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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Old World Camels: Arabian and Bactrian 2004-2009  / Arabian - Anatomy  Printer Friendly Page
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Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Arabian - Anatomy

2008

Kassab, A. The normal anatomical, radiographical and ultrasonographic appearance of the carpal region of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia Journal of the World Association of Veterinary Anatomists. 2008 Feb; 37(1): 24-29. ISSN: 0340-2096
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/issuelist.asp?journal=ahe
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2007.00790.x
NAL call no: SF761 .Z4
Abstract: The macroscopic, radiographic and ultrasonographic anatomy of the carpal region of eight clinically normal camels (Camelus dromedarius) was determined with the help of a 7.5-MHz linear transducer. At the dorsal aspect of the carpus and distal radius, the extensor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis and extensor digitorum lateralis tendons were easily identified. The ulnaris lateralis tendon was observed laterally. The extensor carpi obliqus tendon was identified with difficulty. At the palmar aspect, the flexor carpi radialis, the flexor digitorum superficialis and the flexor digitorum profundus tendons were observed. Other soft structures examined include the lateral collateral ligament and the medial collateral ligament. Ultrasonographic findings correlated with gross anatomy in the dissected limbs. The results of the present study serve as reference data for ultrasonographic investigation of disorders of camel carpus.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, normal camels, anatomical structure, carpal region, macroscopic anatomy, radiography, ultrasonography, tendons, muscles, ligaments, reference data.

2007

Abou el Ella, AG. Ultrasonographic images of the clinically normal mammary gland in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius). Veterinary Medical Journal Giza. 2007; 55(1): 87-99. ISSN: 1110-1423. In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: The ultrasonographic images of clinically normal mammary glands of 14 one-humped she-camels were recorded using 5.0 and 7.5 MHz linear transducer. The obtained results were confirmed through dissection of three mammary gland samples obtained freshly from the slaughterhouse. The glandular parenchyma of the udder of non-lactating she-camels appeared uniformly hyperechoic than that of the lactating one. At the base of each quarter two distinct gland cisterns were seen shared, a common hyperechoic wall, while the cistern cavity appeared anechoic because of presence of milk. The teat wall was differentiated into four ultrasonographic layers. Each teat possessed two separate anechoic teat cistern separated with a hyperechoic connective tissue band and communicated with the outside of the teat with a separate streak canal, which appeared as a thin, hyperechoic line. We can conclude that ultrasonographic imaging of the mammary gland in one-humped camels is a noninvasive imaging technique which can be performed in both standing and recumbent positions. The teats of one-humped she camels possess only two cisterns and two separate streak canals like other Camelidae species. Moreover, the normal ultrasonographic pattern of the mammary gland will be helpful for further studies dealing with diagnosis of different mammary gland diseased conditions. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, mammary glands diseases, morphology, teats, ultrasonography.

Abshenas, J; Vosough, D; Masoudifard, M; Molai, MM. B-mode ultrasonography of the udder and teat in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. 2007; 62(2): 27-31. ISSN: 1022-646X. Note: In English with a Persian summary.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine the normal ultrasonographic features of the mammary gland and teats of lactating camels. Udders of ten camels were obtained from a local slaughterhouse. B-mode ultrasonographic examination of the udders in water bath by 6.5-8.5 MHz linear array transducer was performed. Normal sonographic findings were described and teat canal length, teat end width, teat wall thickness, teat cistern width and middle cistern wall thickness were also measured. Results were analysed by Paired sample t-test. In lactating camels, the streak canal, teat sinus, gland sinus and lactiferous ducts were imaged easily. The teat wall can be divided into 3 layers, including a hyperechoic outer layer, a hypoechoic thicker middle layer and a less hyperechoic inner layer. The intercisternal wall of each teat can be divided into 3 layers: two thin hyperechoic outer layers and a thicker hypoechoic middle layer. The B-mode ultrasonography technique is reliable for determining the anatomic features of the udder and measuring teat parameters of camels.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, anatomy, diagnostic techniques, lactation, mammary glands, udders, teats, ultrasonography, normal values.

Ali, AM; Al Thnaian, TA. Preservation of ruminant and equine anatomical specimens by silicone plastination. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University Basic and Applied Sciences. 2007; 8(1): 111-119. ISSN: 1658-0311. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: Plastination is a method of preserving biological specimens by replacing the tissue water and lipid with a curable plastic polymer. In this study this technique was used to preserve gross specimens from sheep, ox, horse and camel. The specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, dehydrated in cold -25 degrees C acetone and impregnated with silicone at -25 degrees C under vacuum. The final step involved drainage of excess fluids and exposure of specimens to the curing agent (BiodourTM S6). The plastinated specimens obtained by this method were dry, durable, non-toxic, odourless and could be stored at room temperature. Reproduced with permission from CAB.
Descriptors: cattle, dromedaries, horses, sheep, body components preservation, animal anatomy, morphology, tissue preservation techniques, plastination techniques.

Altunay, H. Fine structure of the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris in the camel. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin—Journal der Weltvereinigung der-Veterinaranatomen Reihe C Anatomia-Histologia Embryologia : . 2007 Apr; 36(2): 116-120. ISSN: 0340-2096
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/issuelist.asp?journal=ahe
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2006.00736.x
NAL call no: SF761.Z4
Abstract: The morphology of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and closely associated Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy in the camel (Camelus dromedarius). The study showed that RPE is composed of a single layer of hexanocuboidal cells that were joined laterally by a series of apically located tight junctions. In addition, adjacent from internal side of cell membrane at the level of tight junctions, an undefined structure which resembled the myofibrillar organization of skeletal muscles in appearance was located. These cells displayed numerous short basal infoldings and abundant thin apical processes which enclosed the rod outer segments. The epithelial cell nuclei were large, vesicular and eccentrically located. Within the epithelial cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum was very abundant, while rough endoplasmic reticulum was present only in small amounts. Polysomes were also numerous and the mitochondria often displayed a ring-shaped structure. Lipofuscin granules were plentiful in all locations. Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) was typically pentalaminate throughout the retina. The endothelium of the choriocapillaris facing Bruch's membrane was extremely thin and heavily fenestrated. These fenestrations displayed typical single-layered diaphragm as noted in most species.
Descriptors: dromedarycamel eye, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch's membrane, choriocapillaris, light and transmission electron microscopy.

Aly, KH. Development of the mesonephros in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin Journal der Weltvereinigung der Veterinaranatomen Reihe C Anatomia Histologia Embryologia: 2007 Feb; 36(1): 58-61. ISSN: 0340-2096
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/issuelist.asp?journal=ahe
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2006.00724.x
NAL call no: SF761.Z4
Abstract: The study of the development of the mesonephros in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) was carried out on 16 embryos ranging from 0.9 to 8.6 cm crown vertebral rump length (CVRL). At 0.9 cm CVRL, the mesonephros is represented by a narrow strip along the roof of the thoracolumbar part of the vertebral column. At 1.4 cm CVRL, some of the mesonephric tubules are canalized but others are still solid. The mesonephric corpuscles are well developed at 1.9 cm CVRL and occupy almost the entire abdominal cavity in between the liver and the gut. Histologically, the glomeruli occupy the ventromedial aspect of the mesonephros while the mesonephric tubules become numerous, larger and more coiled. At 3 cm CVRL, the metanephros is invaginated in the caudal pole of the mesonephros, and the mesonephric tubules in some areas are differentiated into secretory and collecting tubules. At 3.5 cm CVRL the mesonephros is related dorsally to the postcardinal vein and ventrally to the subcardinal vein. At 4.7 cm CVRL continuous regression of the mesonephros from cranialwards to caudalwards is observed. At 5.3-5.5 cm CVRL, the cranial part of the mesonephros is divided into medial and lateral regions, and later the medial region completely disappears and is replaced by the primordium of the adrenal gland. At 8.6 cm CVRL, the caudal part of the mesonephros completely disappears.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, mesonephros development, mesonephric tubles, structure and description, invagination, caudal pole, postcardinal vein, etc.

Elmonem, MEA; Mohamed, SA; Aly, KH. Early embryonic development of the camel lumbar spinal cord segment. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin Journal der Weltvereinigung der Veterinaranatomen Reihe C Anatomia Histologia Embryologia: 2007 Feb; 36(1): 43-46. ISSN: 0340-2096
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/issuelist.asp?journal=ahe
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2006.00716.x
NAL call no: SF761.Z4
Abstract: The lumbar spinal cord segment of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) embryos at 2.4- to 28-cm crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) was examined. Major changes are occurring in the organization of the lumbar spinal cord segment at this early developmental period. At first, the spinal cord is flattened from side to side but with increase in gestational age it becomes flattened dorsoventrally. The size and shape of the lumen changes in indifferent stage of development. These changes may be in relation to the decrease of ependymal layer and increase of the mantel layer during the developmental stages. The lumen of the spinal cord is a wide spindle in shape at 2.4-cm CVRL, diamond in shape at 5.5-cm CVRL and narrow oval in shape at 28-cm CVRL. It occupies about the whole, half and one-seventh of the total height of the spinal cord at 2.4-, 5.5- and 28-cm CVRL, respectively. At the 2.4-2.7 CVRL, the spinal cord is formed of six plates: roof, floor, two alar and two basal plates. The present investigation indicates that the distribution of the ependymal, mantle and marginal layers differs in the various developmental stages of the camel embryos. The majority of the cross section of the spinal cord consists at first of ependymal and mantle layers, and a thin outer rim of the marginal layer. With the advancement of age, the ependymal layer diminishes in size, while the mantle and marginal layers increase in size forming the future grey and white matters, respectively.
Descriptors: camels, embryos, crown vertebral rump length, spinal cord development, lumen, ependymal, mantle and marginal layers, growth, brain grey and white matter development.

Erden, H; Turan, E; Kara, ME. The course of the interventricular coronary arteries and myocardial bridges in one-humped camel. Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi Istanbul. 2006; 32(3): 1-6. ISSN: 0250-2836. Note: In English with a Turkish summary.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the myocardial bridges (MCB) in one-humped camels. The hearts of 17 male wrestler one-humped camels were grouped into three according to the relationship between the course of the interventricular branches of the coronary arteries and MCB formations. MCBs were found in 6 hearts (35.29%) and were on the right and left side in one (5.88%) and 5 hearts (29.41%), respectively. The MCB widths were measured by micrometric calibre and the values were found was between 7-15 mm. These results show that both the course of the interventricular branches of the coronary arteries and the localization and existence of MCBs varying from one individual to another in camels. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camel anatomy, heart, cardiac muscle, arteries, morphology, morphometrics, myocardium.

Jain, RK; Gupta, AN. Topographic relations between the spinal cord segments and vertebrae in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Haryana Veterinarian. 2007; 46: 19-21. ISSN: 0033-4359
Abstract: Bilateral retro caudal measurements of the spinal cord segments and their relations with the corresponding vertebrae were recorded in six dromedary camels. The segment length in the cervical region rapidly increased from C< sub>1</ sub> to C< sub>5</ sub> followed by a sharp decrease in length till T< sub>1</ sub>. Thereafter, the length of all the segments remained approximately constant till T< sub>12</ sub>. The lumbar region showed a remarkable decrease in the segment length from L< sub>1</ sub> to L< sub>7</ sub> followed by a gradual decrease from L< sub>7</ sub> till the termination of the spinal cord at fifth coccygeal vertebra. The transverse and vertical diameters of the spinal cord were variable through out the length. The number of rootlets was directly proportional to the transverse diameter of the spinal cord. The relations between the spinal cord segments and the body, spinous processes and the transverse processes were also recorded. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, animal anatomy, body structure, spinal cord measurements.

Makhdoomi, DM; Shakeel Ahmad; Kirmani, MA; Banik, S; Sheikh, GN. Physico-anatomical characteristics of Bactrian versus dromedary with special reference to Ladakh bactrian. In: Gahlot, TK (Editor). Proceedings of the International Camel Conference-"Recent Trends in Camelids Research and Future Strategies for Saving Camels", Rajasthan, India, 16-17 February 2007. 2007; 166-167.
Abstract: The Bactrian of Ladakh is believed to be originated from those amongst the Bactrian of China and Mongolia. At a high altitude it got acclimatised to the environment where low oxygen tension and ambient temperatures are the main stress factors for human life to the extent that it became resistant to high altitude diseases. Accordingly the physiological and anatomical features differ from the Bactrian of Mongolia, China and dromedary camel. The paper aims to put on the record some of the physico-anatomical characteristics of Ladakh Bactrian and their comparison with the dromedary camel. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: LadakhBactrian camels, Bactrian camels, dromedary camels, species origins, species comparison,animal anatomy, morphology, species differences.

Patel, MK; Parnerkar, S; Wadhwani, KN; Patel, KS; Solanki, JV; Patel, AM. Breed characteristics of Kachchhi camel. In: TK Gahlot (Editor). Proceedings of the International Camel Conference "Recent Trends in Camelids Research and Future Strategies for Saving Camels", Rajasthan, India, 16-17 February 2007. 2007; 51-54.
Abstract: 34 villages comprising of 74 camel herds of three major thickly populated talukas of Kachchhi districts viz. Lakhpat, Bhuj and Raper surveyed for 3 consecutive seasons from March to December on 326 Kachchhi camels of different age groups to study breed characteristics of Kachchhi camel. The Kachchhi camels were light to medium in size with dark brown or reddish brown coat colour. These camels have small erect ears with tips turning in. The camel have small and wide set muzzles and lips. Adult she camels has capacious bowl type udder and medium sized cylindrical teats. The average length of body, height at withers and heart girth was observed to be 61.17+or-1.32, 11.42+or-1.35 and 76.92+or-2.81 cm in male and 61.46+or-1.01, 109.15+or-1.13 and 72.77+or-1.58 cm in female, respectively at birth. The corresponding measurements in adult were 159.82+or-2.10, 195.00+or-3.55 and 195.93+or-2.11 cm in male and 156.15+or-0.78, 192.18+or-0.77 and 204.75+or-10.77 cm in female, respectively. The height at wither in adult camel was found to be a reliable measure for growth from its association with important body measurements. The head length at adulthood was significantly (P<0.05) higher in female than male camel but the adult males have massive head as compared to adult females. The adult male camels have significantly higher value of height at shoulder, knee, stifle and hock than female camels. The males were having significantly (P<0.05) thicker necks at one year and adult age than those of the females. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: Kachhi one humped camels, unique breed, characteristics, body measurements, body weight, morphology, morphometrics, sex differences, Gujarat, India.

Raji , AR ; Naserpour, M. Light and electron microscopic studies of the trachea in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin Journal der Weltvereinigung der Veterinaranatomen Reihe C Anatomia Histologia Embryologia: 2007 Feb; 36(1): 10-13. ISSN: 0340-2096
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/issuelist.asp?journal=ahe
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2006.00709.x
NAL call no: SF761.Z4
Abstract: Histology of trachea of camel (Camelus dromedarius) was studied using light, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tissue samples taken from the trachea (proximal, middle and distal part) were routinely prepared for histology (LM, EM) and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Van Giesson (VG), Alcian blue, Periodic acid schiff (PAS), Masson's trichrome (MT), Verhof, PAS-VG and PAS-MT. The trachea of camel consists of 66-75 incomplete cartilaginous rings of hyaline. The lamina epithelium is composed of pseudostratified-ciliated columnar epithelium with many goblet cells. Submucosal layers were loose connective tissue with many elastic fibres. The mucosal and submucosal layers were 517.2 +/- 61.6 (So(Bm (n = 20) thick. Submucosal glands were tubuloalveolar with mucous (acidic and neutral) secretions. Trachealis muscle was attached to the inside sheet of tracheal cartilage. Ultrastructural studies showed that surface epithelium is pseudostratified with mucus-producing goblet cells, ciliated and basal cells, similar to other mammals. The ciliated cells contained many mitochondria, oval nucleus and many big granules. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, viscoelastic layers were observed on the epithelial surface of trachea, and there were highly condensed cilia under this layer.
Descriptors: camels, trachea, histological study, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, transmission electron microscopy, hyaline, mucosa, cilia.

Saeidabadi, MS.; Meybodi, MA Emami; Dordari, S. Ultrasonographic evaluation of early fetal development in the dromedary camel . Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2007; 42(Suppl. 2): 109-110. ISSN: 0936-676. Note: “11th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction, Celle, Germany; September 21-22, 2007.”
Descriptors: dromedary camels, early fetal development, ultrasonic imaging, echogenic technique to study embryos.

Sarmad Rehan; Qureshi, AS. Morphometric analysis of heart, kidneys and adrenal glands in dromedary camel calves. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(1): 27-31. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: Morphometric evaluation of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands is critical in the determination of the aetiology and pathogenesis of different diseases related to the cardiovascular system in domestic animals as well as in human beings. In this study, the heart, kidneys and the adrenal glands of 26 dromedary camels aged between 30 to 36 months were studied gross anatomically. All organs were weighed with the help of an electrical weighing balance, whereas length, width and circumference were measured with measuring tape. Thickness of wall of the heart was measured using Vernier caliper. The shape of the heart was cone like; the coronary and longitudinal grooves were filled with white fat. Means+or-SEM of the gross anatomical parameters estimated were heart weight 1136.53+or-53.1 g, heart length from base to apex 19.54+or-0.44 cm, heart width 14.59+or-0.28 cm, coronary heart circumference 36.33+or-0.57 cm, thickness of right atrial wall 0.52+or-0.04 cm, thickness of left atrial wall 0.51+or-0.03 cm, thickness of the right ventricular wall 0.83+or-0.05 cm and thickness of the left ventricular wall 1.95+or-0.08 cm. Parameters related to kidneys gave following values: weight of left kidney 683.5+or-36 g, renal length 15.04+or-0.33 cm, renal width 10.75+or-0.24 cm, renal circumference (around the poles of kidney) 25.41+or-0.48 cm, diameter of cortex 1.26+or-0.05 cm, diameter of medulla 4.12+or-0.11 cm, weight of right kidney 725.61+or-40 g, renal length 15.54+or-0.35 cm, renal width 10.98+or-0.27 cm, renal circumference of left kidney 25.93+or-0.52 cm, thickness of cortex 1.35+or-0.04 cm and thickness of medulla 4.43+or-0.1 cm. Averages+or-SEM recorded with regard to adrenal glands were weight of left adrenal gland 16.58+or-0.8 g, length 5.15+or-0.22 cm and width 3.33+or-0.13 cm. Weight of right adrenal gland was 18.97+or-0.8 g, length 5.81+or-0.19 cm and width of right adrenal gland was found to be 3.84+or-0.11 cm. Considering these values, the dromedary camel appears to have better development of these organs than other ruminant species to cope with the stresses of the harsh climate. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, young animals, organ morphology, adrenal glands, animal anatomy, heart, kidneys, morphology, morphometrics.

Yousefi, MH; Gilanpour, H. Anatomical study of stifle joint in Iranian one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). In: E Camus; E Cardinale; C Dalibard; D Marinez; JF Renard; F Roger. Proceedings of the 12 th International Conference of the Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine AITVM, Montpellier, France, 20-22 August, 2007 Does Control of Animal Infectious Risks Offer a New International Perspective?Published by CIRAD. 2007; 373. ISBN: 9782876146501. Note: A conference paper.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, animal anatomy, joints of animals, stifle joint structure, morphology, radiography, Iran.

2006

Abdel Latif, M; Sharkawy, EE; Moneim, MA; Saleh, AM. Ear configuration as a tool for identification and age determination in camel fetuses. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2006; 52(111): 93-108. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted using 150 camel fetuses which represents the whole prenatal life. The age was represented by months and crown vertebral rump length (CVRL), with age ranging from 2.4 to 12.02 months and 2.8 cm to 108 cm CVRL. Several morphological measurements Head length (HL), Interear distance (IED), IED/HL %, Ear length (EL), Ear width (EW), ear-eye distance and ear-mouth distance were carried out. The results revealed that at age 2.4 months (2.8 cm CVRL) first branchial groove (the premordium of external ear) appeared as a growth of mesenchymal tissue surrounding oval opening. At 2.66-2.78 months (5.2-6.5 cm CVRL) the mesenchymal tissue increased in size to form two longitudinal folds, rostal and caudal. At 2.91-3.55 (8.0-15.0 cm CVRL), the caudal fold gradually increased in size forming triangular flap covering almost the external ear opening. At 3.64-4.01 months (16-20 cm CVRL) the fold reflected caudally. Morphological and biometric studies were followed on ear till full term fetuses where the external ear reached nearly its mature form.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, fetal age determination, camel fetal anatomy, ear development, biometry, body measurements, age identification, ear morphology.

Al Zghoul, M F; Ismail, ZB; Al Rukibat, RK; Al Majali, AM. A quantitative study on the trachea of young Arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(2): 129-133. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: The objective of this study was to report comprehensive quantitative morphometric measurements of the trachea of young camels (C. dromedarius). Tracheas from 15 young male camels aged between 9-12 months were used to measure the length, number of tracheal cartilage rings, inner and outer diameters and thickness of the cartilage rings at four different tracheal regions (cranial cervical, middle cervical, thoracic inlet and intrathoracic). Furthermore, the cross sectional area (CSA) of the tracheal rings were measured by a mathematical equation and a digital image analysis. The mean length of the trachea was 87+or-0.83 cm, while the mean number of the cartilage rings was 77.1+or-0.35. Diameters of the cartilage ring were smallest at the thoracic inlet region due to changes in tracheal direction and the narrow bone-surrounded thoracic inlet where the trachea enters the thoracic cavity. The ratios of the inner transverse to inner vertical and the outer transverse to outer vertical diameters ranged between 1.08-1.34. This indicates that the shape of the trachea in these young camels is near-circular. The CSA measurements obtained by the digital image analysis were 11-14% smaller than the CSA calculated by the mathematical equation (P<0.01). Using digital image analysis to measure the CSA of tracheal rings provides accurate and reliable measurements. The CSA and cartilage thickness were smallest and thinnest at the thoracic inlet, respectively. This may be an important predisposing factor for tracheal disorders at this region. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camel anatomy, cartilage, trachea, equations, imagery, image analysis, morphology, morphometrics.

Jain, RK; Gupta, AN. The arcuate arteries and their branching pattern in the kidney of camel (Camelus dromedarius). Haryana Veterinarian. 2006; 45: 49-52. ISSN: 0033-4359
Abstract: The origin, course and distribution of the arcuate arteries of the kidney in adult camel were studied on 20 kidneys. The arcuate arteries arose from the interlobar arteries at the corticomedullary junction. They detached 3-5 side branches from their convex surfaces and then ended by dividing into 2-4 terminal branches. These side branches and terminal branches were present in a radiating manner and were described as the interlobular arteries. The interlobular arteries were of two types viz. radiating and deep interlobular arteries. The interlobular arteries gave off the intralobular arterioles. These intralobular arterioles were short and long and terminated into 3-4 afferent arterioles which in turn entered the glomerulus. It was concluded that the arterial blood supply to the kidneys of camel (specially the arcuate arteries and their branches) is basically similar to the other domestic animals including the two humped camel.
Descriptors: dromedary camels,animal anatomy, arteries, blood circulation, blood flow, cell structure, kidneys, morphology, blood stream, body components.

Mokhtar, AA; Osman, AHK. Ultrastructure of the camel's pulmonary alveoli with special reference to the air-blood barrier. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2006; 52(111): 1-18. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: The present study was conducted to characterize the cellular population lining the alveoli of the camel's lung. Emphasis focused on the ultrastructural findings and their reflection on the physiological role in gas exchange and transcytosis through the air-blood barrier (ABB). Ultrastructural examination with the use of electron microscope revealed that the pulmonary alveoli are lined with a continuous epithelium comprising two major cell types; the predominant, attenuated pneumocytes type I and the less popular, irregularly cuboidal pneumocytes type II. Two forms of fibroblasts were distinguished; the most remarkable feature of the first form was its well-developed and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum. The second form was characterized by large, irregular, dark stained nucleus and little amount of cytoplasm. The most obvious feature of endothelial cells was the concentration of small vesicles (pinocytotic vesicles) adjacent to the endothelial cell membranes. They were circumscribed by a continuous basal lamina. Along the same endothelial cell, two cytoplasmic zones were existing; a thin cytoplasmic area containing few or no plasmalemma vesicles (a-vesicular area) and another thicker cytoplasmic area with numerous plasmalemma vesicles and endocytotic pits (vesicular area). Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, lungs, lung function, air sacs, respiration, respiratory gases, gas exchange, blood flow, cell ultrastructure, endoplasmic reticulum, epithelium.

Pfeiffer, CJ; Osman, AHK; Pfeiffer, DC. Ultrastructural analysis of the integument of a desert-adapted mammal, the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia. 2006; 35(2): 97-103. ISSN: 0340-2096
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/issuelist.asp?journal=ahe
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2005.00644.x
NAL call no: SF761.Z4
Abstract: In this study, we conducted a light microscopic and ultrastructural analysis of the integument of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). In general, the epidermal strata of the camel integument appeared typical of those found in non-desert mammals. Two cell populations were noted in the stratum basale: one with a flat, non-serrated base and the other with a highly serrated base. Typical fine structure was observed in keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum. The stratum corneum was six to 10 cells thick. Within the different strata, overall cell morphologies and the general distribution and relative abundance of cellular organelles appeared typical. Dermal features included the presence of myoepithelial cells surrounding apocrine tubular glands. Inter- or intracellular canaliculi within the secretory cells of the apocrine glands, reported to be present in certain other non-desert mammals, were not evident in the camel. Together, these data indicate that while the camel is clearly adapted for a desert lifestyle, these adaptations do not include significant specializations at the cellular or subcellular level in the integument. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, skin, skin glands, epithelium, integument, keratinocytes, skin tissue ultrastructure.

Sarmad Rehan; Qureshi, AS. Microscopic evaluation of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of one-humped camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) using semi automated image analysis system. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(2): 123-127. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: Morphometric parameters of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of 26 young dromedaries aged 30-36 months were evaluated. Measurements were made using the image analysis software programme Autocad R. Among heart parameters, volumes of the cardiac nuclei of the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle were 141.9+or-6.6, 138.8+or-7.24, 151.6+or-7.4 and 151.8+or-7.0 micro m3, respectively. Means of connective tissue percentage in the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle of the heart were 8.0+or-0.3, 7.7+or-0.3, 7.3+or-0.3 and 6.8+or-0.32, respectively. Among the kidneys, mean diameters of the subcapsular and juxtamedullary glomeruli were 110 and 87.3 micro m, mean volumes of the subcapsular and juxtamedullary glomeruli were 1328x103 and 630x103 micro m3, while the mean areas of subcapsular and juxtamedullary glomeruli were 11.9x102 and 7.6x103 micro m2, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the glomeruli of subcapsular region were significantly higher than those of juxtamedullary region. Among the adrenal glands, volume of the nuclei of zona glomerulosa was 92.7+or-4.2 micro m3 and thickness of zona glomerulosa was 1139+or-139 micro m. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, adrenal glands, kidneys, glomerulus, heart ventricles, imagery, image analysis, histology, morphometrics.

2005

Abshenas, J; Molaei, MM; Vosough, D. Ultrasonographic method for anatomic study of the udder and teat in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2005; 40(4): 367. ISSN: 0936-6768. Note: “9th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction (ESDAR), Murcia, Spain; September 01-03, 2005.”
URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/submit.asp?ref=0936-6768
NAL call No: SF105.A1Z8
Descriptors: dromedary camels, udder and teat anatomy, ultrasound imaging, diagnostic technique, clinical techniques.

Alzghoul , MB . A quantitative study on the trachea of young camels (Camelus dromedarius). Veterinary Medical Journal Giza. 2005; 53(2): 731. ISSN: 1110-1423. Note: “Proceedings of the 8th Scientific Conference: Biotechnology & Animal Wealth Development, Giza, Egypt. 17-19 April, 2005.”
Descriptors: dromedary camels, young camels, camel anatomy, trachea, body measurements, morphometrics.

Arencibia, A; Rivero, MA; Gil, F; Ramirez, JA; Corbera, JA; Ramirez, G; Vazquez, JM. Anatomy of the cranioencephalic structures of the camel (Camelus dromedarius L.) by imaging techniques: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia. 2005; 34(1): 52-55. ISSN:
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/rd.asp?code=AHE&goto=journal
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2004.00572.x
Abstract: The objective of this study was to define the anatomy of the cranioencephalic structures and associated formations in camel using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MR images were acquired in sagittal, transverse and oblique dorsal planes, using spin-echo techniques, a magnet of 1.5 T and a standard human body coil. MR images were compared with corresponding frozen cross-sections of the head. Different anatomic structures were identified and labelled at each level. The resulting images provided excellent soft tissue contrast and anatomic detail of the brain and associated structures of the camel head. Annotated MR images from this study are intended to be a reference for clinical imaging studies of the head of the dromedary camel. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camel anatomy, head images, cranioencephalic structures, brain, cerebrum, image processing, imagery, magnetic resonance imaging, morphology, techniques.

Derar, DRI; Hussein, HA; Saleh, AM. Morphometric and immunohistochemical variations in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) testis in relation to some endocrinological aspects during different seasons of the year. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2005; 51(104): 273-287. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: Seasonal variation in serum testosterone, thyroxine and the testicular morphology were studied in 54 sexually mature and apparently healthy one-humped camels during the different seasons of the year. The testosterone and thyroxine serum levels were measured and 3 beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta -HSD) activity of Leydig cells was assessed immunohistochemically to aid in the interpretation of results. The activity of 3 beta -HSD was high during cold months and severely depressed with minimum activity in hot months. Concomitantly, serum testosterone and thyroxine levels increased during the winter and early spring and decreased thereafter. Their levels reached the peak during the months of January until April. These results suggested that 3 beta -HSD was a key enzyme in the regulation of the testosterone production in Leydig cells of the male dromedary. Thyroxine was a crucial hormone for the male reproductive activity during the breeding season in the dromedary and fluctuated in the same pattern as serum male androgen.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, male camels, morphology, morphometrics, testes, testicles, androgens, testosterone, thyroxine, enzyme activity, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Leydig cells, seminiferous tubules, seasonal variation, seasonal fluctuations.

Elmonem, MEA; Mohamel, SA; Aly, KH. Early embryonic development of the camel lumbar spinal cord segment. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2005; 51(106): 1-11. ISSN: 1012-5973 Note: In English with and Arabic summary.
Abstract: The lumbar spinal cord segment of camel embryos (n=24) at 2.4 to 28 cm CVRL was examined. Major changes occurred in the organization of the lumbar spinal cord segment at this early developmental period. At the 2.4, 2.7 and 3.6 cm CVRL, the 3 primary layers (ependymal, mantle and marginal cells) in the developing lumbar spinal cord segment were demonstrated. The mantle layer was the first to show striking differentiation, whereas the marginal layer was represented by a thin outer rim. Proliferation and differentiation of the neuroepithelial cells in the developing spinal cord produced thick lateral walls, thin roof and floor plates. The spinal ganglion and dorsal root of the spinal nerve were differentiated. At 2.7 cm CVRL, differential thickening of the lateral walls produced a shallow longitudinal groove called sulcus limitans, which separated the dorsal part (alar plate) from the ventral part (basal plate). The ventral root of the spinal nerve and the spinal cord ganglion were embedded in loose mesenchyme that tended to differentiate into spinal meninges. At 3.6 cm CVRL, the basal plate, which was the future ventral grey horn was seen to be quite voluminous, and the dorsal and ventral roots united to form the beginning of the spinal nerve. At 5.5 cm CVRL, the alar plates enlarged, forming the dorsal septum. At 8.4-10.5 cm CVRL, the basal plates enlarged and bulged ventrally on each side of the midline, producing the distinct ventral median fissure. The white and grey matters could be recognized. At 28 cm CVRL, the lumen of the spinal cord differentiated into the central canal bounded dorsally and ventrally by the dorsal and ventral grey commissures, therefore the grey matter took the appearance of a butterfly. The lumbar spinal nerve and their roots were well distinct.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, embryo growth and development, cell differentiation, cells, embryonic development, embryos, epithelium, ganglia, meninges, peripheral nerves, spinal cord, cell proliferation, cytodifferentiation, nerves.

Gurdial Singh; Nagpal, SK; Sanjeev Kumar. Scanning electron microscopic studies on the female genitalia of camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2005; 12(1): 21-25. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: The present study was conducted to observe the genitalia of 3 adult female camels using scanning electron microscopy. The oviduct was mainly lined with ciliated and nonciliated cells whose pattern varied in the different segments. The uterus and the uterine horns were mainly lined with nonciliated cells, however, few ciliated cells were also seen. A large number of glandular openings were also observed. The cervix had very few ciliated cells while, the vagina had no ciliated cells. The distribution and number of mucosal folds also varied amongst the different segments. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, female genital system, cervix, female genitalia, oviducts, uterus, vagina, fallopian tubes, salpinges, uterine tubes, scanning electron microscopy, histology. morphology.

Imam, HMA. Early embryonic development of the camel metanephros. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2005; 51(106): 12-20. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the development of the one-humped camel metanephros. 15 embryos ranging from 2.4 cm to 7.8 cm CVRL were used in this study. The metanephros was observed first at 2.6 cm CVRL, consisting of uretric bud surrounded by metanephrogenic tissue. At 2.8 cm CVRL, the metric bud was divided into 4 generations which were caped by metanephrogenic tissue. At 3 cm CVRL, the metanephros was invaginated in the caudal pole of the mesonephros. At 5.3-5.5 cm CVRL, the metanephros continuously enlarged and differentiated. Moreover, it contained 3 concentric rows of metanephric corpuscles, and the degree of differentiation increased from outward to inward. At 6 cm CVRL, the metanephros had metanephric corpuscles, proximal and distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, kidney development in the embryo, cell differentiation, embryonic development, embryo morphology, ureter.

Ingole, SP; Dhingra, LD; Jain, RK; Tiwari, SK; Mishra, OP. Nerve supply to the manus region in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2005; 12(1): 47-51. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: This study was conducted to study the detailed course, relationship and supply of the nerves innervating the manus region of the camels. Manus regions of 10 embalmed single humped adult camels revealed that the nerves innervating this region was a continuation of musculocutaneous, radial, ulnar and median nerves of the brachial plexus. The medial cutaneous antebrachial nerve of the musculocutaneous nerve descended to the dorsomedial aspect of the carpus. The cranial division of the lateral cutaneous antebrachial nerve through its lateral subdivision formed the dorsal common digital nerves II and III at the middle of the metacarpus. The nerve entered the manus region mainly as dorsal and palmar branches and both continued as dorsal nerve and palmar common digital nerve IV, respectively. The medial nerve, after passing through the carpal canal to manus region, ended into two divisions, palmar common digital nerve II and a lateral branch, 19-21 cm distal to the accessory carpal. The lateral branch divided into a communicating branch to palmar common digital nerve IV and palmar axial proper digital nerve IV. The later nerve and the palmar axial proper digital nerve III, the digital continuation of palmar common digital nerve II, united to form a common digital nerve III which was 4-10 cm in length. The palmar common digital nerve II or in some cases, the median nerve itself branched to dorsal common digital nerve II. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camel anatomy, blood circulation, brachial plexus, carpus, morphology, peripheral nerves, blood stream, body components, nerves.

Shahid, RU; Kausar, R. Comparative gross anatomical studies of the skull of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 2005; 25(4): 205-206. ISSN: 0253-8318
Abstract: The skull of camel when viewed from above was irregularly pentagonal in outline. It was widest in the frontal region and contained the orbits laterally. The occipital bone formed the entire nuchal surface and encroached upon the dorsal surface about 1.75 to 2 inches. It joined the parietal bone at transverse suture. A rough transverse ridge separated the parietal and nuchal surfaces. The mastoid foramen was very large and situated in a deep fossa in the occipital bone in contrast to ox, where it lay at the junction of occipital and temporal bones. The cornual processes were absent. The supraorbital foramen was in the form of a deep fissure, at the rostrolateral margin of the orbit. There was no maxillary tuberosity and facial crest. The pre maxilla had a dorsomedially concave and narrow pointed body. The nasal bones were notched rostromedially and nasal apertures were oval in outline. The body of mandible was long, narrow and concave dorsomedially. The intermandibular space was "V" shaped. The vertical ramus of mandible was thin and convex caudally and the angles were not pronounced, while the rostral border was thick and wide. The coronoid process was almost straight with caudal end slightly pointed. The condyliod process was large and its dorsal surface contained the extensive articular surfaces, which were convex. There was a shallow mandibular notch. The mandibular foramen was in the middle of the medial surface of the ramus of mandible. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, skull anatomy, camel anatomy, bone sutures, occipital bone, nasal bones, mandibles, morphology, condyloid process, corneal process.

2004

Arencibia, A; Rivero, MA; Ramirez, JA; Gil, F; Gutierrez, C; Oros, J; Latorre, R; Vazquez, JM. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal brain in a newborn dromedary camel. Veterinary Journal. 2004 Nov; 168(3): 353-357. ISSN: 1090-0233
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2003.06.001
NAL call no: SF601.V484
Descriptors: dromedaries, neonates, brain, magnetic resonance imaging, animal morphology.

Garey, Laurence; Mensah Brown, Eric. The brain of the camel, Camelus dromedarius: a study of a possible pain-inhibiting pathway. Tribulus. 2004 Spring-Summer; 14(1): 12-17. ISSN: 1019-6919
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Camelus dromedarius, brain, pain inhibiting pathway characterization, midbrain superior colliculus, morphology.

Goswami, P; Purohit, GN; Gupta, ML. Biometry of camel (Camelus dromedarius) spermatozoa and their morphological abnormalities. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2004; 74(10): 1049-1050. ISSN: 0367-8318
Descriptors. dromedary camels, spermatozoa, morphometrics, semen, biometry, abnormalities, midpiece, morphology, morphometrics.

Jain, RK; Gupta, AN. Arterial supply of the fetlock, pastern and coffin joints of fore limb in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Haryana Veterinarian. 2004; 43: 15-18. ISSN: 0033-4359
Abstract: Arterial supply of the fetlock, pastern and coffin joints was studied in 8 dromedary camels. The arterial branches supplying the fetlock joint were derived from the palmar common digital artery III, dorsal common digital artery III, palmar proper axial digital artery III, palmar proper axial digital artery IV, palmar proper abaxial digital artery III, palmar proper abaxial digital artery IV and distal deep palmar arch. The arterial branches supplying the pastern and coffin joints were derived from the palmar proper axial digital artery III, palmar proper axial digital artery IV, palmar proper abaxial digital artery III and palmar proper abaxial digital artery IV. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, fetlock joint, pastern joint, coffin joint, circulatory system, arteries, blood circulation, blood flow.

Khamas, WA ; Nour, AYM. The peculiarities of stomach of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2004; 11(1): 21-26. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate and describe the gross, light and electron microscopical peculiarities of the stomach of the one-humped camel and to relate these peculiarities with their functions. 13 complete stomachs of adult one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) were collected from the slaughterhouse. The samples were brought to the laboratory within 2 h, cleaned, photographed and fixed in different fixatives for gross, light and electron microscopic studies. Fixation, processing and staining were carried out following standard histological procedures. Moreover, 3 embalmed, dissected and dried camels were studied and photographed. The stomach of the camel was of the multilocular compound type. The rumen and the considerably reduced reticulum comprised one compartment (C1) and the omasum (C2) and abomasum (C3) comprised the other two. All the 3 compartments were glandular. Non-glandular regions were found only in the rumen part of C1. The peculiar cellulae (previously called water sacs) in the wall were arranged in rows in the dorsal and ventral sacs of the rumen. The gastric groove ventral lip was formed by the right longitudinal pillar, which bound the ventral part of the dorsal cellulae. The left longitudinal groove and pillar were absent. Histologically, there was no lamina muscularis mucosa in the wall, except in the regions of the cellulae where a thin smooth muscle layer was present. The omasum had one type of lamellae (laminae) and was lined with simple columnar epithelium and contained simple straight tubular glands in its wall. The abomasum was very extensive and folded inside. The parietal cells were found to be higher in number compared to other cell types. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camel anatomy, stomach, abomasums, gastric glands, histology, morphology, omasum, reticulum, rumen, rumen epithelium, lamellae.

Nili, H; Mesbah, F; Kafi, M; Esfahani, MHN. Light and transmission electron microscopy of immature camelus dromedarius oocyte . Anatomia Histologia Embryologia. 2004; 33(4): 196-199. ISSN: 0340-2096
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/issuelist.asp?journal=ahe
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2004.00536.x
NAL call no: SF761.Z4
Abstract: In order to provide a consistent system for laboratory production of embryos, the characteristics of immature camel oocyte must first be described. The objective of this study was to define ultrastructural features of immature camel oocyte. Ovaries were obtained from camels at a local abattoir, and then transported to the laboratory within 2 h. Camelus cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from 2-6 mm follicles using a 22-gauge needle. Excellent and good quality COCs were selected and prepared for transmission electron microscopy study using a cavity slide. The fine structure of camel oocyte is morphologically similar to that of other mammalian oocytes. However, some minor differences exist between COC of camel and other mammalian species. Different size and shape of membrane-bound vesicles, lipid droplet, mitochondria and cortical granules were distributed throughout the ooplasm. Discrete or in association with endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes were observed in the periphery of the oocytes. The majority of the oocytes were in the germinal vesicle stage.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, immature embryos, camel anatomy, cell ultrastructure, cumulus oophorus, electron microscopy, post slaughter harvesting.

Zayed, AE. Anatomical, scanning electron and light microscopical studies on the prenatal development of the nasal conchae of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2004; 50(100): 17-36. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: A total of 35 camel fetuses were studied to investigate the anatomy, scanning electron and light microscopy of the nasal conchae of the camel during the prenatal life. The dorsal, middle and ventral nasal conchae were recognized microscopically as early as 4.2 cm CVRL in the form of three evaginations from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. From being clearly visible grossly (at 17 cm CVL), the nasal conchae demonstrated little gross changes which were restricted to an increase in the length of their spiral lamellae and consequently the size of their recesses and sinuses. In full-term fetuses (105 cm CVRL), the dorsal concha was represented by basal lamella rostrally, but caudally it formed the dorsal conchal sinus. The ventral concha has two spiral lamellae arranged as dorsal and ventral ones rostrally, but caudally they rearranged themselves as medial and lateral respectively. The middle concha enclosed a large middle conchal sinus. Scanning electron and light microscopy revealed number of transformations in the surface epithelium of the nasal conchae in both respiratory and olfactory regions. The surface cells that acquire microvilli and short cilia in earlier stages started to be sloughed and replaced by the underlying cells around 15 cm CVRL. By light microscopy, these sloughing cells appeared with pyknotic nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm. From 50 cm CVRL to full-term fetuses, the covering epithelium of the nasal conchae demonstrated regional variations in the distribution of ciliated and microvillous cells. In the most rostral part, the two cell types partake the surface. The ciliated cells increased gradually at the expense of the microvillous cells on approaching the olfactory region, where the ciliated cells were dominating. With exception of the presence of bleb-like apical protrusions amidst the ciliated surface of the olfactory epithelium, both olfactory and caudal areas of respiratory epithelia have the same picture of their massively-ciliated surface. Light microscopically, the respiratory and olfactory epithelia were easily differentiated as early as 5.8 cm CVRL. At 8-12 cm CVRL, the respiratory epithelium was very thin (about 28 micro m) when compared with the thick olfactory epithelium (about 67 micro m) at this stage. From mid-gestation (50 cm CVRL) and on, both epithelial types were pseudostratified columnar ciliated in nature, but the respiratory epithelium demonstrated many goblet cells. The olfactory epithelium, on the other hand lacked goblet cells but the olfactory cilia were characterized by vesicular swellings. In full term fetuses, the olfactory epithelium was characterized by flask-shaped crypts containing 5-8 bipolar sensory cells. In conclusion, the nasal cavity of the camel as a desert animal has number of peculiar features, of these is the presence of numerous goblet cells and mucous secreting glands in the surface epithelium of the nasal conchae. In addition the nasal vestibule has collection of long hairs in its cutaneous lining.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, fetal development, animal anatomy, body components, epithelium, nose, scanning electron microscopy.

Zayed, AE. The prenatal development of the eyelids of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2004; 50(100): 37-52. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: A total of 55 camel fetuses ranging from 2.8 to 110 cm crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) were studied. Thirty-five fetuses were studied for gross morphology and the other twenty for paraffin sectioning and light microscopy. The upper and lower eyelids appeared as two ectodermal folds at 2.8 cm CVRL, then grew until they meet and fuse at 8.4 cm CVRL. Fusion lasted until 58 cm CVRL, the lids then start to reopen at 66 cm CVRL. The palpebral skin and conjunctiva display striking changes throughout the prenatal life. The first indication of hair follicles was seen at 8.4 cm CVRL, while sweat and sebaceous glands were first demonstrated in fetuses of 36.5 cm CVRL. A cornified palpebral skin with complete cutaneous structures including eyelashes and tactile hairs was demonstrated in fetuses of 66 cm CVRL. The one-humped camel lacked tarsal glands. However, hair follicles were demonstrated on the conjunctival side of the eyelids, only near the medial canthus, in fetuses of 36.5 cm CVRL. At 110 cm CVRL (full-term fetuses), this part of the palpebral conjunctiva appeared hairy and associated with well-developed sebaceous glands. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, eyelids, fetal development, microscopy, morphology.

 

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