observed. Numerous blood vessels were observed beneath the cells of the uterine epithelium and around the chorionic subdivided branches. Glandular activity was shown by PAS, Perl's, and acid phosphatase positive reactions in the cytoplasm and glandular lumen, and by immunolocalization of the uteroferrin in the glandular epithelium. The uterine glands open in spaces formed by the areoles, which are filled by PAS-positive material. The llama fetus was covered by the epidermal membrane, composed of strati-fied epithelium, with up to seven layers of mono-, bi- or trinucleated cells. The high level of maternal and fetal vascularization surfaces indicates an intense exchange of substances across both surfaces. The metabolic activity shown in the uterine glands suggests an adaptation of the gestation to the high altitudes of the natural habitat of this species. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, pregnancy, uterus, placenta, fetuses, gestation, epithelium, histology, morphology, pregnancy.

Jones, M.L.; Gilmour, M.A.; Streeter, R.N. Use of grid keratotomy for the treatment of indolent corneal ulcer in a llama.Canadian Veterinary Journal = La Revue Veterinaire Canadienne. 2007 Apr; 48(4): 416-419. ISSN: 0008-5286. Note: In English with a French summary.
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=202
NAL call no.: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: llamas, tissue degeneration, cornea, corneal diseases, case studies, disease diagnosis, cell biology, histopathology, surgery, combination drug therapy, neomycin, veterinary drugs, atropine, indolent corneal ulcer, grid keratotomy, polymixin.

Keen, James E.; Durso, Lisa M.; Meehan, Thomas P. Isolation of Salmonella enterica and Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 from feces of animals in public contact areas of United States zoological parks. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007; 73(1): 362-365. ISSN: 0099-2240
URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=83
NAL call no.: 448.3 AP5
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, goats, yaks, antelopes, camels, llamas, vicunas, deer, reindeer, pigeons, horses, donkey, giraffes, okapis, rabbits, parrots, swine, fecal sampling, Salmonella enterica, serovar Typhimurium, serovar Enteriditis, Escherichia coli, strain O157, zoological park, pathogens in zoos, public health risks, risk assessment, US.

Klein, D.; Hassan, J.; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A.; Baumgartner, W. Osophagusdilatation bei einem Lama. [Esophageal dilatation in a llama - a case report.] Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift. 2007; 94(11/12): 304-308. ISSN: 0043-535X. Note: In German with an English summary.
Abstract: A 6 year old male llama was admitted to the Clinic for Ruminants at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna with a history of 'vomiting' and loss of body mass despite eating well. Physical examination did not allow a diagnosis but the history presumed a defect of the oesophagus. Ultrasonography showed signs of a dilatation of the caudal part of the pars cervicalis of the oesophagus. These changes of the oesophagus could be approved by radiography especially contrast radiography and oesophagoscopy. Subsequent pathological and pathohistological examinations confirmed the diagnosis of a dilatation of the caudal part of the pars cervicalis and the pars thoracica of the esophagus.
Descriptors: llamas, vomiting, clinical picture, esophageal diseases, esophagus, diagnosis, dilation of caudal part, pars cercicalis and pars thoracica, radiography, ultrasonography, case reports, diagnosis, histopathology, Austria.

Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Reyelt, Jan; Schceoow, Britta; Schwarz, Nicole; Scheuplein, Felix; Rothenburg, Stefan; Haag, Friedrich; Alzogaray, Vanina; Cauerhff, Ana; Goldbaum, Fernando A. Single domain antibodies from llama effectively and specifically block T cell ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ART2.2 in vivo. FASEB Journal. 2007 Nov; 21(13): 3490-3498. ISSN: 0892-6638
URL: http://www.fasebj.org/
NAL call no.: QH301.F3
Abstract: The purpose of our study was to develop a tool for blocking the function of a specific leukocyte ecto-enzyme in vivo. ART2.2 is a toxin-related ecto-enzyme that transfers the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD onto other cell surface proteins. T cell death by activating the cytolytic P2x7 purinoceptor via ADP-ribosylation. Here, we report the generation of ART2.2-blocking single domain antibodies from an immunized llama. The variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH domain) represents the smallest known antigen-binding unit generated by adaptive immune responses. Their long CDR3 endows VHH domains with the extraordinary capacity to extend into and block molecular clefts. Following intravenous injection, the ART2.2-specific VHH domains effectively shut off the enzymatic and cytotoxic activities of ART2.2 in lymphatic organs. This blockade was highly specific (blocking ART2.2 but not the related enzymes ART1 or ART2.1), rapid (within 15 min after injection), and reversible (24 h after injection). Our findings constitute a proof of principle that opens up a new avenue for targeting leukocyte ecto-enzymes in vivo and that can serve as a model also for developing new antidotes against ADP-ribosylating toxins.--Koch-Nolte, F., Reyelt, J., Schceoow, B., Schwarz, N., Scheuplein, F., Rothenburg, S., Haag, F., Alzogaray, V., Cauerhff, A., and Goldbaum, F. A. Single domain antibodies from llama effectively and specifically block T cell ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ART2.2 in vivo.
Descriptors: llamas, blocking the function of specific leukocyte ecto-enzyme in vivo, ART2.2 induces T cell death, possible antidotes against ADP ribosylating toxins.

Lascola, K.M.; Hoffman, A.M.; Mazan, M.R.; Bedenice, D. Respiratory mechanics in sedated and nonsedated adult llamas.American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007 June; 68(6): 676-684. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL: http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Descriptors: llamas, sedation, breathing, diagnostic techniques, reference standards, respiratory system, xylazine, calibration, noninvasive methods, pulmonary function, plethysmography, flow limitations, pneumotachography.

Macciotta, N.P.P.; Battacone, G.; Enne, G.; Marongiu, L.; Pais, A.; Pulina, G.; Rassu, P. [Editors]. Proceedings of the ASPA 17th Congress, Alghero, 29 May-1 June 2007. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 2007; 6(Supplement 1): 911 pp. ISSN: 1594-4077
URL: http://www.aspajournal.it
Abstract: This proceeding contains articles on genetics and breeding, nutrition and feeding, aquaculture, buffalo production, cattle production, goat production, horse production, poultry production, pig production, rabbit production, sheep production, and other species production such as wild ungulates and llamas. There are 331 scientific papers wherein 204 are theatre presentations and 127 are poster presentations. The papers highlight Italian scientific research and some works from European and non-European countries. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: domesticated birds,buffalo, cattle, fishes, goats, horses, llamas, pigs, rabbits, sheep, animal breeding, animal feeding, animal nutrition, animal production, aquaculture, genetics, livestock, poultry, ungulates.

Marai, I.F.M.; Zeidan, A.E.B. Artificial insemination in Camelidae.Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2007; 7(1): 1-13. Note: In English with a Spanish summary. Literature review.
URL: http://www.veterinaria.uady.mx/publicaciones/journal/2007-1/128-camels2.pdf
Abstract: The most important problems of Artificial Insemination (AI) in Camelidae is its timing in relation to ovulation in the she-camel. The present article reviewed collection of semen, processing of semen, manipulation of the female and semen deposition technique in Camelidae species. Commonly, semen is collected by electroejaculation, artificial vagina (AV), flushing of the epididymus with saline solution, while the more accepted methods are the former two methods. Semen is usually used in raw condition or after extension, depending on the method of semen processing. In the fresh raw method, whole semen is used within minutes or after few hours. Extension of the semen ejaculate is carried out by adding extenders and it is required in more efficient use of AI, in short-term preservation or liquid semen (within a few hours or days) and long-term preservation or frozen semen (months or years). In short-term preservation, semen is used extended under different temperatures (30, 25 or 4 degrees C). Long-term preservation is carried out by cryopreservation. Packaging methods such as pellets, ampoules or in plastic straws with different volumes (0.25, 0.5 or 4 ml) represent different freezing procedures. The quality and survival of spermatozoa of post-thaw semen are highly variable from one male to the other, even after using the same freezing technique. To ensure that the inseminated females ovulate, hormonal manipulation of ovarian activity is used such as the induction of follicular activity and ovulation, as well as, synchronization of these phases in a group of females. The best time for insemination can only be determined by ultrasonography and/or rectal palpation of the ovaries. The other alternative is to inseminate at known intervals following induction of ovulation by hormonal treatment with human-chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH).
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, guanacos, vicunas, artificial insemination, cryopreservation of semen, deposition site, freezing, frozen semen, GnRH, HCG, estrus, ovulation, reproduction, semen, semen diluent additives, semen preservation, spermatozoa, synchronization, synchronized females, gonadoliberin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, techniques.

Marin, Juan C.; Zapata, Beatriz.; Gonzalez, Benito A.; Bonacic, Cristian; Wheeler, Jane C. ; Casey, Ciara; Bruford, Michael W.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Poulin, Elie; Alliende, M. Angelica; Spotorno, Angel E. Sistematica, taxonomia y domesticacion de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosomica y molecular. [Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence.] Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 2007; 80(2): 121-140. ISSN: 0716-078X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
URL: http://www.scielo.cl
Abstract: Four camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the vicuna (Vicugna vicugna), and two domestic, the alpaca (Lama pacos) and the llama (Lama glama). However, the origin of the domestic species has been a matter of debate. In the present study, variations in chromosome G banding patterns and in two mitochondrial gene sequences have been used to study the origin and classification of the llama and alpaca. Similar patterns in chromosome G band structure were observed in all four Lamini species, and these in turn were similar to the bands described for camels, Camelus bactrianus. However, fine and consistent differences were found in the short arms of chromosome 1, separating camels, guanacos and llamas from vicunas and alpacas. This pattern was consistent even in a hybrid guanaco x alpaca. Equivalent relationship showed the complete cytochrome b gene sequences, and the minimum expansion tree of the partial control region sequence, grouping guanaco with llama and vicuna with alpaca. Phylogenetic analyses showed V. vicugna and L. guanicoe as monophyletic groups. Analysis of both gene sequences revealed two clades within vicuna, concordant with the two described subspecies, but the results for guanaco did not confirm existence of the four previously proposed subspecies. The combined analysis of chromosomal and molecular variation showed close genetic similarity between alpacas and vicunas, as well as between llamas and guanacos. Although directional hybridization was revealed, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the llama would have derived from L. guanicoe and the alpaca from V. vicugna, supporting reclassification as V. pacos. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: camelids, Bactrian camels, 2 wild species, guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and vicunas (Vicugna vicugna), 2 domesticated species, alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama), classification of species, chromosome G banding pattern variations, 2 mitochondrial gene sequences variations, analysis showed close genetic similarity of alpacas and vicunas and of llamas and guanacos, hypothesize llama derived from L. guanicoe, alpaca derived from V. vicugna, supporting reclassification as V. pacos, genetic variability, South American camelids.

Mastromonaco, Gabriela F.; King, W. Allan. Cloning in companion animal, non-domestic and endangered species: can the technology become a practical reality? Reproduction Fertility and Development. 2007; 19(6): 748-761. ISSN: 1031-3613. Note: Is a review article.
URL: http://www.publish.csiro.au/?nid=45&aid=35
NAL call no: QP251.R47
Descriptors: companion and exotic animals, engendered species, sheep, water buffalo, saola, Ovis ammon, argali sheep, Ovis canadensis, desert bighorn sheep, Budorcas taxicolor, takin, Bos gaurus, Ovis orientalis musimon, mouflon, Taurotragus derbianuas, giant eland, Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci, bonga, llamas, macaque, cats, tigers, Prionailurus bengalensis leopard cats, rabbits, Ailurupoda-melanoleuca, giant pandas, black bears, cloning of animals, current and future of Somatic cell nuclear transfer ( SCNT), problems, pre and post implantation embryo survival, assisted reproduction, invitro fertilization.

Mate, M.L.; Di Rocco, F.; Zambelli, A.; Vidal-Rioja, L. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy in Control Region DNA of Small Ruminant Research.South American camelids. 2007 Aug; 71(1-3): 123-129. ISSN: 0921-4488
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09214488
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.04.016
NAL call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: In the present work, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing were used to investigate the length and nucleotide variability in the Control Region mitochondrial DNA of the four South American camelid species from Argentina. To asses these the complete Control Region of 20 animals, 5 each of guanaco, llama, alpaca and vicuna species were cloned. Seventy-three clones corresponding to the 20 animals were screened and 7 different SSCP patterns were identified. Sequencing of all clones showed 9 different haplotypes contained in the 350 bp hypervariable segment of the Control Region. Interestingly, 3 guanacos, 3 vicunas, 3 alpacas and 1 llama were heteroplasmic for different nucleotide positions. The screening of the Control Region mitochondrial DNA in blood samples from about 200 wild guanacos from Argentine Patagonia supported the above results. After comparison with other vertebrate species, we concluded that nucleotide substitutions are the main cause of heteroplasmy found in Control Region mitochondrial DNA of these taxa.
Descriptors:Lama; llamas, alpacas, vicunas, Lama guanicoe, phylogeny, genetic variation, genetic markers, mitochondrial DNA, molecular cloning, clones, nucleotide sequences, polymerase chain reaction,PCR, single stranded conformational polymorphism, mutation, single nucleotide polymorphism, genome, genomics, heteroplasmy, molecular sequence data, Argentina.

Merriwether, D.A. Domestication of alpacas: Genetics of the North American herd.American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2007; (Suppl. 44): 171. ISSN: 0002-9483. Note: 76th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Philadelphia, PA, USA; March 28 -31, 2007.

Descriptors: vicunas, llamas, alpacas, guanacos, domesticated animals, breeding, genetics, North America.

Navarre , C.B. Fluid therapy in small ruminants. In R.A. Smith [Editor]. Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual Conference, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 20-22 September, 2007. 2007; 176-178. Note: In English with a French summary.
Abstract: Methods for fluid therapy in adult and neonatal sheep, goats and camelids are presented, as well as catheters and key formulas. Fluid therapy regimes for common clinical situations, such as diarrhea and sepsis, are provided. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, goat kids, llamas, sheep, lambs, catheters, dehydration physiological, diarrhea, scouring, dehydration, rehydration, fluid therapy, methodology, sepsis.

Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.L. Detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in Llama (Lama glama). Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry. 2007; 28(1): 61-66. ISSN: 1532-1819.
Descriptors: 7llamas, killed vaccine of Brucella abortus S1119.3, 299 other llamas and 2075 apaca sera tested, buffered antigen plate agglutination test, complement fixation test, indirect enzyme immunoassays using smooth and rough lipopolysaccharides, competitive enzyme immunoassay, fluorescence polarization assays, results compared, specificity values, false positives.

Nes, E. van; Pieterse, M.C. Voortplanting bij lama en alpaca. [Reproduction in the llama and alpaca.]Veehouder en Dierenarts. 2007; 21(2): 20-22. ISSN: 1381-8007. Note: In Dutch.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, reproduction, anatomy, pregnancy, gestation, semen, reproductive organs, birth.

Newman, Kenneth D.; Anderson, David E. Humerus fractures in llamas and alpacas: Seven Cases(1998-2004).Veterinary Surgery. 2007 Jan; 36(1): 68-73. ISSN:
Abstract: To describe treatment and outcome of humerus fractures in llamas and alpacas. Retrospective study. Llamas (n=4) and alpacas (3) with humerus fracture. Medical records (January 1, 1998-August 1, 2004) were reviewed for small camelids with a humeral fracture. Retrieved data were signalment, history, physical examination and radiographic findings, surgical and medical treatment, and outcome. Humeral fracture occurred in 7 of 38 (18%) camelids admitted with fractures. Affected animals were aged from 1 month to 3 years old. Fracture configuration included long-oblique (n=4), short-oblique (2), and Salter-Harris Type II fracture of the proximal physis (1). One adult llama was managed by stall confinement and surgical repair was attempted in the other camelids: fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion (n=3), intramedullary pinning and fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion (1), rush pinning (1), and bone plating (1). A Velpeau sling was used for additional support in 3 animals. All fractures healed but temporary radial nerve paresis occurred in 3 animals. Limb shortening and permanent lameness occurred in the llama managed conservatively. Humerus fractures in small camelids are amenable to surgical repair which may offer better long-term outcome than medical treatment alone. Surgical treatment of humerus fractures should have a good prognosis in llamas and alpacas. In select cases, minimally invasive techniques, such as rush pinning or fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion are sufficient for fracture healing.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, bone fractures, humerus, fracture fixation, screws, nails (equipment), disease course, postoperative complications, lameness, paralysis, case studies, recommendations.

Nichols, S.; Anderson, D.E.; Schober, K. Subtotal pericardiectomy for treatment of constrictive effusive pericarditis in a llama cria. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(1): 33-37. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: A 2-month-old llama cria in Ohio, USA, was evaluated for lethargy and intermittent fever [date not given]. A physical examination revealed a holosystolic murmur (3/6) over the tricuspid valve area and an enlarged umbilicus suggestive of an abscess. Echocardiography revealed severe enlargement of the atria, ventricular hyperkinesia and mild increase of the pericardial fluid mainly organized as fibrin. A diagnosis of constrictive effusive pericarditis was made. To increase the ventricular segmental fraction, a subtotal pericardiectomy was suggested. After resection of the 5th rib, a left thoracotomy was performed to expose the heart. 60% of the pericardium was then removed. The cria recovered uneventfully from the surgery. Seven days after the surgery, a control echocardiography was performed. No more effusion was surrounding the heart. However, the cria showed signs of cardiac failure (enlarge vessels, abdominal effusion). Two weeks after the pericardiectomy, the cria gained weight and was clinically normal and was discharged from the hospital. A laparotomy was performed to remove umbilical abscess. At follow up, the owner reported that the cria died suddenly without showing any signs of lethargy. Necropsy was not performed. In conclusion, this case demonstrates that a pericardiectomy can be performed in llama cria from a left thoracotomy.
Descriptors: llama, cria, case report, clinical aspects, diagnosis, echocardiography, pericarditis, pericardiectomy, surgery, surgical operations, surgical techniques, Ohio, US.

Niehaus, A.J.; Anderson,.D.E. Tooth root abscesses in llamas and alpacas: 123 cases (1994-2005). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007 July 15; 231(2): 284-289. ISSN: 0003-1488
URL: http://www.avma.org/
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.231.2.284
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Objective - To determine features, outcome, and complications of surgical treatment of camelid tooth root abscesses. Design - Retrospective case series. Animals - 123 camelids with tooth root abscesses. Procedures - Signalment, history, teeth involved, surgery performed, ancillary diagnostic tests, and short-term complications were recorded from each medical record. An owner questionnaire was used to obtain long-term (>1 year) follow-up information. Results - The most common surgical treatments included tooth extraction (n=106) and apicoectomy (13). Owners provided follow-up information on 84 animals. Postoperative complications were reported in 42 of 84 animals. The most common complications included reinfection (n=15), chronic draining tract (14), and osteomyelitis (14). Significantly more camelids that were in good or obese body condition at the time of surgery were alive at the time of follow-up, compared with those with thin body condition at the time of surgery. Camelids with 2 teeth extracted had significantly more complications than those with 1 tooth extracted. Thirty-four of 47 owners reported that they were completely satisfied with the outcome. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Owners of camelids in poor body condition should be forewarned that such animals are at greater risk for complications following dental surgery. Clinicians should recognize that the number of teeth affected was not associated with a poorer outcome. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, teeth, dental caries, dental abscess, surgery, postoperative complications, disease diagnosis, risk factors, body condition, tooth extraction, apicoectomy, prognosis.

Nolen-Walston, R.; Bedenice, D.; Rodriguez, C.; Rushton, S.; Bright, A.; Fecteau, M.E.; Short, D.; Majdalany, R.; Tewari, D.; Pedersen, D.; Kiupel, M.; Maes, R.; Piero, F.del Eastern equine encephalitis in 9 South American camelids. Journal of Veterinary Internal-Medicine. 2007; 21(4): 846-852. ISSN: 0891-6640
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ref/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0072.x
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1892/0891-6640(2007)21[846:EEEISA]2.0.CO;2
NAL call no.: SF601.J65
Abstract: Background: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a mosquito-borne togavirus (alphavirus) that causes severe (often fatal) encephalitis in many mammalian species, but it has not been reported previously in South American camelids. Hypothesis: South American camelids can become naturally infected with EEE virus and show encephalitic signs similar to those observed in other affected species. Animals: Nine cases (8 alpacas and 1 llama, aged 3.5 weeks to 12 years) were identified; 4 of 9 were <=10 weeks old. All cases were from the East Coast of the United States and presented in late summer and fall. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to include confirmed cases of EEE in camelids in North America before 2006. Results: Eight of nine (89%) camelids died or were euthanized in extremis, with the mean time to death of 2 days. Clinical signs were consistent with encephalitis and included fever, lethargy, ataxia, seizures, recumbency, torticollis, opisthotonus, and vestibular signs. No consistent hematologic abnormalities were identified, and cerebrospinal fluid contained an increased protein concentration in the single camelid analyzed. No successful therapy was identified. EEE was confirmed by alphavirus detection by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the central nervous system (CNS) and by serology. Findings included polioencephalitis with lymphocytic perivascular cuffing; neutrophil infiltration; gliosis; neuron satellitosis; necrosis; and edema, with intracytoplasmic alphavirus within neurons and glial cells. No virus was detected in extraneural tissues. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: In endemic areas, EEE should be considered a differential diagnosis for young and adult camelids with CNS disease. Brain histopathology with indirect IHC or PCR is diagnostic. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas,animal pathology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, encephalitis, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, postmortem examinations, autopsy, clinical picture, encephalomyelitis, PCR, postmortem inspections, viral diseases, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, US.

Plant, Jon D.; Kutzler, Michelle A.; Cebra, Christopher K. Efficacy of topical eprinomectin in the treatment of Chorioptes sp. infestation in alpacas and llamas. Veterinary Dermatology. 2007 Feb; 18(1): 59-62. ISSN: 0959-4493
NAL call no.: SF901.V47
Abstract: Chorioptes sp. mite infestation is increasingly recognized as a cause of skin disease in New World camelids and there is a need for an effective treatment protocol to eliminate herd infestation. In this field trial, eprinomectin applied topically at the rate of 0.5 mg kgp# weekly for 10 weeks was found to be ineffective in a herd of 12 llamas and 16 alpacas.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, alternative livestock herds, animal parasitic diseases, mange, mites, Chorioptes, chorioptic mange, eprinomectin, topical application, drug evaluation, in vivo studies, dosage, dose response, acaricidal properties, drug resistance.

Polidori, P.; Renieri, C.; Antonini, M.; Lebboroni, G. Llama meat nutritional properties. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 2007; 6(Supplement 1): 857-858. ISSN: 1594-4077. Note: “Proceedings of the ASPA 17th Congress, Alghero, 29 May-1 June 2007.” Special issue editors: N.P.P. Macciotta; G. Battacone; G. Enne; L. Marongiu; A. Pais; G. Pulina; P. Rassu.
URL: http://www.aspajournal.it
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the muscle Longissimus thoracis taken from 20 llama males, reared in the Andean region, slaughtered at an age of 25 months and at a mean final body weight of 74 kg. Llama meat showed a low fat (3.51%) and cholesterol content (58.16 mg/100 g), a good protein content (22.42%) and an ash content of 3.06%. The Warner-Bratzler shear force values determined in llama meat was 6.56 kg/cm2. This study confirmed that llama meat is healthy and nutritious, and represents a good source of proteins for Andean population.
Descriptors: llamas, llama meat, nutritional value, chemical composition, cholesterol, fat, nutritive value, protein content.

Polidori, P.; Antonini, M.; Torres, D.; Beghelli, D.; Renieri, C. Tenderness evaluation and mineral levels of llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) meat.Meat Science. 2007. Dec; 77(4): 599-601. ISSN: 0309-1740
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03091740
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.05.011
NAL call no.: TX373.M4
Abstract: Tenderness and mineral levels were determined in the Longissimus thoracis taken from 20 llama and 30 alpaca males reared in Peru and slaughtered at 25 months of age. Mineral contents were determined using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. Tenderness evaluation was determined two and seven days post slaughter using a Warner-Bratzler shear force device. Potassium is the mineral with the highest content, with a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the two species of camelids. The other mineral contents were, in decreasing order, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium and calcium, in addition to smaller percentages of zinc and iron. Shear force values determined seven days post slaughter were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in both the species compared with the results obtained two days post slaughter.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, males, meat quality, slaughter animals, mineral content, tenderness, Peru.

Polidori, P.; Renieri, C.; Antonini, M.; Passamonti, P.; Pucciarelli, F. Meat fatty acid composition of llama (Lama glama) reared in the Andean highlands. Meat Science. 2007; 75(2): 356-358. ISSN: 0309-1740
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03091740
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.07.010
Abstract: This study reports the results of the chemical analysis of the Longissimus thoracis and lumborum taken from 20 llama males, reared in the Andean highlands. The animals were slaughtered at 25 months and had a mean final body weight of 63 kg. Llama meat shows a low fat (3.51%) and cholesterol content (56.29 mg/100 g). The fatty acid composition in llama meat contains 50.34% saturated fatty acids, 42.48% monounsaturated fatty acids and 7.18% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Llama meat appears to be a healthy alternative red meat choice.
Descriptors: llamas, chemical composition, cholesterol, fat, meat, meat quality, monoenoic fatty acids, polyenoic fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids

Powell , S.A. ; Smith, B.B.; Timm, K.I.; Menino, A.R. Jr. Expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the corpus luteum and uterus from non-pregnant and pregnant llamas. Molecular Reproduction and Development. 2007; 74(8): 1043-1052. ISSN: 1040-452X
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrd.20684
Abstract: Because estrogen may be involved in maternal recognition of pregnancy and embryonic migration in llamas, expression of estrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ER alpha ) and beta (ER beta ) was evaluated in corpus luteum (CL), endometrium, and uterus using relative RT-PCR. Tissues were recovered from sterile-mated (SM) and pregnant (PG) females during Days 7-11 and 7-13 (Day 0=day of mating), respectively, and follicular phase and juvenile females. Luteal expression of ER alpha and beta was similar (P>0.10) in SM and PG females and within Days 7-11, however, expression of ER alpha in ovarian tissue from follicular phase females was greater (P<0.05) than Days 7 and 9 CL. Uterus expressed less ER alpha and beta compared to endometrium (P=0.07 and P<0.01, respectively). Expression of ER alpha was greater (P<0.05) in Day 7 and follicular phase uteri than Days 9 and 11, Day 13 PG and juvenile uteri. Uterine ER beta expression was greater (P=0.09) in PG versus SM females and in mated compared to follicular phase females (P<0.05). Endometrial expression of ER alpha and beta did not differ (P>0.10) between SM and PG females or by day. The presence of luteal ER during this period may mean a role for estradiol in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Observed increases in uterine ER expression with no changes in endometrium suggest expression increased in myometrium and/or perimetrium. Upregulation of myometrial ER beta in PG females may be involved in supporting uterine migration of the embryo. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, uterus, corpus luteum, endometrium, estradiol, maternal recognition, myometrium, estrogen receptors, estrogens, estrodiol, gestation, pregnancy.

Powell , S.A. ; Smith, B.B.; Timm, K.I.; Menino, A.R. Jr. Estradiol production by preimplantation blastocysts and increased serum progesterone following estradiol treatment in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science. 2007 Nov; 102(1-2): 66-75. ISSN: 0378-4320
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784320
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2006.10.002
NAL call no.: QP251.A5
Abstract: Estradiol is a potential candidate for the blastocyst signal responsible for maternal recognition of pregnancy in the llama (Lama glama). Two experiments were conducted to determine if the llama blastocyst produces estradiol during the presumed period of maternal recognition of pregnancy and if exogenous estradiol can extend the luteal phase. In Experiment 1, llamas were superovulated with eCG and mated 7 days later (Day 0=day of mating). Blastocysts were collected nonsurgically on Days 7, 9, or 11 or at necropsy on Days 13 and 15 post-mating and cultured for 48 h. Conditioned medium was recovered, replaced with fresh medium at 24-h intervals, and assayed for estradiol-17 beta . Estradiol production (pg/blastocyst) over the 48-h culture increased (P<0.05) by day of gestation where more estradiol (P<0.05) was produced by Day 11 compared to Day 7 blastocysts, Day 13 compared to Days 7-11 blastocysts, and Day 15 compared to Days 7-13 blastocysts. A dramatic increase was observed between Days 11 and 13 when estradiol production by Day 13 blastocysts increased (P<0.05) more than 50-fold. In Experiment 2, 30 females were induced to ovulate with hCG (Day 0=day of hCG injection). Starting on Day 7 and continuing through Day 15, animals received daily injections i.m. of 0 (n=11), 5 (n=7), or 10 mg (n=12) estradiol benzoate (EB) dissolved in isopropylmyristate. Sera were collected immediately prior to each injection and on Days 16, 17, 18, 20, and 22 and analyzed for progesterone. Progesterone concentrations were greater (P<0.05) on Days 14, 15, 16, and 17 in llamas treated with 10 mg EB compared to llamas treated with 0 mg EB. These results demonstrate that llama blastocysts produce estradiol and exogenous estradiol can enhance and transiently extend luteal progesterone production. Estradiol produced by the preimplantation llama blastocyst may play a role in maternal recognition of pregnancy and early luteal support. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, Lama, females, female reproductive system, pregnancy, estradiol, progerterone, hormone secretion, blastocyst, hormonal regulation, , corpus luteum, luteinization, blood chemistry, signal transduction, hormones, embryogenesis, biomarkers, blood serum.

Ratto, M.; Gomez, C.; Berland, M.; Adams, G.P. Effect of ovarian superstimulation on COC collection and maturation in alpacas. Animal Reproduction Science. 2007 Feb; 97(3-4): 246-256. ISSN: 0378-4320
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784320
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2006.02.002
NAL call no.: QP251.A5
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to compare the ovarian follicular response, cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) collection rate, and maturational status of COC collected from alpacas subsequent to treatment with two different superstimulatory protocols. Alpacas (n=7 per group) were treated with: (1) 200 mg of FSH im divided bid for 3 d, plus a single i.v. dose of 1000 IU hCG 24 h after the last FSH treatment, or (2) 1200 IU of eCG as a single i.m. dose, plus a single i.v. dose of 1000 IU of hCG on day 3 after eCG treatment (day 0=start of superstimulatory treatment). At 20-24 h post-hCG treatment, the ovaries were surgically exposed and COC were collected by needle aspiration of all follicles >=6 mm. The FSH and eCG treatment groups did not differ with respect to the number of follicles >=6 mm at the time of COC collection (20.0+or-7.5 versus 27.0+or-3.3; P=0.5), the number of COC collected (26.2+or-8.4 versus 23.3+or-3.7; P=0.7), or the collection rate per follicle aspirated (89% versus 87%; P=0.7). No differences were detected between FSH- and eCG-treated alpacas in the number of expanded COC collected per alpaca (11.5+or-2.9 versus 8.8+or-2.8; P=0.54), the number of expanded COC in metaphase II (8.5+or-1.9 versus 6.0+or-2.1; P=0.1), or the number of compact COC with >=3 layers of cumulus cells (12.5+or-4.3 versus 14.3+or-2.6; P=0.72). A greater proportion (P<0.05) of compact COC collected after FSH treatment matured in vitro to the metaphase II stage than after eCG treatment. Eight expanded alpaca COC were fertilized in vitro with llama sperm, three of which were fixed and stained 18 h after exposure to sperm and five were cultured in vitro. Two of the three stained oocytes were in the pronuclear stage, and all five of the cultured oocytes developed to the two-cell and morula stages at 2 and 7 days, respectively, after in vitro fertilization. In summary, FSH and eCG treatments were equally effective for ovarian superstimulation and oocyte collection. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from more than 80% of follicles aspirated during laparotomy. Nearly one third of the COC collected after superstimulation were in metaphase II, and more than 70% of the remaining COC progressed to metaphase II after in vitro maturation for 26 h, bringing the mean number of oocytes available for in vitro fertilization to 16 per alpaca. Preliminary results support the hypothesis that alpaca oocytes obtained after superstimulation in the absence of progesterone are developmentally competent since morulae developed from all five COC fertilized and cultured in vitro.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, ovarian development, ovaries, superovulation, cumulus oophorus, ovarian follicles, oocytes, follicle stimulating hormone, equine chorionic gonadotropin, in vitro culture, in vitro fertilization, spermatocytes, embryogenesis, morula, metaphase, in vitro maturation.

Reed, S.K.; Semevolos, S.A.; Rist, P.K.; Valentine, B.A. Morphologic and biochemical characterization of hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints in llamas.American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007 Aug; 68(8): 879-885. ISSN: 0002-9645
URL :http://avmajournals.avma.org/loi/ajvr/
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.68.8.879
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: To determine the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints in llamas. Animals - 12 adult llamas (6 with bilateral hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints and 6 age- and sex-matched control llamas). Procedures - Llamas were evaluated by use of lameness examination, ultrasonography, and radiography. A CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and determination of concentrations of trace minerals in serum and liver samples were performed. Llamas were euthanized, and samples of the superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, and suspensory ligament were obtained from 4 areas and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen or suspended in neutral-buffered 10% formalin. Immuno-histochemical evaluation of collagen types I and III and assays for measurement of lysyl oxidase activity were performed. Results - 2 affected llamas had a visible gait deficit associated with metacarpophalangeal joint hyperextension. Radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis was detected in 1 severely affected llama, and ultrasonographic changes of soft tissue mineralization and suspensory desmitis were observed in 2 llamas. Liver concentrations of copper were lower and serum concentrations of zinc higher in affected llamas, compared with values in control llamas. Lysyl oxidase activity and collagen distribution did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints in llamas does not appear to be the result of injury or degeneration of the suspensory ligament or flexor tendons. Lower copper concentrations coupled with higher zinc concentrations in affected llamas may be indicative of secondary copper deficiency.
Descriptors: llamas, lameness, joint diseases, metacarpus, phalanges, metatarsus, animal injuries, animal morphology, biomarkers, ultrasonography, radiology, blood chemistry, blood cell counts, tendons, ligaments, immunohistochemistry, gait, copper, zinc, nutrient deficiencies, dietary minerals, digital flexor tendons, suspensory ligament.

Riek, A.; Gerken, M.; Moors, E. Measurement of milk intake in suckling llamas (Lama glama) using deuterium oxide dilution. Journal of Dairy Science. 2007 Feb; 90(2): 867-875. ISSN: 0022-0302
URL: http://jds.fass.org/
NAL call no.: 44.8 J822
Abstract: The objective of the study was to estimate daily milk intake in llama crias and relate nutrient intakes at peak lactation to growth data. Milk intake in 11 suckling llamas was estimated from water kinetics using deuterium oxide (D subscript 2(BO) at d 17, 66, and 128 postpartum. Daily milk intakes averaged 2.6, 2.3, and 2.0 kg at 17, 66, and 128 d postpartum, respectively. Milk intake decreased with age when expressed as daily amount, percentage of body weight (BW), or per kilogram of metabolic size, but the influence of age was eliminated when expressed per gram of daily gain. Because llamas only have one young per parturition, milk intake was equivalent to the daily milk output of the dam, which ranged from 27.6 to 96.9 g/kg of maternal BW superscript 0(B. superscript 75(B. Compared with different ruminant species, milk production in llamas appears to lie between wild and domestic ruminants used for meat production. Nutrients (dry matter, fat, protein, and lactose) and energy intakes from the milk calculated by combining milk intake and milk composition data decreased with age when expressed as daily amount or per 100 g of BW, but when expressed per gram of daily gain, no clear trend was observed. Maintenance requirement for suckling llamas at peak lactation (17 d postpartum) was 312 kJ of ME/kg of BW superscript 0(B. superscript 83(B. Combined with milk composition data, the present milk intake estimations at different stages of the lactation can be used to establish recommendations for nutrient and energy requirements of suckling llamas.
Descriptors: llama crias, daily milk intake, nutrient intakes at peak lactation, growth data, milk composition, estimates of milk update, recommentations and energy requirements for suckling crias.

Riek, A.; Gerken, M. Measurements of the bodyweight and other physical characteristics of 11 llamas (Lama glama) from birth to weaning.Veterinary Record— London. 2007 Oct 13; 161(15): 520-524. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: The bodyweight (BW), thoracic circumference, length and height of 11 llamas were recorded weekly from birth for 27 weeks. Their mean (sd) birth weight was 11.60 (2.35) kg and their weight increased in curvilinear fashion reaching 61.05 (13.75) kg after 27 weeks. Their average daily gains reached the highest value three weeks after birth and then decreased, reaching the lowest value of 262 g per day at 27 weeks. On a metabolic BW0.83 basis, the growth of the llamas when their dams were at peak lactation was comparable with that of calves, fawns and lambs. All the measurements were significantly affected by the age, but not by the sex of the young or the parity of the dam. The regression models chosen to predict the bodyweight and weight gain of the llamas yielded R2 ranging from 0.97 to 0.99. Correlations between bodyweight and other single body measurements were between r=0.68 and 0.77. Single or combined body measurements were good predictors of bodyweight, but additional body measurements added little to the already good fit provided by a single measurement (R2 ranging from 0.93 to 0.98). The thoracic circumference (R2=0.98) and length (R2=0.96) were good predictors of the bodyweight of the llamas between birth and 27 weeks old.
Descriptors: llamas, parturition, weaning, body weight, body measurements.

Rodriguez, C.T.; Quispe, J.L. Domesticated camelids, the main animal, genetic resource of pastoral systems in the region of Turco, Bolivia. In: K.A. Tempelman; R.A. Cardellino. People and Animals, Traditional Livestock Keepers: Guardians of Domestic Animal Diversity. 2007; 33-45. ISBN: 9789251056844
NAL call no.: SF105.3 P46 2007
Abstract: The Turco region has a harsh, microthermal, semi-arid climate, but people make a living there from llamas and alpacas which have advantages over exotic species and are managed in a transhumant system. These camelids are the main source of food and income for herders. The inhabitants have a holistic world view and see themselves, the land and their animals as an integrated unit. Group selection is being done by herders assisted by the Camelid Research and Improvement Centre. There is little conservation activity by government agencies or NGOs. A programme, compatible with the maintenance of genetic diversity and the producers' interests and economic needs, is needed to focus primarily on in situ conservation, inventorying, characterization and utilization. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, agropastoral systems, livestock farming systems, animal genetic resources, conservation, ecology, ecosystems, food security, genetic diversity, livestock farming, policy, selection, selection criteria, traditional farming, Bolivia.

Roth, C.; Ganter, M. Urolithiasis bei einem Lamawallach. [Urolithiasis in a gelded llama.] Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe G., Grosstiere/Nutztiere. 2007; 35(6): 446-452. ISSN: 1434-1220. Note: In German with an English summary.
URL: http://www.schattauer.de/index.php?id=947&L=1
Abstract: Objective: In recent years, the number of South American camelids kept in Germany has increased, and brings the surgeon into contact with a new kind of patient. Similar to the ruminants, obstructions of the urinary tract can occur in male South American camelids. Here, the case of an eight-year-old gelded llama with urolithiasis will be presented. Material and methods: This account describes the clinical symptoms and findings, as well as the results of laboratory diagnosis and pathological examinations performed on a gelded llama. The results of urolithic analysis as well as the ensuing calculation of the silicate content of the hay and pasture grass will be presented. Results: The llama displayed a severe disturbance of its general condition. Clinical tests and creatinine and urea values in the blood and abdominal fluid led to the presumptive diagnosis of urolithiasis with rupture of the bladder. After surgical opening of the abdominal cavity and removal of more than 20 litres of a yellowish-bloody fluid, a ruptured bladder was seen. Due to the poor prognosis the patient was euthanized intra-operatively. The urinary apparatus was subjected to a pathological-anatomical examination. Bladder and kidneys also underwent a histopathological examination. Cause for the bladder rupture were silicate uroliths: one of 4 mm and two of 3 mm in size, which led to an obstruction of the urethra at the transition from the pelvic to the penis section. The livestock was fed hay which was shown to have a silicate content of 0.64% (based on dry substance). The silicate concentration in the available pasture grass totalled 1.82%. Conclusion and clinical relevance: In examining male South American camelids which present diffuse symptoms and high grade disturbance of the general condition urolithiasis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Despite low concentrations of silicate in native grasses, uroliths on the basis of silicic acid can develop.
Descriptors: llamas, clinical picture, ruptured urinary bladder, abdomen, body fluids, case reports, clinical aspects, creatinine, diagnosis, histopathology, kidneys, obstruction, prognosis, rupture, surgery, urolithiasis, Germany.

Sansinena, M.J.; Taylor, S.A.; Taylor, P.J.; Schmidt, E.E.; Denniston, R.S.; Godke, R.A. In vitro production of llama (Lama glama) embryos by intracytoplasmic sperm injection: Effect of chemical activation treatments and culture conditions.Animal Reproduction Science. 2007 June; 99(3-4): 342-353. ISSN: 0378-4320
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784320
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2006.05.020
NAL call no.: QP251.A5
Abstract: Assisted reproductive technologies in the llama (Lama glama) are needed to provide alternative methods for the propagation, selection and genetic improvement; however, recovery of adequate quantity and quality of spermatozoa for conventional IVF is problematic. Therefore, an effort was made to adapt the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure for the in vitro production of llama embryos. The specific objectives of this study were: (1) to determine in vitro maturation rates of oocytes recovered by transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte aspiration (TUGA) or flank laparotomy; (2) to evaluate the effects of activation treatments following ICSI; (3) to evaluate the development of llama ICSI embryos in CR1aa medium or in an oviduct cell co-culture system. Llamas were superstimulated by double dominant follicle reduction followed by oFSH administered in daily descending doses over a 3-day interval. Oocytes were harvested by flank laparotomy or TUGA and matured in vitro for 30 h. Mature oocytes were subjected to ICSI followed by no chemical activation (Treatment A), ionomycin only (Treatment B) or ionomycin/DMAP activation (Treatment C). More oocytes were recovered by flank laparotomy procedure compared with TUGA (94% versus 61%, P<0.05) and a greater number of oocytes harvested by flank laparotomy reached the metaphase-II stage (77% versus 44%, P<0.05). After ICSI, the proportion of cleaved and 4-8-cell stages embryos was significantly greater when injected oocytes were activated with ionomycin/DMAP combination (63% and 38%, respectively, P<0.05). The co-culture of ICSI embryos with llama oviduct epithelial cells resulted in progression to morula (25%) and blastocyst (12%) stages; whereas, all embryos cultured in CR1aa medium arrested at the 8-16-cell developmental stage.
Descriptors: llamas, Lama, females, animal breeding, in vitro fertilization, methodology, oocytes, extraction, laparoscopy, ultrasonography, spermatozoa, injection, in vitro culture, cell culture, culture media, chemical treatment, epithelial cells, oviducts, embryogenesis, meiosis, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, ionomycin.

Schwalm, A.; Gauly, M.; Erhardt, G.; Bergmann, M. Changes in testicular histology and sperm quality in llamas (Lama glama), following exposure to high ambient temperature. Theriogenology. 2007 May; 67(8): 1316-1323. ISSN: 0093-691X
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0093691X
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.02.005
NAL call no.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a moderately elevated ambient temperature (29 pC, 4 weeks, 24 h per day) has an effect on the spermatogenesis in male llamas (Lama glama) and to monitor the recrudescence of spermatogenesis. Thirteen llamas were used. Semen parameters were monitored in four of the llamas and six animals were castrated at different times after the heat treatment. An additional three llamas were used as control animals and were castrated without any treatment. Spermatogenesis was found to be severely impaired due to the high environmental temperature. Sperm concentration declined from 97.5 million to 10 million spermatozoa/ml. Sperm motility declined from 63.1% to 15.0% and the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm cells increased from 26.3% up to 50.5%. The changes in sperm parameters corresponded to the histological analysis of the testes. We found an increase in destroyed tubules, where no stage of the spermatogenic cycle could be established from 1.8% up to 38.2%, and a reduction of the spermatogonial proliferation rate (Ki-67 histochemistry) represented by tubules with proliferating spermatogonia from 79.5% to 45.7% directly after the heat treatment. Apoptosis (TUNEL assay) showed no significant changes during the experiment. The recrudescence of spermatogenesis within 6 weeks after the heat treatment was found to be due to an increase of mitotic proliferation of spermatogonia and not due to a decrease in the apoptotic rate. Our data indicate that in llamas the thermoregulatory ability is not sufficient enough to prevent heat caused damage to the testis at longer acting ambient temperature of 29 pC.
Descriptors: llamas, testes, histology, seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis, spermatogonia, spermatozoa, sperm motility, heat stress, ambient temperature, sperm parameters, sperm concentration, abnormal sperm, heat damage, spermatogenic recrudescence.

Semevolos, Stacy A.; Reed, Shannon K.; Gamble, Kari. In Vitro bursting pressures of jejunal enterotomy closures in llamas. Veterinary Surgery. 2007 Jan; 36(1): 64-67. ISSN: 0161-3499
NAL call no.: SF911.V43
Abstract: To evaluate closure strength (in vitro bursting pressure) of jejunal enterotomies in llamas. In vitro experimental study. Jejunal specimens (n=72) from 6 llamas. Differences in bursting pressures and luminal diameters were compared between 2 layer enterotomy closures with an initial full thickness simple continuous pattern oversewn with either a continuous Lembert or Cushing suture pattern using 3 sizes (2-0, 3-0, 4-0) of polyglactin 910 and polydioxanone. Bursting pressures were significantly higher for enterotomies closed with polydioxanone than polyglactin 910, independent of suture size, but there was no difference between Lembert and Cushing oversew patterns. Use of a Lembert pattern reduced intestinal diameter more than a Cushing pattern regardless of suture material or size. Although polydioxanone resisted higher bursting pressures than polyglactin 910, both suture materials should be considered satisfactory for jejunal enterotomy closure in llamas based on typical intraluminal pressures expected in clinical patients. The optimal oversew pattern may be continuous Cushing to maximize the luminal diameter in small intestinal enterotomy closures. In vitro bursting pressures may help to predict which enterotomy sites would leak post-operatively, although further studies are necessary to determine the outcome in clinical patients.
Descriptors: llamas, surgery, jejunum, suture techniques, in vitro studies, materials testing, fatigue strength, forces, pressure, protective effect, postoperative complications, enterotomy, polydioxanone, polyglactin.

Serrano-Martinez, E.; Collantes-Fernandez, E.; Chavez-Velasquez, A.; Rodriguez-Bertos, A; Casas-Astos, E.; Risco-Castillo, V.; Rosadio-Alcantara, R.; Ortega-Mora, L.M. Evaluation of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) aborted foetuses from Peru.Veterinary parasitology. 2007 Nov 30; 150(1-2): 39-45. ISSN: 0304-4017
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.08.048
NAL call no.: SF810.V4
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in abortion cases of Peruvian llamas and alpacas. Fifteen aborted foetuses were recovered from two main rearing areas of camelids in Peru (Central or South Andean region). Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in target organs. N. caninum and T. gondii infections were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) combined with PCR and by PCR alone, respectively. The influence of the species (llama and alpaca), foetal age (first, second and third gestational periods) and geographical location (Central or South Andean region) of the foetuses was also studied. Thirteen of the samples (26%, 13/50) showed lesions suggestive of protozoal infection. N. caninum infection was detected by either IHC or specific PCR in 14 out of 50 foetuses (28%), of which 8 also showed protozoal-associated lesions. T. gondii DNA was not detected in any of the foetuses analysed. Protozoal infection was more frequent in the foetuses from the second gestational period (P<0.05, Fisher F-test). No significant association was observed between protozoal infection and species or geographical location (P>0.05, chi 2 test). The results of the present study indicate that neosporosis should be included during the differential diagnosis of abortion in llamas and alpacas.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, vicuna, Vicugna, Lama, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, animal abortion, fetus, disease prevalence, disease detection, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, gestational age, Peru, Andes region.

Shoemaker, R.W.; Wilson, D.G. Surgical repair of femoral fractures in New World camelids: five cases (1996-2003). Australian Veterinary Journal. 2007 Apr; 85(4): 148-152. ISSN: 0005-0423
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2006.00099.x
NAL call no.: 41.8 AU72
Abstract: Five New World camelids were admitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine between 1996 and 2003 for evaluation of femoral fractures. There were three alpacas and two llamas. Four of the animals were female and three were less than 3 months of age. Fracture configurations consisted of distal physeal fractures (three), a comminuted diaphyseal/metaphyseal fracture, and a transverse diaphyseal fracture. Fractures were diagnosed with a combination of physical examination and radiographs in all cases. All five fractures were repaired with internal fixation and three animals were discharged from the hospital with fractures that healed. One cria underwent successful internal fixation but died from pulmonary oedema during recovery from anaesthesia. Postoperative complications were rare and limited to inadequate fracture stability in one alpaca and prolonged recovery to weight bearing in another. One llama with a comminuted metaphyseal fracture, repaired with a 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate, subsequently had catastrophic failure of the bone 17 days after surgery. Overall the clients were pleased with the outcome of discharged animals. Although femoral fractures are considered rare, they pose a unique opportunity for the large animal veterinarian to successfully achieve fracture union with the aid of internal fixation. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, females, males, age differences, case studies, bone fractures, surgical repairs, fracture fixation, femur.

Shubitz, Lisa E. Comparative aspects of coccidioidomycosis in animals and humans. 6th International Symposium on Coccidiodomycosis, Palo Alto, CA, USA; August 23-26, 2006. ISSN: 0077-8923 (print). ISBN: 9781573316880
NAL call no.: RC136.3.I58 2006
Descriptors: llamas, dogs, humans, cats, azole antifungal agents, therapy for Coccidioides spp., clinical picture, symptoms comparison, oral administration of drugs.

Snyder, J.H. Small ruminant tips for small animal practitioners. Small Animal and Exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 21, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2007. 2007; 664-667
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, deer, goats, sheep, adverse effects, anesthesia, anesthetics, analgesics, anthelmintics, disease prevention, drug therapy, drug toxicity, adverse drug reactions, euthanasia, foot rot, grooming, lidocaine, non steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, NSAIDS, opioids, pain control, parasitoses, quarantine, rumen, surgery, vaccination, Clostridium perfringens, Dichelobacter nodosus, parasitic infections.

Spire, Mark F. Update on the USDA National Animal Identification System (NAIS) program. Bovine Practitioner. 2007; 41(1): 66-69. ISSN: 0524-1685
NAL Call no. SF779.5.A1B5
Abstract: The National Animal Identification System proposed and under development by the USDA-APHIS is a comprehensive program designed to provide rapid response following the introduction of a foreign animal disease (accidental or intentional), the discovery, of an emerging pathogen or within the framework of existing regulatory programs for currently known domestic animal diseases. It is being planned as a three-part voluntary program: premises registration, individual or group/lot animal identification and animal movement tracking. The premises and animal identification components of the program fit well with other USDA programs, particularly the Agricultural Marketing Service source and age verification program, for use by producers for value discovery in animals entering marketing channels.
Descriptors: sheep, cattle, goats, llamas alpacas, cervids, equines, tuberculosis, brucellosis, USDA, National Animal Identification System program, identification program, tracking to deal with introduced diseases. US.

Tibary, A.; Semrad, Susan, University of Wisconsin,Madison. School of Veterinary Medicine. Reproduction and Diseases of the Alpaca and Llama. Published by the Veterinary School. Madison, WI. 2007. Note: Cover title. "March 2007".Contents: Overview of physiology and infertility in the male and female camelid / by Ahmed Tibary -- Diagnostic imaging in camelid theriogenology / by Ahmed Tibary -- Reproductive surgery in the male and female / by Ahmed Tibary -- Pregnancy complications and obstetrical management / by Ahmed Tibary -- Postpartum care of the dam and neonate / by Ahmed Tibary -- Update on selected medical conditions / by Susan Semrad -- Supplemental notes.
NAL call no.: SF745.5 .M64 2006
Descriptors: see contents in the note above.

Twomey, D.F.; Aktan, I.; Boon, J.D.; Higgins, R.J.; La Ragione,.R.M.; Preston, G.D. Streptococcus bovis biotype I meningoencephalitis in an alpaca (Lama pacos) cria.Veterinary Record— London. 2007 Mar 10; 160(10): 337-339. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A 10-day-old, 8.5 kg, male homebred alpaca was found dead without premonitory clinical signs ( UK, date not given). Postmortem examination was performed the day after death and the carcass was found to be autolysed. The stomach compartments contained a mixture of fibrous material and semi-clotted milk. The large intestinal contents were liquid but the rectum was empty. Samples from the brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and small intestine were fixed and processed for histopathological examination. Aerobic culture on sheep blood agar of a meningeal swab yielded a pure growth of a Group D streptococcus and further testing identified the isolate as Streptococcus bovis biotype I. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed diffuse meningeal infiltration with predominantly neutrophils and macrophages, intermixed with fibrinous exudate. This is the first recorded case of fatal fibrinopurulent meningoencephalitis associated with S. bovis infection in an alpaca cria in UK. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, Streptococcus bovis, meningoencephalitis, case study, UK.

Twomey, D.F.; Crawshaw, T.R.; Anscombe, J.E.; Farrant, L.; Evans, L.J.; McElligott, W.S.; Higgins, R.J.; Dean, G.; Vordermeier, M.; Jahans, K.; Rua-Domenech, R. de la. TB in llamas caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Veterinary Record— London. 2007; 160(5): 170. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL : http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: The diagnosis of tuberculosis in llamas in a herd in Devon, UK, in 2006 and the use of intradermal tuberculin and antibody tests to determine the seroprevalence of M. bovis infection are reported.
Descriptors: llamas, antibody testing, diagnosis, disease prevalence, epidemiology, mycobacterial diseases, antibody detection, intradermal tests, mycobacterial infections, seroprevalence, skin tests, tuberculin, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, UK.

Uhrig, S.R.; Papich, M.G.; KuKanich, B.; Mama, K.R.; Wagner, A.E.; Chapman, P.L.; Hellyer, P.W. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007 Jan; 68(1): 25-34. ISSN: 0002-9645
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.68.1.25
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: To assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine in llamas. Animals - 6 healthy adult llamas. Procedures - Llamas received morphine sulfate in a randomized crossover design. In phase 1, they received IV or IM administration of morphine at 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg, respectively; in phase 2, they received IV administration of morphine at 0.05, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg. Plasma morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide concentrations were determined by validated methods. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, sedation, and analgesia were assessed and compared with plasma concentrations by regression analysis. Results - Total body clearance was similar between IV administration of morphine sulfate at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg (mean+or-SD, 25.3+or-6.9 mL/min/kg and 27.3+or-5.9 mL/min/kg, respectively), and linearity was demonstrated between these doses. Bioavailability of morphine following IM administration at 0.5 mg/kg was 120+or-30%. Body temperature and sedation increased as the dose of morphine administered increased. Heart rate was unaffected by varying doses. Respiratory rate decreased as dose increased. Analgesia was difficult to assess as a result of high individual variability. Intravenous administration of morphine at 0.25 mg/kg provided the most consistent increase in tolerance to electric stimulation. Pharmacodynamic modelling revealed a sigmoidal relationship between plasma concentration and sedation score. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Morphine was characterized by a large apparent volume of distribution and high systemic clearance in llamas. A prolonged half-life was observed with IM injection. Intravenous administration of morphine sulfate at 0.25 mg/kg every 4 hours is suggested for further study. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, morphine, pharmacokinetics, intravenous injection, intramuscular injection, dosage, blood chemistry of metabolites, glucuronides, body temperature, heart rate, breathing, sedation, analgesia, regression analysis, mathematical models.

Valentine, B.A.; Martin, J.M. Prevalence of neoplasia in llamas and alpacas (Oregon State University, 2001-2006). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2007 Mar; 19(2): 202-204. ISSN: 1040-6387
URL: http://jvdi.org/
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Abstract: Prevalence and type of neoplastic disease were determined in 551 camelid submissions (368 alpacas [Lama pacos], 180 llamas [Lama glama], and 3 cases in which species was not identified) over a 5-year period. Forty neoplasms were identified in 38 animals (6.9%). Prevalence of neoplasia in llamas was higher (11%) than in alpacas (4.9%). Mean age of camelids with neoplasia was 9.42+or-4.9 years. Mean age of alpacas with neoplasia (5.48+or-3.7 years) was significantly less than of llamas with neoplasia (12.53+or-3.2 years; P<0.001). Cutaneous and mucocutaneous fibroma/fibropapilloma was most common (10 animals), followed by cutaneous and mucocutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (6 animals), disseminated lymphoma (5 animals), and fibrosarcoma (4 animals). Four of 5 animals with lymphoma were alpacas, aged 0.21 to 4 years. Lymphoma occurred in 1 aged llama (15 years). Disseminated carcinoma and adenocarcinoma occurred in 4 llamas and 2 alpacas, and included biliary (2), gastrointestinal (2), mammary gland (1), and unknown (1) origin. Mean age of camelids with any type of carcinoma or adenocarcinoma (12.36+or-2.8 years) was significantly greater than that of camelids with lymphoma (4.24+or-6.2 years; P=0.02). Results indicate that neoplasia is relatively common in camelids and that there are differences between llamas and alpacas as regards prevalence of neoplasia, tumor types, and age at diagnosis. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, neoplasms, disease prevalence, animal age, species differences, fibroma, squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma, fibrosarcoma, Oregon, US.

Wolff, P.L. The geriatric small ruminant - dental care, body condition scoring, and nutrition. Large Animal Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 21, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2007. 2007; 290-292.
URL: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: alpacas, deer, goats, llamas, sheep, physical exam, animal nutrition, arthritis, body condition, body weight, dental health, feeding, geriatrics, lameness, lifespan, teeth, teeth diseases, periodontal diseases.

Woodford, N.; D' Alterio, G.L.; Owen, M. Bilateral metatarsophalangeal valgus and subluxation in two adult llamas treated by medial bone plate arthrodesis. Veterinary Record— London. 2007 Feb 24; 160(8): 262-266. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: The clinical signs and diagnostic imaging of two adult llamas with severe metatarsophalangeal valgus angular limb deformity causing metatarsophalangeal instability, severe osteoarthritis and marked bilateral hindlimb lameness are described [UK, date not given]. The metatarsophalangeal axis was corrected and arthrodesis of the metatarsophalangeal joint was achieved by distal medial metatarsal condylectomy and the medial application of a custom-made angled 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate. A secure construct with normal limb angulation and a good biomechanical outcome was achieved in each of the hindlimbs of both llamas. The development and final dimensions of the implants are described to assist decision making during the evaluation of the surgical management of such cases. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: llamas, legs, abnormal development, lameness, surgery, case studies, deformities.

Weber, Roy E. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology. 2007; 158(2-3): 132-142. ISSN: 1569-9048
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15699048
Abstract: Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. 02 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the 02 loading and unloading tensions and the O-2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin's intrinsic O-2-affinity and its allosteric interaction with cellular effectors (organic phosphates, protons and chloride). Whereas short-term altitudinal adaptations predominantly involve adjustments in allosteric interactions, long-term, genetically-coded adaptations typically involve changes in the structure of the haemoglobin molecules. The latter commonly comprise substitutions of amino acid residues at the effector binding sites, the hemeprotein contacts, or at intersubunit contacts that stabilize either the low-affinity ('Tense') or the high-affinity ('Relaxed') structures of the molecules. Molecular heterogeneity (multiple isoHbs with differentiated oxygenation properties) can further broaden the range of physico-chemical conditions where Hb functions under altitudinal hypoxia. This treatise reviews the molecular and cellular mechanisms that adapt haemoglobin-oxygen affinities in mammals, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: llamas, elephants, chickens, ostriches, bar headed geese, greylag geese, humans, blood, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, heme protein, oxygen transport, adaptations for high altitude living.

Youngquist, Robert S.; Threlfall, Walter R. Current Therapy in Large Animal Theriogenology. Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis, Mo. c2007. ISBN: 0721693237; 9780721693231. Note: Large animal theriogenology. Includes bibliographical references and index. Partial Contents: Section I. Equine theriogenology; Section II. Bovine theriogenology; Section III. Caprine theriogenology; Section IV. Ovine theriogenology; Section V. Pocine theriogenology; Section VI. Llama theriogenology; Section VII. Specialized livestock theriogenology.
NAL call no.: SF871 .C87 2007
Descriptors: theriogenology, equines, bovines, caprines, ovines, porcines, llamas, specialized livestock.

Zielinska, P.; Jurka, P. Charakterystyka rozrodu lam i alpak. [Characteristics of llamas and alpacas reproduction.]Zycie Weterynaryjne. 2007; 82(3): 202-207. ISSN: 0137-6810. Note: In Polish with and English summary.
URL: http://www.vetpol.org.pl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59
&Itemid=61

Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, reproductive physiology, production performance, reproductive disorders, common conditions.

 

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