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Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Arabian - Parasites

2008

Abdally, MH. Species of ticks on camels and their monthly population dynamics in Arar city, KSA. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2008; 54(117): 302-309. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: A study was conducted to identify the species of ticks found in camels (Camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in Arar city, Saudi Arabia. Collection and identification of the ticks were undertaken from January 2006 to December 2006. On each occasion, all the visible adult ticks were collected from the body of each camel and the ground. The most abundant species of ticks on the camels at the study area were Hyalomma (96%) and Amblyomma (4.0%). The average tick load per camel was higher during rainy months (more than 30 ticks) than during dry months (less than 11 ticks). The study concluded that any strategy intended to mitigate problems of tick infestation of camels in this area should take into account the identified tick species and their seasonal abundance.
Descriptors: dromedarycamels, tick populations, Amblyomma,Hyalomma, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, seasonal population fluctuations, seasonality, Saudi Arabia.

Barton, MA . Nasal and gastro-intestinal parasites of the camel (Camelus dromedarius) from central Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 2008; 132(Part 1): 40-42. ISSN: 0372-1426
Descriptors: 289 dromedary camels, nasal bot fly, Cephalopina titillator, gastrointestinal nematode parasites, Cooperia pectinata, Nematodirella dromedarii, disease survey, levels of infection, Australia.

Oryan, A; Valinezhad, A; Moraveji, M. Prevalence and pathology of camel nasal myiasis in eastern areas of Iran. Tropical Biomedicine. 2008; 25(1): 30-36. ISSN: 0127-5720
Descriptors: 1328 dromedary camels, males, females, various ages, camel botfly larvae, seasonal variations, sex variations, Cephalopina titillator, post slaughter parasite survey, 58.1% infestation, nasal cavity, pharynx, turbinates, frontal sinuses, histopathological studies, clinical picture, Mashhad Slaughterhouse, Khorasan Razavi Province, eastern Iran.

Sajid , MS ; Zafar Iqbal; Khan, MN; Ghulam Muhammad. Point prevalence of hard ticks (Ixodids) infesting domestic ruminants of lower Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2008; 10(3): 349-351. ISSN: 1560-8530
URL: http://www.fspublishers.org/
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the diversity and intensity of tick population infesting domestic ruminants in Districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab ( Pakistan). A total of 1050 cattle, 700 buffaloes, 1400 each of sheep and goats and 250 camels were randomly selected and examined for the prevalence of tick infestation. The highest (P=0.00) prevalence of tick infestation was found in cattle (n=789/1050; 75.1%) followed in order by goat (n=723/1400; 51.6%) and buffaloes (n=281/700; 40.08%). None of the examined camels and sheep was found infested with ticks. Hyalomma anatolicum was the most abundant followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Appropriate control measures for ticks need to be employed in the study area for economical animal production. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: sheep, cattle, dromedary camels, goats, buffalo, disease-prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, infestation, mixed infections, Hyalomma anatolicum, Metastigmata, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, disease surveillance, multiple infections, Pakistan.

Shakerian, A; Shekarforoush, SS; Rad, HG. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Najaf-Abad, Iran. Research in Veterinary Science. 2008 Apr; 84(2): 243-245. ISSN: 0034-5288
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00345288
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.04.015
NAL call no: 41.8 R312
Abstract: The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in livers and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of 400 camels of different sex and age groups was investigated. The lymph nodes and livers were examined macroscopically. A digestion method was also applied for investigation of liver samples. The MLNs in 84 camels out of 400 (21.0%) and the livers of 18 camels out of 400 (4.5%) were infected by L. serrata nymphs. The infection rate increased with age (p < 0.01). No significant difference was observed between the prevalence in males and females (p > 0.1). It is concluded that consumption of raw or under-cooked camel liver may result in nasopharyngeal linguatulosis in humans.
Descriptors: dromedaries, animal diseases, parasitoses, endoparasites, Arthropoda, disease prevalence, zoonoses, food pathogens, risk assessment, epidemiological studies, disease detection, slaughter, meat inspection, camel meat, lymph nodes, liver, pathogen identification, nymphs, histopathology, Linguatula serrata, Pentastomida, nasopharyngeal linguatulosis, Halzoun syndrome, Iran.

Zayed, AA; Abdel Shafy, S; El Khateeb, RM. Surface ultrastructure of posterior abdominal spiracles of third instars of nasal bots of Cephalopina titillator, Oestrus ovis and Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera:Oestridae) infesting camels, sheep and donkeys in Egypt. Research Journal of Parasitology. 2008; 3(1): 1-11. ISSN: 1816-4943
URL: http://academicjournals.net/2/c4p.php?id=2&theme=2&jid=jp
Abstract: Scanning electron microscope was used to describe the fine structure of posterior spiracles of third instars of Cephalopina titillator, Oestrus ovis and Rhinoestrus purpureus. The posterior spiracles was found to locate a hallow depressed cuticle of the posterior end of the larval body with an ecdysal scar. The cuticle surrounding the posterior spiracles was provided with spinules and sensory papillae of a taxonomic value. The spinules were numerous and irregularly distributed in dorsal and ventral rows in C. titillator and O. ovis. However, these spinules were few or absent in R. purpureus. The sensory papillae were of different shape; it long and cone-shape in R. purpureus, flat and button-shaped in C. titillator and reduced in O. ovis. The posterior spiracles consisted of two spiracular plates. Each plate appeared strongly sclerotized bearing numerous of respiratory units. The situation of spiracular plate together with ecdysal scar was also of a characteristic taxonomic value. The ecdysal scar surrounded by the spiracular plate either completely in O. ovis or partially in R. purpureus or never surrounded by it in C. titillator but situated medially at the edge of the spiracular plate. The respiratory unit consisted of rima and respiratory slit which appeared a narrow as zigzag-like in O. ovis. This respiratory slit appeared linear not zigzag with a few trabecular tissues in C. titillator. However, this slit was covered with a cap-like structure in R. purpureus. It was concluded that the posterior spiracles of nasal bots have a characteristic line structures of taxonomic value, which may be used for differentiation of these larval species. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: camels, asses, donkeys, sheep, nasal bots, infestation, larvae, Cephalopina titillator, Oestrus ovis, Rhinoestrus purpureus, morphology, scanning electron microscopy, spiracles, ultrastructure, Egypt.

2007

Chhabra , MB ; Khurana, KL. Parasitisms of camels revisited: 3 - Ectoparasites. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(1): 1-8. ISSN: 0971-6777. Note: A literature review.
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: Ectoparasites of camels and the injury and diseases associated with them are more prevalent and more serious than is commonly realized. Through widespread distress and morbidity, and through their role as vectors of disease, they impact the economy of camel-rearing in diverse ways. Sarcoptic mange is a serious debilitating and dreaded disease throughout the camel world. It is known to predispose affected camels to other infections and is a good measure of herd health. Camel ticks, notably Hyalomma dromedarii, characteristically cause heavy infestations. Acaricidal control agents presently in use are not wholly satisfactory. Biting flies transmit the most important disease of surra apart from being a serious menace due to their blood sucking and annoyance. Myiasis-causing flies are widespread and readily infect wounds. The larvae of camel nasal bot Cephalopina titillator are highly prevalent obligatory parasites which can undermine the well-being of animals. The recent literature on these entities are reviewed with the objective to focus attention and to stimulate enhanced reportage. The need to evolve camel-specific control strategies is also discussed.
Descriptors: dromedarycamels, ectoparasites, disease vectors, vector control, camel diseases, disease control; disease prevalence, disease transmission, epidemiology, Cephalopina titillator, Diptera, Hyalomma dromedarii, Metastigmata, Sarcoptes scabiei, Trypanosoma evansi.

Ebrahimi, A; Montazeri, B; Lotfalian, S. Dermatophytes isolated from the hair coat/skin scrapping of healthy dromedaries in Iran. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(2): 133-134. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: The incidence of dermatophytes in 143 hair coat/skin scraping samples of camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Najafabad slaughter house in Iran was determined [date not given]. Twenty-five isolates (17.48%) were Trichophyton spp. and 1 (0.7%) was Microsporum nanum. The most common species of Trichophyton were T. mentagrophytes (14, 9.8%), T. verrucosum (5, 3.5%), T. schoenleinii (3, 2.1%) and T. tonsurans (3, 2.1%). Camels should therefore be included in the category of asymptomatic carriers of zoonotic dermatophytes. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, dermatophytes, skin fungi, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, mycoses, skin diseases, skin lesions, zoonoses, zoonotic skin infections Microsporum nanum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton verrucosum, Iran.

Gahlot, TK (Editor). Proceedings of the International Camel Conference "Recent trends in Camelids research and Future strategies for saving Camels", Rajasthan, India, 16-17 February 2007. published by Rajasthan, India: College of Veterinary & Animal Science. 2007; iii + 226 pp.
Abstract: A total of 78 papers presented at the International Camel Conference are included in this supplement. The topics discussed include disease diagnosis and treatment, breeding and genetics, immunology, microbiology, reproduction, ethnoveterinary practice, camel husbandry, management practices, nutrition, surgery, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, milk, draft power, production and parasitology. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: Bactrian camels, dromedary camels, camel milk, anatomy, breeding camel diseases, camel husbandry, nutrition, physiology, bacterial diseases, diagnosis, draft animals, genetics, immunology, parasitology, parasitoses, pharmacology, therapeutics, viral infections, reproduction, surgery, therapy, veterinary practice, viral diseases, working animals.

Khosravi, AR; Shokri, H; Niasari Naslaji, A. An outbreak of a mixed infection of Trichophyton verrucosum and Nocardia asteroides in dromedary camel in Iran. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(2): 109-112. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: This study presents an outbreak of a mixed infection of dermatophytosis and nocardiosis in a herd of 100 dromedary camels in Iran during summer 2007. A total of 74 out of 100 camels were affected (74%). The camels showed crusty and hairless patches, ulcerative nodules and microabscesses especially on the neck, shoulders, flanks, and the upper parts of the limbs. Young camels demonstrated a relatively greater amount of skin lesions. The skin samples were analysed by direct microscopy, culture and histopathology. The results showed the presence of hyphal forms and numerous amounts of large arthroconidia (5-8 micro m) as well as Gram-positive filaments with a diameter of 1 micro m in skin samples. Nocardia asteroides and Trichophyton verrucosum were isolated from skin lesions. In addition, a marked response to treatment with natamycine and trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole agents was observed. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, clinical-aspects, dermatomycoses, diagnosis, disease control, drug therapy, histopathology, mixed infections, natamycin, nocardiosis, outbreaks, skin lesions, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, pimaricin, Nocardia asteroids, Trichophyton verrucosum, multiple infections, Iran.

Lawal, MD; Ameh, IG; Ahmed, A. Some ectoparasites of Camelus dromedarius in Sokoto, Nigeria. Journal of Entomology. 2007; 4(2): 143-148. ISSN: 1812-5670
URL: http://scialert.net/jindex.php?issn=1812-5670
Abstract: Camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Sokoto abattoir livestock market were physically screened at random, for ectoparasites by macroscopic observation, grooming and scrapping of 3960 anatomical sites on 396 animals. 367 (92.7%) of the 396 camels were infested vis-a-vis 335 (91.28%) by ticks, 17 (4.63%) by flies, 13 (3.54%) by mites and 2 (0.55%) by lice. The ectoparasites identified and their relative abundance on the camels was as follows: Hyalomma sp. (48.0%), Amblyomma sp. (16.79%), Boophilus sp. (14.91%), Rhipicephalus sp. (14.71%), Musca domestica (2.48%), Hippobosca camelina (2.13%), Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli (0.44%), Haematopinus tuberculatus (0.27%), Tabanus longicorins (0.27%). Hyalomma species, which was the most prevalent species of the ectoparasites, was identified as H. dromedarii (46.9%), H. rufipes (22.9%), H. impeltatum (18.5%) and H. truncatum (11.7%). These ectoparasite fauna may have been imported across the border by traffics of camel caravan, which linked Sokoto and other sahelian countries. Although the impact of these parasites on host animals and the environment was not measured in this study, it was however, concluded that the number and species of infesting ectoparasites encountered were significant enough to pose a potential public health hazard, especially tick pestilence.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, ectoparasites, Amblyomma, Diptera, Haematopinus tuberculatus, Hippobosca camelina, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Metastigmata, mites, Musca domestica,Phthiraptera,Rhipicephalus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Tabanus, Boophilus, Tabanus longicorins, Nigeria.

Mazyad, SAM; Hafez, AO. Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) among man and farm animals in North Sinai, Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2007; 37(1): 135-142. ISSN: 1110-0583
Abstract: Antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were estimated among sheep, goats and camels (190), their owners (150 patients with pyrexia of unknown origin) and 30 normal individuals in North Sinai, Egypt during 2006 by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Com-1 gene (genetic target of C. burnetii) encoding a 27 kDa outer membrane protein in the samples. C. burnetii IFA antibodies (IgM and IgG) in patients were 8 (5.3%) and a healthy control (3.3%). The overall was 9 of 180 (5.0%). C. burnetii IgM were detected in 3/150 (2%) patients with positive genome, while IgG were detected in 5/150 patients, only the 3 who had IgM and IgG had positive genome suffered high fever. C. burnetii antibodies were detected in 20 (22.5%), 12 (16.8%) and 4 (13.3%) of sheep, goats and camels, which totalled 36/190 (18.9%). The positive genome of these IFA positive animals was 10 (50.0%), 4 (33.3%) and zero (0.0%), respectively. On the other hand, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dog tick) and Dermacentor andersoni (wood tick) were identified on some Q fever infected animals. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: camels, goats, humans, sheep, abattoir fever, Balkan grippe, Derrick Burnet disease, Nine Mile fever, PCR, pneumorickettsiosis, pyrexia, quadrilateral fever, query fever, antibodies, fever, genes, genotypes, human diseases, IgG, IgM, immunoassay, Q fever, Coxiella burnetii,Dermacentor andersoni, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Egypt.

Mazyad, Said AM; Hafez, Adel Omar. Q fever (Coxlella burnetii) among man and farm animals in North Sinai, Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2007; 37(1): 135-142. ISSN: 1110-0583
Descriptors: sheep, goats, camels, humans, zoonotic pathogen, pyrexia, Coxiella burnetii, antibody testing for Q fever, nested PCR, Com-1gene encoding 27-kDA membrane protein, IFA antibodies, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dog tick), Dermacentor andersoni (wood tick) on some Q fever infected animals, Sinai, Egypt.

Pal, M; Patil, DB; Kelawala, NH; Parikh, PV; Barvalia, DR; Patel, DM. Occurrence of fungal otitis in camels. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(1): 73-74. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Descriptors: dromedary camels, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis ear infection, mycoses, otitis, Aspergillus flavipes, Candida albicans, Gujarat, India.

Pourjafar, M; Azizi, H; Darabi, S; Khosravi, M. The prevalence of nymphal stage of Linguatula serrata in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Najafabad, Iran. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(2): 171-173. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: The prevalence rate of Linguatula serrata nymphs in livers and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of 200 camels was investigated. Samples of lymph nodes and livers were examined macroscopically. MLNs of 70 camels (35%) and livers of 23 camels (11.5%) were infected with L. serrata nymphs. There was no significant difference between the prevalence in livers and MLNs among different age groups.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, liver, lymph nodes, nymphs, Linguatula serrata, diagnosis, disease surveillance, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, Iran.

Shoker, NI; Zahran, WM; Mohammed, AS. Present status of ixodid ticks parasitizing some domestic animals in El Minia Governorate. Journal of the Egyptian German Society of Zoology. 2007 January; 52(D): 35-56. Note: In English with an Arabic and English summary.
Abstract: A one year (July, 2001 - June, 2002) tick fauna study of some domestic animals. Ixodid ticks were collected from cows, buffaloes, camels and dogs. Cows were most healily infested. Four species of ixodid ticks, belonging to three genera were identified: Boophilus annulatus, Hyalomma excavatum, H. dromedarii and Rhipecephalus sanguineus. Boophilus annulatus was the most common and most abundant one. It along with Hyalomma excavatum preferred cows as the host. Hyalomma dromedarii exclusively parasitized camels. Rhipecephalus sanguineus mainly fed on dogs. The tick species showed preferences for particular sites on the hosts' body. These preferences could vary according to the host species. Boophilus annulatus was frequently detected throughout the study period, showing moderate and close levels of seasonal activity, except for an extremely high one that was markedly observed towards the end of spring. Hyalomma excavatum was infrequently detected throughout the study period, but it mainly appeared during spring and autumn. H. dromedarii and Rhipecephalus sanguineus was mosly collected during spring and summer. Some discussion of control measures is presented.
Descriptors: cattle, dogs, buffaloes, camels, ixodid ticks, Boophilus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, mammalian hosts, prevalence on domestic hosts, El Minia, Egypt.

Tajik, H; Tavassoli, M; Khani, H; Javadi, S. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in slaughtered camels of Iran. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(1): 69-71. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: One-hundred-and-thirty-eight slaughtered camels were investigated for Linguatula serrata infection in Iran during September 2005-March 2006. Samples from the lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes and livers were examined macroscopically and liver samples were studied by digestion method. It was shown that mesenteric lymph nodes of 103 camels (75%), lungs of 41 (29.7%) and livers of 42 (30.4%) camels were infected with L. serrata nymphs. 55 out of 75 females (73.3%) and 48 out of 63 males (76.2%) were found to be positive to L. serrata. High rate of infection in mesenteric lymph nodes of the camels indicate careful inspection of carcasses to detect L. serrata infection. The maximum and minimum numbers of parasites in lymph nodes were 46 and 1, respectively. Infection of the offal of camels underlines the zoonotic importance of the disease, whereas consumption of raw or undercooked camel livers is not unusual in some places of Iran. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, Linguatula serrata, nymphs, food safety, liver, lungs, parasitoses, zoonotic parasite, Iran.

2006

Amin, MM; Youssef, RR; El Naggar, AL; Mahmoud, MA; El Kattan, A. Some studies on skin affections among local and imported camels in Halaieb, Shalateen and Abou-Ramad areas. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza. 2006; 54(3): 691-700. ISSN: 1110-1423. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: A total of 47 skin scrapings from 27 local and 20 imported dromedary camels showing skin lesions were collected during summer (32) and winter (15) from September 2003 to August 2004, and prepared and examined microscopically for the presence of mange and or ringworm infection. The overall prevalence rates of mange were 14.81 and 30% for local and imported camels and 18.75 and 26.66% in summer and winter seasons, respectively. Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was the only identified mite species. Ringworm infection rate was 14.81 and 12.5% in local camels in summer and winter, respectively. No cases of ringworm were observed in imported camels. Clinical examination of 185 local and 76 imported camels revealed that the overall prevalence rate of tick infestation was 44.86% in local camels and 57.89% in imported camels. Tick infestation peaked during summer (62.29%), followed by winter (55.17%), then lower rates were recorded during autumn (46.26%) and spring (34.66%). Only 2 species of ticks were identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the most prevalent (81%) and was usually found on the camel's body, while the Ornithodoros savignyi was recorded in a few cases (19%) and was usually found in the camel resting places.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, skin diseases, ectoparasites, Hyalomma dromedarii,Metastigmata,Ornithodoros savignyi, Sarcoptes scabiei, dermatomycoses, mange, scabies, disease prevalence, disease surveys, ectoparasites, ectoparasitoses, seasonal variation, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, seasonality, spring, summer, winter, autumn, Egypt.

Dia, ML Parasites of the camel in Burkina Faso. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2006; 38(1): 17-21. ISSN: 0049-4747
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-006-4303-x
URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/0049-4747
NAL call no : SF601.T7
Abstract: A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of parasitoses in dromedaries in Burkina Faso. Blood and faecal samples from animals of different ages and both sexes were collected from different villages in Oudalan in April 2004. It was shown that the parasitological and serological prevalences of Trypanosoma evansi were 18 and 46%, respectively. T. brucei was also detected. Most of the trypanosome-infected animals were from Garagara (37%), Markoye (30%) and Touro villages (11%), with seroprevalences of 81, 50 and 33%, respectively. None of the camels in Esakane had trypanosomes. 15 out of 38 faecal samples were positive for strongyle eggs, with higher rates in Markoye and Esakane. Eggs per g faeces (epg) varied from 0-800 and was highest in Markoye. One animal was positive for Moniezia spp. Hyalomma dromedarii, H. marginatum rufipes, H. impressum, H. truncatum and H. impeltatum were the most commonly isolated ticks in the camels. Alopecia and pruritus in many animals were caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, geographical variation, parasites, parasitoses, serological surveys, seroprevalence, Trypanosoma evansi, Moniezia spp. Hyalomma dromedarii , Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hylomma impressum, Hyalomma truncatum, Hyalomma impeltatum, mange, Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli, Burkina Faso.

Dixit, SK; Singh, AP; Tuteja, FC; Sena, DS; Sharma, N. Frequency rescheduling of a herbal formulation against mange in dromedary camels. Veterinary Practitioner. 2006; 7(1): 76-79. ISSN: 0972-4036
Abstract: In the development of herbal drug formulations against Sarcoptes infection in dromedary camels, one of the two developed formulations, F1, was studied on naturally occurring clinical cases to restandardize the dose schedule and frequency of the formulation while maintaining its efficacy. A total of 5-7 applications were found to be sufficient in curing the disease. Results were comparable to daily and alternate applications followed by 5th day. A combination of daily application for the first three days and then on alternate days for the remaining days is the best approach to manage the disease successfully. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors dromedary camels, Sarcoptes mange, disease control, herbal medicines, dosage effects, drug delivery.

Ghoke, S; Jadhav, KM; Pal, M. Dermatophytosis in Indian dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) caused by Trichophyton verrucosum. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(1): 59-60. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: The prevalence of dermatophytosis was studied in Indian dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) belonging to an organized farm located in Kutch area of Gujarat. 18 camels of both sexes and different age groups showing skin lesions on several body sites were investigated mycologically by employing direct microscopy and cultural isolation techniques. Only 2 camels showed the presence of Trichophyton verrucosum in the cutaneous lesions. No epidemiological investigation was conducted to establish the source of infection. It was suggested that T. verrucosum infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dermatitis. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, clinical aspects, dermatitis, dermatomycoses, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease prevalence, skin lesions, Trichophyton verrucosum, Gujarat, India.

Gorakh Mal; Sena, DS; Sahani, MS. Haemato-biochemical changes in camels infested with mange during winter and summer season. Journal of Camel Practice and Research . 2006; 13(2): 173-174. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: The present work aimed to study the haemato-biochemical alteration in mange-infested camels in India compared to healthy camels during winter and summer seasons. There were significant (P<0.01) decreases in haemoglobin (Hb) and neutrophils, while significant increases in eosinophils, lymphocytes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides, urea and glucose were seen in mange infected camels during the winter season. During the summer season, a decrease in albumin content and an increase in total leukocyte counts (TLC), eosinophils, monocytes, AST, ALT, triglycerides and urea were observed. This study indicates that winter is the most conducive for spread of mange infection, and treatment during this period should be supplemented with supportive therapy along with acaricides.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, mange infested, blood and biochemical changes with disease, etiology, hematology, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, blood chemistry, blood sugar, clinical aspects, white blood cell counts, neutrophils, eosinophils, leukocyte count, lymphocytes, monocytes, nitrogen, seasonal variation, seasonality, serum albumin, triacylglycerols, winter, summer, India.

Gorakh Mal; Sena, DS; Sahani, MS. Haemato-biochemical changes in camels infested with mange during winter and summer season. Journal of Camel Practice and Research . 2006; 13(2): 173-174. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: The present work aimed to study the haemato-biochemical alteration in mange-infested camels in India compared to healthy camels during winter and summer seasons. There were significant (P<0.01) decreases in haemoglobin (Hb) and neutrophils, while significant increases in eosinophils, lymphocytes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides, urea and glucose were seen in mange infected camels during the winter season. During the summer season, a decrease in albumin content and an increase in total leukocyte counts (TLC), eosinophils, monocytes, AST, ALT, triglycerides and urea were observed. This study indicates that winter is the most conducive for spread of mange infection, and treatment during this period should be supplemented with supportive therapy along with acaricides.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, mange infested, blood and biochemical changes with disease, etiology, hematology, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, blood chemistry, blood sugar, clinical aspects, white blood cell counts, neutrophils, eosinophils, leukocyte count, lymphocytes, monocytes, nitrogen, seasonal variation, seasonality, serum albumin, triacylglycerols, winter, summer, India.

Radfar, MH; Maimand, AE; Sharify, A. A report on parasitic infections in camel (Camelus dromedarius) of Kerman slaughterhouse. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. 2006; 61(2): 165-168. ISSN: 1022-646X. Note: In Persian with an English summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections in camels (Camelus dromedarius; n=60) from the Kerman slaughterhouse. The examination of different organs (including alimentary canal, abdominal cavity, liver, lung, kidneys, heart) and blood smear for parasitic infections were done. The parasites in the washed contents of alimentary canal, lung and sliced organ were cleared using lactophenol or stained with carmine acid collected, counted and identified under the microscope. Blood smears were stained with Giemsa stain. Parasites were found on the alimentary tract, liver, lung, nasal cavity and blood of the camels. Eight species of parasites were detected in abomasum (Haemonchus contortus; 6.67%), small intestine (Moniezia expansa, 5%; M. benedeni, 6.67%; Stilesia globipunctata, 8.3%), liver (hydatid cyst, 3.3%), lungs (hydatid cyst, 28%; Dictyocaulus filaria, 10%), nasal cavity (Cephalopina titillator larvae, 63.3%), and blood (Trypanosoma evansi, 1.6%). This is the first report of these parasites in camels from Kerman. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, post slaughter sampling, diseases, abdominal cavity, disease prevalence, epidemiology, hydatids, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, small intestine, gastrointestinal tract, nasal cavity, Cephalopina titillator, Dictyocaulus filarial, Haemonchus contortus, Moniezia benedeni, Moniezia expansa,Stilesia globipunctata, Trypanosoma evansi, Secernentea, Strongylida, Kerman.

2005

Abo Shehada, MN. Incidence of screw-worm myiasis in Saudi Arabia, 1999/2000. Veterinary Record. 2005; 156(11): 354-356. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com
NAL call no: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Cutaneous myiasis cases were surveyed in farm animals in Saudi Arabia from September 1999 to August 2000. Veterinarians conducted monthly inspections on livestock farms, markets and the zoo in Jeddah. Larvae collected from myiasis cases were identified. It was shown that C. bezziana was prevalent in the Eastern Province, Riyadh and Qasseim governorates, which have a substantial concentration of agricultural production. No evidence of myiasis was found in other areas of the country. The majority of cases occurred in sheep (42%), followed by goats (37%), cattle (14%), horses (4%) and camels (3%). A single case was diagnosed in a donkey. Wohlfahrtia nuba, W. magnifica,Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata and C. albiceps were also found. These results confirm that C. bezziana is the main cause of myiasis in Saudi Arabia and has an economic impact on livestock production.
Descriptors: camels, cattle, sheep, donkeys, goats, horses, Chrysomya bezziana, Chrysomya albiceps, screw worm larvae, survey of livestock, myisais, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological-surveys; epidemiology, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata, Wohlfahrtia, Wohlfahrtia magnifica, Wohlfahrtia nuba, Saudi Arabia.

Al Ani, FK; Roberson, J. Fungal infection of camelids. In: B. Faye and P. Esenov (Editors). Desertification Combat and Food Safety: The Added Value of Camel Producers, Ashkabad, Turkmenistan, 19-21 April 2004. IOS Press, Amsterdam. 2005; 70-84. ISBN: 1586034731
Descriptors: camelids, Bactrian camels, dromedary camels, fungal infections, clinical aspects, etiology, aflatoxicosis, aflatoxin poisoning, European blastomycosis, aspergillosis, candidosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis, dermatomycoses, ergotism, lymphangitis, mycoses, mycotoxicoses, mycotoxins, fungal toxins, dermatophytes, sporotrichosis, zygomycosis, fungal morphology, diagnosis diagnostic techniques, disease control, disease prevention, drug therapy, epidemiology, defence mechanisms, geographical distribution, histopathology, natural immunity, pathogenesis, pathogenicity, taxonomy, antifungal agents, iodine, ceratocide, amphotericin B; antifungal agents; azoles, griseofulvin, imidazoles, nystatin, causal-agents Ajellomyces capsulatus, Aspergillus,Candida albicans, Claviceps purpurea, Conidiobolus coronatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Microsporum, Neotyphodium coenophialum, Neotyphodium lolii, Rhizopus, Sporothrix schenckii, Trichophyton, Acremonium coenophialum, Acremonium lolii, Hyphomycetes.

Al Talafha, HA; Amr, ZS; Al Sheyab, F. Seasonal abundance of horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in Suwaymah (Dead Sea area), Jordan. Journal of the Entomological Research Society. 2005; 7(3): 39-46. ISSN: 1302-0250
URL: http://www.entomol.gazi.edu.tr
Abstract: The seasonal abundance and species richness of horseflies in Suwaymah, Jordan, were studied over a period of one year (January-December 2002). 12 species were collected from the study area. By frequency of captured individuals, Tabanus albifacies constituted 26.4% of the total collected specimens, followed by T. sufis (20.9%), T. leleani (17.8%), T. pallidipes (12.6%), T. accensus (10.4%), T. rupinae (4.1%), Atylotus farinosus (2.6%), T. laetetinctus (1.9%), A. pulchellus (1.5%), Chrysops flavipes (0.7%), T. autumnalis (0.7%) and Haematopota minuscula (0.4%). T. leleani and T. sufis were the first species to appear during the season. The number of recovered species started to increase in April and then decreased in October. Horseflies were absent in January, February, November and December. By host, horses were the preferred animals (12 species), followed by camels (10 species) and cows (7 species). Disease transmission and seasonal abundance are discussed.
Descriptors: cattle, dromedary camels, horses, cows, horseflies, disease transmission, disease vectors, blood sucking insects, hematophagous insects, host specificity, seasonal abundance, species richness, Tabanus, Tabanus autumnalis, Atylotus farinosus, Atylotus pulchellus, Chrysops flavipes, Haematopota minuscula; Tabanus accensus, Tabanus albifacies, Tabanus laetetinctus, Tabanus leleani, Tabanus pallidipes, Tabanus rupinae, Tabanus sufis, Jordan.

Basu, A K; Mohammed, A; Basu, M. A note on camel nasal larva, Cephalopsis titillator (Clark, 1816), in Borno, State of Nigeria. Journal of Natural History India. 2005; 1(1): 17-21. ISSN: 0973-6166
Abstract: A total of 250 carcasses of adult camels consisting of 174 males and 76 females were examined for the nasal parasite and 229 of these were found infected with the larvae which were identified as Cephalopsis titillator [ Clark, 1816]. The morphology and life cycle of the parasite were studied.
Descriptors: dromedary camel, males, females, post slaughter survey, camel nasal larvae, Cephalopina titillator, parasite infection levels, parasite life cycle, morphology, myiasis, Nigeria.

Dioli, M; Fox, MT. First record of the camel tick Rhipicephalus muhsamae in Kenya on a one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Veterinary Record. 2004; 155(7): 206-208. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com
NAL call no: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A total of 28 804 ticks were collected from different body regions of dromedaries in Laikipia District, Kenya, during the wet (May 1999 and June 2000) and dry seasons (September-October 1999). The specimens were identified as Rhipicephalus simus, R. praetextatus and R. muhsamae. Morphological differences in the genital aperture of female ticks observed by scanning electron microscopy led to the identification of R. muhsamae. This is the first report of R. muhsamae infesting in a dromedary in Kenya. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, ectoparasites survey, ectoparasitoses, Rhipicephalus muhsamae, Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus praetextatus, geographical distribution, hosts, morphology, new geographic records, new host records, Kenya.

Dixit, SK; Singh, AP; Tuteja, FC; Sena, DS. Use of herbal formulation in the cure of sarcopticosis in dromedary camel. Veterinary Practitioner. 2005; 6(2): 185-190. ISSN: 0972-4036
Abstract: The efficacy of a herbal formulation prepared from local ingredients against Sarcoptes spp. was tested on dromedaries. 18 animals were divided into 3 groups which were treated with the formulation once daily (Group I), alternately + 15 ml levamisole hydrochloride subcutaneously (Ranbaxy, Group II) and no treatment (Group III). Skin scrapings, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated in all groups. Clinical symptoms (bleeding and skin cracks) significantly improved after 3 days of treatment in Group I. Itching, thickening and wrinkling of the skin persisted until day 10 but was reduced in intensity by day 15. Group II presented a much faster recovery by day 10, while clinical signs became more severe in Group III. Skin scrapings were also negative for mites on day 10 posttreatment. There were no significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, mites, Sarcoptes, ectoparasitoses, skin lesions, clinical aspects, herbal drug formulations drug therapy, levamisole, medicinal plants; potency, traditional medicine chemotherapy, clinical picture, folk medicine, officinal plants.

El Bassiony, GM; Al Sagair, OA; El Daly, ES; El Nady, AM. Alterations in the pituitary-thyroid axis in the camel Camelus dromedarius infected by larvae of nasal bot fly Cephalopina titillator. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2005; 4(3): 345-348. ISSN: 1680-5593
Abstract: The present study used Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) to examine the alterations of the pituitary-thyroid function in camels infected with third instar larvae of Cephalopina titillator by measuring the levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) of the thyroid gland and level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of the pituitary gland. The results indicated that the infection of camels by larvae of the nasal bot fly caused hypothyroidism. This was indicated by the decrease in T3 and T4 blood levels. Also, the data obtained point to the occurrence of a parallel decrease in the level of blood TSH. It appeared that the low release of TSH during infection with C. titillator together with the subsequent decline in T3 and T4 levels from thyroid gland, might reflect the direct effect of infection on pituitary gland, and suggest decreased synthesis of T3 and T4 in response to larval infection of nasal bot fly. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Cephalopina titillator, nasal bot fly, effects on pituitary gland, effects on thyroid, blood chemistry, disease markers, hormonal control, hormone secretion, hypothyroidism, pituitary, thyroid diseases, thyroid gland, thyroxine, thyroid gland, triiodothyronine, endocrine control, endocrine secretion, hormonal regulation, hypophysis, liothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone.

Ghulam Muhammad; Khan, MZ; Hussain, MH; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Iqbal; Muhammad Athar. Ethnoveterinary practices of owners of pneumatic-cart pulling camels in Faisalabad City ( Pakistan). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 97(2): 241-246. ISSN: 0378-8741
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03788741
Abstract: The present study was planned to investigate the ethnoveterinary methods practiced by the owners of pneumatic-cart pulling camels in Faisalabad Metropolis ( Pakistan). During a 7-year-period (November 1992-November 1999), 200 owners of draught camels working in the city were interviewed. Information concerning the ethnoveterinary practices for the treatment of common disorders of digestive tract (indigestion, colic and diarrhea), respiratory tract (cold/rhinitis, pneumonia), skin problems (mange, ulceration of nostrils with or without nasal myiasis, ticks and lice, harness sores), systemic states (fever, anhidrosis) and preventive therapy of indigestion and halitosis was collected through interviews and collated with those documented for the treatment of desert-dwelling camels. Familiarity of owners with two traditional methods of surra (trypanosomiasis) diagnosis ('Sand-ball test' and 'Hair-stick test') known to pastorilists was also probed. In addition, the dose and frequency of use of common salt was investigated. Traditional inputs utilized by the camel owners included various plant products, insecticides, sulphur, sump oil, common salt, aspirin, naphthalene balls and milk fat. Different owners used different combinations of traditional drugs for the treatment of disorders/conditions investigated. None of the camel owners was found familiar with the 'Sand-ball test' or 'Hair-stick test' of trypanosomiasis diagnosis. For the prevention of indigestion and halitosis all camel owners had practiced administration of 'massaulas' (physic drench/balls) along with common salt (average 250 g) on weekly basis. In general, the ethnoveterinary treatment practices used by the owners of city-dwelling camels appear to be different from those documented for the treatment of diseases of desert-dwelling camels.
Descriptors: draft camels in an urban environment, cart pulling camels, working camels, camel diseases, colic, diarrhea, dyspepsia, mange, parasitoses, parasitic infections, pneumonia, respiratory diseases, rhinitis, skin diseases, harness sores, injuries, Trypanosoma evansi, trypanosomiasis, myiasis, causal agents, diagnosis, disease prevention, ethnicity folk medicine, traditional medicine, ethnic differences, medicinal plants, plant extracts, aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, insecticides, milk fat, naphthalene, plant extracts, ethnoveterinary care, salt, elemental sulfur, surveys, Pakistan.

Hassan, HY; Zaghawa, AAE; Fukata, T. Treatment trial of one humped-camels (Camelus dromedarius) with mange using Aloe vera gel leaves. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2005; 10(2): 103-106. ISSN: 1342-6133. Note: In English with a Japanese summary.
Abstract: Ten one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) suffering from mange were used in this investigation. The clinical signs of the affected animals were debility, various degrees of alopecia, severe dermatitis, pruritus and thickening with scales of different areas of the skin. All camels were treated for mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli by rubbing Aloe vera gel leaves topically on the affected skin lesions everyday. All skin lesions disappeared rapidly and unexpectedly, with the disappearance of mites in skin scrapings. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, mange, scabies, Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli, skin lesions, treatment with medicinal plants, Aloe vera leaves, medicinal plants, treatment.

Manisha Mathur; Hemant Dadhich; Sharma, GD; Sandeep Khare. Histopathological observations of interface dermatitis in camel (Camelus dromedarius) in different areas of Rajasthan. Veterinary Practitioner. 2005; 6(2): 151-152. ISSN: 0972-4036
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camel pathology, interface dermatitis, diagnosis, histopathology, skin diseases, regional variations, Rajasthan, India.

Manisha Mathur; Hemant Dadhich; Sharma, GD; Sandeep Khare. A study of haemato-biochemical changes in camels affected with cutaneous ectoparasitoses in Rajasthan. Veterinary Practitioner. 2005; 6(2): 131-132. ISSN: 0972-4036
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the various skin problems in camels in Rajasthan, India [date not given] and the effects of skin diseases on their blood picture and chemistry. Out of 187 affected cases, cutaneous ectoparasitoses was found in 22 camels (11.76%) and 16 blood samples were taken to study the haemato-biochemical changes. Among the haematological parameters observed were decrease in TEC, Hb, PCV, MCHC, lymphocyte counts and an increase in TLC, neutrophil counts and eosinophil counts. In terms of blood chemical parameters, an increase in blood glucose, total protein, albumin and globulin with a decrease in A:G ratio were found.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Sacrcoptes mites, mange, ectoparasites, ectoparasitoses, disease prevalence; disease surveys, blood chemistry, blood picture, blood protein, blood-sugar, serum albumin, eosinophils, erythrocyte count, globulins, hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte count, lymphocytes, neutrophils, Rajasthan, India.

Manisha Mathur; Hemant Dadhich; Sharma, GD. A pathological and haematological study of diffuse dermatitis in camels. Veterinary Practitioner. 2005; 6(1): 88-89. ISSN: 0972-4036
Descriptors: dromedary camels, skin lesions, dermatitis, dermis, disease markers, histopathology, hematology, hematocrit, hemoglobin, white blood cells, eosinophils, leucocytes, neutrophils, erythrocyte count, histiocytes, parasites, viruses, bacteria, viruses, pathology.

Manisha Mathur; Hemant Dadhich; Sandeep Khare. Prevalence and histopathological observations of mange affected camel skin in different areas of Rajasthan. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2005; 12(1): 65-67. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: The prevalence and histopathology of mange affected skin of camels were recorded in the present study. It was recorded that the prevalence of mange was 11.78%. Grossly, papules, crusts and eruptions were observed on the skin. Microscopically, there were minute cavities in the epidermal layer which showed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis and increased in stratum corneum and stratum germinativum. Some foci of proliferated fibrous connective tissues were also found. The affected follicles contained mites, keratinous debris and inflammatory infiltrations. The parasite obtained from the skin scrapings of affected camels was identified as Sarcoptes scabei var. cameli. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, skin parasites, camel mange mites, Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli, lesions, clinical aspects, disease prevalence, ectoparasitoses, histopathology.

Parmar, AJ; Veer Singh; Chaudhary, SS; Prajapati, BH; Sengar, YS. Haematobiochemical studies on sarcoptic mange in camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Banaskantha district ( North Gujarat). Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 2005; 29(1): 71-73. ISSN: 0971-7196
URL: http://www.springer.com/medicine/internal/journal/12639
Abstract: Haematological and biochemical studies were conducted in camels naturally infected with sarcoptic mange in Banaskantha district in North Gujarat, India [date not given]. Blood changes revealed highly significant lower values in haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, neutrophil and MCHC in affected camels. Total leukocyte count and MCV showed significantly higher values in affected camels. Biochemical studies showed significant lower values in total protein, albumin, globulin, A:G ratio, and calcium in affected camels.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Sarcoptes scabiei, mange, blood plasma proteins; calcium-; red blood cells, white blood cells, erythrocyte count, globulins, hemoglobin, leukocyte count, neutrophils, serum albumin, Gujarat, India.

Parmar, AJ; Veer Singh; Sengar, YS. Epidemiological studies on sarcoptic mange in camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Banaskantha district ( North Gujarat). Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 2005; 29(1): 67-70. ISSN: 0971-7196
URL: http://www.springer.com/medicine/internal/journal/12639
Abstract: The epidemiological data on incidence of sarcoptic mange in camels in Banaskantha district in North Gujarat, India, were analysed in relation to age, nutritional status, sex, body condition, and hygienic condition [date not given]. The incidence of sarcoptic mange was 57.97%. Higher incidence was observed in the camels aged between 5-10 years. Difference in the sex-wise incidence of sarcoptic mange was non-significant. Comparatively higher prevalence was recorded in camels with poor body condition and kept under poor hygienic condition. Analysis of month-wise incidence indicated increasing trend from May to December. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Sarcoptes scabiei, mange, skin parasites, hygiene, nutritional status, seasonal variation, Gujarat, India.

Parmar, AJ; Veer Singh; Momin, RR; Parsani, HR; Sengar, YS. Clinical studies of sarcoptic mange in camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Banaskantha District ( North Gujarat). Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2005; 12(1): 57-58. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: Clinical studies were conducted in camels (n=138) naturally infected with sarcoptic mange. Clinically affected camels experienced restlessness, emaciation, weakness and marked reduction in milk production and working capacity. Affected camels exhibited alopecia with thick, wrinkled skin over the neck, medial aspect of thigh and brisket region and oozing of serous fluid or blood. Pruritus was observed in the affected camels. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, skin parasites, lesions, Sarcoptes, clinical aspects, ectoparasitoses, mange, reduced milk production, Gujarat, India.

Rajender Kumar; Gorakh Mal; Sena, DS. Comparative efficacy of fenvalerate, deltamethrin, amitraz and ivermectin against sarcoptic mange in camel. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2005; 82(1): 88-89. ISSN: 0019-6479
URL: http://www.indvetjournal.com
NAL call no.: 41.8 IN2
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fenvalerate, deltamethrin, amitraz and ivermectin in controlling sarcoptic mange in camels. 15 camels suffering from sarcoptic mange were divided into 5 groups. Groups I, II and III were sprayed with 500 ppm fenvalerate, 50 ppm deltamethrin and 500 ppm amitraz thrice at an interval of 7 days, respectively. Group IV was subcutaneously administered with ivermectin at 0.02 mg/kg body weight, whereas group V was kept as untreated control. Considerable reduction in mites of all stages was observed after 7 days of treatment in groups I, II and III. Complete recovery was observed after the 3rd spray in groups I, II and III. Group IV camels recovered after a single treatment. After 21 days, no mites were observed in the skin scrapings. The condition of the camels in group V was further aggravated due to intense pruritus.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Sarcoptes scabiei, scabies, pruritus, mange control, drug therapy, amitraz, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, ivermectin, pharmacodynamics, drug action.

2004

Dioli, M; Fox, MT. First record of the camel tick Rhipicephalus muhsamae in Kenya on a one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Veterinary Record-London. 2004 Aug 14; 155(7): 206-208. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com
NAL call no: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: dromedaries, ticks, first record, Rhipicephalus muhsamae, Kenya.

Dixit, SK; Tuteja, FC; Sena, DS; Singh, R; Sharma, N. Miticidal properties of a herbal formulation on camel. Veterinary Practitioner. 2004; 5(2): 114-116. ISSN: 0972-4036
Descriptors: dromedary camels, mites infestations, mite control, herbal medicines, medicinal plant, efficacy, medicinal properties of drug plants

Dixit, SK; Tuteja, FC; Singh, AP; Sharma, N. Management of sarcopticosis in one humped camel - a comparative study. Veterinary Practitioner. 2004; 5(1): 11-16. ISSN: 0972-4036
Descriptors: dromedary camels, skin parasites, Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli, ectoparasites, scabies, mange, aminotransferases, drug formulations, medicinal plants, efficacy of herbal drugs, parasitoses.

El Jaouhari, S; Ouhelli, H; Yassine, F. A propos de cas de teignes du dromadaire au Maroc.[Cases of dromedary ringworm in Morocco.] Journal de Mycologie Medicale. 2004; 14(2): 83-87. ISSN: 1156-5233. Note: In French with an English summary.
Abstract: The prevalence of ringworm infection was determined in 96 camels in the Sahara ( Morocco) during June 2002-April 2003. Seventy-one animals were healthy and 25 (26.04%) had lesions. Lesions were found on the head and body. Infection was very frequent among young animals aged less than 3 years and was predominant during winter and autumn. Mycological examination revealed the presence of only one dermatophyte species, Trichophyton sarkisovii. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Trichophyton sarkisovii, dermatomycoses, fungal infection of the skin, disease prevalence, epidemiology, Morocco.

Gadallah, Neveen S; Bosly, Hanan A. Diptera associated with camels in the Jeddah region, western Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Arabia. 2006; 21: 339-350. ISSN: 1660-2889. Note: In English with Arabic and English summaries.
Descriptors: Camelus dromedarius, dipteran parasites associated with camels, parasite survey, new host record, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

James Rugu, NN; Jidayi, S. A survey on the ectoparasites of some livestock from some areas of Borno and Yobe States. Nigerian Veterinary Journal. 2004; 25(2): 48-55. ISSN: 0331-3026
URL: http://www.ajol.info/viewarticle.php?jid=19&id=19254&layout=abstract
Abstract: An investigation on the ectoparasites of livestock from Maiduguri Metropolitan and Askira Uba ( Borno State), Fika and Nangere ( Yobe State), Nigeria, was conducted. A total of 1600 camels, 2200 cattle, 500 sheep, 400 goats, 230 dogs and 250 pigs were examined for ectoparasites. Ticks, lice and flies were the ectoparasites recorded. Infestation rate of ticks was high on camels, cattle and dogs. Tick infestation rates on sheep and goats were 43.0 and 26.5%, respectively. The species of ticks recorded were all from the Family Ixodidae. Ticks on camels were Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma dromedarii, Boophilus decoloratus and Hyalomma truncatum. In order of predominance, cattle were infested with B. decoloratus, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi and Amblyomma lepidum. Sheep and goats were also infested with ixodid ticks, though the infestation rates were relatively low. The flies trapped in this study comprised of members of the order Diptera, while lice were from the order Anoplura. The level of infestation rates of ectoparasites in relation to age groups and sex of hosts were assessed. The population of the ectoparasites on different hosts showed wide differences. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: domestic animals, dromedary camels, sheep, pigs, dogs, goats, disease prevalence, disease surveys, ectoparasites, ectoparasitoses, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, species differences, Ixodidae, Metastigmata, Phthiraptera, Anoplura, Diptera, Amblyomma lepidum; Haemaphysalis leachi; Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma rufipes, Boophilus decoloratus, Nigeria.

Kataria , AK ; Kataria, N. Immunoradiometric assay of serum IgE levels in dromedary camel. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2004; 11(1): 11-13. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the total IgE levels in the sera of healthy camels and of those affected with mange using radioimmunoassay. The total IgE levels were estimated in 54 camels (Camelus dromedarius) and related with the total eosinophil counts obtained. The sera collected from 30 adult healthy camels (18 males and 12 females) and 24 camels (14 males and 10 females) affected with mange were analysed. Significantly higher levels of IgE were recorded in camels suffering from mange than in healthy camels. An insignificant difference was recorded between male and female camels. Slightly higher counts of eosinophils were recorded in camels with raised IgE levels. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, serum IgE levels, healthy camels, mange infected camels, immune response, eosinophil counts, immunoradiometric assay, immunological reactions, regain, reaginic antibodies.

Kilic, N; Kirkan, S. Actinomycosis in a one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A. 2004; 51(7/8): 363-364. ISSN: 0931-184X
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118788793/issue
Abstract: An actinomycotic granuloma caused by Actinomyces viscosus is reported in a dromedary camel. Two hard, cutaneous, large granulamatous nodules were present on both sides of the postero-ventral side of the mandible exhibiting exudation and necrosis. After radical excision of the lesion, the daily treatment with penicillin-streptomycin combination was continued for 4 weeks. About 8 and 24 weeks from the initial treatment, no new nodules were noticed. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camel, granulomatous nodules of the mandible, Actinomyces viscosus infection, clinical aspects, case study, symptoms, treatment with excision, antiobiotics, penicillin and streptomycin combination drug therapy, case report.

Mahran, OM; Saleh, MA. Prevalence of ectoparasites and their effect on some biochemical indices in camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Shalatin City. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2004; 50(100): 164-187. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: A field and abattoir survey was conducted on 810 male and female camels at different ages and seasons to study the prevalence of ectoparasites at Shalatin City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. Of 680 examined camels in the field study, 45.59% revealed infestation with ectoparasites. Of these, 11.76% were infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli, 30.14% with ticks and 3.67% showed mixed infestations. The incidence of ectoparasites in the abattoir survey was higher (87.7%) because of the high incidence of Cephalopenia titillator (67.69%). Tick species such as Hyalomma dromedarii, Amblyomma lepidum and Ornithodoros savignyi were recorded. Older camels were more susceptible than younger individuals. Mange mites and bot flies were more prevalent with a higher intensity in female than in male camels. Tick infestation was more prevalent in males but females had a higher burden. The highest rate of mite and nasal bot infestation was recorded in winter while the lowest was in summer. Normocytic normochromic anaemia was the hallmark of tick and nasal bot infestation, but infestation with mites revealed microcytic hypochromic anaemia. All infested groups showed leukocytosis accompanied by lymphocytosis and eosinophilia. Proteinograms showed hypoproteinaemia consequent to hypoalbuminaemia and hyperglobulinaemia. There was marked hyper- alpha -globulinaemia and hyper gamma -globulinaemia without changes in the beta -globulin fraction. Cases of sarcoptic mange treated with ivermectin showed disappearance of clinical signs and restored haematological and biochemical indices. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, males, females, varying ages, sex differences on infestation, ectoparasites, Cephalopenia titillator, bot flies, Hyalomma dromedarii, Amblyomma lepidum, Ornithodoros savignyi, ticks, Sarcoptes scabiei, mites, mange, parasite prevalence on slaughtered camels, blood chemistry, disease prevalence, hematology, ivermectin, seasonal differences, Egypt.

Saleem, AN; Al Hadidi, MAF. Efficacy of some drugs used in the treatment of naturally occurring mange in camels. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2004; 18(1): 49-62. ISSN: 1607-3894
Abstract: The efficacy of ivermectin, diazinon and cypermethrin in the control of sarcoptic mange in Arabian camels (Camelus dromedaries) was evaluated. The animals were divided into four group and were treated with: ivermectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg b.w.) s.c. (group I); two doses of ivermectin 1% given 7 days apart (group II); diazinon (60) (group III) and local cypermethrin (group IV). The animals were examined clinically for the types and distribution of mange and for the presence of other infections. Haematological and biochemical analyses were conducted on days 6, 14, 21 and 28 of the treatment. Skin scraping samples were examined for mite number and presence of their ova. Haematological examination included Hb, PCV, DLC and TLC while the biochemical analysis included determination of ALT, AST and TP. Clinical examination of the infected animals showed signs of itchiness, pruritus, restlessness, thickening and dryness of the affected areas and oozing of blood and serum, especially in severely affected areas. Skin lesions were distributed on the face, around the eyes, neck, upper parts of the limbs, trunk and tail. The lesions usually involved more than one area. The results revealed that group II camels showed the best response to treatment. Haematological and biochemical results revealed an improvement toward normal values post-treatment. In conclusion, this study shows greater efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment and control of mange in camels compared to diazinon and cypermethrin. Ivermectin can also be applied easily and has lower toxicity.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, mange, Sarcoptes, ectoparasites, blood chemistry, cypermethrin, diazinon, dosage effects, drug therapy, potency, hematology.

Wellehan, JFX; Farina, LL; Keoughan, CG; Lafortune, M; Grooters, AM; Mendoza, L; Brown, M; Terrell, SP; Jacobson, ER; Heard, DJ. Pythiosis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2004; 35(4): 564-568. ISSN: 1042-7260
Abstract: A 4.5-yr-old male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) was evaluated for a mass on the right side of the face. A complete blood count and blood chemistry revealed anemia and hypoproteinemia. Radiographs did not reveal bony involvement. The mass was resected and Pythium insidiosum was cultured. The camel was treated with an experimental immunotherapeutic vaccine and with sodium iodide and ceftiofur. The camel began to lose weight postoperatively and died 6 mo later. At necropsy, the camel was found to have gastritis of the third compartment of the stomach with intralesional hyphae of this oomycete pathogen. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Pythium insidiosum, cetiofur, anemia, blood chemistry, differential diagnosis, gastritis, histopathology, hypoproteinemia, surgery, vaccination.

Zeleke, M; Bekele, T. Species of ticks on camels and their seasonal population dynamics in Eastern Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2004 Apr; 36(3): 225-231. ISSN: 0049-4747. Note: in English with Spanish and French summaries.
URL: http://www.kluweronline.com/issn/0049-4747/contents
NAL call no : SF601.T7
Descriptors: dromedaries, tick infestations, Rhipicephalus pulchellus (85.2%), Hyalomma dromedarii (5.9%), Amblyomma, gemma (4.0%) Amblyomma variegatum (1.8%) Boophilus decoloratus, traditional farming, seasonal variation, wet season; parasite levels, infestation severity, Ethiopia.

 

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