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Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Vicunas - 2008  | 2007  |  2006  |  2005  |  2004


Siguas, O.; Olazabal, J. Perfil sanguineo de vicunas del Cidcs Lachocc Huancavelica. [Serum profile of vicunas from the South American Camelids Research Center of Lachocc-Huancavelica.]Archivos de Zootecnia. 2008; 57(217): 87-90. ISSN: 0004-0592. Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: vicunas, adult males and females, serum profile, hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, 37.00 +/- 3.02% and 37.40 +/- 3.84%; 11.94 +/- 0.98 and 12.06 +/- 1.24 g/dl and 4.30 +/- 3.37 and 5.59 +/- 3.15 g/dl, 211.43 +/- 90.23 and 116.24 +/- 77.44 mg/dl and 230.89 +/- 74.76 and 144.25 +/- 92.63 mg/dl respectively, South American Camelids Research Center of Lachocc Huancavelica National University.

Stirling, J.; Griffith, M.; Blair, I.; Cormican, M.; Dooley, J.S.G.; Goldsmith, C.E.; Glover, S.G.; Loughrey, A.; Lowery, C.J.; Matsuda, M .; McClurg, R.; McCorry, K.; McDowell, D.; McMahon, A.; Millar, B.C.; Nagano, Y;. Rao, J.R.; Rooney, P.J.; Smyth, M.; Snelling, W.J.; Xu, J.; Moore, J.E. Prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals. Zoonoses and Public Health. 2008; 55(3): 166-172. ISSN: 1863-1959
Abstract: Faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella,Yersinia, as well as Arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in Belfast Zoological Gardens, during July-September 2006. Thermophilic campylobacters including Campylobacter jejuni,Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (11 of 44; 25%). Yersinia spp. were isolated from seven animal species (seven of 44; 15.9%) and included, Yersinia enterocolitica (five of seven isolates; 71.4%) and one isolate each of Yersinia frederiksenii and Yersinia kristensenii. Only one isolate of Salmonella was obtained throughout the entire study, which was an isolate of Salmonella dublin (O 1,9,12: H g, p), originating from tiger faeces after enrichment. None of the animal species found in public contact areas of the zoo were positive for any gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. Also, water from the lake in the centre of the grounds, was examined for the same bacterial pathogens and was found to contain C. jejuni. This study is the first report on the isolation of a number of important bacterial pathogens from a variety of novel host species, C. jejuni from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), C. lari from a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Y. kristensenii from a vicugna (Vicugna vicugna) and Y. enterocolitica from a maned wolf and red panda (Ailurus fulgens). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the faeces of animals in public contact areas of the zoo were not positive for the bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens examined. This is reassuring for the public health of visitors, particularly children, who enjoy this educational and recreational resource.
Descriptors: zoo animals, many species including vicuna, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella,Yersinia, Arcobacter, bacterial diseases, gastrointestinal pathogens, intestines, Belfast Zoological Gardens, Ailurus fulgens,Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni,Campylobacter lari, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Salmonella Dublin, Vicugnavicugua, Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia frederiksenii, Yersinia kristensenii.

Zapata, B.; GonzcLlez, B.A.; Marin, J.C.; Cabello, J.L.; Johnson, W.E.; Skewes, O. Finding of polydactyly in a free-ranging guanaco (Lama guanicoe).Small Ruminant Research. 2008 May; 76(3): 220-222. ISSN: 0921-4488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: Polydactylism, a genetic defect characterized by partial or complete duplication of the digit, has been described in a wide range of vertebrates. Among ungulates, polydactyly appears to be relatively common in domestic camelids, with reports in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos). However, in wild South American camelids polydactyly has been reported only in a vicuna kept in a zoo (Vicugna vicugna), but not in wild populations. Here a finding of polydactyly in a free-ranging guanaco is described. We propose the hypothesis that this malformation has an atavistic-genetic origin.
Descriptors: guanaco, free ranging animal, genetic mutation, polydactyly, domestic camelids, camels, llamas, alpaca, vicunas.

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Keen, James E.; Durso, Lisa M.; Meehan, Thomas P. Isolation of Salmonella enterica and Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 from feces of animals in public contact areas of United States zoological parks. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007; 73(1): 362-365. ISSN: 0099-2240
NAL call no.: 448.3 AP5
Descriptors: cattle, sheep, goats, yaks, antelopes, camels, llamas, vicunas, deer, reindeer, pigeons, horses, donkeys, giraffes, okapis, rabbits, parrots, swine, fecal sampling, Salmonella enterica, serovar Typhimurium, serovar Enteriditis, Escherichia coli, strain O157, zoological park, pathogens in zoos, public health risks, risk assessment, US.

Llanos, Anibal J.; Riquelme, Raquel A.; Herrera, Emilio A.; Ebensperger, German; Krause, Bernardo; Reyes, Roberto V.; Sanhueza, Emilia A.; Pulgar, Victor M.; Behn, Claus; Cabello, Gertrudis; Parer, Julian T.; Giussani, Dino A.; Blanco, Carlos E.; Hanson, Mark A. Evolving in thin air - Lessons from the llama fetus in the altiplano. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology. 2007; 158(2-3): 298-306. ISSN: 1569-9048
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, vicunas, guanacos, fetal life, high altitude animals, fetal response to acute hypoxia, peripheral vasoconstriction mediated by alpha adrenergic mechanisms, high plasma concentration of catecholamines, high plasma concentration of neuropeptide Y, NO and endothelin 1, local blood flows, cerebral hypometabolic response, reduced oxygen consumption, Na-K-Atpase activity, temperature, absence of seizures and apoptosis of neural cells, Andean altiplano.

Marai, I.F.M.; Zeidan, A.E.B. Artificial insemination in Camelidae.Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2007; 7(1): 1-13. Note: In English with a Spanish summary. Literature review.
Abstract: The most important problems of Artificial Insemination (AI) in Camelidae is its timing in relation to ovulation in the she-camel. The present article reviewed collection of semen, processing of semen, manipulation of the female and semen deposition technique in Camelidae species. Commonly, semen is collected by electroejaculation, artificial vagina (AV), flushing of the epididymus with saline solution, while the more accepted methods are the former two methods. Semen is usually used in raw condition or after extension, depending on the method of semen processing. In the fresh raw method, whole semen is used within minutes or after few hours. Extension of the semen ejaculate is carried out by adding extenders and it is required in more efficient use of AI, in short-term preservation or liquid semen (within a few hours or days) and long-term preservation or frozen semen (months or years). In short-term preservation, semen is used extended under different temperatures (30, 25 or 4 degrees C). Long-term preservation is carried out by cryopreservation. Packaging methods such as pellets, ampoules or in plastic straws with different volumes (0.25, 0.5 or 4 ml) represent different freezing procedures. The quality and survival of spermatozoa of post-thaw semen are highly variable from one male to the other, even after using the same freezing technique. To ensure that the inseminated females ovulate, hormonal manipulation of ovarian activity is used such as the induction of follicular activity and ovulation, as well as, synchronization of these phases in a group of females. The best time for insemination can only be determined by ultrasonography and/or rectal palpation of the ovaries. The other alternative is to inseminate at known intervals following induction of ovulation by hormonal treatment with human-chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH).
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, guanacos, vicunas, artificial insemination, cryopreservation, deposition site, freezing, frozen semen, GnRH, HCG, estrus, ovulation, reproduction, semen, semen diluent additives, semen preservation, spermatozoa, synchronization, synchronized females, gonadoliberin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, insemination techniques.

Marin, Juan C.; Zapata, Beatriz.; Gonzalez, Benito A.; Bonacic, Cristian; Wheeler, Jane C. ; Casey, Ciara; Bruford, Michael W.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Poulin, Elie; Alliende, M. Angelica; Spotorno, Angel E. Sistematica, taxonomia y domesticacion de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosomica y molecular. [Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence.] Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 2007; 80(2): 121-140. ISSN: 0716-078X. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
Abstract: Four camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the vicuna (Vicugna vicugna), and two domestic, the alpaca (Lama pacos) and the llama (Lama glama). However, the origin of the domestic species has been a matter of debate. In the present study, variations in chromosome G banding patterns and in two mitochondrial gene sequences have been used to study the origin and classification of the llama and alpaca. Similar patterns in chromosome G band structure were observed in all four Lamini species, and these in turn were similar to the bands described for camels, Camelus bactrianus. However, fine and consistent differences were found in the short arms of chromosome 1, separating camels, guanacos and llamas from vicunas and alpacas. This pattern was consistent even in a hybrid guanaco x alpaca. Equivalent relationship showed the complete cytochrome b gene sequences, and the minimum expansion tree of the partial control region sequence, grouping guanaco with llama and vicuna with alpaca. Phylogenetic analyses showed V. vicugna and L. guanicoe as monophyletic groups. Analysis of both gene sequences revealed two clades within vicuna, concordant with the two described subspecies, but the results for guanaco did not confirm existence of the four previously proposed subspecies. The combined analysis of chromosomal and molecular variation showed close genetic similarity between alpacas and vicunas, as well as between llamas and guanacos. Although directional hybridization was revealed, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the llama would have derived from L. guanicoe and the alpaca from V. vicugna, supporting reclassification as V. pacos. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: camelids, Bactrian camels, 2 wild species, guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and vicunas (Victigna vicugna), 2 domesticated species, alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama), classification of species, chromosome G banding pattern variations, 2 mitochondrial gene sequences variations, analysis showed close genetic similarity of alpacas and vicunas and of llamas and guanacos, hypothesize llama derived from L. guanicoe, alpaca derived from V. vicugna, supporting reclassification as V. pacos, genetic variability, South American camelids.

Marin, J.C.; Casey, C.S..; Kadwell, M.; Yaya, K.; Hoces, D.; Olazabal, J.; Rosadio, R; Rodriguez, J.; Spotorno, A.; Bruford, M.W.; Wheeler, J.C. Mitochondrial phylogeography and demographic history of the vicuna: implications for conservation. Heredity. 2007; 99(1): 70-80. ISSN: 0018-067X
Abstract: The vicuna (Vicugna vicugna; Miller, 1924) is a conservation success story, having recovered from near extinction in the 1960s to current population levels estimated at 275 000. However, lack of information about its demographic history and genetic diversity has limited both our understanding of its recovery and the development of science-based conservation measures. To examine the evolution and recent demographic history of the vicuna across its current range and to assess its genetic variation and population structure, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from the control region (CR) for 261 individuals from 29 populations across Peru, Chile and Argentina. Our results suggest that populations currently designated as Vicugna vicugna vicugna and Vicugna vicugna mensalis comprise separate mitochondrial lineages. The current population distribution appears to be the result of a recent demographic expansion associated with the last major glacial event of the Pleistocene in the northern (18 to 22 degrees S) dry Andes 14-12 000 years ago and the establishment of an extremely arid belt known as the 'Dry Diagonal' to 29 degrees S. Within the Dry Diagonal, small populations of V. v. vicugna appear to have survived showing the genetic signature of demographic isolation, whereas to the north V. v. mensalis populations underwent a rapid demographic expansion before recent anthropogenic impacts. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: vicunas, conservation, evolution, genetic variation, geographical distribution, mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA, nucleotide sequences, phylogeny, genetic variability, genotypic variability, genotypic variation, Argentina, Chile, Peru.

Mate, M.L.; Di Rocco, F.; Zambelli, A.; Vidal-Rioja, L. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy in Control Region DNA of Small Ruminant Research.South American camelids. 2007 Aug; 71(1-3): 123-129. ISSN: 0921-4488
NAL call No.: SF380.I52
Abstract: In the present work, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing were used to investigate the length and nucleotide variability in the Control Region mitochondrial DNA of the four South American camelid species from Argentina. To asses these the complete Control Region of 20 animals, 5 each of guanaco, llama, alpaca and vicuna species were cloned. Seventy-three clones corresponding to the 20 animals were screened and 7 different SSCP patterns were identified. Sequencing of all clones showed 9 different haplotypes contained in the 350 bp hypervariable segment of the Control Region. Interestingly, 3 guanacos, 3 vicunas, 3 alpacas and 1 llama were heteroplasmic for different nucleotide positions. The screening of the Control Region mitochondrial DNA in blood samples from about 200 wild guanacos from Argentine Patagonia supported the above results. After comparison with other vertebrate species, we concluded that nucleotide substitutions are the main cause of heteroplasmy found in Control Region mitochondrial DNA of these taxa.
Descriptors:Lama; llamas, alpacas, vicunas, Lama guanicoe, phylogeny, genetic variation, genetic-markers, mitochondrial DNA, molecular cloning, clones, nucleotide sequences, polymerase chain reaction, single stranded conformational polymorphism, mutation, single nucleotide polymorphism, genome, genomics, heteroplasmy, molecular sequence data, Argentina.

Merriwether, D.A. Domestication of alpacas: Genetics of the North American herd.American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2007; (Suppl. 44): 171. ISSN: 0002-9483. Note: 76th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Philadelphia, PA, USA; March 28 -31, 2007.
Descriptors: vicunas, llamas, alpacas, guanacos, domesticated animals, breeding, genetics, North America.

Sahley, Catherine Teresa; Vargas, Jorge Torres; Valdivia, Jesus Sanchez. Biological sustainability of live shearing of vicuna in Peru. Conservation Biology. 2007 Feb; 21(1): 98-105. ISSN: 0888-8892
NAL call no.: QH75.A1C5
Abstract: The vicuna's (Vicugna vicugna) fiber is highly valued as an export product that is made into luxury fabric and clothing. The price of fiber in 2004 was $566/kg, which makes the fiber a potentially important source of income for Andean agropastoral communities and serves as an incentive to allow vicuna grazing on high-elevation Andean landscapes. It is presumed that a shorn vicuna has little value for poachers, so shearing vicunas could serve as a disincentive to poaching. Thus, the supply of vicuna fiber may be sustainable if it is procured through live shearing, which should serve as a powerful conservation tool. We evaluated the effects of capture and shearing on the demography of vicuna in one site located in the Salinas Aguada Blanca Reserve, Arequipa, Peru, where vicunas were captured and shorn in spring and then returned to the wild. We conducted fixed-width line-transect censuses from 1997 to 2003 of this population. We compared the proportion of young born to females that were shorn versus females that were unshorn for the 3 years in which shearing occurred. We evaluated the effect of capture and shearing on proportion of young born to shorn and unshorn females at a second site, Picotani, Puno. The wild population in Arequipa that underwent capture and shearing showed a steady increase in total population and average density between 1997 and 2003. No significant difference was found between the proportion of young per female for shorn and unshorn females at either site. We conclude that in spring, capture and live shearing of vicunas can be biologically sustainable. Further research is needed to determine whether shearing during winter months is biologically sustainable.
Descriptors: vicunas, effects of shearing on reproduction of females, spring capture and release, community-based conservation, Andes.

Serrano-Martinez, E.; Collantes-Fernandez, E.; Chavez-Velasquez, A.; Rodriguez-Bertos, A; Casas-Astos, E.; Risco-Castillo, V.; Rosadio-Alcantara, R.; Ortega-Mora, L.M. Evaluation of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) aborted foetuses from Peru.Veterinary parasitology. 2007 Nov 30; 150(1-2): 39-45. ISSN: 0304-4017
NAL call no.: SF810.V4
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in abortion cases of Peruvian llamas and alpacas. Fifteen aborted foetuses were recovered from two main rearing areas of camelids in Peru (Central or South Andean region). Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in target organs. N. caninum and T. gondii infections were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) combined with PCR and by PCR alone, respectively. The influence of the species (llama and alpaca), foetal age (first, second and third gestational periods) and geographical location (Central or South Andean region) of the foetuses was also studied. Thirteen of the samples (26%, 13/50) showed lesions suggestive of protozoal infection. N. caninum infection was detected by either IHC or specific PCR in 14 out of 50 foetuses (28%), of which 8 also showed protozoal-associated lesions. T. gondii DNA was not detected in any of the foetuses analysed. Protozoal infection was more frequent in the foetuses from the second gestational period (P<0.05, Fisher F-test). No significant association was observed between protozoal infection and species or geographical location (P>0.05, chi 2 test). The results of the present study indicate that neosporosis should be included during the differential diagnosis of abortion in llamas and alpacas.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, vicuna, Vicugna, Lama, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, animal abortion, aborted fetuses, disease prevalence, disease detection, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, gestational age, Peru, Andes region.

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Ansaloni, F.; Pyszny, F.; Claros, A.L.; Marquina, R.; Zapana-Pineda, J.; Claros, A.J.; Quispe-Huanca, J.L. DECAMA-project: Analysis of farm income from South American camelids meat production in Latin American countries: Preliminary results of a comparison between case studies. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
Nal Call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: camelid meat production, economic development, hygiene status and quality of animal-based products, income and production costs of camelid meat production, homogeneous questionnaire, visits and direct interviews with agricultural entrepreneurs, Andean rural areas, Peru, Bolivia, South America.

Apichela, S.; Jimenez-Diaz, M.; Schuster, S.; Sinowatz, F.; Miceli, D.C. Vicuna oviduct mucosa: Ultrastructure and lectin affinity. Small Ruminant Research. 2006 Nov; 66(1-3): 164-168. ISSN: 0921-4488
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Abstract: The isthmus and uterotubal junction (UTJ) from oviducts of adult female vicunas (Vicugna vicuna) were used to study the epithelial cell ultrastructure. Scanning microphotographs revealed a mosaic pattern made up of ciliated and secretory cells with abundant microvilli. In the isthmus only a few secretory cells were present, scattered among numerous ciliated cells while in the UTJ the secretory cells prevail. The abundance of secretory cells suggests that the UTJ cells may possess special characteristics for sperm binding. No studies exist in either the vicuna or any of the other South American Camelids (SAC) concerning carbohydrates involved in sperm or embryo interactions on the oviductal surface. Identification of these sugars seems relevant to the mechanism involved in the sperm-oviduct interaction. As a first step in the determination of the molecular mechanism implicated in the formation of sperm reservoirs in the oviduct, lectin affinity for the oviductal mucosa was studied. High concentrations of glycosaminoglycans inside the two types of epithelial cells, and on their glycocalyx were observed with histochemical methods. The carbohydrates on the epithelial surface were labeled with fluorescent by lectins and analyzed with confocal scanning microscopy. The cell surface showed abundant l-mannopyranosyl, l-glucopyranosyl, o-galactosyl, N-acetyl glucosamine, and N-acetylneuraminic acid residues and few l-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues. Neither l-l-fucopyranosyl nor o-N-acetyl galactosamine residues were observed in any part of the oviduct. The distinct ultrastructural characteristic of the UTJ as well as the presence of high concentrations of sugar residues on the mucosa surface of this portion of the oviduct could be related to its function as a sperm reservoir.
Descriptors: vicunas, Vicugna, oviductal isthmus, epithelium, mucosa, epithelial cells, ultrastructure, histology, scanning electron microscopy, conception, viability, glycoproteins, lectins, protein secretion, histochemistry, binding capacity, binding sites, spermatozoa, uterotubal junction, sperm binding, sperm reservoir.

Arzamendia, Y.; Cassini, M.H.; Vila, B. L. Habitat use by vicuna Vicugna vicugna in Laguna Pozuelos Reserve, Jujuy, Argentina. Oryx. 2006; 40(2): 198-203. ISSN: 0030-6053
Abstracts: Vicuna Vicugna vicugna are an emblematic species of one of the major arid ecosystems of the neotropics: the puna or altiplano. Excessive commercial hunting of vicuna for their valuable fleece in the past caused a severe decline in the population, with the vicuna almost becoming extinct by the mid 20th century. Effective protection resulted in the recovery of some populations and, recently, limited vicuna exploitation has been allowed. Research is urgently required to underpin the design of the management systems used for this exploitation. We present the results of a 2-year study on habitat utilization of vicuna in Laguna de Pozuelos UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in Argentina. Vicuna did not use the study area homogeneously but preferred vegetation communities dominated by grasses (known locally as pajonal and esporal) and with high overall plant cover. Vicuna were less selective in 2003, when overall habitat quality decreased, than in 2002. This change is predicted by habitat selection theory. We also found that members of family groups spend more time foraging than members of non-reproductive groups. Solitary vicuna spend more time standing up than members of groups, consistent with the observation that herding behaviour is related to protection against predators. Heterogeneous use and habitat selectivity suggest that exploitation of vicuna needs to take spatial behaviour into account in the establishment of the optimal location of capturing sites. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: vicunas, animal behavior, foraging, grasslands, habitat selection, habitats, hunting, nature reserves, plant communities, population decrease, steppes, sustainability, vegetation types, wild animals, wildlife conservation, wildlife management, Argentina.

Ayala, J.; Lopez, M.; Chavez, J. Variability of vicuna fibre diameter in two protected natural areas of Peru. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: vicunas, male and females, fiber characteristics, phenotypic variability of mean, standard deviation and coeffiecient of variation of the fiber diameter, within and between populations, Sirolan Laserscan method, corrected for sex and age effects, 13.37 microns (NRPG), and 13.82 microns (NRSAB), effects of genetic variance, permanent environmental effects, National Reserve Pampa Galeras, National Reserve Salinas y Aguada Blanca (NRSAB).

Bonacic, C.; Feber, R.E.; Macdonald, D.W. Capture of the vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) for sustainable use: animal welfare implications. Biological Conservation. 2006; 129(4): 543-550. ISSN: 0006-3207
Abstract: The current program of vicuna conservation includes their live-capture for wool harvest in the Andes Region in northern Chile. Here, we describe studies that assess the impacts on the species of different variables relating to the capture process. The immediate physical and physiological effects on vicuna of contrasting capture methods, chase distances and restraint were measured. Comparisons between two methods of capture showed that cortisol concentrations were higher in animals herded using vehicles alone compared to those herded using a combination of vehicles and local people on foot. Blood glucose levels, heart rate and respiratory rate showed an immediate but ephemeral response to herding into a corral. The range of distances over which animals were herded caused less noticeable changes in blood and physical parameters. The most marked changes were associated with restraint, during which there were significant increases in creatine kinase, packed cell volume and rectal temperature. The implications of changes in these parameters on vicuna welfare and conservation are discussed.
Descriptors: vicunas, wildlife conservation, restraint, herding and moving herds, wool fiber producing animals, animal welfare, corralling, physiological responses to capture methods, body temperature, clinical examination, creatine kinase, glucose, heart rate, hydrocortisone, respiration, cortisol, creatine phosphokinase, dextrose, packed cell volume.

Cajal, Jorge L.; Tonni, Eduardo P. Re-wilding in South America: Is it possible?Mastozoologia Neotropical. 2006; 13(2): 281-282. ISSN: 0327-9383
Descriptors: guanacos, vicunas, horses, conservation policy, trophic structure, re-wilding animals, fauna conservation, Argentina.

D'Alterio, G.L.; Bazeley, K.J. Referral service for South American camelids at the University of Bristol Veterinary School: A review of cases from 1999 to 2002. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF601.I4
Descriptors: vicunas, llamas, alpacas, guanacos, veterinary medicine, clinical and surgical camelid cases, Farm Animal Practice & Hospital of the University of Bristol, Britain, UK.

d'Arc, Nadine Renaudeau. Linking community aims with vicuna conservation: A Bolivian case study.4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: vicunas, wildlife management, sustainable use, conservation policies, fiber harvesting, communal custodianship, capture and shearing events, size and boundaries of communal management areas, and internal dynamics of local communities, Andean region, South America.

De Simone, Emilio; Saccodossi, Natalia; Ferrari, Alejandro; Leoni,-Lucrecia; Leoni, Juliana. Immunochemical analysis of IgG subclasses and IgM in south American camelids.Small Ruminant Research. 2006; 64(1-2): 2-9. ISSN: 0921-4488
Abstract: Antibodies are glycoproteins comprising two heavy and two light chains. Surprisingly, all members of the family Camelidae possess a fraction of antibodies devoid of both light chains and the first constant domain (CH1). These kinds of antibodies are known as heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs). There are three subclasses of IgG in dromedaries, namely IgG(1), IgG(2) and IgG(3) Of which, IgG(2) and IgG(3) are of the HCAbs type. In the present work, the different IgG isotypes from guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama) and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) were purified and characterized. Interestingly, it was found that IgM was capable of binding to protein A. The different subclasses of immunoglobulins were also assayed for their ability to fix complement. Both IgG(1) and the total serum were able to fix complement, whereas IgG(2) and IgG(3) fixed complement even in the absence of antigen. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Descriptors: vicunas; guanacos; llamas; IgM immunoglobulin M G1, G2, and G3; immunologic techniques.

Di Rocco, Florencia; Parisi, Gustavo; Zambelli, Andres; Vida-Rioja, Lidia. Rapid evolution of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II in camelids (Tylopoda, Camelidae) Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes. 2006; 38(5-6): 293-297. ISSN: 0145-479X
Descriptors: new and old camelids,mitochondrial aerobic energy production, mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II, III, replacement of amino acids inferred, transmembrane helices of proteins, hot dry adaption for camels, high altitude cold hypoxic environment of the Andean region.

Dodd, C.S.; Rodriguez, J.; Hoces, D.; Rosadio, R.; Wheeler, J.C..; Bruford, M.W. Genetic diversity and management implications for vicuna populations in Peru. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: vicunas, 12 wild populations, demographically independent management units, genetic effect of past and future management strategies, Pampa Galeras reserve, blood and skin sampling, microsatellite DNA markers, heterozygosity values, should be 4 demographic units, North-western Junin, Southern Junin, Central Andes and Puno, free movement within localities, prevention of inbreeding and genetic drift, Peru.

Donadio, Emiliano; Buskirk, Steven W. Flight behavior in guanacos and vicunas in areas with and without poaching in western Argentina. Biological Conservation. 2006; 127(2): 139-145. ISSN: 0006-3207
Descriptors: wild South American camelids, guanacos, vicunas, effects on populations, flight behavior, surveys of 299 groups form a vehicle, flight distance, time of first flight, flight distance, species, groups size, presence or absence of juveniles, 70% ran where poaching was common, 30% when reserve without poaching, inside and outside preserves, poaching from roads common, recommend some road closures as conservation measure, Argentina.

Finucane, Brian; Agurto, Patricia Maita; Isbell, William H. Human and animal diet at Conchopata, Peru: stable isotope evidence for maize agriculture and animal management practices during the Middle Horizon. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2006; 33(12): 1766-1776. ISSN: 0305-4403
Descriptors: humans, plant species, alpacas, llamas, guanacos, vicunas, Avaia porcellus, maize, various grasses, nitrogen 15, delta C 13, analysis of skeletal remains, Middle Horizon period (AD550-1000) Conchopata, Peruvian highlands, animal management strategies, no sex differences in diet, Peru.

Gerken, M.; Renieri, C. [Editors]. South American Camelids Research, Volume 1. Proceedings of the 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids and DECAMA European seminar. Wageningen Academic Publishers. Wageningen, Netherlands: 2006; 308p. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF402.L35 E97 2004
Abstract: A series of papers on the current trends in reproduction, animal breeding, genetics, nutrition, health (including bacterial and parasitic infections) and fibre morphology of South American camelids, viz. llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is presented, including discussions on the potential of these camelids for meat production and commercialization in South America. The particular advantages of South American camelids for the sustainable use of fragile ecosystems with native pastures are outlined, and discussions on the interaction between wild and domestic species, management of alpaca populations outside South America and aspects of camelid health under European conditions are presented as well.
Descriptors: llamas, guanacos, vicunas, breeding, genetics, nutrition, bacterial diseases, bacterial infections, helminthoses, protozoal diseases, meat production, nature conservation, protozoal infections, reproduction, wildlife management, wool producing animals, South America.

Gunsser, I.; Haenichen, T.; Kiesling, C. Breeding and/or Handling Problems? Causes of Death in Camelids. In: M. Gerken and C. Renueri [Editors]. The 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07 -09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: 179 camelids; 63 alpacas; 5 guanacos; 1 guanaco-llama mix; 5 dromedary camels; 3 Bactrian camels; 1 vicuna; post mortem sampling; causes of death; most common problems: pulmonary edema; next most common: liver, digestive system, abdomen, endoparasites, chronic feeding mistakes; pathology of other organs: urinary tract, head, spleen, skin; degeneration of parenchymas, teeth problems, spleen reactions, mites or other infections; less frequent pathology of: genitals, neck, bones, limbs; general causes of death: infectious diseases (22.5%), euthanasia (17.1%), emaciation (9.5%), fatty degeneration of parenchyma (9.0%), diagnosis inconclusive (14.4%).

Jensen, J M. Camelid Drug Formulary. Published by Game Ranch Health. San Antonio, USA: 2006, 405 p. ISBN: 9781424312177
NAL call no.: SF916.5.J46 2006
Abstract: The book is divided into two main sections, the first dealing with South American Camelids (SAC), llama (Lama glama), alpaca (Lama pacos), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna), and the second with dromedaries (Camelus dromedaries) and Bactrian camels (C. bactrianus). The drugs are grouped in the book according to clinical application (for example, Analgesia, Anaesthesia, Gastrointestinal, Immunization, Reproductive, Vitamins-Minerals). The information consists of a table with five columns entitled Drug, Species, Dosage, Comments, and Reference. For example the information for penicillin in the Reproduction - SAC section is: Drug: penicillin, Species: SAC, Dosage: 22,000 mg/kg, SC, q24h for 3 treatments, Comments: prevention of uterine infection, References: Johnson, L. 1989 [the full references are listed at the end of each of the SAC and Camel sections]. This book will be extremely useful to all veterinarians who come across camelids in their work.
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, vicunas, guanacos, drug formulary, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, anti-infective agents, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-parasitic agents, drug therapy, gastrointestinal agents, pharmacology.

Laker, Jerry. Wildlife or livestock? Divergent paths for the vicuna as priorities change in the pursuit of sustainable development. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: vicuna, international conservation effort, pastoral altiplano communities, fiber harvesting, different models, live capture, shearing and release, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile.

Leotta, Gerardo A.; Deza, Natalia; Origlia, Javier; Toma, Claudia; Chinen, Isabel; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Iyoda, Sunao; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rivas, Marta. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in captive non-domestic mammals. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006; 118(1-2): 151-157. ISSN: 0378-1135
NAL call no.: SF601.V44
Descriptors: ruminants, goat, giraffe, Taurotragus oryx, eland, Antilope cervicapra, blackbuck antelope, Ovis musimon, mouflon sheep, Ovis aries somalicus, Somali sheep, Bos grunniensis, yak, Lama pacos, alpaca, Lama guanicoe, guanaco, Lama guanico glama, llama, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, capybara, Dolichotis patagonus, Patagonian cavy, Cervus elaphus, red deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, pampas deer, Axis axis, axis deer, Mazama gouazoubira, fallow deer, Dama dama, paint deer, Elaphrus davidianus (Coleoptera-), pere david deer, Escherichia coli, serovar-O12:H25, serovar-O13:H6, strain 25 strains, strain 27 strains, strain O146:H28, Shiga toxin producing-Escherichia coli, 7 different sero-types, testing fecal samples, PCR, Shiga toxin gene sequences, natural reservoir, frequency in non-domestic animals, zoo habitat, living in a pit, Zoo and Botanical Garden, La Plata City, Argentina.

Montes, M.C.; Carmanchahi, P.D.; Rey, A.; Funes, M.C. Live shearing free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in Patagonia for sustainable use. Journal of Arid Environments. 2006 Mar; 64(4): 616-625. ISSN: 0140-1963
Descriptors: Lama guanicoe, 55 guanacos (13 females, 38 males, and 4 calves) captured, live-sheared 30 animals, shearing, shearing machines, no mortalities, animal injuries, sustainable agriculture, applied and field techniques, mobile corral traps, trapping, field equipment, fleece weight of 307.15g for females and 338.12 g for males, population levels, management scheme, sheep ranching, overhunting, management implications, Patagonia, South America.

Parker, M.; Goodwin, D.; Redhead, E.; Mitchell, H. The effectiveness of environmental enrichment on reducing stereotypic behaviour in two captive vicugna (Vicugna vicugna). Animal welfare. 2006 Feb; 15(1): 59-62. ISSN: 0962-7286
NAL call no.: HV4701.A557
Abstract: Environmental enrichment by increasing foraging behaviour and providing food item choice are widely practised and generally accepted as effective methods for reducing stereotypic behaviour in captive animals. In this study, the effectiveness of increasing foraging patch choice and food item choice on reducing motor stereotypy in two captive vicugna were examined. For the purposes of the study, first, browse was added to the vicugna's enclosure as an additional forage item and, second, the vicugna's normal feed was divided: half being provided in the indoor quarters and half in the outdoor yard. The results revealed that providing browse as an additional forage item increased the observed stereotypic behaviour; however, dividing the vicugna's feed, and therefore increasing forage patch choice, decreased stereotypy. This study was limited because of the small sample size and because the area in which the vicugna were performing stereotypic behaviour was partially visually obscured. However, this study has implications for animal welfare because it highlights the need to evaluate the suitability of foraging enrichment items, and suggests that more research into accommodating the adaptive foraging behaviour of this species in captivity may be necessary. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: vicunas, stereotyped behavior, zoo animals, foraging, browsing, animal welfare.

Rosati, Victoria R. Seleccion de Dieta de Mamiferos Herbivoros Silvestres de Regiones Aridas y Semiaridas. [Diet Selection of Wild Herbivore Mammals in Arid and Semi-arid Regions.] Cid M.S.; Bonino N.; Cassini M.; Anchorena J.; DeSbriller A.P.; Arriaga M. [Editors]Macn-Museo Argentino Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 2006. ISSN: 1666-5503. ISBN: 9879640837. Note: In Spanish.
Descriptors: vicunas, guanacos, Pediolagus salinicola, Mazama gouazoubira, Lagostomus maximus, Ctenomys opimus, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, Lepus europaeus, semi-arid zones, diet selection of wild herbivores, South America.

Sacchero, D.; Maurino, M.J.; Lanari, M.R. Diferencias de calidad y proporcion de down en muestras individuales de vellones de guanaco (Lama guanicoe) en distintas ecoregiones de Argentina. [Differences on quality and proportion of down in individual fleece samples of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) from different ecoregions of Argentina.] Revista Argentina de Produccion Animal. 2006; 26(3): 211-216. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
Descriptors: guanacos, animal fibers, fiber quality, fiber diameter, fleece quality, down levels, individual variance in fiber quality, Argentina.

Schmidt, C.R. The European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) for vicunas. 4th European Symposium on South American Camelids/DECAMA European Seminar, Gottingen, Germany; October 07-09, 2004. 2006. ISBN: 9076998981
NAL call no.: SF401.L35 E97 2004
Descriptors: vicunas, International Studbook, includes all purebred outside 4 native countries since 1945, history of introductions, numbers of animals introduced at various times, 2002 had 163 animals in 34 European collections and 1 US collection, all from a Southern subspecies Lama v. vicugna, duplicating normal behaviors, gender pairings, bachelor groups, birthing season, Peru, Argentina, Bolivia.

Tibary, A.; Parish, S.M. [Editors] South American camelids.Small Ruminant Research.The Journal of the International Goat Association. 2006; 61(2/3): 221 pp
NAL call no.: SF380.I52
Descriptors: alpacas, guanacos, Lama guanicoe, llamas, vicunas, etiology, anesthesia, anesthetics, analgesics, breeding, reproduction, diseases, feeding, nutrition, fibers, fleeces, wool production, genetics, disease diagnosis, immunity, immunology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, surgery, therapy.

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Aba , M.A.; Miragaya, M.H.; Chaves, M.G.; Capdevielle, E.F.; Rutter, B.; Aguero, A.   Effect of exogenous progesterone and eCG treatment on ovarian follicular dynamics in vicunas (Vicugna vicugna)Animal Reproduction Science.  2005; 86(1-2): 153-161.  ISSN:  0378-4320.
NAL call no.: QP251.A5
Abstract: The aim of the present study was two-fold. First, to evaluate the effect of exogenous progesterone on ovarian follicular dynamics in order to assess its ability to synchronize ovarian activity in the vicuna. Secondly, to evaluate the ovarian response to the treatment with eCG through the observation of the structures developed in the ovaries. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography in 12 adult, non-pregnant vicunas. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 beta concentrations were measured in blood samples collected daily. In experiment 1, intravaginal devices containing 0.33 g of progesterone were inserted into the vagina and kept in place for 5 days (treatment group, n=8). After progesterone withdrawal, five animals were further monitored in order to evaluate the efficacy of the CIDRReg. to synchronize the emergence of a dominant follicle. In experiment 2, four females received 750 IU of eCG IM. Two were previously monitored ultrasonographically to confirm the absence of a dominant follicle at the beginning of the superstimulatory treatment (group A). The other two animals had a CIDRReg. inserted into the vagina for 5 days and the superstimulatory treatment was applied 24 h after device withdrawal (group B). Females from both groups were surgically explored 96 h after eCG injection; the ovaries were exposed and the number of newly formed structures produced by each ovary was counted. Peak progesterone concentrations (25.9+or-5.29 nmol l-1, mean+or-S.E.M.) were attained on day 1 after device insertion, remained high until the day of device withdrawal (9.7+or-1.98 nmol l-1) and decreased to 5.5+or-1.13 nmol l-1 the day after. There was no follicle development to the state of dominance after device insertion. Moreover, mean follicle diameter steadily decreased after insertion of the device until the minimum mean value (1.85+or-0.17 mm) was recorded on day 5 (P=0.006). Similarly, plasma concentrations of estradiol-17 beta remained below 35 pmol l-1 during the period of progesterone treatment in all animals and the mean estradiol-17 beta declined with the lowest value (22.1+or-2.19 pmol l-1) being recorded on day 4 after device insertion. After superstimulation of follicular development with eCG, the total number of follicles that developed was 33 in group A and 58 in group B and the mean number of newly developed ovarian structures per female was 22.75+or-4.26. In conclusion, progesterone released by the CIDRReg. exerts a negative effect on ovarian follicular development and function suggesting intravaginal devices could be used to synchronize the beginning of follicular waves during a superstimulatory treatment. There was also a tendency for greater ovarian follicular development when the animals were previously treated with progesterone.
Descriptors: 12 adult non-pregnant females vicunas, follicular dynamics, exogenous progesterone, testing ability for synchronize ovarian activity, response to eCG treatment, trans-rectal ultrasonography, plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 beta concentrations monitored, CIDR® inserted vaginally, effects of various treatments, possibilities for synchronization.

Bruford, M.W. Molecular approaches to understanding animal domestication: what have we learned so far? World Poultry Science Association, 4 th European Poultry Genetics Symposium, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 6-8-October, 2005. 2005; No.10.
Descriptors: livestock, llamas, vicunas,buffalo, cattle, sheep, donkeys, asses, goats, guinea pigs, dogs, domestic animal ancestors, animal genetic resources, domestic animals, animal domestication, genetic analysis, genetic diversity, history, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics.

Chavez Velasquez, A.; Alvarez Garcia, G.; Gomez Bautista, A.; Casas Astos, E.; Serrano Martinez, E.; Ortega Mora, L.M. Toxoplasma gondii infection in adult llamas (Lama glama) and vicunas (Vicugna vicugna) in the Peruvian Andean region.  Veterinary Parasitology.  2005; 130(1-2): 93-97.  ISSN:  0304-4017.
NAL call no.:  SF810.4.V4
Descriptors:  43 adult llamas, 200 vicunas, Toxoplasma gondii, serum samples, IFAT to detect titers, western blot, first recorded detection, Peru.

Field, C.; Rushton, J.; Viscarra, R.; Urquieta, B.; Salem, H.B. African camels and South American camelids. In: E. Owen; A. Kitalyi; N. Jayasuriya; T. Smith [Editors] Livestock and Wealth Creation: Improving the Husbandry of Animals Kept by Resource Poor People in Developing Countries. 2005; 411-432. ISBN: 1904761321
NAL call no.: SF55.D44 L56 2005
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas, meat production animals, animal diseases, animal feeding, animal health, animal physiology, animal products, geographical distribution, metabolism, milk-production, reproduction, Africa, South America.

Galaz-Leigh, J.L. El futuro de la explotacion de la Vicuna. [The future of the exploitation of vicunas.]Chile Forestal. 2005; (315): 22-25. ISSN: 0716-1190 Note: In Spanish.
Abstract: The vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) is a rare species of the camel family that is related to the llama and is found only in the high Andes. It is exploited for its wool. This article discusses the future of the species in Chile, where it has been protected and managed for 30 years. The discussion is with reference to proposals for management of the animal for the commercialization of its wool in the Region of Tarapaca, under the aegis of the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAGRI) and CONAF. These bodies have put forward various strategic plans of action for the conservation and management of the species, both in the wild and in captivity and these are outlined, along with analyses of the market and demand for the animalAEs wool.
Descriptors: vicunas, wild animals, fiber producing animals, wool animal production, wildlife conservation, wildlife management, Chile.

Izeta, Andres D. South American camelid bone structural density: what are we measuring? Comments on data sets, values, their interpretation and application. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2005; 32(8): 1159-1168. ISSN: 0305-4403
Descriptors: llamas, vicunas, guanacos, bone density sets, five archaeofaunal assemblages, Formative Period archaeological sites, southern Calchaquies valleys, Catamarca, Argentina.

Sacchero, D.M.; Mueller, J.P. Determinacion de calidad de vellones de doble cobertura tomando el vellon de vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) como ejemplo.[Determination of quality of fleeces with heterogeneous fibers taking the vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) fleece as an example.]RIA, Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias. 2005; 34(2): 143-159. ISSN: 0325-8718. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
Abstract: A method for the determination of clean down yield and quality (mean fiber diameter and distribution of down fibers) in fleece samples with heterogeneous fibers without its separation is described. The method is based on clean yield determination followed by subsampling using the Minicore equipment and automatic measurement of fiber diameter of a large number of fibers using the Laserscan equipment. Applying the criterion that down fibers have a fiber diameter equal or below 30 micro and hair fibers above that value and using the resulting mean fiber diameter, standard deviation and density of both types of fibers in the Wildman formula it is possible to determine down yield accurately and quickly. Predicted down yield in vicuna fleece samples with known yield adjusted to 99%, independently of density of fibers assumed. Predictions which consider fiber length did not improve the adjustment. The method is proposed for routine analyses of South American Camelid individual fleece samples.
Descriptors: vicunas, analytical methods, animal fibers, diameter, equipment, fleece, wool, wool producing-animals, analytical techniques, animal fibers.

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Al Ani, F.K.  Classification and breeds.  In:  Camel: Management and Diseases.  Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.  2004; 61-68.
Descriptors: alpacas, guancos, llamas, vicunas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, taxonomy, draft animals, riding animals, dual purpose animals, hybrids, breeds, adaptation, anatomy, physiology, milk and meat production. 

Al Ani, F.K.  Domestication, distribution and population.  In:  Camel: Management and Diseases. 2004; 1-24.  Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.
Descriptors: llamas, vicunas, dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, domestication, geographical distribution, livestock numbers, population dynamics, Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates. 

Al Ani, F.K.; Ababneh, M.M.   South American camelids (SAC).  In:  Camel: Management and Diseases.  Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.   2004; 121-136.
Descriptors:  alpacas, guancos, llamas, vicunas, draft animals, riding animals, breeding, crossbreeding, diseases, husbandry, hematology, meat and milk production, reproduction, pregnancy diagnosis, parturition, physiology, surgery, wool producing animals, South America.

Cafrune, M.M.; Aguirre, D.H.; Freytes, I.   Fasciolosis en vicunas (Vicugna vicugna) en semi-cautiverio de Molinos, Salta, Argentina, con no tas de otros helmintos en este hospedador.  [Fasciolosis in semi-captive vicunas (Vicugna vicugna) from Molinos, Salta, Argentina, with notes of other helminths on this host.]  Veterinaria Argentina.  2004; 21(207): 513-520.  ISSN:  0326-4629.  Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
NAL call no.:  41.8 G112
Descriptors: semi-captive vicunas, liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica, Trichuris sp., concurrent infections, diagnosis, disease prevalence and control, fascioliasis, infectivity, outbreaks, consecutive treatments with closantel and triclabendazole, probable source of flukes, Molinos, S alta Province, Argentina.

Campero, J.R. Lama (Lama glama L.) and Guanaco (Lama guanicoe M.): general perspective. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 11-18. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.
Abstract: The highlands of South America form a special ecosystem with an important biodiversity. Since 4 000 or 5 000 years ago, two species of domesticated camelids have developed in this region: the llama and the alpaca, as well as two non-domesticated ones, the guanaco and the vicuna. During the Incas period, these genetic resources played an important role in the development of this ancient culture, but the protagonistic role of Camelids ended abruptly with the Spanish conquest of that South American region five centuries ago. The Spaniards initiated their colonization with the systematic elimination of the camelids and replaced them with their own domestic species, principally sheep and cattle. Along with the Spanish conquest, the mines period begins in these highlands as well; the mines' development requested not only an important quantity of camelids' meat, vegetables and natural energy but also large llama caravans, in order to transport the mines products from highlands to the coast. However, the pastoral communities in those high-risk environments have played a major role in conserving the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuna species. The mining activity along with human pressure on the fragile ecosystem resulted not only in an important loss of biodiversity but also, and most importantly, in the reproduction of poverty. Consequently, today like five centuries ago, the highlands of South America are characterized by three elements: poverty, soils of low quality and camelids. And it is through these elements that they try to resolve their main problem, that is poverty. The analysis of market trends, the review of the historical context of the use of native breeds, and the efforts of highlands people suggest that the rational use of South American Camelids, both domestic and wild ones, can be an economic alternative in many production systems in the South American highlands, on the condition that the regional governments in co-operation with the producers are able to find new markets with fair prices and improve the quality of camelids' products. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, vicunas, guanacos, animal production, biodiversity, ecosystems, socioeconomics, socioeconomic aspects, South America.

Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors]. Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 163 pp. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
Abstract: This proceedings contains 14 conference papers on the breeding, handling systems and milk, meat and fibre production of Bactrian and dromedary camels, llamas, guanacos, alpacas and vicunas in Asia, Africa, Arab Gulf countries and South America. Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, guanacos, llamas, vicunas, fiber producing animals, animal breeding, animal fibers; meat production, milk production, wool production, Africa, Arab Countries, Asia, South America.

Mate, M.L.; Di Rocco, F.; Zambelli, A.; Vidal-Rioja, L.   Mitochondrial DNA structure and organization of the control region of South American camelids.  Molecular Ecology Notes.  2004; 4(4): 765-767.  ISSN:  1471-8278.
NAL call no.:  QH541.15.M632
Descriptors: llamas, alpacas, vicunas, guanaco, mitochrondrial DNA molecular organization of control region, conserved sequence blocks, potential as a molecular marker to infer data for camelid genetic relationships, population diversity tool.

Medina , Mirta A.; Fernandez, Francisco; Saad, Silvia; Rebuffi, Gustavo; Yapur, Jose.  Inmunoglobulinas G de Cadenas pesadas en la leche de los camelidos sudamericanos.  [Heavy-chain IgG in the milk of South American camelids.]  Mastozoologia Neotropical.  2004; 11(1): 19-26.  ISSN:  0327-9383.  Note: In Spanish with an English and Spanish summary.
Descriptors:  camelids, llama, vicuna, alpaca, guanacos, conventional IgG, IgG with two heavy chains, identify types of IgG in milk, PAGE-SDS, immunoblotting, immunoblotting assays, both types of IgG found.

Middleton, J.R.  Haematology of South American camelidae.  In:  Selected Research on Camelid Physiology and Nutrition.  The Camelid Publishers, Bakaner, India.  2004: 400-408.  ISBN:  8190114123.
NAL call no.:  SF401.C2S46 2004
Descriptors:  Bactrian camels, alpacas, vicunas, guanacos, llamas, blood chemistry, blood disorders, hematocrit, anemia, blood cells morphology, basophiles, bone marrow, dissolved oxygen, eosinophilia, eosinophils, erythrocyte count, erythrocytes, erythropoietin, transferring, hematology, hemoglobin, iron deficiency anemia, leukocyte count, lymphocytes, monocytes, morphology, neutrophils, normal values, platelets, South America.

Miragaya, M.H.; Aba, M.A.; Capdevielle, E.F.; Ferrer, M.S.; Chaves, M.G.; Rutter, B.; Aguero, A. Follicular activity and hormonal secretory profile in vicuna (Vicugna vicugna).   Theriogenology.  2004 Feb.; 61(4): 663-671.  ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL call no.: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to characterize ovarian activity in non-mated vicunas, relating ovarian structures (evaluated by transrectal ultrasonography, daily for 30 days) to changes in plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta and progesterone. Ovarian follicular activity occurred in waves, characterized by the follicle emergence, growth and regression. The mean duration of follicular waves was 7.2 +/- 0.5 days (mean +/- S.E.M.), with a range of 4-11 days. The follicular growth phase averaged 3.0 +/- 0.2 days, the static phase 1.4 +/- 0.1, the regression phase 2.9 +/- 0.3 days, and the inter-wave interval was 4.2 +/- 0.3 days. The mean growth rate during the growing phase was 1.8 +/- 0.1 mm/day, while the duration of the interval from 6 mm to maximum diameter was 1.4 +/- 0.1 days. The mean maximum diameter of the dominant follicle was 8.4 +/- 0.3 mm (range: 6.2-11.2) and mean diameter of the largest subordinate follicle was 5.4 +/- 0.1 mm. There was an inverse relationship between the size of the largest follicle and the total number of follicles (r = -0.21, P = 0.002). Follicle activity alternated between ovaries in 77% of the waves, with 40% of dominant follicles present in the left ovary and 60% in the right ovary. Plasma estradiol-17beta concentrations also had a wave-like pattern, varying between 12.0 and 62.8 pmol/l. Plasma progesterone concentrations remained below 5.0 nmol/l and there was no ultrasonographic evidence of ovulation during the study.
Descriptors: vicunas, Vicugna vicugna, ovarian follicles, follicular development, diameter, hormones, secretary profile.

Otazu, D.A. Alpaca and vicuna: general perspectives. In: Cardellino, R.; Rosati, A; Mosconi, C. [Editors] ICAR Technical Series. 2004; (11): 31-36. ISSN: 1563-2504. ISBN: 9295014065. Note: conference proceedings: “Current Status of Genetic Resources, Recording and Production Systems in African, Asian and American Camelids, Sousse, Tunisia, 30 May 2004.”
Abstract: In the landscapes of the high plains at over 4 000 meters above sea level, thousands of years ago the Incas domesticated two species of the South American camelids: Alpaca and Llama, using techniques that are a mystery to these days. The first one would later be used as a source of soft, fine and resistant fibre and the second one as a mean of transportation. From the two species that continued being wild: Guanaco and especially Vicuna, a fantastic and very fine fibre was obtained, which was reserved only for nobility. Its threads were mixed with gold threads to create varied work of art. It was the fibre of the gods. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: alpacas, llamas, guanacos, vicunas, animal fibers, fiber quality, wool producing animals.

Otazu, D.A. Production and handling systems of alpaca and vicunas. In: Cardellino, R.;

Pacheco, L.F.; Lucero, A.; Villca, M. Dieta del puma (Puma concolor) en el Parque Nacional Sajama, Bolivia y su conflicto con la ganaderia.[Diet of the puma (Puma concolor) in Sajama National Park, Bolivia and its conflict with livestock.] Ecologia en Bolivia. 2004; 39(1): 75-83. ISSN: 1605-2528. Note: In Spanish with an English summary.
Abstract: Based on a sample of 53 faeces, the diet of Puma concolor [Felis concolor] was studied in a protected area of the Bolivian altiplano. The largest contribution to the diet in number of preys came from medium and small rodents (98%), but camelids made up the main contribution in biomass (53%), corresponding little more than half to domestic species and the rest to Vicugna vicugna. Our results disagree with the hypothesis that pumas feed mainly on those prey most available in its environment, because it seems to prefer vicunas over livestock. However, our estimate of the quantity of livestock consumed suggests that a program of control of puma predation should be started urgently, to avoid larger management problems between the protected area's administration and local inhabitants. Reproduced with permission of CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: vicunas, livestock, rodents, carnivore prey, fecal sampling of Puma concolor, puma diet, livestock predation, vicuna predation, predator control, national parks, Bolivia.

Sahley, C.; Torres, J.; Sanchez, J. Neoliberalism meets pre-Columbian tradition: campesino communities and vicuna management in Andean Peru. Culture and Agriculture. 2004; 26(1/2): 60-68. ISSN: 1048-4876
Abstract: This paper first presents a brief history of vicuna conservation efforts in Andean Peru, and then focuses on tracing legal, biological, and social developments from the mid-1990s to the present. It also points out the importance of the vicuna as an ancient, as well as current, symbolic or archetypal species for Andean communities, and the importance of the human-vicuna interaction for the conservation of the vicuna. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for enhancing the conservation prospects for the vicuna. The paper places special emphasis on the importance of conserving the vicuna as a wild mammal, and argues that legislation to conserve it should prioritize the species' biological needs as well as the needs of Andean campesino communities whose land they inhabit. It is argued that because vicunas are a wild species, legislation should not address them as if they were domestic livestock, even though they now form part of Andean communities' livelihood strategies and "livestock portfolio". Reproduced with permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: vicunas, wild wool-producing animals, wildlife conservation, wildlife management, rural Andean communicates, livelihood strategies, livestock management, Peru.

Sarno, Ronald J.; Villalba, Lilian; Bonacic, Cristian; Gonzalez, Benito; Zapata, Beatriz; Mac Donald, David W.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.  Phylogeography and subspecies assessment of vicunas in Chile and Bolivia utilizing mtDNA and microsatellite markers: Implications for vicuna conservation and management.  Conservation Genetics.  2004; 5(1): 89-102.  ISSN:  1566-0621. 
Descriptors: wild vicunas, semi-captivity in Peru, economic utilization, large scale rearing practices in Argentina, Bolivia and Chile, impact of systems on various aspects of the animals, distribution and validity of recognized subspecies, molecular genetic variation and diversity, restrict gene flow with isolation and distance, ensure gene flow in intensive rearing.

Wernery, U.; Kaaden, O.R.   Foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a reviewVeterinary Journal.  2004; 168(2): 134-142.  ISSN:  1090-0233.
NAL call no.:  SF601.V484
Descriptors: South American camelids, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, foot and mouth diseases, infectability, disease transmission risks, dromedaries may contact the disease in experimental infection and close contact with infected animals, camels not FMDV carriers, llamas and alpacas infected by direct contact, not very susceptible and no risk of transmitting to susceptible species, Bactrians have similar lesions, but no samples have been positive, recommend further research in camelids.


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