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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on the South American Camelids  / Llamas 2008  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Llamas 2008

Albini, S.; Brodard, I.; Jaussi, A.; Wollschlaeger, N.; Frey, J.; Miserez, R.; Abril, C. Real-time multiplex PCR assays for reliable detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes in animal isolates. Veterinary Microbiology. 2008; 127(1/2): 179-185. ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL call no.: SF601.V44
Abstract: Typing of Clostridium perfringens strains by PCR-based determination of toxin genes proved to be a reliable method for diagnosis of enterotoxaemia in various animal species. We report the establishment and validation of three real-time fluorogenic (TaqManReg.) multiplex PCRs for the detection of C. perfringens alpha -, beta -, beta 2-, epsilon -, entero-, and iota -toxin genes. The composition of the PCRs was chosen with regard to robustness of the assays and in order to increase sensitivity compared to the conventional simplex PCRs. The combination of probe dyes selected for the real-time assays (FAM/TAMRA, Cy-5/BHQ-2 and VIC/TAMRA) as well as the designation of the chromosome-borne alpha -toxin as internal positive control allowed the creation of highly specific and sensitive, as well as time and cost effective PCRs. One hundred and three strains of C. perfringens isolated in Switzerland derived from clinical or suspected cases of enterotoxaemia in 10 different animal species were tested. The toxin genotypes were in agreement in both the conventional PCRs and the newly designed multiplex PCRs. Furthermore, the real-time PCR carried out as simplex allows to quantitate the copy numbers of plasmid-borne toxin genes in relation to the chromosomally located alpha -toxin gene. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: cattle, chamois, red deer, sheep, horses, hares, llamas, pigs, calves, detection, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, enterotoxemia, enterotoxins, genes, genotypes, PCR, Switzerland.

Cebra, C.K.; Tornquist, S.J.; Reed, S.K. Collection and analysis of peritoneal fluid from healthy llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2008 May 1; 232(9): 1357-1361. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Objective - To compare relative sensitivity and overall yields of various methods of fecal examination for gastrointestinal parasites in llamas and alpacas. Design - Prospective study. Sample Population - Fecal samples from 42 alpacas and 62 llamas. Procedures - Fecal samples were analyzed via direct smear, a modified McMaster technique with sucrose solution or saturated saline (approx 36% NaCl) solution, and a centrifugation-flotation procedure. McMaster flotation chambers were examined 15 and 60 minutes after loading. Centrifugation-flotation samples were examined after 10 and 60 minutes of flotation. The proportions of samples with positive results and concentrations of parasites were compared among methods. Results - The centrifugation-flotation technique yielded more positive results than other methods for all parasites except small coccidia. Longer flotation time increased the proportion of positive results and parasite concentrations for all parasites except Nematodirus spp. Longer time in the McMaster chamber made little difference. By use of the modified McMaster technique, sucrose solution yielded more positive results for Trichuris spp., Eimeria macusaniensis, and strongyles, whereas saline solution yielded more positive results for Nematodirus spp. and small coccidia. The saline solution McMaster test yielded more positive results for small coccidia than did most other methods, and the sucrose McMaster technique yielded more positive results for Trichuris spp. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - The centrifugation-flotation technique appeared to offer clear advantages in detecting infection with E. macusaniensis, Trichuris spp., Nematodirus spp., and capillarids. The saline McMaster technique appeared to offer an advantage in detecting small coccidia.
Descriptors: healthy animals, 17 llamas, 5 alpacas, abdominocentesis, peritoneal fluid biochemical and cytologic findings, collected safely, compared with blood, peritoneal fluid had a low cell count, low protein concentration, some individual differences, electrolyte concentrations resembled blood, high values of some animals may complicate interpretation of peritoneal fluid values.

Cebra, C.K.; Stang, B.V. Comparison of methods to detect gastrointestinal parasites in llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2008 Mar 1; 232(5): 733-741. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call no. : 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: 62 llamas; 42 alpacas; gastrointestinal parasites; detection methods; comparison study; direct smear; McMaster technique with sucrose solution or saturated saline; centrifugation-flotation procedure; centrifugation-flotation detected: E macusaniensis, Trichuris spp, Nematodirus spp, and capillarids; saline McMaster technique detected small coccidian, strongyles.

Dinev, T.G. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of five aminoglycoside and aminocyclitol antibiotics using allometric analysis in mammal and bird species. Research in Veterinary Science. 2008; 84(1): 107-118. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Descriptors: dromedaries, llamas, cattle, sheep, goats, cats, guinea pigs, horses, hawks, eagles, chickens, turkeys, rabbits, parakeets, owls, pigs, humans, gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, kanamycin and apramycin, allometric equations, drug half-life, volume of drug distribution, total body clearance, estimating dose intervals, difference drugs responses between birds, and mammals.

Giuliano, S.; Director, A.; Gambarotta, M.; Trasorras, V.; Miragaya, M. Collection method, season and individual variation on seminal characteristics in the llama (Lama glama).Animal Reproduction Science. 2008 Mar 3; 104(2-4): 359-369. ISSN: 0378-4320
NAL call no.: QP251.A5
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of semen collection method (electroejaculation EE as compared with the artificial vagina AV), the season (summer versus winter) and the male used on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of ejaculates in llamas. A total of 110 ejaculates were collected from six males and 92 of them were analyzed. Ejaculate volume, concentration, total sperm and the following sperm characteristics were studied: motility, membrane function (HOS test), membrane integrity (CFDA/PI fluorochromes) and morphology. A mixed linear model, that considered season and collection method as the fixed variables and the male as the random variable, was used for the statistical analysis. Variability was found between males (p <=0.05) when comparing the seminal characteristics. When considering the number of collections performed and the number of ejaculates discarded with each method, significant differences (p <0.01) were found between collection methods (EE and AV), with EE having a greater proportion of successful semen collections. There were significant differences (p <=0.05) between collection methods for volume, sperm motility and membrane function. Ejaculates obtained by EE have a greater volume, sperm motility, live spermatozoa and sperm with functional membranes. Comparison of semen variables between the two seasons indicated that sperm concentration and sperm abnormalities were different (p <0.01). Ejaculates obtained during winter have greater sperm concentration and less sperm tail abnormalities than in summer. We conclude that semen variables have individual variation in llamas and are affected both by method of collection and season. The most desirable semen quality was obtained during winter using EE as the semen collection method.
Descriptors: llamas, semen collection, electroejaculation, artificial vagina, seasonal differences in semen, macroscopid and microscopic examination, semen volume, semen concentration, sperm motility, membrane function and intrgrity, variability between males, sperm concentration, sperm tail abnormalities.

Harwood, D.; Nuttall, J.; Bidewell, C. Fasciolosis in camelids. Veterinary Record— London. 2008; 162(13): 424. ISSN. 0042-4900
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: This correspondence reports a recent incidence of fascioliasis in a 30-month-old llama from a smallholding farm in southeast England [date not given]. The llama was kept with 15 sheep, of which 2 died of chronic fascioliasis. Postmortem examination revealed severe hepatic damage with fibrosis. Histopathological examination revealed extensive hepatic fibrosis, biliary hyperplasia and enlarged bile ducts filled with caseous material. The morphological diagnosis of severe chronic fibrosing cholangiohepatitis was consistent with fluke infection.
Descriptors: llama, case study, case report, clinical aspects, diagnosis, postmortem organ sampling, liver, liver fluke infection, fascioliasis, histopathology, Britain, UK.

Herrera, Emilio A.; Reyes, Roberto V.; Giussani, Dino A.; Riquelme, Raquel A.; Sanhueza, Emilia M.; Ebensperger, German; Casanello, Paola; Mendez, Natalia; Ebensperger, Renato; Sepulveda Kattan, Esteban; Pulgar, Victor M.; Cabello, Gertrudis; Blanco, Carlos E.; Hanson, Mark A.; Parer, Julian T.; Llanos, Anibal J. Carbon monoxide: a novel pulmonary artery vasodilator in neonatal llamas of the Andean altiplano. Cardiovascular Research. 2008; 77(1): 197-201. ISSN: 0008-6363
Descriptors: lambs, crias, neonates, highlands of 3600 Meters and lowlands of 580 Meters, comparison study, pulmonary regulation, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide roles, NO synthase (NOS) blockade and production of carbon monoxide by lung, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) expression, NOS activity, and hemoxygenase (HO) expression, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary hypertension.

Marques, F.J. Fluid therapy: general practical recommendations for camelids.Large Animal Veterinary Rounds. 2008; 8(1): 6 pp.
Abstract: The camelid industry is relatively new and ever-evolving, as is our knowledge about these animals. Camelids differ from ruminants in several ways and in many situations they must be treated differently. Llama and alpaca caseloads tend to rise from year to year, both in the Western College of Veterinary Medicine hospital and in other referral practices, and it is essential that veterinarians keep up with the latest information available in this developing medical field. Further, since recommendations given today may not be valid in the near future, veterinarians must remain open to considering new ideas. This issue of Large Animal Veterinary Rounds reviews general fluid therapy principles and indicates some practical recommendations for camelids. The concepts discussed are based on current literature, research, the available reference material and the personal experience of well-respected camelid veterinarians around the world. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, dehydration, rehydration, fluid therapy for camelids, clinical aspects, complications, intravenous injection, oral administration, literature review.

Mongoh, M.N.; Dyer, N.W.; Stoltenow, C. L.; Khaitsa, M.L. Risk factors associated with anthrax outbreak in animals in North Dakota, 2005: a retrospective case-control study. Public Health Reports. 2008; 123(3): 352-359. ISSN: 0033-3549
Abstract: Objective. We identified the risk factors associated with the anthrax outbreak of 2005 in animals in North Dakota. Methods. Medical records of the 2005 anthrax outbreak were obtained from the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at North Dakota State University. Additional data were obtained from the North Dakota state veterinarian's office, and supplemental questionnaires were administered to producers. The data obtained included ecological and environmental factors, animal health factors, and management factors. Results. Anthrax occurred from July 1 to October 12, 2005. The cases were located in eastern North Dakota around the Red River Basin. Ransom, LaMoure, and Barnes counties reported most cases (71%). Species affected included cattle, bison, horses, sheep, elk, deer, pigs, and llamas. The predominant symptom was sudden death (38%) followed by bleeding from orifices (17%). Chi-square analysis indicated significant differences between case and control premises on the following variables: death reported on neighboring pasture, vaccination period, dry conditions, wet conditions, antibiotic use, multiple vaccination, and type of predator (coyote). Factors that significantly (p<0.05) predicted anthrax occurrences on the final logistic regression model were vaccination, use of antibiotics during an outbreak, and period of vaccine administration (before or during the outbreak). Conclusions. The characteristics of the anthrax outbreak regarding time and place of occurrence, animals affected, clinical signs reported, and mortality rate were consistent with previous reports of natural anthrax outbreaks in animals. A number of factors that significantly predicted anthrax occurrence in animals in the 2005 outbreak in North Dakota were identified. This information is important in planning appropriate control and prevention measures for anthrax, including recommending the right vaccination and treatment regimens in managing future anthrax outbreaks.
Descriptors: bison, cattle, elk, deer, horses, llamas, pigs, anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, disease transmission, epidemiology, immunization, immune sensitization, outbreaks, risk factors, vaccination, veterinary surgeons, zoonoses, North Dakota, US.

Pirie, Chris G.; Pizzirani, Stefano; Parry, Nicola M. Corneal epithelial inclusion cyst in a Llama. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 2008 Mar; 11(2): 111-113. ISSN: 1463-5216
NAL call no.: SF891.V47
Abstract: A 13-year-old, female llama presented for evaluation of a limbal based corneal mass involving the OD of 4 months duration. The mass was excised en bloc by a nonpenetrating keratectomy, followed by placement of a conjunctival advancement flap covering the keratectomy site. The mass was submitted for histological evaluation. Histopathology identified the mass to be a corneal epithelial inclusion cyst filled with necrotic squamous and neutrophilic debris. Surgical excision was complete and considered curative with no signs of recurrence 3 months postoperatively. There was no known prior ocular trauma; however, a previously performed corneal biopsy for evaluation of recurrent epithelial erosions may have been an initiating cause.
Descriptors: female llama, corneal mass, excision of mass by keratectomy, conjunctival flap, histopathology, epithelial inclusion cyst filled with debris.

Prado, T.M.; Doherty, T.J.; Boggan, E.B.; Airasmaa, H.M.; Martin-Jimenez, T.; Rohrbach, B.W. Effects acepromazine and butorphanol on tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in llamas.American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2008 Feb; 69(2): 182-188. ISSN: 0002-9645
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3A
Abstract: Objective - To evaluate sedative, antinociceptive, and physiologic effects of acepromazine and butorphanol during tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) anesthesia in llamas. Animals - 5 young adult llamas. Procedures - Llamas received each of 5 treatments IM (1-week intervals): A (acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg), B1 (butorphanol, 0.1 mg/kg), AB (acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg, and butorphanol, 0.1 mg/kg), B2 (butorphanol, 0.2 mg/kg), or C (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Sedation was evaluated during a 30-minute period prior to anesthesia with TZ (2 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia and recovery characteristics and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at intervals. Antinociception was assessed via a toe-clamp technique. Results - Sedation was not evident following any treatment. Times to sternal and lateral recumbency did not differ among treatments. Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer for treatment AB than for treatment C. Duration of antinociception was significantly longer for treatments A and AB, compared with treatment C, and longer for treatment AB, compared with treatment B2. Treatment B1 resulted in a significant decrease in respiratory rate, compared with treatment C. Compared with treatment C, diastolic and mean blood pressures were lower after treatment A. Heart rate was increased with treatment A, compared with treatment B1 or treatment C. Although severe hypoxemia developed in llamas anesthetized with TZ alone and with each treatment-TZ combination, hemoglobin saturation remained high and the hypoxemia was not considered clinically important. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Sedation or changes in heart and respiratory rates were not detected with any treatment before administration of TZ. Acepromazine alone and acepromazine with butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg) prolonged the duration of antinociception in TZ-treated llamas.
Descriptors: llamas, young adults, anesthesia, evaluate sedation, antinociceptive effect, physiologic effect, recovery characteristics, selected cardiorespiratory variables, toe clamp technique for pain, times to sternal and lateral recumbency did not differ between treatments, lateral recumbency varied, heart rates, hypoxemia, hemoglobin saturation; acepromazine alone and acepromazine with butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg) prolonged duration of antinociception in TZ

Semevolos, Stacy A.; Huber, Michael J.; Parker, Jill E.; Reed, Shannon K. Complications after orthopedic surgery in alpacas and llamas: 24 cases (2000-2006).Veterinary Surgery. 2008 Jan; 37(1): 22-26. ISSN: 0161-3499
NAL call no.: SF911.V43
Abstract: To report complications associated with orthopedic surgery in alpacas and llamas. Retrospective study. Alpacas (n=18) and llamas (n=6) that orthopedic surgery using internal or external fixation. Medical records (January 2000-December 2006) and radiographs were reviewed and owners contacted for follow-up information for alpacas and llamas that had orthopedic surgery involving internal or external fixation. Fourteen camelids had internal fixation, 7 had external fixation, and 3 had a combination of internal and external fixation. Twenty-two animals (92%) were discharged after surgery (mean hospitalization, 15 days). Of 20 animals with >=1 year follow-up information, 18 were alive (82%). Postoperative complications related to fracture healing, infection, soft tissue structures, or joints occurred in 21 camelids (87%). Thirteen animals returned to their intended use, 4 animals returned to breeding but not their intended use, 4 were euthanatized, and 3 were only able to be used as pets. Fixation type (internal, external) did not have any significant effect on complications involving fracture healing, infection, soft tissue structures, or chronic lameness. Camelids with open fractures were more likely to have complications associated with fracture healing, repair, and infection than closed fractures. Complications after orthopedic surgery in alpacas and llamas are more common than previously reported and may result in chronic lameness or prevent return to their intended use.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, musculoskeletal diseases, bone fractures, surgery, veterinary equipment, disease course, postoperative complications, morbidity, lameness, inflammation, data analysis, image analysis, radiography.

Smith, S.H.; Reel, D.R. Cerebral and renal candidosis in a llama (Lama glama).Veterinary Record-- London. 2008 Apr 12; 162(15): 485-486. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call no.: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A six-year-old neutered male llama in lateral recumbency and with open-mouthed breathing was referred to the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (date not given). Physical examination revealed that the animal was depressed and dehydrated (10%). Mentation was abnormal and the menace response in the right eye was decreased. Blood chemical analysis revealed markedly elevated aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine kinase activities, while total bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase and glucose were moderately elevated. Due to poor response to supportive therapy, the llama was euthanized and submitted to postmortem examination. Smooth, raised, firm, pale yellow nodules were disseminated throughout the cortical parenchyma of both kidneys. Dural blood vessels were markedly dilated, especially the dorsal cerebral vein on the right side. Representative samples of multiple organs were processed and fixed for histopathological examination. Several colonies of Candida albicans were isolated from fresh brain samples. The histopathological lesions were conclusive of fungal infection.
Descriptors: llamas, brain and kidney infection, Candidaalbicans, yeast infection, case study, clinical picture, diagnosis.

Sura, R.; Creden, A.; Van Kruiningen, H.J. Pseudomonas-associated discospondylitis in a two-month-old llama. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2008 May; 20(3): 349-352. ISSN: 1040-6387
NAL call no.: SF774.J68
Descriptors: young llama, discospondylitis, case history, clinical picture, bacterial infection, Pseudomonas.

Waitt, L.H.; Cebra, C.K. Characterization of hypertriglyceridemia and response to treatment with insulin in llamas and alpacas: 31 cases (1995-2005).Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2008 May 1; 232(9): 1362-1367. ISSN: 0003-1488
NAL call no.: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors : 23 alpacas, 8 llamas, 7 pregnant alpacas, 1 lactating alpaca, hypertriglyceridemic, multiple triglycerides concentration, treated and non-treated with insulin, insulin seems to reduce serum and plasma triglycerides, can affect all ages and both sexes.

Yang, FuLin; Wang, HuCheng; Guo, XuSheng; Long, RuiJun. Review of purine derivatives in urine to estimate rumen microbial protein production.Acta Prataculturae Sinica. (Ts oa yeh hsu eh pao = Acta prataculturae Sinica = Caoye xuebao ) . 2008; 17(1): 121-129. ISSN: 1004-5759. Note: In Chinese with an English summary.
NAL call no .: SB202.C6T73
Abstract: Urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD), like allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine, have been studied in ruminants with the objective of using the excretion of these purine metabolites as a parameter to estimate rumen microbial protein. The PD in the urine is a good marker for estimating rumen microbial synthesis. This paper covers endogenous excretion in ruminants, modelling the response of PD excretion to purine absorption, calculation of microbial nitrogen supply from PD excretion using all-urine and spot urine measurement, and the current understanding of PD excretion in different animal species, including sheep, cattle, goats, buffaloes, yaks, camels and llamas. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: buffalo, cattle, goats, llamas, ruminants, sheep, yaks, camels, urine testing, purine derivatives, protein biosyntheses, purine bases, allantoin, excretion, hypoxanthine, nitrogen, purines, reviews, rumen, rumen microorganisms, uric acid, urine, xanthine.


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