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Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 2004-2008
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Arabian - Protozoal Diseases

2008

Bornstein, S; Gluecks, IV; Younan, M; Thebo, P; Mattsson, JG. Isospora orlovi infection in suckling dromedary camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology. 2008; 152(3/4): 194-201. ISSN: 0304-4017
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
Abstract: Outbreaks of isosporosis in young suckling dromedary camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) in Dubai, UAE and in Kenya were recently described. In the former outbreak the pathogen was shown to be Isospora orlovi by morphological features and was later characterized molecularly. In the present study, we have made a longitudinal investigation of 159 suckling dromedary calves <=12 weeks of age belonging to 8 ranched camel herds (M1) in Northern Kenya. The study was carried out during 18 months. In three of the herds frequent samples were taken irregularly every 1-6 weeks. All calves <=12 weeks of age present in the respective herds were sampled during the visits. In addition, 91 calves of the same age group but belonging to 42 pastoral herds (M2) in Northern Kenya were point sampled at convenience. Faecal samples from each calf were taken and the faeces were investigated for coccidia. Samples found with coccidian oocysts were suspended in a 2% potassium dichromate solution. Isospora sp. was identified and samples with relatively high numbers of Isospora sp. were analysed molecularly. The SSU rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) were amplified with primers complementary to conserved regions of the SSU rRNA gene in eukaryotes as well as a conserved part of the 5.8S rRNA gene of Eimeria. A relatively high number of the calves exhibited diarrhoea, 30.2% and 41.8% in the M1 and M2 herds, respectively. Isospora sp. was only found in diarrhoeic calves or in calves convalescent from recent scouring periods. No calf >8 weeks of age was found to be excreting Isospora sp. The parasite was only found in calves <=4 weeks of age in the M1 herds and in the M2 herds in calves <8 weeks of age. Of the M1 and M2 calves exhibiting diarrhoea, 20.8% and 26.3% excreted Isospora sp., respectively. Morphologically the Isospora sp. was similar to I. orlovi and sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene from four Kenyan isolates (unfortunately only from the pastoral herds, M2) and ITS 1 segments from three of the isolates from Kenya and one from Dubai, confirmed that the Isospora isolates belonged to the species I. orlovi, and that the sequences were similar to the Dubai isolates.
Descriptors: dromedary camel, calves, amplification, characterization, diarrhea, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, feces, genes, nucleotide sequences, outbreaks, ribosomal RNA, sucklings, coccidian, Isospora, Isospora orlovi, disease surveillance, feces, rRNA, scouring, Kenya.

Desquesnes, M; Bossard, G; Patrel, D; Herder, S; Patout, O; Lepetitcolin, E; Thevenon, S; Berthier, D; Pavlovic, D; Brugidou, R. First outbreak of Trypanosoma evansi in camels in metropolitan France. Veterinary Record ( London). 2008 June 7; 162(23): 750-752. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com
NAL call no: 41.8 V641
Abstract: The first outbreak of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in camels in France was reported on a farm in the Aveyron Department. Five camels were imported from the Canary Islands to the farm in early July 2006, and trypanosomes were observed on a stained blood smear from one of them, which died in October. On further investigations, trypanosomes were observed in the blood of five camels, three of them indigenous to the farm and two that had been imported. On the basis of microscopical examination (morphological criteria and measurements) and serological results based on the card agglutination T. evansi test and PCR typing, the parasites were identified as T. evansi. After treatment with melarsomine, the infected camels rapidly became negative by parasitological tests and were negative two to four months later by serological tests. The parasite was probably transmitted by tabanids and Stomoxys calcitrans, which were abundant in July to September 2006. No parasites were observed in other animals on the farm or on neighbouring farms, but some of the sheep on these farms were positive by PCR or serology. Reproduced with permission from CAB.
Descriptors: camels, Trypanosoma evansi, disease outbreaks, France.

Ghazi, YA; Farghaly, AA; Mahmoud, KGM; Ghazy, AA. Preliminarily studies on chromosomal abnormalities and sister chromatid exchanges associated with trypanosomosis in relation to male camel fertility. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2008; 3(4): 254-262. ISSN: 1683-9919
URL: http://www.academicjournals.net/2/c4p.php?id=2&theme=2&jid=ajava
Abstract: A total of 42 male camels in a private farm located at the Ismailia province in Egypt during 2004-05 were examined by parasitological and direct agglutination tests for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. The prevalence levels were 15 and 33 (35.71 and 78.57%, respectively) by parasitological and direct agglutination card tests, respectively. Nine infected male camels with trypanosomiasis were selected to study the chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange (SCEs) frequency and to determine the level of testosterone. The frequencies of chromosomal structural aberrations in male camels with trypanosomiasis significantly increased (7.78+or-0.88) compared to that in non-infected control group (2.22+or-0.55). An increase in the structural aberrations was observed in the form of fragment, deletions, gaps and breaks. A significant increase in the frequency of SCEs was observed more in diseased than in healthy camels. Thus, chromosomal abnormalities and SCEs might be implicated in the pathogenesis of trypanosomiasis. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, 42 males, trypanosomiasis testing, disease prevalence, disease surveys, chromosome aberrations, chromosome breakage, deletions, male fertility, Trypanosoma, pathogenesis, sister chromatid exchange, testosterone levels, Egypt.

Kvac, M; Sak, B; Kvetonova, D; Ditrich, O; Hofmannova, L; Modry, D; Vitovec, J; Xiao, LH: Infectivity, pathogenicity, and genetic characteristics of mammalian gastric Cryptosporidium spp. in domestic ruminants. Veterinary Parasitology. 2008; 153(3/4): 363-367. ISSN: 0304-4017
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
Abstract: Farm ruminants were infected experimentally with four mammalian gastric Cryptosporidium, namely Cryptosporidium andersoni LI03 originated from cattle and three isolates of Cryptosporidium muris from brown rat (isolate RN66), Bactrian camel (isolate CB03) and firstly characterized isolate from East African mole rat (isolate TS03). Sequence characterizations of the small-subunit rRNA gene showed that the LI03 isolate was C. andersoni and the other three isolates belonged to C. muris, although the TS03 isolate showed unique sequence variations (one single nucleotide change and four nucleotide insertions). C. andersoni LI03 was infectious for calves only, whereas lambs and kids were susceptible to C. muris CB03. C. muris TS03 and RN66 were not infectious for any farm ruminants. Infection dynamics including prepatent and patent period and infection intensity of the isolates used differed depending on the host species, but no clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis were observed in any of experimentally infected hosts. Cryptosporidium developmental stages were only detected in infected animals in the abomasum region. Histopathological changes were characterized by dilatation and epithelial metaplasia of infected gastric glands with no significant inflammatory responses in the lamina propria.
Descriptors: cryptosporidiosis, experimental infections, histopathology, intestines, livestock, pathogenesis, protozoal infections, Cryptosporidium muris, Cryptosporidium andersoni.

Lai, De Hua; Hashimi, Hassan; Lun, Zhao Rong; Ayala, Francisco J; Lukes, Julius. Adaptations of Trypanosoma brucei to gradual loss of kinetoplast DNA: Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi are petite mutants of T. brucei. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008 Feb 12; 105(6): 1999-2004. ISSN: 0027-8424
URL: http://www.pnas.org/
NAL call no: 500 N21P
Abstract: Trypanosoma brucei is a kinetoplastid flagellate, the agent of human sleeping sickness and ruminant nagana in Africa. Kinetoplastid flagellates contain their eponym kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), consisting of two types of interlocked circular DNA molecules: scores of maxicircles and thousands of minicircles. Maxicircles have typical mitochondrial genes, most of which are translatable only after RNA editing. Minicircles encode guide RNAs, required for decrypting the maxicircle transcripts. The life cycle of T. brucei involves a bloodstream stage (BS) in vertebrates and a procyclic stage (PS) in the tsetse fly vector. Partial [dyskinetoplastidy (Dk)] or total [akinetoplastidy (Ak)] loss of kDNA locks the trypanosome in the BS form. Transmission between vertebrates becomes mechanical without PS and tsetse mediation, allowing the parasite to spread outside the African tsetse belt. Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi are agents of dourine and surra, diseases of horses, camels, and water buffaloes. We have characterized representative strains of T. equiperdum and T. evansi by numerous molecular and classical parasitological approaches. We show that both species are actually strains of T. brucei, which lost part (Dk) or all (Ak) of their kDNA. These trypanosomes are not monophyletic clades and do not qualify for species status. They should be considered two subspecies, respectively T. brucei equiperdum and T. brucei evansi, which spontaneously arose recently. Dk/Ak trypanosomes may potentially emerge repeatedly from T. brucei.
Descriptors: horses, camels, water buffaloes, T. brucei equiperdum,T. brucei evansi, tsetse belt, dourine, surra, monophyletic clades, not for species status.

Manal, YI; Maijd, AM. Association of diarrhea with congenital toxoplasmosis in calf-camels (Camelus dromedarius). International Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2008; 3(1): 10-11. ISSN: 1816-3319
Abstract: Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected among diarrheic calf-camels - less than 12 months of age - from a three different locations in the Sudan; Butana (East), Kordofan (West) and River Nile (North). Out of 306 serum sample, 157 serum samples were seropositive by latex agglutination test (51.3%). ELISA test was applied on the sero-reacted sera, IgM and IgG were detected in sera of diarrheic calf camels and sera of recovered ones, respectively. Serum samples from 18 diarrheic calf-camels and their mothers revealed that, 12 out of 18 diarrheic calves with their mothers were sero-reacted for Toxoplasma antibodies while the remainder 6 calves and their mothers were sero-negative. This study revealed a wide spread of toxoplasmosis among diarrheic calf-camels. The statistical analysis using software analysis programs showed no significant differences between the three surveyed locations p<0.05. Statistically there was no significant difference between age groups (p<0.05); this may reveal an occurrence of congenital infection. A relationship between congenital toxoplasmosis and diarrhoea in calf camels was discussed. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: camels, mothers, calves, age groups, agglutination tests, Toxoplasma gondii, prenatal infection, congenital protozoal infection, congenital toxoplasmosis, diarrhea, ELISA, IgG, IgM, latex agglutination test, statistical analysis.

Reghu Ravindran; Rao, JR; Mishra, AK; Pathak, KML; Nagarajan Babu; Satheesh, CC; Sachivothaman Rahul Trypanosoma evansi in camels, donkeys and dogs in India: comparison of PCR and light microscopy for detection - short communication. Veterinarski Arhiv. 2008; 78(1): 89-94. ISSN: 0372-5480. Note: In English with a Croatian summary.
URL: http://www.vef.hr/vetarhiv
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to compare sensitivity and specificity of PCR and blood smear for the detection of Trypanosoma evansi in camels (n=61), donkeys (n=44) and dogs (n=26). Out of 131 blood samples tested, 26 samples (21 camels, 3 donkeys and 2 dogs) were detected positive by PCR. Blood smear examination revealed that T. evansi was only present in two camels. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dogs, donkeys, dromedary camels, asses, Trypanosoma evansi, protozoal infections, PCR, diagnostic, techniques, diagnostic accuracy, protozoal infections; trypanosomiasis.

Saerens, D; Stijlemans, B; Baral, TN; Giang Thanh Nguyen, Thi; Wernery, U; Magez, S; Baetselier, P de; Muyldermans, S; Conrath, K. Parallel selection of multiple anti-infectome nanobodies without access to purified antigens. Journal of Immunological Methods. 2008; 329(1/2): 138-150. ISSN: 0022-1759
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00221759
Abstract: A strategy was developed to isolate nanobodies, camelid-derived single-domain antibody fragments, against the parasite infectome without a priori knowledge of the antigens nor having access to the purified antigens. From a dromedary, infected with T. evansi, we cloned a pool of nanobodies and selected after phage display 16 different nanobodies specific for a single antigen, i.e. variant surface glycoprotein of T. evansi. Moreover 14 nanobodies were isolated by panning on different total parasite lysates. This anti-infectome experiment generated nanobodies monospecific for one Trypanosoma species, whereas others were pan-reactive to various Trypanosoma species. Several nanobodies could label specifically the coat of a set of Trypanozoon species. The recognized target(s) are present in GPI-linked membrane fractions of bloodstream- and fly-form parasites. Due to the omnipresence of these targets on different parasite species and forms, these antibody fragments are a valuable source for validation of novel, not yet identified targets to design new diagnostics and therapeutics. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: camels, experimental transmission, Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma brucei, amino acid sequences, protein sequences, antibodies, antigens, antigenicity, experimental infection, IgG, immune response, immunogenetics, isolation of parasite, diagnostics, therapeutics.

Ul Hasan, Murtaz; Muhammad, Ghulam; Gutierrez, Carlos; Iqbal, Zafar; Shakoor, Abdul; Jabbar, Abdul. Prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in equines and camels in the Punjab region, Pakistan. 8th Biennial Conference of the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Hanoi, Vietnam; June 26-July 01, 2005. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. 2006. ISSN: 0077-8923 (print). ISBN: 9781573316378
Descriptors: 170 equines, 150 dromedary camels, prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection, pasasitological and serological examinations, found in 11camels, no positive equines, control measures discussed, Punjab, Pakistan.

Wilson, RT. Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 2008; 79(2): 58-61. ISSN: 0038-2809
Descriptors: dromedary camels, introduction into Namibia for military purposes, camels introduced into South Africa and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) to replace oxen, concerns regarding introductions of disease, foot and mouth disease, mange, trypanosomosis, antibodies to common livestock found in later years.

2007

Ahmed, SM; Hegde, BP. Preliminary study on the major important camel calf diseases and other factors causing calf mortality in the Somali Regional state of Ethiopia. In: Gahlot, TK (Editor). Proceedings of the International Camel Conference " Recent Trends in Camelids Research and Future Strategies for Saving Camels", Rajasthan, India, 16-17 February 2007. 2007; 31-41.
Abstract: This study was undertaken in 5 randomly selected districts of Aider zone. 15 households were selected from each district. A total of 75 households were included in this study. Random sampling technique was used. Calf mortality was seen as prenatal death due to abortion, postnatal death from first week to 3 months of calf age and before weaning period. The latter was mainly caused by some endemic diseases and other associated factors. In this study, the abortion rate was 16% and was caused by several factors. These included accidental death of fetus and trypanosomiasis, which contributed 64.3 and 28.6%, respectively, in the case of Jarati, whereas trypanosomiasis and stress conditions contributed 40 and 46.7%, respectively, in the case of Hargelle. On the other hand, stress conditions caused by adverse environmental conditions and unidentified poisonous plants contributed 26.7 and 73.3%, respectively, in the case of Barey. Similarly, trypanosomiasis, accidental death and stress conditions and browsing of poisonous plants contributed 33.3, 40.0, 20.0 and 6.7%, respectively, in the case of Dollo-Bay. With regard to El-kari district, about 66.7, 26.7 and 6.7% of respondents claimed that abortion was caused by accidental deaths, poisonous plants and stressful conditions, respectively. On the other hand, calf death was very high during the first week after birth. About 60, 50, 55, 45, 35% of Hargelle, Jarati, Barey, Dollo-Bay and El-kari, respectively, suggested that an average 51% of calf losses were encountered during the first week of calves. Calf mortality of about 30% was encountered during the first 90 days of calf age, whereas the remaining 19% were encountered after 90 days of calf life before weaning. Poor colostrum feeding practice was also believed to be one of the major causes of calf mortality during the first week of life. Furthermore, some endemic diseases and other associated factors were also reported to be among the major causes of calf mortality during the lactation period before weaning. The most important disease found was calf scour (daab). The morbidity and mortality rates of calf scour were 87 and 39%, respectively. Sunken eye (ilqod) was considered as the second problematic disease of calves by herders. The disease caused serious economic losses to the households through loss of milk after death of the calves. The morbidity and mortality rates due to sunken eyes were 57 and 12%, respectively. Contagious ecthyma (canbaruur) was considered as one of the important diseases of calves by herders. The morbidity and mortality rates of contagious ecthyma were 75 and 6.9%, respectively. Contagious necrotic skin was also considered as one of the important diseases of calves by herders. About 88% of all districts reported that the disease affected their calves with morbidity and mortality rates of 35 and 4.6%, respectively. Other endemic diseases reported were trypanosomiasis with morbidity and mortality rates of 9.6 and 6.7%. Camel pox had morbidity and mortality rates of 42 and 7%, respectively. Pneumonia had a mortality rate of 7%. On the other hand, factors causing calf losses included predation which was about 4.8, 23.8, 26.6, 16.7, and 26.2% in Hargelle, Jarati, Barey, Dollo-Bay and El-kari, respectively, suggesting that predators were considered next to diseases in causing calf mortality. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedarycamels, calves, fetal abortion, age differences, animal diseases, anthrax, camel milk, colostrum, deformities, diarrhea, losses scarcoptes mange, morbidity, mortality, necrosis, pneumonia, poisoning, poisonous plants, predation, stress, toxicity, trypanosomiasis, viral diseases, Bacillus anthracis, Contagious ecthyma virus, plants, Trypanosoma, contagious pustular dermatitis, CPD virus, death rate, diarrhea, orf virus, scabby mouth, sore mouth, toxic plants, toxicosis, trypanosomosis, ulcerative dermatosis, viral infections, Abyssinia, Ethiopia.

Dedet, JP. Les decouvertes d'Edmond SERGENT sur la transmission vectorielle des agents de certaines maladies infectieuses humaines et animales. [ Edmond Sergent's discoveries on the vectorial transmission of agents of human and animal infectious diseases.] Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique. 2007; 100(2): 147-150. ISSN: 0037-9085. Note: In French with an English summary.
URL: http://www.pathexo.fr
Abstract: Edmond Sergent has been head of the Institut Pasteur in Algeria during 1910-63, and during those years, carried out an impressive scientific research and studied a lot of agents responsible for human, animal and plant diseases. In the field of vectorial transmission of infectious diseases, he made two essential discoveries: the transmission of cosmopolitan relapsing fever by human body louse in 1908, a year before Charles Nicolle discovered the transmission of the classical exanthematic typhus by the same insect, and the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis by the phlebotomine sandfly. Moreover, he made other discoveries in similar fields, such as the transmission of dromedary trypanosomiasis by Tabanids, and later by Stomoxys calcitrans, and the transmission of the pigeon Haemoproteus by Lynchia maura. Finally, he described the transmission of Theileria dispar (now T. annulata) by the tick Hyalomma mauritanicum (1928). Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: Edmond Sergent, Insitut Pasteur, early researcher, animal and human diseases, medical entomologist, veterinary entomology, disease transmission, disease vectors, vector borne diseases, cutaneous leishmaniasis, louse borne typhus, protozoal infections, trypanosomiasis, dromedary camels, pigeons, Haemoproteus, Hyalomma, Leishmania, Phlebotominae, Pseudolynchia canariensis, Rickettsia prowazekii, Stomoxys calcitrans, Tabanidae, Theileria annulata, Trypanosoma, Hyalomma mauritanicum, Lynchia maura.

Fouda, TA; Al Mujalii, AM. Pneumo-enteritis in Arabian camel-calves (Camelus dromedarius): clinical and laboratory investigations. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(2): 119-124. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: Seventeen diseased Arabian camel calves (Camelus dromedarius), 1-3 months of age in addition to the 5 more apparently healthy calves have been involved in this study. The selected animals were admitted with varying clinical disease conditions, but all had general history of diarrhoea, inappetence and poor body conditions. Based on the results of clinical and laboratory examinations, the diarrhoeic calves were allotted into 2 groups; Group (1) involved calves with bacterial diarrhoea and respiratory manifestations, while group (2) included diarrhoeic calves because of protozoal infestations. Blood samples for complete blood counts and biochemical analysis were obtained from all diseased and healthy calves. In addition, rectal as well as nasal swabs and faecal samples were also obtained from the diseased calves and were subjected to bacteriological and parasitological examinations. The most prominent clinical signs among diseased calves were profuse watery, yellowish diarrhoea with offensive smell, elevated rectal temperatures and respiratory distress, varying degrees of dehydration, poor body conditions and reluctant to suckling their dams. Bacteriological examination revealed that E. coli and Proteus spp. was the incriminated micro-organism causing diarrhoea and Staph. aureus was the causative agent of respiratory troubles in diseased calves of group (1), while parasitic examination indicated that Eimeria spp. and Balantidium coli were responsible for diarrhoea in calves of group (2). The obtained results of haemogram revealed significant increase in the mean values of total leucocytic counts and packed cell volume in diseased calves with either bacterial or parasitic diarrhoea if compared with their values in healthy control calves. Differential leucocytic counts showed varying patterns as in the diarrhoeic calves with E. coli and Proteus infections. There is neutrophilia, while those calves with parasitic diarrhoea had eosinophilia. Biochemical analysis of blood sera samples revealed significant elevation in the mean values of potassium and blood urea nitrogen with significant reduction in the mean values of total proteins, albumin, sodium and chloride in the diarrhoeic calves of both groups if compared with their values in the healthy control group. The diseased calves showed varying response to the treatment protocols with gradual improvement within 2 weeks. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, etiology, bacterial diseases, protozoal infections Balantidium coli, Eimeria, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Staphylococcus aureus, clinical aspects, diarrhea, respiratory diseases, intestinal diseases.

Gillingwater, K; Buscher, P; Brun, R. Establishment of a panel of reference Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma equiperdum strains for drug screening. Veterinary Parasitology. 2007; 148(2): 114-121. ISSN: 0304-4017
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.05.020
Abstract: The animal pathogenic protozoan, Trypanosoma evansi, leads to a wasting disease in equines, cattle and camels, commonly known as Surra. It is extensively distributed geographically with a wide range of mammalian hosts and causes great economical loss. Trypanosoma equiperdum causes a venereal disease called Dourine in horses and donkeys. Chemotherapy appears to be the most effective form of control for T. evansi, whereas infections caused by T. equiperdum are considered incurable. Due to emerging drug resistance, efficient control of T. evansi is severely threatened, emphasising the urgent need to find new alternative drugs. A drug profile for a panel of T. evansi and T. equiperdum strains has been established for the four standard drugs currently used in treatment. The 3H-hypoxanthine incorporation assay was used to obtain 50% inhibitory concentration (IC< sub>50</ sub>) values for each standard drug against the various strains. The results indicate the presence (and in some cases, the emergence) of drug resistance in several strains. This panel of characterised strains with known drug sensitivities and resistances will be of great value for the screening of new active compounds, in comparison with the four standard drugs currently available.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, cattle, horses, drug resistance, multiple drug resistance, drug testing, protozoal infections, resistance mechanisms, Dourine, Surra, trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma equiperdum, Trypanosoma evansi, protozoal diseases.

Glucks, IV. The Prevalence of Bacterial and Protozoal Intestinal Pathogens in Suckling Camel Calves in Northern Kenya.Published by Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin Germany. 2007; v + 122 pp. Note: In English with a German summary. A thesis.
Abstract: The prevalence of bacterial and protozoal agents in dromedary camel calves up to 12 weeks of age was studied in northern Kenya during 2002-2004. A higher percentage of 229 camels with diarrhoea was found in the pastoralist herds (31.9%) compared to the ranch herds (19.2%). Diarrhoea peaked at 2-3 weeks of age in both systems. A total of 6.6% of 197 camels were shedding Isospora orlovi and Strongyloides spp., while 4.6% were shedding Strongylus sp. eggs. These parasites were higher in the pastoralist herds. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated in 119 (26.9%) of camel calves, while Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were found in 226 (19.1%) and 200 (97.5%) camels, respectively. The point prevalences of K. pneumoniae and Salmonella sp. were higher at 3 weeks of age. No K. pneumoniae was isolated in animals older than 6 weeks, while Salmonella was present until 12 weeks. E. coli was constantly present in all age groups. There was no difference in point prevalences in K. pneumoniae and Salmonella sp. between pastoralist and ranch systems. Analysis of camels without (Category A) and with diarrhoea (Category B) showed that Strongylus and Strongyloides spp. were present in both groups but were higher in Category B, while I. orlovi sp. was only present in Category B. K. pneumoniae was more prevalent in camels at 10 weeks of age and were less common in older animals. There was a higher prevalence of infection in Category B (25.3%) than in Category A (12.5%). Salmonella was high at 2 weeks of age and then decreased. It was also higher in Category B (43.6%) compared to a A (22.7%). E. coli was found in both categories at different ages. 62.9% of the 62 K. pneumoniae isolates were found in diarrhoeic or dead camels. S. bovismorbificans was the most common serotype (32.6%) followed by S. butantan (21.5%), S. typhimurium (11.1%), S. kiambu (9.0%) and S. muenchen (7.6%). S. typhimurium and S. adelaide were found in both management systems. Only S. typhimurium was commonly associated with disease (81%). Virulence-associated genes were detected in 78 E. coli isolates in healthy, diarhhoeic and recovering camels, while none were found in dead animals. There was no indication that E. coli has a significant role in the diarrhoea complex of camel calves up to 12 weeks of age. Reproduced with permission from CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, age differences, bacterial infectious diseases, diarrhea, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, farming systems, mortality, nematode infections, pastoralism, protozoal infections, ranching, virulence, Escherichia coli, Isospora orlovi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, Strongyloides, Strongylus, Rhabditida, Salmonella adelaide, Salmonella bovismorbificans, Salmonella butantan, Salmonella kiambu, Salmonella muenchen, Secernentea, Kenya.

Glucks, IV. The Prevalence of Bacterial and Protozoal Intestinal Pathogens in Suckling Camel Calves in Northern Kenya.Published by Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin Germany. 2007; v + 122 pp. Note: In English with a German summary. A thesis.
Abstract: The prevalence of bacterial and protozoal agents in dromedary camel calves up to 12 weeks of age was studied in northern Kenya during 2002-2004. A higher percentage of 229 camels with diarrhoea was found in the pastoralist herds (31.9%) compared to the ranch herds (19.2%). Diarrhoea peaked at 2-3 weeks of age in both systems. A total of 6.6% of 197 camels were shedding Isospora orlovi and Strongyloides spp., while 4.6% were shedding Strongylus sp. eggs. These parasites were higher in the pastoralist herds. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated in 119 (26.9%) of camel calves, while Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were found in 226 (19.1%) and 200 (97.5%) camels, respectively. The point prevalences of K. pneumoniae and Salmonella sp. were higher at 3 weeks of age. No K. pneumoniae was isolated in animals older than 6 weeks, while Salmonella was present until 12 weeks. E. coli was constantly present in all age groups. There was no difference in point prevalences in K. pneumoniae and Salmonella sp. between pastoralist and ranch systems. Analysis of camels without (Category A) and with diarrhoea (Category B) showed that Strongylus and Strongyloides spp. were present in both groups but were higher in Category B, while I. orlovi sp. was only present in Category B. K. pneumoniae was more prevalent in camels at 10 weeks of age and were less common in older animals. There was a higher prevalence of infection in Category B (25.3%) than in Category A (12.5%). Salmonella was high at 2 weeks of age and then decreased. It was also higher in Category B (43.6%) compared to a A (22.7%). E. coli was found in both categories at different ages. 62.9% of the 62 K. pneumoniae isolates were found in diarrhoeic or dead camels. S. bovismorbificans was the most common serotype (32.6%) followed by S. butantan (21.5%), S. typhimurium (11.1%), S. kiambu (9.0%) and S. muenchen (7.6%). S. typhimurium and S. adelaide were found in both management systems. Only S. typhimurium was commonly associated with disease (81%). Virulence-associated genes were detected in 78 E. coli isolates in healthy, diarhhoeic and recovering camels, while none were found in dead animals. There was no indication that E. coli has a significant role in the diarrhoea complex of camel calves up to 12 weeks of age. Reproduced with permission from CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, age differences, bacterial infectious diseases, diarrhea, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, farming systems, mortality, nematode infections, pastoralism, protozoal infections, ranching, virulence, Escherichia coli, Isospora orlovi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, Strongyloides, Strongylus, Rhabditida, Salmonella adelaide, Salmonella bovismorbificans, Salmonella butantan, Salmonella kiambu, Salmonella muenchen, Secernentea, Kenya.

Khalil, KM; Gadir, AEA; Rahman, MMA; Yassir, OM; Ahmed, AA; Elrayah, IE. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in camels and their herders in three ecologically different areas in Sudan. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(1): 11-13. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: A total of 153 serum samples from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) and 45 serum samples from their drivers and herders from Butana plains, North Kordofan and South Kordofan, Sudan, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the latex agglutination test (LAT) [date not given]. The seroprevalence rate among camels and camel herders was 22.2 and 53.3%, respectively, using LAT. There was a relationship between prevalence rate in camel and their herders in Butana plains (P<0.05) but no significant relationship was found between age in camel herders and seroreactivity (P>0.05). The study suggests the wide spread of infection of T. gondii among camel drivers who consume unboiled camel milk and raw liver which, is important from a public health view point.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, humans, camel drivers, camel herders, toxoplasmosis, exposure to zoonotic parasitic disease, high levels of Toxoplasma gondii, raw camel milk, raw liver, antibodies, antibody testing, latex fixation test, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease transmission via raw camel milk, raw liver, epidemiological surveys; epidemiology, geographical variation, latex agglutination test, serological surveys, seroprevalence, zoonoses, Sudan.

Latif, BMA; Khamas, WA. Light and ultrastructural morphology of sarcocystiosis in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Northern Jordan. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(1): 45-48. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: Samples of oesophagus, diaphragm, skeletal muscles and heart from 110 camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Al-Ramtha province, Jordan, were examined for sarcocystosis using both muscle squash and squeezing methods [date not given]. Positive samples were processed for light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Sarcocysts were detected in 24 (21.8%) of 110 camels examined. The most common sites for sarcocysts location were found in the oesophagus (83.3%), followed by diaphragm (33.3%), skeletal muscles (20.8%) and heart (4.2%). These cysts were thin-walled (up to 0.8 micro m) and thick-walled (upto 1.75 micro m). They contained large numbers of banana-shaped bradyzoites and several metrocytes. The cysts are studded with villar protrusions all around extending into the myofibres where relatively large numbers of mitochondria are present. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Sarcocystis, clinical aspects, cysts developmental stages, diaphragm, heart, histology, morphology, esophagus, sarcocystosis, skeletal muscle, Jordan.

Murtaz ul Hasan; Ghulam Muhammad; Gutierrez, C; Zafar Iqbal; Abdul Shakoor; Abdul Jabbar. Prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in equines and camels in the Punjab Region, Pakistan. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2006; 1081: 322-324. ISSN: 0077-8923. Note: In: EF Blouin and JC Millard (Editors). “Impact of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases and Animal Health: 8th Biennial Conference of the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Hanoi, Vietnam, 26 June-1 July 2005.”
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/nyas
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1373.043
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in susceptible hosts in Punjab, Pakistan [date not given]. 170 equines and 150 dromedary camels were examined using different serological and parasitological methods. Five (3.3%) and 6 (4%) camels were positive using parasitological and serological examinations, respectively. None of the equines tested positive using any method. These results seem to indicate that T. evansi infection has a relatively low prevalence in the Punjab region. However, efforts must be done to establish control measures in affected herds and avoid dissemination of the disease.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, horses, Trypanosoma evansi, disease prevalence, epidemiology, trypanosomiasis, Punjab, Pakistan.

Narender Singh; Pathak KML; Chaudhri, SS; Rajender Kumar Cameline trypanosomiasis (surra) in dromedaries of Western Rajasthan, India. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2007; 77(8): 718-720. ISSN: 0367-8318
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Trypanosoma evansi, epidemiology, prevalence, trypanosomiasis, double antibody sandwich, ELISA, amplification of isolates, humid and non humid regions, Rajasthan, India.

Njiru, ZK; Constantine, CC. Population sub-structuring among Trypanosoma evansi stocks. Parasitology Research. 2007 Oct; 101(5): 1215-1224. ISSN: 0932-0113
URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/100447/
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-007-0603-y
NAL call no: QL757.P377
Abstract: To investigate the population genetic structure of Trypanosoma evansi from domesticated animals, we have analysed 112 stocks from camels, buffaloes, cattle and horses using the tandemly repeated coding sequence (MORF2) and minisatellite markers 292 and cysteine-rich acidic integral membrane protein (CRAM). We recorded a total of six alleles at the MORF2 locus, seven at 292 and 12 at the CRAM loci. Nei's genetic distance showed reduced allelic diversity between buffaloes and cattle stocks (1.2) as compared to the diversity between camels and buffaloes (3.75) and camels and cattle stock (1.69). The mean index of association (I A = 0.92) significantly deviated from zero, and the average number of multilocus genotypes (G/N ratio) was 0.21. Twenty-four multilocus genotypes were defined from the combination of alleles at the three loci. The Kenyan sub-populations showed F st = 0.28 and analysis of molecular variance showed significant divergence (22.7%) between the Laikipia, Kulal and Galana regions. The regional and host distribution of multi-locus genotypes significant population differentiation and high Nei's genetic distances suggest existence of genetic sub-structuring within T. evansi stocks while the few multi-locus genotypes and deviation of association index from zero indicate the lack of recombination. In conclusion, this study reveals that some genetic sub-structuring does occur within T. evansi, which has a clonal population structure.
Descriptors : camels, buffalo, cattle, horses, domesticated animals, animals diseases, Trypanosoma evansi, genetic structure, tandemly repeated coding sequence (MORF2), minisatellite markers 292, cysteine-rich acidic integral membrane protein (CRAM), alleles, genetic analysis, genetic distance, genetic diversity, genotypes, population-genetics, Indonesia, Kenya, Philippines, Sudan.

Saleh , MA; Mahran, OM. A preliminary study on cryptosporidiosis in dromedary camels at Shalatin Area, Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2007; 53(112): 195-208. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: This work aimed to identify the cryptosporidial oocyst and its prevalence in dromedary camels and to estimate serum biochemical characteristics in infected camels. Microscopic survey of faecal samples from 1097 dromedary camels (aged < 6 months to >8 years) revealed that 37 (3.37%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts by modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Linear regression analysis was positive between incidence of cryptosporidial infection and age. Microscopic examination of the acid-fast stained faecal smears revealed ovoid oocysts with single wall layer stained red or pink with a granular appearance. The average size (+or-SE) of the oocysts was 8.3+or-1.22x6.1+or-0.88 micro m. These morphological characters fit the description of C. muris. Serum biochemical analysis of 8 infected and 8 age-matched apparently healthy camels revealed significant reduction in the mean concentrations (+or-SE) of serum albumin (2.89+or-0.104 vs. 3.19+or-0.091 g/dl, P=0.049) and alpha -tocopherol (1.35+or-0.093 vs. 1.66+or-0.082 micro g/ml, P=0.009), whereas serum pepsinogin was doubled (866.5+or-46.42 vs 406.2+or-32.61 mU, P=0.003) in infected camels in comparison with controls. On the other hand, there were non-significant variations in the mean values of blood serum total protein, globulin, sodium, potassium and chloride of infected camels in comparison with controls. In conclusion, dromedary camels were susceptible to cryptosporidial infection with significant risk on their health. The present study should be regarded as a first step towards recognition of C. muris as a possible cause of gastritis in dromedary herds. More studies are needed for more identification of the parasite and to clarify its pathogenicity.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, alpha tocopherol, blood chemistry, blood picture, gastritis, cryptosporidiosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, pepsinogen, serum albumin, Cryptosporidium muris, Egypt

Shahardar, RA; Rao, JR; Mishra, AK; Tewari, AK. Detection of Trypanosoma evansi in Indian dromedary camels by polymerase chain reaction using ribosomal DNA target. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 2007; 21(2): 105-108. ISSN: 0971-6157
URL: http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:jvp&type=home
Abstract: The PCR assay was employed for detection of Trypanosoma evansi in Indian dromedary camels using ribosomal DNA amplimers (20 mer sense and 16 mer antisense primer) based on structural 18S and 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences specific for kinetoplastida taxon. The PCR was first standardized using 5 to 10 ng of T. evansi template DNA, and then the assay was extended to blood sample of mouse experimentally infected with T. evansi. After laboratory standardization, the assay was further employed for direct detection of T. evansi DNA in blood samples collected from camels aged 2 to 10 years from surra endemic areas of Rajasthan in India. A total of 10 blood samples were tested, six were found positive (60%) reaffirming the suitability of PCR as a sensitive diagnostic tool. Among the pathogens belonging to kinetoplastida, the dromedaries are only susceptible to single species i.e. T. evansi. Therefore, the PCR amplified DNA product from the camel blood using rDNA amplimers specifically represent T. evansi. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma evansi, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, PCR, polymerase chain reaction, Rajasthan, India.

Soltane, R; Guyot, K; Dei Cas, E; Ayadi, A. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. (Eucoccidiorida: Cryptosporiidae) in seven species of farm animals in Tunisia. Parasite. 2007; 14(4): 335-338. ISSN: 1252-607X. Note: In English with a French summary.
NAL call no: QL57 P3737
Abstract: 1001 faecal samples were obtained from 89 sheep (lambs and adult), 184 goats, 190 horses, 178 rabbits, 110 camels, 200 broiler chickens and 50 turkeys housed in farms from different localities in Tunisia. All samples were analysed for Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopic examination of smears stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen technique. The parasite was detected in 10 lambs and adult sheep (11.2%) and 9 broiler chickens (4.5%). Molecular characterization, performed in four animals, identified C. bovis in 3 lambs and C. meleagridis in one broiler chicken. This work is the first report on Cryptosporidium in farm animals in Tunisia.
Descriptors: parasites in farm animals, camels, broilers, lambs, goats, horses, rabbits, turkeys, chickens, broilers, poultry, feces, oocysts, Cryptosporidium bovis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Tunisia.

Yakhchalim, M; Cheraghi, E. Eimeriosis in Bactrian and dromedary camels in the Miandoab region, Iran. Acta Veterinaria Beograd. 2007; 57(5/6): 545-552. ISSN: 0567-8315. Note: In English with a Serbian summary.
Abstract: An investigatin into eimeriosis of camels was carried out in two camel-raising areas of Miandoab region, Iran, to determine the frequency and diversity of Eimeria species. Bactrian camels (n=85) and dromedary camels (n=40) which were from one to four years old were subjected to examination. Fecal samples were collected and the flotation technique was carried out to demonstrate the presence of oocysts and sporulation of oocysts. The overall prevalence was 12.8%. Five Eimeria species were identified in both camels: the highest rate belonged to the E. bactriani (42.2%), followed by E. rajasthani (only in dromedary camels, 26.7%), E. pellerdyi (only in bactrian camels, 15.6%), E. cameli (11.1%) and E. dromedarii (4.4.%). All 12.8% of infected camels had mixed infections with at least three species. Feces consistency and infection intensity had a significant correlation with age (P<0,01). The sex and age of the camels had a significant effect on prevalence (P<0.01). These findings may be useful to evaluate the infection potential when considering control programs, specially for young camels. Reprodued with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: Bactrian camels, dromedary camels, fecal testing, age differences, sex differences, coccidiosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, mixed infections, oocysts, risk factors, seasonal variation, seasonality, coccidian, Eimeria cameli, Eimeria bactriani, Eimeria dromedarii, Eimeria pellerdyi, Eimeria rajasthani, Iran.

Zaitoun, AMA. Contagious skin necrosis of dromedary camels in south Egypt. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(2): 125-132. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: Skin diseases of dromedary camels in different localities of south Egypt were surveyed during July 2002-December 2005. Forty-one (1.83%) of the examined camels (n=2237) showed signs of contagious skin necrosis (CSN). Prevalence of CSN was found increased as the age of animal increased until 5.5 years and thereafter decreased gradually with increasing age. CSN was independent of sex (P<0.05) and was more prevalent in the hot months (P<0.01). Skin diseases were more prevalent (P<0.01) in irrigated areas than desert lands of south Egypt. However, there was no significant variation in susceptibility of camels located in irrigated and desert areas to CSN. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant isolated bacteria. Haemoprotozoal examinations indicated that 60.98% of the diseased camels with CSN were harbouring Trypanosoma evansi in their blood. The role of this parasite is discussed. Faecal analyses were insignificant.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, skin diseases, Staphylococcus aureus, Trypanosoma evansi, etiology, age differences, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, geographical variation, necrosis, seasonal variation, Egypt.

2006

Al Saad, KM; Al Obaidi, QT; Al Obaidi, WA. Clinical, haematological and biochemical study of theileriosis in one-humped Arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius). Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2006; 20(2): 211-218. ISSN: 1607-3894. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: A total of 35 male and female camels (Camelus dromedarius), 4-12 years old, were used in this study. 28 camels were naturally infected with Theileria camelensis, while the 7 were clinically normal (control). Results revealed that the infected camels exhibited enlargement of superficial prescapular lymph nodes, emaciation, hind limb weakness, diarrhoea, pale mucous membranes, watery eyes (lacrimation), inappetence, rough hair coat, high body temperature, tick (Hyalomma anatolicum) infestation on the different parts of the body, increased in body temperature, respiratory and heart rates, and slow ruminal contractions. There were significant decreases in erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, PCV and platelet count, while significant increases in mean corpuscular volume and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed in infected camels. Macrocytic normochromic anaemia was also observed in the infected animals. A significant increase in white blood cells due to the significant increase in lymphocytes and significant decrease in neutrophils resulted to the significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and icteric index of the infected camels. However, a significant decrease in total protein values were encountered in infected camels. It is concluded that haematological and biochemical changes are observed during theileriosis infection in camels. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, males and females, Theileria camelensis, theileriosis, thalanine aminotransferase, anemia, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood chemistry, clinical aspects, diagnosis, disease markers, hematology, hemoglobin, leukocytes, lymphocytes, urea, Iraq.

Aradaib, IE; Majid, AA. A simple and rapid method for detection of Trypanosoma evansi in the dromedary camel using a nested polymerase chain reaction. Kinetoplastid Biology and Disease. 2006; 5(2); (20 May 2006) 1-6. ISSN: 1475-9292
URL: http://www.kinetoplastids.com/content/pdf/1475-9292-5-2.pdf
Abstract: A nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR)-based assay, was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of Trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected mice and naturally infected camels (Camelus dromedarius). Four oligonucleotide primers (TE1, TE2, TE3 and TE4), selected from nuclear repetitive gene of T. evansi, were designed and used for PCR amplifications. The first amplification, using a pair of outer primers TE1 and TE2, produced a 821-bp primary PCR product from T. evansi DNA. The second amplification, using nested (internal) pair of primers TE3 and TE4, produced a 270-bp PCR product. T. evansi DNAs extracted from blood samples of experimentally infected mice and naturally infected Sudanese breed of dromedary camels were detected by this nested PCR-based assay. The nested primers TE3 and TE4 increased the sensitivity of the PCR assay and as little as 10 fg of T. evansi DNA (equivalent to a single copy of the putative gene of the parasite) was amplified and visualized onto ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. Amplification products were not detected when the PCR-based assay was applied to DNA from other blood parasites including Thieleria annulata, Babesia bigemina or nucleic acid free samples. Application of this nPCR-based assay to clinical samples resulted in direct detection of T. evansi from a variety of tissue samples collected from experimentally infected mice and blood from naturally infected camels. The described nPCR-based assay provides a valuable tool to study the epidemiology of T. evansi infection in camels and other susceptible animal populations.
Descriptors: dromedarycamels, mice, Theileria annulata, Trypanosoma evansi, Babesia bigemina, disease models, epidemiology, genes, laboratory animals, PCR, polymerase chain reaction, rapid methods, trypanosomiasis.

Chhabra , MB; Sangwan, AK. Parasitic diseases of camels - an update. 1. Protozoal diseases. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(1): 7-14. ISSN: 0971-6777. Note: A review article.
URL: www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: Protozoal diseases, particularly trypanosomiasis caused by the flagellate, Trypanosoma evansi, are considerable constraints on the health and productivity of the dromedary camels throughout the tropics and subtropics. With the developments in the field of molecular biology and their application in parasitic infections, there has been great progress in the diagnostic techniques. Apart from detection of parasitoses, these tests are useful aids in monitoring the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. As a consequence, more reliable epidemiological data on the distribution and incidence of these diseases have been generated. DNA-based technologies have enabled the characterization of species, subspecies and stocks (strains) of camel-parasitizing trypanosomes. Chemotherapy and strategic control of trypanosomiasis continue to be another fertile area which has witnessed a fair number of recent reports. Other protozoan parasites and their occasional association with disease are now being reported more frequently. These include the gut-dwelling coccidia, the tissue-cystic forms (Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma), Balantidium, Cryptosporidium and others. Possible changes in camel husbandry practices may lead to increase in their prevalence and economic impact. As such, there is need to include these in the overall parasitic disease surveillance among camels. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, parasitic diseases, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, disease control, disease prevention, epidemiology, blood chemistry, hematology, histology, urine testing, cysts developmental stages, drug therapy, pathogen strains coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, neosporosis, protozoal infections, theileriosis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, Balantidium coli, Besnoitia, Cryptosporidium,Eimeria cameli,Eperythrozoon, Haemonchus longistipes, Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum,Sarcocystis cameli, Theileria, Toxoplasma gondii, Tritrichomonas foetus,Trypanosoma evansi, Secernentea, Strongylida, antigens, antiprotozoal agents, drugs.

Dia, ML Parasites of the camel in Burkina Faso. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2006; 38(1): 17-21. ISSN: 0049-4747
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-006-4303-x
URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/0049-4747
NAL call no : SF601.T7
Abstract: A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of parasitoses in dromedaries in Burkina Faso. Blood and faecal samples from animals of different ages and both sexes were collected from different villages in Oudalan in April 2004. It was shown that the parasitological and serological prevalences of Trypanosoma evansi were 18 and 46%, respectively. T. brucei was also detected. Most of the trypanosome-infected animals were from Garagara (37%), Markoye (30%) and Touro villages (11%), with seroprevalences of 81, 50 and 33%, respectively. None of the camels in Esakane had trypanosomes. 15 out of 38 faecal samples were positive for strongyle eggs, with higher rates in Markoye and Esakane. Eggs per g faeces (epg) varied from 0-800 and was highest in Markoye. One animal was positive for Moniezia spp. Hyalomma dromedarii, H. marginatum rufipes, H. impressum, H. truncatum and H. impeltatum were the most commonly isolated ticks in the camels. Alopecia and pruritus in many animals were caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, geographical variation, parasites, parasitoses, serological surveys, seroprevalence, Trypanosoma evansi, Moniezia spp. Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hylomma impressum, Hyalomma truncatum, Hyalomma impeltatum, mange, Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli, Burkina Faso.

Gadir, AEA; Khalil, KM; Rahman, MMA; El Rayah, IE; El Malik, KH. Application of card agglutination test and card indirect-agglutination antigen test for detection of camel trypanosomosis in Western Sudan. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(1): 41-43. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: A total of 81 blood samples from traditionally managed camels were examined parasitologically and serologically for the presence of camel trypanosomiasis in Northern and Southern Kordofan States in western Sudan. Parasitological examinations revealed that only 4 cases (4.94%) were positive. Serological investigations showed that 4 and 14 cases (4.94 and 17.28%, respectively) were recorded as ++ and + for Suratex, respectively. The results of CATT indicated that 20, 15, 12 and 13 cases (24.69, 18.52, 14.81 and 16.05%, respectively) reacted as +++, ++, + and +or-, respectively. Four and thirteen cases (4.94 and 16.05%, respectively) were recorded as ++ and + for CIATT, respectively. Suratex, CATT and CIATT were found to be 100% sensitive in the detection of Trypanosoma brucei evansi infection in camel, but high specificity was only recorded for CIATT and Suratex (83.1 and 81.8%, respectively). Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma brucei, agglutination tests, antigens, diagnosis, diagnostic antigens, immunodiagnosis, antigenicity, immunogens, serological diagnosis, Sudan.

Ghulam Muhammad; Abdul Jabbar; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Athar; Muhammad Saqib. A preliminary passive surveillance of clinical diseases of cart pulling camels in Faisalabad metropolis ( Pakistan). Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2006; 76(3/4): 273-279. ISSN: 0167-5877
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877
Abstract: We identified clinical disorders of all 200 city-dwelling cart pulling male camels attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during a 7-year period (1993-1999). Data were collected prospectively on a predesigned form and collated. Diagnoses of different diseases/disorders were based on clinical examination supplemented with relevant laboratory tests. A total of 463 entries of 34 different clinical diseases/disorders were recorded. Sarcoptic mange (35% of 200 camels) followed by anhidrosis (23%) and trypanosomosis (19%) were the three most frequently encountered disorders. The body system most often involved was the integument (31%) followed by gastrointestinal (21%), locomotory (12%), thermoregulatory (6%), blood (6%), urogenital (6%), lymphatic (3%), nervous (3%), respiratory (3%) and ocular (3%). Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, draft camels, camel diseases, mange, trypanosomiasis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, Sarcoptes, Pakistan.

Gutierrez, Carlos; Corbera, Yuan A; Juste, Maria C; Doreste, Francisco; Morales, Inmaculada. Clinical, hematological, and biochemical findings in an outbreak of abortion and neonatal mortality associated with Trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels. In: EF Blouin and JC Maillard (Editors). 8th Biennial Conference of the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Hanoi, Vietnam; June 26-July 01, 2005. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. 2006. ISSN: 0077-8923 (print). ISBN: 9781573316378
Descriptors: camels, 16 females, abortions, high neonate deaths, Trypanosoma evansi infection, parasitic pathogen, clinical picture, regenerative anemia (hemolytic anemia), lymphocytic and monocytic leukocytosis, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypoglycemia, serum urea increased, decreased serum iron, uremia, higher protein metabolism.

Gutierrez, C; Corbera, JA; Juste, MC; Doreste, F; Morales, I. Clinical, hematological, and biochemical findings in an outbreak of abortion and neonatal mortality associated with Trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2006; 1081: 325-327. ISSN: 0077-8923. Note: In: EF Blouin, JC Maillard (editors) “Impact of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases and Animal Health: 8th Biennial Conference of the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Hanoi, Vietnam, 26 June-1 July 2005.”
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/nyas
Abstract: An outbreak of abortion and high neonatal mortality associated with Trypanosoma evansi infection in a camel herd in the Canary Islands, Spain, was investigated [date not given]. 16 pregnant or just-delivered dromedary females (aged 6-12 years) were diagnosed with T. evansi infection, 2 of which showed moderate signs of the chronic form, particularly hypoxia and intolerance to exercise. The main laboratory findings were regenerative anaemia (haemolytic anaemia), lymphocytic and monocytic leukocytosis, hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia, hypoglycaemia, increased serum urea, and decreased serum iron. The most characteristic finding in the examined females was the presence of uraemia, probably due to higher protein metabolism. The laboratory parameters in all affected camels returned to normal within 3 weeks after trypanocidal (Cymelarsan) [melarsamine hydrochloride] treatment.
Descriptors: female, dromedary camels, infected with Trypanosoma evansi, impact of disease, abortion, neonatal mortality, biochemistry, clinical aspects, hematology, hemolytic-anaemia, low iron levels, hyperproteinemia, hypoglycemia, hypoxia, disease outbreaks, outbreaks, antiprotozoal agents, drug therapy, trypanocides, trypanosomiasis, uremia, azotemia, melarsamine hydrochloride.

Hunter, A (Editor). La Sante Animale. Volume 2. Principales Maladies. [Animal Health. Volume 2. Principal Diseases.] Published by Editions Quae, Versailles. 2006; 310 pp. ISBN: 2759200051; 9782759200054. Note: In French.
Abstract: The first volume of this work considered the fundamentals of animal pathology and the principles of disease control; volume 2 considers the most important diseases of livestock in the tropics and subtropics in more detail. Each disease is described with reference to its symptoms, aetiology, mode of transmission, treatment and prevention. The first part covers infectious and contagious diseases (viral and bacterial diseases, coccidiosis and dermatomycoses) of livestock in general, bovines, small ruminants, camels, equines and pigs. Part 2 covers venereal and congenital infections; part 3 describes arthropod parasites (flies, lice, fleas, ticks and mange mites). Vector-borne diseases of livestock in general, small ruminants and equines are considered in part 4, helminths and helminthoses in part 5, and environmental and other diseases (metabolic disorders, neoplasms, nutritional deficiency and poisoning) in part 6. This book is intended for use by veterinary technicians and agricultural advisors, and as a textbook in higher education. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, cattle, goats, horses, pigs, sheep, pigs, livestock animal diseases, bacterial diseases, clinical aspects, coccidiosis, deficiency diseases, animal disease transmission, drug therapy, ectoparasites, helminthes, infectious diseases, metabolic disorders, poisoning, prophylaxis, tropics, vector borne diseases, viral diseases, bacterial infections, bacterioses, chemotherapy, clinical picture, communicable diseases, parasitic worms, toxicosis, tropical countries, viral infections.

Ishag, MY; Majid, AM; Magzoub, AM. Isolation of a new Sarcocystis species from Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedarius). International Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2006; 1(4): 167-169. ISSN: 1816-3319
Abstract: Six weaned puppies 4-weeks-old were fed once a composite of raw cameline meat (oesophagus, diaphragm, heart and skeletal muscles) collected from camels slaughtered at El Gedarif city-Eastern Sudan. The puppies started to shed two types of Sarcocystis sporocysts 9-13 days after feeding raw meat. One type identified morphologically as Sarcocystis cameli, measured 13.2-13.6x6.5-9.5 micro m with a patent period of 55-57 days. The second type had a larger size than the first one (vis Sarcocystis camelocanis), measured 16.0x9.9-11.5 micro m and a shorter patent period (37-45 days). The two species which harvested from intestinal mucosae of the infected puppies were orally given to three naive weand calf-camels (1x104 Sarcocystis sporocysts for each calf). The calves were medicated with amprolium at 100 gm kg-1 body weight to reduce the acute effects of Sarcocystis. Histological findings revealed the presence of two types of Sarcocystis tissue cysts; one form had a thin cyst wall (0.5-1 micro m in width), measured 72.5-264x9.9-29.5 micro m, the ground substance extended inwards into the cyst in the form of narrow septae which divided the whole cyst into compartments. The other cyst measured 73-155x23-29.5 micro m, had a thick cyst wall (2-3 micro m in width) which divided the cyst into compartments.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, puppies fed raw meat, infected camel meat, slaughtered camel muscle meat, camel calves, amprolium, body weight, diaphragm, heart, esophagus, raw foods, histology, cyst wall, sporocysts, Sarcocystis, Sudan.

Ishag, MY; Magzoub, E; Majid, M. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in the milk of experimentally infected lactating she-camels. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2006; 5(6): 456-458. ISSN: 1680-5593
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in the milk of female camels experimentally infected with T. gondii (5x105 oocysts). The milk of Toxoplasma gondii infected female camels (n=3) were inoculated intraperitoneally to 9 albino mice. Toxoplasma tachyzoites and cysts were detected in 6 mice that were inoculated with milk from the 2 infected camels. Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in the mice sera also. Three experimental mice remained free of infection after inoculation. On the other hand, camel calves remained clinically normal during the experimental period although latex agglutination test revealed the presence of Toxoplasma antibodies in their sera at 7-9 days after infection of the dams. The antibody titres of the camel calves ranged from 1/8-1/16. Postmortem examination of all suckling calves revealed enlarged mesentery, and inguinal and subscapular lymph nodes. Petechial haemorrhages were fond in the brain and lungs of the animals. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of T. gondii cysts in the brain and tachyzoites in lungs, livers, kidneys and hearts. It is concluded that the number of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites excreted in the milk of the female camels is low.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, lactating adults, calves, mice, experimental infection, protozoal infections, Toxoplasma gondii, toxoplasmosis, sporozoites, camel milk, secretion of tachyzoites in milk, antibodies, developmental stages, disease transmission, food safety, milk hygiene.

Mahran, OM Some epidemiological and parasitological studies on prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of dromedary camels at Shalatin Region, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt and trials of treatment. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2006; 52(111): 149-162. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: A parasitological survey of 530 camels of different ages and sex was carried out in January-December 2005 to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in the Shalatin region, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. 72.83% of the examined camels were infected. Of the positive cases, 45.66% harboured helminth eggs, 10.94% coccidian oocysts and 16.22% had mixed infections. Trichostrongylus sp. was the most common nematode with a prevalence of 35.06%, followed by Oesophagostomum sp. (16.15%), Trichuris sp. (12.19%), Haemonchus sp. (10.67%), Ostertagia sp. (8.84%), Chabertia sp. (8.53%) and Strongyloides sp. (1.82%). Cestode (Moniezia sp.) eggs (1.82%) and coccidian oocysts (Eimeria cameli, 48.61%; E. dromedarii, 27.87%; E. rajasthani, 5.6%) were also present. Coproculture produced third stage larvae of Trichostrongylus., Strongyloides, Haemonchus and Ostertagia spp. The prevalence of infection was lower in young and higher in older animals. Females were more highly infected than males. The highest rates of infection were observed in winter and spring. Therapeutical trials with different anthelmintic drugs showed that albendazole was the drug of choice for the treatment of camel helminthoses. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, various ages, females, males, intestinal parasitic nematodes, detection, diagnosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, helminthoses, mixed infections, nematode control, parasitology, spring, winter, disease surveillance, Chabertia, Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Trichuris, Eimeria cameli, Moniezia, Adenophorea, Enoplida, gastrointestinal tract, multiple infections, Secernentea, Strongylida, Eimeria dromedarii, Eimeria rajasthani, albendazole, Egypt.

Mochabo, MOK; Kitala, PM; Gathura, PB; Ogara, WO; Eregae, EM; Kaitho, TD; Catley, A. The socio-economic impact of important camel diseases as perceived by a pastoralist community in Kenya. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 73(4): 269-274. ISSN: 0030-2465
Abstract: The objective of the study was to assess the socioeconomic impact of camel trypanosomiasis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists community in Kenya. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomiasis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions and losses due to the cost of treatment. It was observed that there was good agreement (P<0.05) between the informant groups on the losses incurred as a result of the diseases for all the selected loss indicators. Surra and mange were given high median scores on all the indicators while non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia received moderate median scores. It is concluded that the camel plays a central role in the lives of Turkana pastoralists and that surra has a devastating social and economic impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, diarrhea, mange, parasitoses, pastoral society, protozoal infections, trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma evansi, diarrhea, parasitic diseases, parasitic infestations, parasitosis, protozoal diseases, scouring, losses, socio-economic aspects, trypanosomosis, Kenya.

Radfar, MH; Maimand, AE; Sharify, A. A report on parasitic infections in camel (Camelus dromedarius) of Kerman slaughterhouse. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. 2006; 61(2): 165-168. ISSN: 1022-646X. Note: In Persian with an English summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections in camels (Camelus dromedarius; n=60) from the Kerman slaughterhouse. The examination of different organs (including alimentary canal, abdominal cavity, liver, lung, kidneys, heart) and blood smear for parasitic infections were done. The parasites in the washed contents of alimentary canal, lung and sliced organ were cleared using lactophenol or stained with carmine acid collected, counted and identified under the microscope. Blood smears were stained with Giemsa stain. Parasites were found on the alimentary tract, liver, lung, nasal cavity and blood of the camels. Eight species of parasites were detected in abomasum (Haemonchus contortus; 6.67%), small intestine (Moniezia expansa, 5%; M. benedeni, 6.67%; Stilesia globipunctata, 8.3%), liver (hydatid cyst, 3.3%), lungs (hydatid cyst, 28%; Dictyocaulus filaria, 10%), nasal cavity (Cephalopina titillator larvae, 63.3%), and blood (Trypanosoma evansi, 1.6%). This is the first report of these parasites in camels from Kerman. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, post slaughter sampling, diseases, abdominal cavity, disease prevalence, epidemiology, hydatids, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, small intestine, gastrointestinal tract, nasal cavity, Cephalopina titillator, Dictyocaulus filarial, Haemonchus contortus, Moniezia benedeni, Moniezia expansa,Stilesia globipunctata, Trypanosoma evansi, Secernentea, Strongylida, Kerman.

Sadrebazzaz, A; Haddadzadeh, H; Shayan, P. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Mashhad, Iran. Parasitology Research. 2006; 98(6): 600-601, ISSN: 0932-0113
URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/100447/
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-0118-3
Abstract: One hundred twenty camels were blood-sampled and used to evaluate serological screening for Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in Mashhad, Iran, during years 2004-2005. Of the 120 camels, antibodies to N. caninum were found in three in titers of 1:20 and in four in titers of 1:40 using whole N. caninum tachyzoites as IFAT slide (VMRD Inc., Pullman, WA 99163, USA). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in three camels in titers 1:20 and in two camels in titers 1:40 using whole T. gondii tachyzoites as IFAT slide (BIOGENE, Iran).
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, parasites, parasitoses, antibodies, disease prevalence, serological surveys, seroprevalence, Iran.

Saeed, A; Hussain, MM; Gopal Chand; Al Yousuf, RJ. Gastrointestinal parasites of camels in United Arab Emirates. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2006; 76(8): 612-613. ISSN: 0367-8318
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the presence of gastrointestinal parasites in camels of different age and sex in United Arab Emirates. The observation of the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in 831 camels was conducted between September 2002 and April 2004. Out of the 831 camels examined, 119 were positive for parasitic infections. It was observed that younger animals were significantly more prone to infection than the adults. Out of 294 males and 537 females examined, 37 (12.58%) and 82 (15.27%) camels were positive for gastrointestinal parasites, respectively. The following parasites were observed: Haemonchus, Nematodirus,Trichostrongylus, Trichuris, Oesophagostomum, Camelostrongylus, Moniezia, Paramphistomum, Eimeria and Balantidium sp. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, parasitic diseases, gastrointestinal tract parasitoses, age differences, sex differences, Haemonchus, Nematodirus,Trichostrongylus, Trichuris, Oesophagostomum, Camelostrongylus, Moniezia, Paramphistomum

 

Shekarforoush, SS; Shakerian, A; Hasanpoor, MM. Prevalence of Sarcocystis in slaughtered one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2006; 38(4): 301-303. ISSN: 0049-4747
URL : http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103008
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-006-4362-z
Abstract: Four hundred adult camels (135 females and 265 males) in two age groups (5-10 and >10 years old), originating from several provinces and slaughtered in the Najaf-Abad slaughterhouse, located in central Iran, were randomly selected [date not given]. The tongue, heart, oesophagus and various skeletal muscles (diaphragm and abdominal and intercostal muscles) of each camel were inspected for the presence of sarcocysts. Tissue samples of the heart, tongue, oesophagus, diaphragm and rectus femoris muscle were also collected for microscopic examination. No macroscopic sarcocysts were found in any of the samples. However, Sarcocystis bradyzoites were found in 209 out of the 400 camels (52.3%). The highest infection rate was observed in the heart (p<0.01), followed by the oesophagus and rectus femoris muscle. The infection rate also increased significantly with age (p< 0.01). However, it was independent of sex, with prevalences of 54.0% in males and 48.9% in females (p>0.05). Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, males, females, adult animals, 2 age grouping, differences, Sarcocystiscameli, bradyzoites, tissue distribution, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, Iran.

 2005

Al Jabr, OA; Mohammed, GE; Al Hamdan, BA. Giardiosis in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Veterinary Record. 2005; 157(12): 350-352. ISSN: 0042-4900
URL: http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com
NAL call no: 41.8 V641
Abstract: This short communication describes clinical cases of giardiasis in camels in Saudi Arabia. In March 2005, a three-year-old female camel (Camelus dromedarius) was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, in sternal recumbency and with a 10-day history of severe intermittent diarrhoea. Clinical examination showed that the animal was in poor condition and inappetent. The faeces were watery and malodourous. Haematocrit and total blood haemoglobin level were low, while total leukocyte and monocyte counts were high. Faecal examination revealed the presence of Giardia trophozoites. Upon postmortem examination, the gastric region was found necrotic and covered with fibrinous exudates as a result of acute gastritis. Following this case, camels with giardiasis were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital in increasing frequency. Until April 2005, seven camels with giardiasis had been examined, suffering mainly from diarrhoea with soft or watery faeces. Faecal samples from camels that appeared normal were negative for Giardia sp. cysts. A daily dose of 2 g metronidazole was prescribed to the affected camels. However, it was not possible to carry out follow-up clinical observation as the owners of the affected camels would not allow the animals to be hospitalized. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported occurrence of Giardia sp. infection in camels. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Giardia sp, giardiasis, lesions, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, giardiasis, camel hosts, new host records, Saudi Arabia.

Antoine Moussiaux, N; Faye, B; Vias, GF. Tuareg ethnodiagnostic skill of camel diseases in Agadez area ( Niger). Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2005; 12(2): 85-93. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: For generations, nomad herders have been learning to manage herd health, particularly in dromedaries, because of their high value. They have thus acquired a very comprehensive knowledge of signs of illness and have developed their own nomenclature. The present study aims at the description, scientific identification and recognition of this ethnoveterinary knowledge by means of an investigation carried out in Tuareg populations living in the neighbourhoods of Agadez ( Niger) in November 2003-January 2004. The dominant pathologies cited by herders for being the most alarming are gastrointestinal helminthoses (izni), camel calf diarrhoea (efay), tick infestations of camel calves (igardan), camel pox (erk eshik), sarcoptic mange (ajud) and bronchopneumonia (toza). Poorly identified nosologic entities are also reported. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, etiology, camel diseases; herd health management, Tuareg nomads, traditional medicine, ethnoveterinary knowledge, diagnosis, diarrhea, helminthoses, helminthes, intestinal worms, parasitoses, pneumonia, scabies, Niger.

Enwezor, FNC; Sackey, AKB. Camel trypanosomosis - a review. Veterinarski Arhiv. 2005; 75(5): 439-452. ISSN: 0372-5480. Note: In: English with a Croatian summary.
Abstract: Camel trypanosomosis (surra), caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is the most important single cause of morbidity and mortality in camels. The disease, transmitted non-cyclically by haematophagus flies (e.g. Tabanus) is endemic in Africa, Asia and South America, and in addition to camels other species of domesticated livestock are affected. Because of the wide geographic range of surra, its control has attracted international attention, with a focus on formulating and implementing effective strategies aimed at increasing productivity and achieving a decrease in mortality and morbidity. In this review, the clinico-pathological effects of surra are presented, as their understanding may help in the design of effective control. Anaemia appears to be a major component of the pathology of surra. Its development and persistence in the course of the disease induce anoxic conditions which manifest signs of dysfunction in various organs as a result of a fall in tissue pH and vascular damage. This is followed by the release of large quantities of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes, especially aspartate alanine transferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT), among others, into serum, causing further cellular and tissue damage. The net effect associated with the above changes is immunosuppression which later develops and predisposes the animals to other infections and death if untreated. Therefore, emphasis is placed on accurate diagnosis of surra, treatment with effective trypanocidal drugs such as trypan and the use of vector control methods in the control and management of this disease.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Trypanosoma evansi, trypanosomiasis, etiology, camel pathology, anemia, diagnosis, disease control, disease prevention, disease vectors, immune response, immunological reactions, pathogenesis, reviews, therapy, therapeutics.

Getachew Abebe. Trypanosomosis in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences. 2005; 4(1): 75-121. ISSN: 1819-8678. Note: A review article.
Abstract: Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis is widely distributed in western and southern lowlands and the river valleys cutting into the central highlands of Ethiopia. Prior to the 1960's, trypanosomosis had relatively little impact on the economy of Ethiopia. There were pockets of human sleeping sickness in the west and domestic livestock, particularly cattle, could not be kept over extensive areas of the lands. However, much of the country is tsetse-free, either because it is north of the main African tsetse belts or because it is too high, hence too cold to support the fly. As of early 1970's the significance of the disease has increased enormously and is still increasing. The loss of fertility of land in the marginal, high temperature, low rainfall northern regions led to the resettlement of the affected rural population and their livestock in more potentially productive areas, many of which are tsetse-infested. Furthermore, the expansion of tsetse population into higher altitude areas brings them into contact with previously unaffected livestock. Considering the agricultural economy of Ethiopia, livestock, cattle in particular, provide meat, milk and manure; also draught oxen are more extensively used in tsetse-free highlands of Ethiopia than anywhere else in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of draught oxen into the resettlement areas in the lowlands was severely constrained by the widespread presence of trypanosomosis. Five species of Glossina (G. morsitans submorsitans, G. pallidipes, G. tachinoides, G. fuscipes fuscipes and G. longipennis) have been recorded in Ethiopia but only four are widespread and of significant economic importance. The most important trypanosomes, in terms of economic loss in domestic livestock are tsetse-transmitted species: Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei. The closely related T. brucei subspecies, T. b. rhodesiense cause human sleeping sickness. The other trypanosoma species of economic importance are T. evansi of camels and T. equiperdum of equines. Tsetse control activities against, mainly, G. m. submorsitans were undertaken over 4,500 km2 of Didessa Valley as part of the Eastern Africa Regional Programme. Apart from this, operation is underway to eradicate tsetse flies from an area of 25 000 km2 in the southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia using the sterile insect technique. If trypanosomosis could be controlled in Ethiopia, much of the best-watered and most fertile land of the southwest could be utilised. Land suitability studies carried out in areas of low population density in tsetse-infested areas of the country revealed that these areas have the best potential of expanded agriculture, provided that trypanosomosis constraint can be overcome. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: camels, asses, cattle, donkeys, goats, horses, sheep, humans, livestock diseases, etiology, African trypanosomiasis, animal-diseases, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease control, disease transmission, disease vectors, epidemiology, geographical distribution; human diseases, immunological techniques, pathogenesis, vector control, vector borne diseases, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina longipennis, Glossina morsitans submorsitans, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina tachinoides, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma equiperdum, Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma rhodesiense,Trypanosoma vivax, causal agents, etiology, serological techniques, sleeping sickness, zoonotic infections, zoonoses, Ethiopia, Abyssinia.

Ghulam Muhammad; Khan, MZ; Hussain, MH; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Iqbal; Muhammad Athar. Ethnoveterinary practices of owners of pneumatic-cart pulling camels in Faisalabad City ( Pakistan). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 97(2): 241-246. ISSN: 0378-8741
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03788741
Abstract: The present study was planned to investigate the ethnoveterinary methods practiced by the owners of pneumatic-cart pulling camels in Faisalabad Metropolis ( Pakistan). During a 7-year-period (November 1992-November 1999), 200 owners of draught camels working in the city were interviewed. Information concerning the ethnoveterinary practices for the treatment of common disorders of digestive tract (indigestion, colic and diarrhea), respiratory tract (cold/rhinitis, pneumonia), skin problems (mange, ulceration of nostrils with or without nasal myiasis, ticks and lice, harness sores), systemic states (fever, anhidrosis) and preventive therapy of indigestion and halitosis was collected through interviews and collated with those documented for the treatment of desert-dwelling camels. Familiarity of owners with two traditional methods of surra (trypanosomiasis) diagnosis ('Sand-ball test' and 'Hair-stick test') known to pastorilists was also probed. In addition, the dose and frequency of use of common salt was investigated. Traditional inputs utilized by the camel owners included various plant products, insecticides, sulphur, sump oil, common salt, aspirin, naphthalene balls and milk fat. Different owners used different combinations of traditional drugs for the treatment of disorders/conditions investigated. None of the camel owners was found familiar with the 'Sand-ball test' or 'Hair-stick test' of trypanosomiasis diagnosis. For the prevention of indigestion and halitosis all camel owners had practiced administration of 'massaulas' (physic drench/balls) along with common salt (average 250 g) on weekly basis. In general, the ethnoveterinary treatment practices used by the owners of city-dwelling camels appear to be different from those documented for the treatment of diseases of desert-dwelling camels.
Descriptors: draft camels in an urban environment, cart pulling camels, working camels, camel diseases, colic, diarrhea, dyspepsia, mange, parasitoses, parasitic infections, pneumonia, respiratory diseases, rhinitis, skin diseases, harness sores, injuries, Trypanosoma evansi, trypanosomiasis, myiasis, causal agents, diagnosis, disease prevention, ethnicity folk medicine, traditional medicine, ethnic differences, medicinal plants, plant extracts, aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, insecticides, milk fat, naphthalene, plant extracts, ethnoveterinary care, salt, elemental sulfur, surveys, Pakistan.

Gutierrez, C; Corbera, JA; Juste, MC; Doreste, F; Morales, I. An outbreak of abortions and high neonatal mortality associated with Trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels in the Canary Islands. Veterinary Parasitology. 2005 June 10; 130(1-2): 163-168. ISSN: 0304-4017
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
Descriptors: dromedaries, Trypanosoma evansi, surra, abortion in camels, chronic trypanosomosis, neonatal mortality, disease outbreaks, clinical examination, animal pathology, drug therapy, trypanocides, Canary Islands.

Hassan, M; Muhammad, G; Gutierrez, C; Iqbal, Z; Shakoor, A; Jabbar, A. Evaluation of different diagnostic tests for Trypanosoma evansi infection among horses and camels in the Punjab Region, Pakistan. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2005; 12(2): 95-97. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: Parasitological, serological and biochemical tests were used to determine Trypanosoma evansi infection in 170 horses and 150 camels sampled from Punjab region, Pakistan. The micro-Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique was used as gold standard method. Wet blood films, thin stained smears and thick stained smears showed a sensitivity of 0.8 and a specificity of 1. Positive and negative predictive values were 1 and 0.99, respectively. Serology using SuratexReg. showed a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.99. Positive and negative predictive values were 0.83 and 1, respectively. Biochemical tests showed a very low positive predictive value (around 0.38). None of the equines resulted positive at any method. In contrast, 5 (3.3%) and 6 (4%) camels were positive at parasitological and serological examination, respectively. These results seem to indicate that T. evansi infection has a relatively low prevalence in the Punjab region. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, horses, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, serological diagnosis, SuratexReg, immunodiagnosis, trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma evansi, Punjab, Pakistan.

Lejon, V; Claes, F; Verloo, D; Maina, M; Urakawa, T; Majiwa, PAO; Buscher, P. Recombinant RoTat 1.2 variable surface glycoprotein as antigen for diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camels. International Journal for Parasitology. 2005 Apr 1; 35(4): 455-460. ISSN: 0020-7519
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00207519
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2004.12.015
NAL call no: QH547.I55
Abstract: The transcript encoding a predominant Trypanosoma evansi variable surface glycoprotein RoTat 1.2 was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein in Spodoptera frugiperda and Trichoplusia ni (insect) cells. Its potential as an antigen for specific detection of antibody in serum of dromedary camels affected by surra, was evaluated. In ELISA, the reactivity of the recombinant RoTat 1.2 VSG was similar to that of native RoTat 1.2 VSG. An indirect agglutination reagent was therefore prepared by coupling the recombinant RoTat 1.2 VSG onto latex particles. The performance of the latex agglutination test was evaluated on camel sera, and compared with the performance of CATT/T. evansi and LATEX/T. evansi tests, using the immune trypanolysis assay with T. evansi RoTat 1.2 as a reference test. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the latex coated with recombinant RoTat 1.2 VSG, using a 1:4 serum dilution, were respectively, 89.3 and 99.1%. No differences were observed between the performance of latex coated with recombinant RoTat 1.2 VSG and LATEX/T. evansi or CATT/T. evansi. Here, we describe the successful use of the recombinant RoTat 1.2 VSG for detection of specific antibodies induced by T. evansi infections.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Trypanosoma evansi, surra disease diagnosis, variant surface glycoproteins, recombinant proteins, recombinant antigens, antibody detection, serodiagnosis, latex agglutination test.

Mottelib, AA; Hosein, HI; Mourad, I; El Sherif, AM; Abo-Zeid, ASI. Comparative evaluation of various diagnostic techniques for Trypanosoma evansi in naturally infected camels. In: A. Krynski and R. Wrzesien. Animals and Environment, Volume 2: Proceedings of the XIIth ISAH Congress on Animal Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland, 4-8 September 2005. Published by BEL Studio sp. z o.o., Warsaw, Poland 2005; 505-507. ISBN: 8389968363
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Trypanosoma evansi, detection, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, comparative study, Egypt.

Njiru, ZK; Constantine, CC; Guya, S; Crowther, J; Kiragu, JM; Thompson, RCA; Davila, AMR. The use of ITS1 rDNA PCR in detecting pathogenic African trypanosomes. Parasitology Research. 2005; 95(3): 186-192. ISSN: 0932-0113
URL: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100447
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-004-1267-5
Abstract: There are 11 different pathogenic trypanosomes in trypanosomiasis endemic regions of Africa. Their detection and characterisation by molecular methods relies on species-specific primers; consequently several PCR tests have to be made on each sample. Primers ITS1 CF and ITS1 BR, previously designed to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of rDNA, have been evaluated for use in a universal diagnostic test for all pathogenic trypanosomes. Blood was collected from 373 cattle and 185 camels. The primers gave constant PCR products with the stocks of each taxon tested. Members of subgenus Trypanozoon (T. brucei brucei, T. evansi, T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense) gave a constant product of approximately 480 bp; T. congolense, savannah 700 bp, T. congolense kilifi 620 bp and T. congolense forest 710 bp: T. simiae 400 bp, T. simiae tsavo 370 bp, T. godfreyi 300 bp and T. vivax 250 bp. The sensitivity of the test ranged from 10 pg for Trypanozoon, T. congolense clade and T. vivax to 100 pg for T. simiae and T. godfreyi. The primers detected cases of multi-taxa samples, although the sensitivity was reduced with an increase in the combinations. A better detection rate of trypanosome DNA was recorded with buffy coats than from direct blood. With the field samples, the diagnostic sensitivity was close to the sensitivity obtained using single reactions with species-specific primers for Trypanozoon 38/40 (95%) and T. congolense savannah 30/33 (90.9%) but was lower with T. vivax 25/31 (77.4%). The primers offer promise as a routine diagnostic tool through the use of a single PCR; however, further evaluation is recommended. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: cattle and camels, humans, trypanosome pathogen detection, African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma rhodesiense,Trypanosoma vivax, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease vectors; DNA, PCR.

Omar, SFA. Serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in cows, ewes, she-camels and dogs by Competitive ELISA and Capture ELISA. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza. 2005; 53(2): 625-634. ISSN: 1110-1423. Note: “Proceedings of the 8th Scientific Conference: Biotechnology & Animal Wealth Development, Giza, Egypt. 17-19 April, 2005.”
Abstract: A serological examination of farm animals which had history of abortion by competitive ELISA was conducted to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Giza, Egypt. Blood samples were collected from 100 cows, 100 ewes, 50 she-camels and 24 dogs. Results showed that 20, 16 and 8% of cows, ewes and camels were positive for N. caninum antibodies, respectively. 18, 14 and 8% of cows, ewes and camels from healthy farms had antibodies against N. caninum, respectively. 20.8% of farm dogs and 12.5% of urban dogs were positive for N. caninum antibodies. Seroprevalence was higher in bitches than in male dogs. By capture ELISA, 15, 18 and 10% of cows, ewes and camels were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies, respectively. Moreover, 9, 12 and 8% of cows, ewes and camels were positive for IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies, respectively. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, cattle,cows, dogs, sheep, ewes, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, abortion, antibodies, serological diagnosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, IgG, IgM, immunodiagnosis, serological surveys, seroprevalence, sex differences.

Pathak, KML; Narendra Singh. Animal trypanosomosis. Intas Polivet. 2005; 6(2): 194-199. ISSN: 0972-1738
Abstract: Animal trypanosomiasis or surra caused by Trypanosoma evansi, one of the most pathogenic protozoan parasites, is a serious disease of domestic animals in India with threatening economic consequences. The disease is said to have evolved from camels coming in contact with tsetse flies carrying the T. brucei group of trypanosomes. The disease occurs throughout the year, mostly in post-rainy season and a number of outbreaks in cattle and buffalo have been recorded after vaccination of RP and FMD. The chief symptoms of surra are intermittent fever, anaemia, loss of weight and oedema of dependent parts. Abortion has also been recorded in buffaloes and donkeys. A variable clinical course makes the diagnosis of T. evansi infection difficult as the infected animals often may not display any specific clinical signs. Some sero-diagnostic methods like antigen (Ag) and antibody (Ab) detection have been developed but showed poor results. With the introduction of molecular technology, assays based on the detection of trypanosomal DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed but these techniques are yet to be standardized through their application on a large number of animals. For the treatment of surra, only one drug, quinapyramine methyl sulphate-chloride, is available in India. However, resistance against this drug has been observed which stresses the need for an effective and safe drug for surra in all animals.
Descriptors: dromedary camel, cattle, goats, horses, sheep, Trypanosoma evansi, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease transmission, drug therapy, epidemiology, immunodiagnosis, immunological techniques, pathogenesis, quinapyramine, reviews, socioeconomics, treatment, trypanosomiasis, chemotherapy, clinical picture, serological diagnosis, serological-techniques, socioeconomic aspects, trypanosomosis.

Radfar, MH. Treatment of trypanosomosis in a herd of camel. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2005; 82(5): 550-551. ISSN: 0019-6479
URL: http://www.indvetjournal.com
NAL call no.: 41.8 IN2
Abstract: Acute trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi was diagnosed in a herd of camel from southeastern Iran (November 2001) by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears. Clinical signs included swelling of the neck and pectoral region, presence of secretions in the eyes and pale mucous membranes. The affected camels were pyrexic, with slight tachypnoea and tachycardia. Haematological examination revealed low haematocrit and leukocytosis. The animals were treated with quinapyramine salts (quinapyramine sulfate+quinapyramine chloride) (Quina Ject, 4.4 mg/kg bw SC) once. All the affected animals recovered 10-15 days after the administration of quinapyramine salts.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Trypanosoma evansi, trypanosomiasis, clinical picture, case reports, diagnosis, drug therapy, quinapyramine, antiprotozoal agents, treatment.

Sopyev, B; Divanov, B; Charyev, C. Diseases of camels, their preventive maintenance and treatment. In: B. Faye and P. Esenov (Editors). Desertification Combat and Food Safety: The Added Value of Camel Producers, Ashkabad, Turkmenistan, 19-21 April 2004. IOS Press, Amsterdam. 2005; 60-66. ISBN: 1586034731
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, acaricides, brucellosis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diminazene, disease prevalence, disease prevention, drug therapy, azidine, berenil, hydatid disease, hydatidosis, echinococcosis, epidemiology, helminthoses, licorice, mange, plague, smallpox, trypanosomiasis, vaccination, Brucella, Cephalopina, Echinococcus, Glycyrrhiza, Sarcoptes scabiei, Taenia hydatigena, Trypanosoma, Yersinia pestis, Turkmenistan, Central Asia.

2004

Al Ani, Falah Khalil Abdul Razzak (Editors). Camel Management and Diseases. Amman: Dar Ammar Book Pub., c2004. xvi + 455pp. ISBN 9957445006; 9789957445003. Note: With 16 consultant contributors." Includes bibliographical references and index.
NAL call no: SF997.5.C3.A43 2004
Abstract: This is a reference book on camels and includes 30 chapters that deal with the different aspects of camel management and diseases. Most chapters are on the dromedary but there is a chapter on Bactrian camel and one on South American camelids. The book also covers the socio-economics of the camel in nomadic life and the history of the camel in pre-Islamic and in Islamic society, and camel sports. Most of the chapters are devoted to the physiology and diseases of the various body systems, diseases by pathogen type (viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal), clinical examination, anaesthesia and surgery, nutrition and digestion, management and husbandry. The text is supported by numerous black and white photographs. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, camel diseases, camel husbandry, camel breeding, camel nutrition, camel physiology, infectious diseases, reproduction, diagnostic techniques, therapy, etc.

Al Goraishy, SAR; Bashtar, AR; Al Rasheid, KAS; Abdel Ghaffar, FA. Prevalence and ultrastructure of sarcocystis species infecting camels (Camelus dromedaries) slaughtered in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2004; 11(2): 135-142. ISSN: 1319-562X
Abstract: The prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in the camel (Camelus dromedaries) was estimated as 64% of 624 slaughtered camels at Riyadh abattoirs (K.S.A.). The infection rate was 63% in the diaphragm, 58% in the oesophagus, 43% in both skeletal muscles and tongue and only 34% in the heart muscles. Only microscopic sarcocysts bounded with thin walled primary cyst wall and measured 240 x 120 mu m were usually observed in the examined histological preparations from all selected organs. The ultrastuctural study showed that the cyst wall had many plaside-like protrusions which were irregularly folded. The protrusions had external non-branched knob-like elevations and internal fibrillar elements. The ground substance was usually found directly beneath the primary cyst wall and it extended inside the cyst cavity in the form of many septa dividing the interior of the cyst into many compartments containing the parasites (metrocytes and merozoites). Both metrocytes and merozoites were similar in their fine structure to each other and to Apicomplexa. Metrocytes underwent endodyogony producing cyst merozoites. A secondary cyst wall was never observed in the present study.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Sarcocystis, parasite infection, prevalence of parasite, post slaughter testing, histology, Saudi Arabia.

Al Qarawi, AA; Omar, HM; Abdel Rahman, HA; El Mougy, SA; El Belely, MS. Trypanosomiasis induced infertility in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) bulls: changes in plasma steroids concentration and semen characteristics. Animal Reproduction Science. 2004 Aug; 84(1-2): 73-82. ISSN: 0378-4320
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784320
NAL call no .: QP251.A5
Descriptors: dromedary camels, male bulls, case study, trypanosome infection, effects of infection, infertility, plasma steroids concentration, semen characteristics.

Delafosse, A; Doutoum, AA. Prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection and associated risk factors in camels in eastern Chad. Veterinary Parasitology. 2004; 119(2/3): 155-164. ISSN: 0304-4017
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2003.11.010
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection (Surra) in herds of camels from the eastern area of Chad. The risk factors associated with disease were also identified. From August 1997 to April 1998, a random sample of 2831 camels from 136 herds was selected. Blood samples were collected and examined for the presence of T. evansi using an antibody (card agglutination test - CATT/T. evansi) and a parasite detection test (buffy-coat technique - BCT). Standardized questionnaires with information about the host and management practices were collected and evaluated for their association with seroprevalence (model 1) and parasitological prevalence (model 2) as indications of host sensitivity. In both models, risk factors were selected using ordinary logistic regression (OLR) and herd effect was evaluated using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) model. The apparent prevalence was 5.3% using BCT and 30.5% with CATT. Real prevalence was estimated at 16.9%+or-1.4 ( alpha =5%). Overall, 27.9% (BCT) and 94.9% (CATT) of the herds had a least one-positive animal. Real herd prevalence was estimated at 42.6+or-8.3% ( alpha =5%). Camels of the large transhumants had the highest prevalence (estimated to 30.3%+or-2.5; 62.9+or-12.0 in herds). Risk factors associated with seroprevalence were age, ethnic group, length of seasonal migration and longitude of pasture area in the dry season. Risk factors associated with BCT prevalence were age, length of seasonal migration, longitude of pasture area in the dry season, latitude of pasture area in the rainy season and season of sampling. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, age, Trypanosoma evansi, disease prevalence, epidemiology, risk factors, seroprevalence, Chad.

Doutoum, AA; Mbaindingatoloum, FM; Delafosse, A; Michaux, Y. Sante des dromadaires au Tchad oriental: epidemiologie de la trypanosomose (Surra).[Camel health in eastern Chad: epidemiology of trypanosomiasis (Surra).] Revue Africaine de Sante et de Productions Animales. 2004; 2(2): 138-143. ISSN: 0851-7002. Note: In French with an English summary.
Abstract: A transversal study using questionnaires was conducted among 138 nomadic and sedentary camel breeders. Blood sampling of 2935 camels (Camelus dromedarius) randomly selected in eastern Chad was also carried out. Results showed that the breeders are informed about trypanosomiasis. Some herds may include up to 9 seropositive camels out of 10. The prevalence among one-year-old camel was 15% and the overall prevalence was 20%. Serological prevalence, measured using CATT-Test varied with age and sex: two out of three herds have at least one seropositive animal. This first study was followed by a longitudinal study which showed that trypanosomiasis and diarrhoea in young camels are the most frequent diseases in camel herds. They may cause high economic losses due to the mortality of young and adult camels, still birth, reduced milk production and loss of weight of animals. Mange, haemonchosis and Djiddar, a disease with an unknown aetiology, are also widely common. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, age differences, sex differences, camel health, camel diseases, disease prevalence, disease surveys, questionnaires, serological surveys, epidemiology, diarrhea, mange, trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma evansi, Chad.

Imai, S; Shinno, T; Ike, K; Morita, T; Selim, HM. Fourteen morphotypes of Entodinium ovumrajae (Ophryoscolecidae, Entodiniomorphida) found in the dromedary camel of Egypt. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 2004; 51(6): 594-597. ISSN: 1066-5234
URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jeu
Abstracts: During a survey of the ciliate protozoal composition of the stomach contents of nine dromedary camels of Egypt, fourteen morphotypes of Entodinium ovumrajae, which has been considered as a species peculiar to camels, were found in six camels. Except for five morphotypes including one originally described as an independent species and its forms, these were newly detected. These morphotypes, divided into three groups, can be identified mainly by the morphology of their ectoplasmic processes. Each camel had on average, about five morphotypes of this species. Reproduced with permisisn of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, stomachs, rumen protozoa, Entodinium ovumrajae, morphology, rumen, Egypt.

Mahran, OM. Some studies on blood parasites in camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Shalatin City, Red Sea Governorate. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2004; 50(102): 172-184. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: A survey was performed on 450 camels from Shalatin city at different ages and sexes from January to December 2003, to detect the incidence of blood parasites in camels. Out of 450 examined camels, 21.31% were naturally infected with blood parasites. Of these animals, 11.55% were infected with Trypanosoma evansi, 6.2% were infected with Theileria camelensis and 3.33% were infected with Dipetalonema evansi microfilariae. The highest rate of infection of blood parasites in camels was during the summer and the rate of infection was higher among older camels than younger individuals. In addition, the rate of infectivity among females was higher than males. A haemogram revealed macrocytic normochromic anaemia and disturbances in the leukocyte count.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, age differences, sex differences, blood parasites, infectivity rates, clinical aspects, hematology, hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, macrocytic anemia, microfilariae, morphology, seasonality, Dipetalonema evansi, Trypanosoma evansi, Theileria camelensis, Shalatin City, Red Sea Governorate.

Narender Singh; Pathak, KML; Rajender Kumar; Chhabra, MB. Epidemiology and diagnosis of surra (Trypanosoma evansi) in camels - a review. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2004; 11(1): 51-57. ISSN: 0971-6777
URL: http://www.camelsandcamelids.com
Abstract: Trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma evansi is a major enzootic disease of the dromedary camel. Recent surveys have confirmed the widespread occurrence of the disease within a wide range of climate and vegetation zones in Asia, Middle East, Far East, Central and South America and usually outside the tsetse belt in Africa. Only a few reliable data exist on the distribution and seasonal prevalence of the disease in endemic areas. Reports of over 12 000 cases of surra in India during 1940-42 showed that disease prevalence peaked during the months of the monsoon season. Epidemiological studies in Mauritania by Jacquit et.al. in dromedaries from 3 types of herds revealed infection levels ranging from 4.4-14.9% by blood smear examinations and 11-38% by immunofluorescent complement fixation tests (ICFT). Mean T. evansi prevalence ranged from 11.1% by microhaematocrit centrifugation technique to 28.1% using a monoclonal antibody based card latex agglutination test (Suratex) and 37.9% using CATT/T. evansi. An epidemiological survey of camel trypanosomiasis conducted for the first time in Morocco in 1997 and 1998 showed that the overall seroprevalence was 14.1% by CATT and 18.2% by Ab-ELISA. Concentration techniques were shown to improve the chances of demonstrating trypanosomes in the blood of infected animals. The most applicable and commonly used technique was the microhaematocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Buffy coat technique devised by Murray et.al. further improved this parasitological technique. The MHCT could detect trypanosomes in camel blood 6-10 days earlier than in wet or thick blood films. Inoculation of laboratory rodents with blood from suspected infectious camels was a very sensitive method for detecting low parasitaemia caused by T. evansi. The development of an enzyme linked immunosorbent antibody assay (ELISA) by Voller et.al was a major breakthrough for the detection of antibodies in serum by a specific antigen. A highly sensitive and specific PCR-based assay for the detection of T. evansi in the blood of different animals was developed as well as the vector. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma evansi, antibodies, antigens, diagnosis, ELISA, immunofluorescence, diagnostic techniques, blood smears, PCR, diagnostic value, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, hematocrit, molecular biology, reviews, Africa, Asia, Central America, India, Mauritania, Middle East, Morocco, South America.

Narender Singh; Pathak, KML; Rajender Kumar. A comparative evaluation of parasitological, serological and DNA amplification methods for diagnosis of natural Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels. Veterinary Parasitology. 2004; 126(4): 365-373. ISSN: 0304-4017
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
Abstract: A representative number of 217 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different areas of western Rajasthan State, India, were examined from July 2002 to May 2003 for Trypanosoma evansi infection. The tests used were parasitological (wet blood film, WBF; stained thin blood smear, TBS), immunodiagnostic (double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for antigen detection, Ag-ELISA), and DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These techniques were compared and the best efficiency was found for the last named (PCR). A prevalence of T. evansi infection was detected in 17.05, 9.67, 4.60 and 4.14% by PCR, Ag-ELISA, TBS and WBF with a sensitivity of 100, 56.75, 27.02 and 24.32%, respectively. PCR revealed a specific 227 bp band in positive samples. The intensity of PCR bands was variable in different test samples depending upon the level of infection in the test samples. The history of intermittent fever, emaciation, oedema, poor body condition significantly correlated with positive serological status in ELISA as well as trypanosome DNA detection by PCR.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, accuracy, Trypanosoma evansi, trypanosomiasis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, DNA amplification, ELISA, epidemiology, parasitic infestations, immunodiagnosis, parasitoses, PCR, serology, Rajasthan, India.

Shafqaat Ahmad; Butt, AA; Muhammad, G; Athar, M; Khan, MZ. Haematobiochemical studies on the haemoparasitized camels. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2004; 6(2): 331-334. ISSN: 1560-8530
URL: http://www.fspublishers.org/
Abstract: A total of 100 camels of either sex, different ages, functional classes and maintained at different localities in and around Faisalabad district ( Pakistan) were investigated for serum biochemical and haematological changes owing to haemoparasitism caused by Trypanosoma evansi and Dipetalonema evansi over a course of one year. The mean total serum proteins in the normal camels were found to be 7.381+or-0.048 g/dl; whereas, the corresponding values in haemoparasitized group was 6.831+or-0.270 g/dl. The haemoparasitic infection had a significant (P<=0.05) effect on the total serum proteins. The mean+or-SE values of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) in normal and haemoparasitized camels were 51.975+or-3.717 micro /litre and 58.179+or-6.598 micro /litre, respectively. The mean+or-SE values of SGPT in normal and haemoparasitized camels respectively were 14.597+or-1.867 and 18.262+or-2.748 micro /litre. The change in both enzymes was non-significant. The mean values of different haematological parameters viz. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, total erythrocytic and total leukocytic counts did not differ significantly between the infected and non-infected camels. A mild eosinophilia (0.53%) was observed in the haemoparasitized camels.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, blood parasite effects, Dipetalonema evansi, Trypanosoma evansi, aspartate aminotransferase, eosinophils, erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hematology, hemoglobin, leukocyte count, nematode infections, trypanosomiasis, Pakistan.

Shahardar, RA; Mishra, AK; Rao, JR. Detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camels by ELISA using solubilized antigens. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2004; 74(1): 3-6. ISSN: 0367-8318
Abstract: An ELISA for detection of antibodies against T. evansi in dromedary camels using 2 types of solubilized antigens, viz. crude solubilized antigen (CSA) and detergent solubilized antigen (DSA) was standardized using positive and negative control sera (India). The optimum conditions standardized for the test were the following: coating the wells of a micro-ELISA plate with 100 micro l of solubilized antigens (at a concentration of 2 micro g/ml); blocking with 5% skimmed milk powder in PBS-T (200 micro l/well); rabbit anti-camel lg-HRPO conjugate diluted 1:300 to 1:1000 with PBS-T (100 micro l/well); and colour development with freshly prepared substrate solution of OPD (200 micro l/well). After measuring the absorbance value of positive and negative controls, test serum samples with twice the mean absorbance value of negative control sera were taken as positive and those below this value as negative. A total of 180 field collected serum samples of camels were screened with ELISA using CSA and DSA as test antigens, and out of them 112 (62.22%) and 124 (68.88%) were positive for T. evansi antibodies, respectively.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Trypanosoma evansi, antibodies, antigens, detection, ELISA, India.

Shahardar, RA; Rao, JR; Mishra, AK. Detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma evansi in camels by DID and CIEP. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 2004; 18(1): 69-70. ISSN: 0971-6157
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
Descriptors: dromedary camels, apparently healthy, surra endemic areas, 107 serum samples, diagnostic techniques, antibody testing, Trypanosoma evansi, Ouchterlony's double immunodiffusion (DID), counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) tests, detergent solubilized antigen, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India.

Singh, N; Pathak, KML; Kumar, R. A comparative evaluation of parasitological, serological and DNA amplification methods for diagnosis of natural Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels. Veterinary Parasitology. 2004 Dec 30; 126(4): 365-373. ISSN: 0304-4017
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017
Descriptors: camels, natural infection, trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma evansi, infection, disease diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, parasitemia, serodiagnosis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, disease prevalence, India.

Yadav, SN; Ghorui, SK; Ray, D. Restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA of isolates of Trypanosoma evansi. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2004; 74(5): 466-469
Abstract: The present study was initiated to determine the differences or similarities among isolates of Trypanosoma evansi through restriction endonuclease profile. The genomic DNA of T. evansi, isolated from naturally infected buffalo, horse and camel, were analysed. A panel of restriction enzymes (Alu I, Dra I, EcoR I, Hind III, Kpn I, Not I, Pst I, Sal I, Sma I and Taq I) were used for complete digestion of genomic DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis of digested DNA samples appeared as a continuous smear along the electrophoretic tracks and ethidium bromide staining revealed the complex size of the trypanosome genome. There was no fixed restriction site, but in restriction enzyme Dra I and Alu I at region 1.5 kb and 100 bp, respectively, appeared with background smear of DNA fragments. No heterogeneity in the nuclear DNA restriction endonuclease profile was recorded among the isolates. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, horses, buffaloes, Trypanosoma evansi, DNA, genomes, restriction endonuclease analysis, restriction endonucleases.

 

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