Arabian - Viral Diseases
Gur, S; (Guer?)Yapkic, O; Yilmaz, A. Serological survey of bovine enterovirus type 1 in different mammalian species in Turkey. Zoonoses and Public Health. 2008; 55(2): 106-111. ISSN: 1863-1959
Abstract: The bovine enterovirus type 1 (BEV-1) infection has a wide range of host spectrum including humans. In this study, seroprevalence of BEV-1 was investigated in eight mammalian species. Blood serum samples were collected from 244 humans, 1520 cattle, 272 horse, 126 dog, 281 sheep, 477 goat, 18 camel (Camelus dromedarius) and 82 gazelle (Gazella subgutturosasubgutturosa) in different regions of Turkey. Microneutralization tests showed that gazelle and camel did not have any seropositivities, but seropositivities were detected in humans (30.3%), cattle (64.8%), horse (12.8%), dog (3.2%), sheep (32.8%) and goat (27.6%).
Descriptors: dromedary camels, dogs, goats, horses, humans, sheep, gazelles, antibodies, bovine enterovirus 1, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease transmission, epidemiology, seroconversion, serology, seroprevalence, zoonoses, disease surveillance, zoonotic infections, Turkey.
Hussein, MF; AlShaikh, M; El Rab, MOG; Aljumaah, RS; El Nabi, ARG; Bagi, AMA. Serological prevalence of Q fever and chlamydiosis in camels in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2008; 7(6): 685-688. ISSN: 1680-5593
Abstract: Tests for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii and Chlamdophila abortus were conducted in 460 and 186 Saudi camels, respectively, using an enzyme immunoassay technique. The serological prevalence of coxiellosis was 62% while that of chlamydiosis was 19.4%. Neither of these infections was associated with overt clinical disease in the camels and in both cases seropositivity was higher in adult than young camels. The prevalence of antibodies against C. burnetii was closely similar in male and female camels, while a much higher prevalence of anti-chlamydial antibodies was observed in female as compared to male camels. This is the first record of both infections among indigenous camels in Saudi Arabia. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels,epidemiology, Q fever, seroprevalence, sex differences, Chlamydiaceae, Coxiella burnetii, abattoir fever, Balkan grippe, Chlamydophila abortus, Derrick Burnet disease, Nine Mile fever, pneumorickettsiosis, quadrilateral fever, query fever, Saudi Arabia.
Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Carpenter, Tim E; Perez, Andrcbs M; Thurmond, Mark C. Temporal-spatial epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Mongolia, 2000 - 2002. Veterinary Research Communications. 2008 Mar; 32(3): 201-207. ISSN: 0165-7380
NAL: call no: SF601.V38
Abstract: Prior to 2000, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) had not been observed in Mongolia since 1973; however, between April 2000 and July 2002, Mongolia reported 44 FMD outbreaks that affected cattle, sheep, goats, and camels. The objectives of this study were to describe the distributions of the 44 reported FMD outbreaks in Mongolia and to assess their spatial clustering and directions of movement. Official reports were collected to obtain the number and species of animals both affected and at risk, and the date and geographical coordinates of each outbreak. Significant global and local spatial clusters of reported FMD outbreaks were identified. Disease spread during the second epidemic moved 76p northeast and the spread of the disease during the third epidemic moved 110p northwest. FMD outbreaks were clustered intensely close to other FMD-positive counties. These findings can be used in the future to help plan prevention and control measures in high risk areas.
Descriptors: animal diseases, camels, cattle diseases, sheep diseases, goat diseases, foot and mouth disease, FMD virus, emerging diseases, disease outbreaks, disease prevalence, disease incidence, temporal variation, geographical variation, disease distribution, risk assessment, epidemiological studies, data collection, statistical analysis, Mongolia.
Wernery, U; Knowles, NJ; Hamblin, C; Wernery, R; Joseph, S; Kinne, J; Nagy, P. Abortions in dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) caused by equine rhinitis A virus. Journal of General Virology. 2008 Mar; 89(3): 660-666. ISSN: 0022-1317
NAL call no: QR360.A1J6.
Abstract: A virus was isolated from aborted dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) fetuses during an abortion storm in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Laboratory investigations showed the causative agent to be indistinguishable from equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV), a picornavirus. Two pregnant dromedaries experimentally infected with the camel virus isolate both aborted and an identical virus was reisolated from both fetuses, thus confirming the diagnosis. The extremely high prevalence of antibody (>90 %) and the high titres recorded against ERAV in the dromedary herd clearly showed that ERAV does infect dromedaries. Unlike horses, where ERAV targets the upper respiratory tract, in dromedaries the target organ appears to be the genital tract.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, aborted fetuses, viral diseases of animals and humans, viral infection, equine rhinitis A virus, United Arab Emirates.
Wilson, RT. Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 2008; 79(2): 58-61. ISSN: 0038-2809
Descriptors: dromedary camels, introduction into Namibia for military purposes, camels introduced into South Africa and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) to replace oxen, concerns regarding introductions of disease, foot and mouth disease, mange, trypanosomosis, antibodies to common lifestock found in later years.
Abubakr, MI; Gould, EA; Moss, S; Abdelrahman, AO; Fadlallah, ME; Nayel, MN; Adam, AS. An outbreak of contagious ecthyma in the Kingdom of Bahrain. In: Gahlot, TK (Editor). Proceedings of the International Camel Conference "Recent Trends in Camelids Research and Future Strategies for Saving Camels", Rajasthan, India, 16-17 February 2007. 2007; 42-43.
Abstract: Contagious ecthyma (contagious pustular dermatitis, orf) is a highly infectious viral skin disease of sheep and goats caused by a parapoxvirus. The disease is characterized by the development of pustular and scabby lesions on the muzzle and lips. Severe facial oedema has been reported in lambs. Although contagious ecthyma has been known in sheep and goats since 1913, its description in camels has been relatively recent. The disease is then recorded in Kazakhstan. Somalia, Mongolia, Kenya, Sudan and Saudi Arabia. This paper reported on an outbreak of contagious ecthyma in camels (n=150) from Bahrain. The affected animals showed severe papules and pustules on the lips, muzzles and eyelids, increase in body temperature, profuse salivation, foul mouth smell and facial oedema. The morbidity rate was 100%, but no mortality was recorded. The infected camels were given supportive treatment. Their mouths were washed with antiseptic solution, and Penstrep was administered at a dose of 20 ml for 7 days. An antihistaminic (Histamil) was also administered at a dose of 8 ml for 3 days. Most of the camels recovered within 2 weeks, whereas the more severely affected animals recovered within one month. The PCR results implied that the contagious ecthyma in camels could have been caused by a pseudo cowpox-related virus rather an orf virus. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, antibiotics, antihistaminics, antiseptics, clinical aspects, diagnosis, disease control, DNA, drug therapy, edema, outbreaks, PCR, skin lesions, contagious ecthyma virus, cowpox virus, antihistamines, chemotherapy, clinical picture, contagious pustular dermatitis, CPD virus, deoxyribonucleic-acid, orf virus PCR, scabby mouth, sore mouth, ulcerative dermatosis, Bahrain.
Ahmed, SM; Hegde, BP. Preliminary study on the major important camel calf diseases and other factors causing calf mortality in the Somali Regional state of Ethiopia. In: Gahlot, TK (Editor). Proceedings of the International Camel Conference "Recent Trends in Camelids Research and Future Strategies for Saving Camels", Rajasthan, India, 16-17 February 2007. 2007; 31-41.
Abstract: This study was undertaken in 5 randomly selected districts of Aider zone. 15 households were selected from each district. A total of 75 households were included in this study. Random sampling technique was used. Calf mortality was seen as prenatal death due to abortion, postnatal death from first week to 3 months of calf age and before weaning period. The latter was mainly caused by some endemic diseases and other associated factors. In this study, the abortion rate was 16% and was caused by several factors. These included accidental death of fetus and trypanosomiasis, which contributed 64.3 and 28.6%, respectively, in the case of Jarati, whereas trypanosomiasis and stress conditions contributed 40 and 46.7%, respectively, in the case of Hargelle. On the other hand, stress conditions caused by adverse environmental conditions and unidentified poisonous plants contributed 26.7 and 73.3%, respectively, in the case of Barey. Similarly, trypanosomiasis, accidental death and stress conditions and browsing of poisonous plants contributed 33.3, 40.0, 20.0 and 6.7%, respectively, in the case of Dollo-Bay. With regard to El-kari district, about 66.7, 26.7 and 6.7% of respondents claimed that abortion was caused by accidental deaths, poisonous plants and stressful conditions, respectively. On the other hand, calf death was very high during the first week after birth. About 60, 50, 55, 45, 35% of Hargelle, Jarati, Barey, Dollo-Bay and El-kari, respectively, suggested that an average 51% of calf losses were encountered during the first week of calves. Calf mortality of about 30% was encountered during the first 90 days of calf age, whereas the remaining 19% were encountered after 90 days of calf life before weaning. Poor colostrum feeding practice was also believed to be one of the major causes of calf mortality during the first week of life. Furthermore, some endemic diseases and other associated factors were also reported to be among the major causes of calf mortality during the lactation period before weaning. The most important disease found was calf scour (daab). The morbidity and mortality rates of calf scour were 87 and 39%, respectively. Sunken eye (ilqod) was considered as the second problematic disease of calves by herders. The disease caused serious economic losses to the households through loss of milk after death of the calves. The morbidity and mortality rates due to sunken eyes were 57 and 12%, respectively. Contagious ecthyma (canbaruur) was considered as one of the important diseases of calves by herders. The morbidity and mortality rates of contagious ecthyma were 75 and 6.9%, respectively. Contagious necrotic skin was also considered as one of the important diseases of calves by herders. About 88% of all districts reported that the disease affected their calves with morbidity and mortality rates of 35 and 4.6%, respectively. Other endemic diseases reported were trypanosomiasis with morbidity and mortality rates of 9.6 and 6.7%. Camel pox had morbidity and mortality rates of 42 and 7%, respectively. Pneumonia had a mortality rate of 7%. On the other hand, factors causing calf losses included predation which was about 4.8, 23.8, 26.6, 16.7, and 26.2% in Hargelle, Jarati, Barey, Dollo-Bay and El-kari, respectively, suggesting that predators were considered next to diseases in causing calf mortality. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedarycamels, calves, fetal abortion, age differences, animal diseases, anthrax, camel milk, colostrum, deformities, diarrhea, losses scarcoptes mange, morbidity, mortalitynecrosis, pneumonia, poisoning, poisonous plants, predation, stress, toxicity, trypanosomiasis, viral diseases, Bacillus anthracis, contagious ecthyma virus, plants, Trypanosoma, contagious pustular dermatitis, CPD virus, death rate, diarrhea, orf virus, scabby mouth, sore mouth, toxic plants, toxicosis, trypanosomosis, ulcerative dermatosis, viral infections, Abyssinia, Ethiopia.
Al Afaleq, AI; Abu Elzein, EME; Hegazy, AA; Al Naeem, A. Serosurveillance of camels (Camelus dromedarius) to detect antibodies against viral diseases in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(2): 91-96. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: A serological survey was conducted to detect antibodies in dromedary camels against viral diseases of veterinary importance in Saudi Arabia. The goal of this study was to examine the extent of exposure of the camel to such diseases, reflected by positive or negative seroconversion. The overall results indicated that out of 2,472 examined sera samples, 10.6% had antibodies against the viruses investigated in the present study. The incidence of infection was 20% for rinderpest, 18% for bovine viral diarrhoea, 13% for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 1.5% for bluetongue, and 0.2% for Rift Valley fever. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, exposure to viral diseases, epidemiology, Rift Valley fever virus, rinderpest virus, bluetongue virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, cattle plague, Saudi Arabia.
Al Dubaib, MA. Rabies in camels at Qassim region of Central Saudi Arabia. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(2): 101-103. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: A questionnaire survey on the incidence of rabies in camels, targeting camel herdsmen, was carried out to investigate the incidence of the disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Forty eight camel herdsmen looking after 4124 camels were included in the survey. The questionnaire included incidence of the disease, type of animals transmitting the disease, clinical signs and whether rabid camels are source of infection to humans. The incidence of the disease was found to be about 0.2%. The disease was transmitted in about 70% of cases by bites from rabid wild dogs and in 17% of cases from bites of rabid foxes. The source of infection was not found in about 13% of cases. Camels were bitten when they defend their offspring from attacking predators. The usual sites of the bite were either on fore or hind limbs. The disease was mainly of the silent or dumb type (67% of cases). The male camel was especially dangerous when showing the furious form of the disease, attacking and biting nearby objects and mutilating its own body. The clinical signs of the disease were restlessness, salivation and rotation of head and neck in all directions. These signs were soon followed by paralysis, recumbency and death. Results also showed that camels did not transmit rabies to humans. Reporting of rabies in camels in Qassim region is poor since camel owners are nomads which travel far and inaccessible distances in the desert. They are also not keen to report the disease to the veterinary authorities. A rabid camel is usually separated from the herd and left to die in the desert, or destroyed when aggressive. During 2002-2006, three heads of suspected rabid camels were examined histopathologically for the presence of viral inclusions (Negri bodies). There was no encephalitis and the viral inclusions were found in the midbrain nerves cell bodies. The number of viral inclusions varied from one to four and stained faintly acidophilic with haematoxylin and eosin. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, dogs, wild foxes, animal bites, rabies virus, animal disease vectors, clinical aspects, diagnosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, disease transmission, wild foxes as disease reservoir, zoonotic diseases, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, histopathology. Saudi Arabia.
Al Hizab, FA; Abdelsalam, EB. Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(2): 105-108. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: Histological evidence of a non-suppurative meningoencephalitis was detected in 5 adult camels (Camelus dromedarius), brought for postmortem examination with a clinical history of nervous signs. The inflammatory reaction was dominated by intense lymphocytic infiltration and perivascular cuffing, microgliosis, and degeneration and necrosis of some individual neurons in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex. Severe vascular changes characterised by diffuse capillary congestion and focal haemorrhages in the white matter were frequently observed. Leptomeningitis was further indicated by fibrinous exudation and inflammatory cellular infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and glial cells. The causative agent was not yet determined. However, the purely lymphocytic nature of the inflammatory reaction is highly suggestive of viral infection. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels,brain, cerebrum, brain diseases, viral diseases, clinical aspects, disease prevalence, epidemiology, histopathology, meningoencephalitis, pathogenesis, pathology, etiology, viral diseases, Saudi Arabia.
Al Zi'abi, O; Nishikawa, H; Meyer, H. The first outbreak of camelpox in Syria. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2007; 69(5): 541-543. ISSN: 0916-7250
Abstract: In this study we report the first outbreak of camelpox in two provinces in Syria. Clinical symptoms started with fever, salivation and general exanthema. The main features were facial and legs oedema, pustules on the mucosa of the lips and a high rate of abortion. Lesions may also occur on the whole body including scrotum and udder. Specimens were investigated by electron microscopy, virus isolation in cell culture and embryonated eggs and by immunohistochemistry. The causative agent was identified as camelpox virus by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the hemagglutinin gene.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camelpox virus, clinical aspects, epidemiology, lesions, pathology, camel viral disease outbreaks, clinical picture; viral infections, Syria.
Al Ziabi, O. Application of immunohistochemistry to detect camelpox virus in cell culture and histological sections. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2007; 53(112): 209-222. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: During the spring and summer of 2005, an outbreak of camelpox was reported in the province of Hama and Duma city, Egypt. Therefore, this study was designed to detect camelpox virus in Vero cell culture and paraffin tissue section by immunohistochemistry. Skin samples (pustules, vesicles and scabs) from infected camels were collected from Duma and Hama. Monoclonal antibody (mouse anti-camelpox IgG) and labelled secondary antibody (rabbit anti-mouse IgG HRP) were used to demonstrate camelpox virus. Camelpox virus was localized in the cytopathic effects in cell culture (syncytia and round cells) and inclusion bodies in the dermal and epidermal cell of the skin. The present study shows that immunohistochemistry is a sensitive diagnostic technique for camelpox using skin samples, with a sensitivity of 98%. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camelpox, camelpox virus, skin tissue sampling, cell culture, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, immunohistochemistry, Egypt.
Ali, YH; Khalafalla, AI; Gaffar, ME; Peenze, I; Steele AD. Molecular epidemiology and characterization of camel group A rotaviruses in Sudan. In: E Camus; E. Cardinale; C Dalibard; D Marinez; JF Renard; F Roger. Proceedings of the 12 th International Conference of the Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine AITVM, Montpellier, France, 20-22 August, 2007 Does Control of Animal Infectious Risks Offer a New International Perspective?Published by CIRAD. 2007; 119. ISBN: 9782876146501. Note: A conference paper.
Descriptors: calves cattle, camels, dromedaries, rotavirus diseases, characterization, scouring, diarrhea, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, RNA, electropherotype, Sudan.
Dedet, JP. Les decouvertes d'Edmond SERGENT sur la transmission vectorielle des agents de certaines maladies infectieuses humaines et animales. [ Edmond Sergent's discoveries on the vectorial transmission of agents of human and animal infectious diseases.] Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique. 2007; 100(2): 147-150. ISSN: 0037-9085. Note: In French with an English summary.
Abstract: Edmond Sergent has been head of the Institut Pasteur in Algeria during 1910-63, and during those years, carried out an impressive scientific research and studied a lot of agents responsible for human, animal and plant diseases. In the field of vectorial transmission of infectious diseases, he made two essential discoveries: the transmission of cosmopolitan relapsing fever by human body louse in 1908, a year before Charles Nicolle discovered the transmission of the classical exanthematic typhus by the same insect, and the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis by the phlebotomine sandfly. Moreover, he made other discoveries in similar fields, such as the transmission of dromedary trypanosomiasis by Tabanids, and later by Stomoxys calcitrans, and the transmission of the pigeon Haemoproteus by Lynchia maura. Finally, he described the transmission of Theileria dispar (now T. annulata) by the tick Hyalomma mauritanicum (1928). Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: Edmond Sergent, Insitut Pasteur, early researcher, animal and human diseases, medical entomologist, veterinary entomology, disease transmission, disease vectors, vector borne diseases, cutaneous leishmaniasis, louse borne typhus, protozoal infections, trypanosomiasis, dromedary camels, pigeons, Haemoproteus, Hyalomma, Leishmania, Phlebotominae, Pseudolynchia canariensis, Rickettsia prowazekii, Stomoxys calcitrans, Tabanidae, Theileria annulata, Trypanosoma, Hyalomma mauritanicum, Lynchia maura.
Housawi, FMT. Screening of domestic ruminants sera for the presence of anti-camel pox virus neutralizing antibodies at Al-Hassa District of Saudi Arabia. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2007; 53(115): 101-105. ISSN: 1012-5973. In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the possible presence of anti-camel pox neutralizing antibodies in other domestic ruminants. 350 serum samples were collected from domestic ruminants (200 camels, 50 cattle and 50 sheep and goats). Microserum neutralization test (SNT) revealed the presence of neutralizing anti-camel pox antibodies in ruminants from the Al-Hassa district. Of the total serum samples tested, 33 were found to be positive (9.14%). When the serum samples were grouped according to their species and type of management, the prevalence rates were found to be 21 and 4.0% in nomadic and abattoir camels, respectively. Seroconversion in these camels was due to previous exposure to camel pox virus. Sheep and goats showed 6.0 and 10% prevalence rates, respectively. The prevalence rate in cattle was 0%.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, cattle, goats, sheep, orthopox virus, blood-serum, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, immune response, neutralizing antibodies, serological surveys, seroprevalence, disease surveillance, immunity reactions, immunological reactions, sero-epidemiology, Saudi Arabia.
Khalafalla, AI; Ali, YH. Observations on risk factors associated with some camel viral diseases. In: E Camus; E Cardinale; C Dalibard; D Marinez; JF Renard; F Roger. Proceedings of the 12 th International Conference of the Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine AITVM, Montpellier, France, 20-22 August, 2007 Does Control of Animal Infectious Risks Offer a New International Perspective? Published by CIRAD. 2007; 101-105. ISBN: 9782876146501. Note: A conference paper.
Abstract: Four diseases of camels are of increasing economic significance. These are camel pox (CP), camel contagious ecthyma (CCE), rota viral diarrhea (RVD) and Morbillivirus infection (MVI). CP occurred in epizootics that lasted for 2-5 months with higher prevalence in winter. It mostly affected young animals of less than 5 years old. Group watering and introduction of new animal to a susceptible herd are the main risk factors. CCE is endemic in Sudan with variations in severity and mortality depending on age and geographical location. The major risk factors for CCE are season of the year, camel age and location associated with abundance of thorny acacia trees. MVI is an emerging viral disease that recently caused heavy losses in eastern Sudan. Mortality rate ranged between 0 to 50% and vary in accordance with location with a mean of 7.4%. More than 80% of deaths were in pregnant and recently delivered she-camels. Group A rotavirus was detected in 20% of diarrheic camels in Sudan The main age group affected was 0-3 months. Higher prevalence of rotavirus infection was noticed during wet season than dry and winter seasons. Risk factors for these viral diseases contributing to disease transmission in free ranging camels are identified and discussed. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, contagious pustular dermatitis, camel pox (CP), camel contagious ecthyma (CCE), rota viral diarrhea (RVD), Morbillivirus infection (MVI), CPD virus, scabby mouth, sore mouth, ulcerative dermatosis, viral infections, age, disease prevalence, disease transmission, risk factors, seasons, death rate, mortality, orf, thorny Acacia, Morbillivirus, Poxviridae, Rotavirus, Sudan.
Patel, AR; Chauhan, HC; Chandel, B S; Dadawala, AI; Patel, NP; Smital-Patel; Agrawal, SM; Kher, HN. Seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in camels in organised farms of Gujarat. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(2): 97-100. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: A total of 82 camels' sera were screened for the presence of BTV group specific antibodies. The overall rate of seroprevalence was 25.61, 28.05 and 37.80 per cent by BT-AGID, CCIE and c-ELISA, respectively. Camels of two organised farms viz., Camel Breeding Farm, Dhori (Kuchchh) and Camel Farm, Jampura were screened for BTV group specific antibodies and the rate of seroprevalence was 24.07, 25.93, and 37.04 per cent in Dhori and 28.57, 32.14 and 39.26 per cent in Jampura. The higher rate of seroprevalence was reported in camels having dermatitis (30, 30 and 45 per cent) and stiffness (35.14, 42.86 and 50 per cent) than in the apparently healthy camels (20.83, 22.92 and 31.25 per cent) by BT-AGID, CCIE and c-ELISA, respectively. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Bluetongue virus, antibodies, dermatitis, ELISA, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, diagnosis, disease prevalence, disease surveys, immunodiagnosis, immunodiffusion, serological surveys; seroprevalence, Gujarat, India.
Wernery, U; Thomas, R; Syriac, G; Raghavan, R; Kletzka, S. Seroepidemiological studies for the detection of antibodies against nine infectious diseases in dairy dromedaries (Part - I). Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2007; 14(2): 85-90. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: A total of 1119 dromedary sera (from 541 dams and 578 calves) in Dubai were tested for 9 different infectious diseases using commercially available ELISAs or other tests [date not given]. No antibodies were detected against foot and mouth disease (FMD), rinderpest (RP) and Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPR), but antibodies were found for West Nile Fever (WNF), tuberculosis (Tb), brucellosis, anaplasmosis (AP), trypanosomiasis (Tryp) and toxoplasmosis (TG). Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Anaplasma, foot and mouth disease virus, Mycobacterium bovis, Peste des petits ruminants virus, Rinderpest virus, Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, West Nile virus,agglutination tests, animal diseases, antibodies, antibody testing, antibody detection, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, disease surveys, ELISA, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, immunodiagnosis, infectious diseases, serological surveys, seroprevalence, Dubai.
Wernery, U. Dromedaries have a low susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease - results of 3 infection trials. In: TK Gahlot (Editor). Proceedings of the International Camel Conference "Recent Trends in Camelids Research and Future Strategies for Saving Camels", Rajasthan, India, 16-17 February 2007. 2007; 19-22.
Abstract: Scientists from CVRL in Dubai and Lindholm, Denmark carried out 3 infection trials with FMD virus serotypes O and A in dromedaries at CVRL. High doses of FMD virus were inoculated subepidermolingually into 15 dromedaries. Several dromedaries and sheep were kept in the same pen as the inoculated camels as continuous direct contacts. Modern laboratory techniques like virus isolation, RT-PCR, ELISA and VNT were used to diagnose an infection. All inoculated and in contact animals were regularly sampled including probang sampling. None of the inoculated dromedaries or contact animals showed any clinical signs of FMD. Only 1 dromedary had a raised body temperature 3 days after inoculation with FMDV O and developed a viraemia on day 2 to 4 after inoculation determined by virus isolation from serum samples, but no infectious virus was detected from the probang samples. This dromedary was also seroconverted. None of the other infected camels and none of the contact animals developed antibodies to FMDV. Based on these results, we conclude that dromedaries are of very low susceptibility to infection with FMDV and do not transmit infection to other susceptible animals even by close direct contact. Therefore, dromedaries do not play any significant role in the natural epidemiology of FMD.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, sheep, antibodies, ELISA, experimental infections, FMD, foot and mouth disease, neutralization tests, reverse transcriptase PCR, seroconversion, susceptibility, viremia, Denmark, Dubai.
Abdo Salem, S; Gerbier, G; Bonnet, P; Al Qadasi, M; Tran, A; Thiry E; Al Eryni, G; Roger, F. Descriptive and Spatial Epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Yemen 2000–2001. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2006; 1081: 240-242. ISSN: 0077-8923. Note: “Impact of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases and Animal Health: 8th Biennial Conference of the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Hanoi, Vietnam, 26 June-1 July 2005.”
Abstract: This paper presents a retrospective summary of data on Rift valley fever cases among animals (cattle, sheep, goats and camels) in Yemen, during 23 September 2000-3 February 2001. Data from several RVF surveys were gathered from the Yemeni veterinary services and FAO experts. Geographical data (topographic maps and data available on the internet) were used for the location of outbreaks. After cleaning and standardization of location names, all data were introduced into a GIS database. The spatial distribution of outbreaks was studied at the national level and at a local scale, particularly in Wadi Mawr in the Tihama plain, western coast of Yemen. Of the 612 villages, 67 were infected with RVF. Most of these villages were located around the irrigation canal. A first interpretation of a vegetation index derived from satellite imagery showed a spatial heterogeneity in locations with cases. It is suggested that passive surveillance should be continued and the quality of data should be improved. In addition, landscape studies and entomology surveys in the area should be performed.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, cattle, goats, sheep, humans, disease distribution, epidemiology, outbreaks, Rift Valley fever, spatial distribution, Rift Valley fever virus, RVF, 2001 outbreak in Yemen, description and spatial epidemiology, summary of data, Yemeni vet services, FAO experts, mapping locations for spatial distribution.
Agab, H. Diseases and causes of mortality in a camel (Camelus dromedarius) dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2006; 13(2): 165-169. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: The diseases and causes of mortality in intensively kept dromedary camels reported in this study were studied throughout one year (July 2001-June 2002) in a dairy camel farm in Al-Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia. The camel population in the farm at the study period was composed of 2316 adult and weaned calves and 126 suckling calves. 942 camels were affected with one or more disease conditions, giving a crude morbidity rate of 38.6%. The ten most common diseases encountered among the camels of the farm were mange (22.6%), mastitis (20.9%), camel dermatophilosis (18.7%), Heyam syndrome (trypanosomiasis like sings) (14.5%), skin wounds and abscesses (4.2%), calf diarrhoea (4.1%), diazinon toxicity (3.5%), snake bites (1.9%), respiratory complaints (1.8%) and papillomavirus infection (1.7%). Other diseases encountered included eye affections (1.2%), metritis (1%), uterine prolapse (1%), retained placenta (0.7%), bone fractures (0.6%), urea intoxication (0.5%), abortions (0.5%) and dystocia (0.4%). During the period of study, 180 camels died, giving a crude mortality rate of 7.4%. The most common causes of mortality recorded in the camel farm were due to Heyam syndrome (53.3%), diazinon toxicity (15%), snake bites (10%), calf diarrhoea (8.9%), undiagnosed cases (5%), bone fractures (3.3%), urea intoxication (2.8%), uterine prolapse (1.1%) and dystocia (0.6%).
Descriptors: dromedary camels, abortion, camel diseases, Dermatophilus, papillomavirus, Trypanosoma, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, abscesses, etiology, bone fractures; causes of death, diarrhea, dystocia, endometritis, uterine prolapse, placental retention, eye diseases, mastitis, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, snake bites, milk production, morbidity, mortality, poisoning, diazinon, toxicity, wounds, Saudi Arabia.
Baky, MHA; Al Sukayran, AM; Mazloum, KS; Al Bokmy, AM; Al Mujalli, DM. Isolation and standardization of camel pox virus from naturally infected cases in the central region of Saudi Arabia 2004. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2006; 52(108): 183-193. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: Camel pox virus in skin scrapings collected from camels severely affected with camel pox was detected using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test using standard anti-Jouf-78 strain camel pox virus rabbit antiserum. The causative agent was isolated and purified through five successive passages on vero cell cultures using the highest positive dilutions. The virus isolate showed identical cytopathogenic effects (CPE) in inoculated vero cell cultures between the first and fifth passages. The isolate was standardized as a virulent camel pox virus by application of IFA, virus neutralization and pathogenicity tests and designated as Saudi Arabia, Uniza 2004 strain. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camel pox, camel pox virus, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, immunofluorescence, fluorescent antibody technique, IFAT isolation, camel viral diseases, Saudi Arabia.
El Hakim, UA. The role of camels in dessimination of peste des petits ruminants virus among sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2006; 52(110): 132-145. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels and to determine the role played by camels in the transmission of the PPR virus. 50 camels as well as 50 goats and 50 sheep in contact with the camels were used in this study. The animals belonged to a private animal farm in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These animals were examined clinically and virologically (virus isolation, VI) and by a molecular biology-based technique (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR). All animals were clinically healthy at the beginning of the study. Clinical examination was done 3 times a week, whereas VI and RT-PCR were performed twice at one-month interval. Clinical examination showed that 4 camels had fever, nasal discharge and cough, whereas 21 goats suffered from fever, stomatitis, nasal and ocular discharges, diarrhoea and pneumonia after 2 weeks of contact with infected camels. In the first viral isolation, PPR virus was found to be present in 6 camels, but no PPR virus was detected in the examined goats and sheep. After performing the first RT-PCR, PPR viral nucleic acid was identified in 10 camels, but all examined goats and sheep were negative for this technique. PPR virus was isolated from 11 camels and 32 goats, whereas all examined sheep were negative in the second viral isolation. The second RT-PCR showed presence of PPR viral nucleic acid in 17 camels and 35 goats, whereas no PPR viral nucleic acid could be detected in all examined sheep. The results proved that camel was susceptible to PPR, and infected camels could transmit PPR virus to other camels. Moreover, camels played a very important role in dissemination of PPR virus to contact goats. The risk posed by this role in dissemination of PPR virus was increased by the fact that most infected camels were apparently healthy. This role was not proven in sheep examined in this study. The results also showed that RT-PCR was faster and more sensitive than VI in the diagnosis of PPR, thus the use of the former in routine diagnosis of PPR and in any epidemiological studies concerning PPR and examination of camels imported from Sudan was recommended to control and eradicate this disease from Egypt. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, goats, sheep, peste des petits ruminants virus, PPR virus, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease transmission, PCR, polymerase chain reaction, Saudi Arabia.
Hunter, A (Editor). La Sante Animale. Volume 2. Principales Maladies. [Animal Health. Volume 2. Principal Diseases.] Published by Editions Quae, Versailles. 2006; 310 pp. ISBN: 2759200051; 9782759200054. Note: In French.
Abstract: The first volume of this work considered the fundamentals of animal pathology and the principles of disease control; volume 2 considers the most important diseases of livestock in the tropics and subtropics in more detail. Each disease is described with reference to its symptoms, aetiology, mode of transmission, treatment and prevention. The first part covers infectious and contagious diseases (viral and bacterial diseases, coccidiosis and dermatomycoses) of livestock in general, bovines, small ruminants, camels, equines and pigs. Part 2 covers venereal and congenital infections; part 3 describes arthropod parasites (flies, lice, fleas, ticks and mange mites). Vector-borne diseases of livestock in general, small ruminants and equines are considered in part 4, helminths and helminthoses in part 5, and environmental and other diseases (metabolic disorders, neoplasms, nutritional deficiency and poisoning) in part 6. This book is intended for use by veterinary technicians and agricultural advisors, and as a textbook in higher education. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, cattle, goats, horses, pigs, sheep, pigs, livestock animal diseases, bacterial diseases, clinical aspects, coccidiosis, deficiency diseases, animal disease transmission, drug therapy, ectoparasites, helminthes, infectious diseases, metabolic disorders, poisoning, prophylaxis, tropics, vector borne diseases, viral diseases, bacterial infections, bacterioses, chemotherapy, clinical picture, communicable diseases, parasitic worms, toxicosis, tropical countries, viral infections.
Kouba, V. Double-barrier strategy against foot-and-mouth disease panzootic wave successfully applied under Mongolian conditions. Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica. 2006; 39(1): 21-25. ISSN: 0231-5742
Abstract: This paper presents the double-barrier strategy used by the veterinarians from Czechoslovakia to control the foot and mouth disease panzootic wave under desert and steppe conditions in Mongolia in March 1964. The concept consists of complex protection of FMD-free territories mainly through vaccination of susceptible animals and creation of wide protective zones. Immediate and uncompromising isolation of infected territories and outbreak areas, consistent complex intrafocal measures, rigorous epizootiological surveillance, immediate diagnosis of suspected cases, prevention of threatened territories and mass vaccination in threatened zones have been parts also of the strategy. The FMD panzootic wave has been stopped and gradually liquidated by combining classical anti-FMD protection and intrafocal measures replacing aphtization by vaccination. The full feasibility and biological and economic efficiency of the double-barrier anti-FMD strategy has been proven. It is proven as a suitable system for controlling and stopping the FMD panzootic wave in the future in any other territory with similar epizootiological and ecological conditions as that of Mongolia. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, FMD, foot and mouth disease, disease surveillance, disease surveys, outbreaks, diagnosis, disease control, disease prevention, vaccines, vaccination, mmunization, grasslands, arid lands, deserts, steppes, Czechoslovakia, Mongolia.
Mahdavi, S; Khedmati, K; Sabet, LP. Serologic evidence of bluetongue infection in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kerman province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 7(3(Ser.16)): 85-87. ISSN: 1728-1997. Note: In English with a Persian summary.
Abstract: This is the first report on the presence of bluetongue (BT) disease in 10 pregnant camels from a herd in Kerman province, Iran. All serum samples were tested serologically using AGID and competitive ELISA. Razi-BK cell line, primary culture of ovine kidney and embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) were also used to culture and isolate the BT virus. Efforts to culture and isolate BT virus have attained very limited success. Following precipitation test (AGID) and C-ELISA, 5 of the 10 sera in AGID test, and all in C-ELISA became positive. Further studies are needed on the ecology of camels and vector midges to clarify the reason for the infection of these camels in Iran.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, case reports, Bluetongue virus, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, Iran.
Marodam, V; Nagendrakumar, SB; Tanwar, VK; Thiagarajan, D; Reddy, GS; Tanwar, RK; Srinivasan, VA. Isolation and identification of camelpox virus. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2006; 76(4): 326-327. ISSN: 0367-8318
Abstract: The identification of camelpox virus by PCR from suspected materials and its comparison with conventional methods of isolation in embryonated eggs and cell culture is described. Skin scab samples were obtained from the cheeks, nostrils, lips, limbs and scrotum of a 5-year-old camel. Vero cells were used for virus propagation. A fragment of the tumour necrosis factor-binding protein receptor-II (TNFR-II) gene was amplified using a primer pair TNFR IF and TNFR 3R. The sequence of the amplified PCR product was compared with the available sequences in the GenBank. The PCR amplification of TNFR-II gene from the DNA extracted directly from the scab sample revealed a 270 bp product and had >99% homology with earlier reported camelpox sequences available with the GenBank (Accession Nos. AF438165.1, CVU87840, AY009089.1, CVU87837 and CVU87838).
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camelpox virus, PCR, viral infections, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, genes, identification, isolation of viral diseases of camels.
Wernery, U; Nagy, P; Amaral Doel, CM; Zhang, Z; Alexandersen, S. Lack of susceptibility of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O. Veterinary Record-London. 2006 Feb 11; 158(6): 201-203. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call no: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: dromedaries, foot and mouth disease, disease resistance.
Wernery, U; Nagy, P; Amaral-Doel, CM; Zhang, Z; Alexandersen, S. Lack of susceptibility of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O. Veterinary Record. 2006; 158(6): 201-203. ISSN: 0042-4900
NAL call no: 41.8 V641
Abstract: This short communication describes a preliminary study to determine the susceptibility of dromedaries to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) serotype O. Two Holstein heifers and two neutered male dromedaries were inoculated subepidermolingually with FMD O inoculum. Results revealed that the body temperature of the heifers increased and the animals exhibited typical, early, unruptured vesicular lesions around the inoculation site on the tongue. Infectious FMDV was detected in the serum samples of both heifers. The two dromedaries did not exhibit any clinical signs of the disease and had no vesicular lesions on the inoculation point. The body temperature of both camels remained normal and no infectious FMDV was detected in the serum. It is concluded that dromedaries are not susceptible to FMDV infection of this particular isolate from Arabian gazelles. Nevertheless, a very high dose of the virus is used for the inoculation during the study which indicated a true low susceptibility of dromedaries.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Holstein heifers, experimental infection, susceptibility to FMD, foot and mouth disease virus from Arabian gazelles, species comparison, body temperature, clinical aspects, disease resistance in camels, lesions.
Abbas, B; Omer, OH. Review of infectious diseases of the camel. Veterinary Bulletin. 2005; 75(8): 1N-16N. ISSN: 0042-4854
Abstract: Camels were formerly considered resistant to most of the diseases commonly affecting livestock, but as more research was conducted, camels were found to be susceptible to a large number of pathogenic agents. For some diseases such as pox, mange, and enterotoxaemia, camels were indeed more susceptible and manifested more severe signs than other ruminants in the same ecozones. Pneumonia, mastitis and calf diarrhoea are the most common bacterial diseases of camels and are caused by a large number of microorganisms. Pox, contagious echthyma, papillomatosis and rabies are the only established viral diseases in camels. Although infection with several other viruses, including rinderpest, bluetongue, African horse sickness and rift valley fever has been demonstrated by serological methods, camels did not show signs of disease in spite of being in close contact with affected livestock. Camels also did not develop clinical signs of foot and mouth disease after housing for several weeks with affected animals. Increased interest in the camel as a multipurpose animal has been met with increased research into the aetiology and pathology of camel diseases; very few studies, however, have been directed towards their control.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, susceptibility to diseases, disease resistance, bacterial diseases, viral diseases, pneumonia, mastitis, calf diarrhea, disease control, disease resistance, enterotoxemia, infectious diseases, parasites, mange, rabies, salmonellosis, susceptibility, Aspergillus fumigatus, Clostridium perfringens, contagious ecthyma virus, papillomavirus, contagious pustular dermatitis, CPD virus, Hyphomycetes, Salmonella infections, scabby mouth, clinical signs, control issues.
Abraham, G; Sintayehu, A; Libeau, G; Albina, E; Roger, F; Laekemariam, Y; Abayneh, D; Awoke, KM. Antibody seroprevalences against pest des petits ruminants (PPR) virus in camels, cattle, goats and sheep in Ethiopia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2005 Aug; 70(1-2): 51-57. ISSN: 0167-5877
Abstract: A questionnaire-survey data indicated that 26% of 276 farmers reported the presence of respiratory disease in their herds in 2001. The incidence was perceived as "high" in small ruminants and camels, but as "low" in cattle. Simultaneously, 2815 serum samples from camels (n = 628), cattle (n = 910), goats (n = 442) and sheep (n = 835) were tested. The peste des petits ruminants (PPR) antibody seroprevalence was 3% in camels, 9% in cattle, 9% in goats and 13% in sheep. The highest locality-specific seroprevalences were: camels 10%, cattle 16%, goats 22% and sheep 23%. The animals had not been vaccinated against rinderpest or PPR. Antibody seroprevalences detected in camels, cattle, goats and sheep confirmed natural transmission of PPR virus under field conditions.
Descriptors: cattle, goats, sheep, camels, peste des petits ruminants, peste des petits ruminants virus, seroprevalence, geographical variation, animal diseases, disease incidence, disease transmission, rinderpest, Rinderpest virus, Ethiopia.
Ali, YH; Khalafalla, AI; Gaffar, ME; Peenze, I; Steele, AD. Rotavirus-associated camel calf diarrhoea in Sudan. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2005; 4(3): 401-406. ISSN: 1680-5593
Abstract: The role of rotavirus in camel calf diarrhoea is studied. Faecal samples were collected from 245 diarrhoeic, 75 recovered and 12 clinically healthy camel calves from 4 different areas in Sudan (North, East, Central and West). The samples were collected during autumn, summer and winter seasons between 2000 and 2002. All samples were tested for rotavirus antigen using ELISA Kits. It was observed that 46 (13.9%) samples were positive for Group A rotavirus. Latex agglutination test was applied in 144 samples and 9 (6.3%) were positive. Immunochromatographic test (IC) were applied to 213 samples and 38 samples were positive. The overall group A rotavirus positive samples were detected in 66 samples (46 by ELISA and 20 by IC). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was applied on 53 ELISA and IC positive samples. The characteristic Group A rotavirus electropherotype was seen in 11 samples. Electron microscopy examination was applied in 22 ELISA positive samples and 6 samples had the characteristic wheel like appearance of rotavirus. None of the 302 samples tested for coronavirus antigen using ELISA was positive. Most of the positive samples were collected from diarrhoeic calves (35 of 46 ELISA positives). The results showed the presence of rotavirus in stool samples of diarrhoeic as well as recovered and healthy camel calves indicating the significant role of rotavirus in camel calf diarrhoea in Sudan. The main age group affected was 0-3 months and males were found to be slightly more affected. Higher prevalence of rotavirus infection was noticed during autumn than summer and winter seasons.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, calves, age differences, sex differences, calf diarrhea rotavirus, diarrhea, disease prevalence, risk factors, seasonal variations, Sudan.
Ali, YH; Khalafalla, AI; El Amin, MA. Epidemiology of camel calf diarrhoea in Sudan: seroprevalence of camel rotavirus infection. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2005; 4(3): 393-397. ISSN: 1680-5593
Abstract: The epidemiology of camel calf diarrhoea in four different areas in Sudan, River Nile (North), Gedarif (East), Sennar and Blue Nile (Central to South) and Kordofan (West), was studied. Data about the epidemiology of camel calf diarrhoea and its treatment regimen adopted by the owners were collected and analysed. A total of 383 camel herds were investigated about the incidence of camel calf diarrhoea during wet and dry seasons between 2000 and 2002 in the focused areas. The overall morbidity rate of camel calf diarrhoea in the four areas of study was 83%, while mortality and case fatality rates were 39.9 and 43.3%, respectively. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates of camel calf diarrhoea were found to be almost the same in the four areas during the wet and dry seasons with slight increase during the wet season. With regards to different treatment regimens adopted to diarrhoeic camel calves by the owners, 38.2% of the cases were left without treatment, 58.51% received antibiotics while administration of other drugs (symptomatic treatments, traditional medicines) constituted a very small percentage. A serological survey was conducted using group A rotavirus antibody detection ELISA on 530 camel sera. The overall percentage of positive samples was 48.1%. Seropositivity was detected in all areas of study with slightly higher percentages in Sennar and Blue Nile States. The overall percentage of high antibody titres were 4+ or 31.4% and 3+ or 22%. Most of the seropositive samples were collected from camels at 18-36 month of age and adult camels with slightly higher percentage in males than females (56.5% males vs. 43.5% females). A correlation was found between the seropositivity and the clinical status of diarrhoea. The highest percentage of seropositivity was found in clinically healthy camel calves (69.7%). The results show the high prevalence of camel calf diarrhoea caused by rotavirus in Sudan. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camel calves, calf diarrhea, age differences, sex differences, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, morbidity, mortality, calf diarrhea rotavirus, Sudan.
El Hakim, UA. Foot and mouth disease in camels: role of camels in the epizootiology and transmission of foot and mouth disease in Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2005; 51(107): 189-203. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: To study foot and mouth disease (FMD) in camels and investigate the role played by camels in the epizootiology and transmission of the disease to cattle, 50 camel and 50 cattle (in contact with camels) were used. All these animals were examined clinically and virologically (virus isolation) in addition to examination using RT-PCR. VI and RT-PCR were performed two times at one month apart. Clinical examination at the beginning of the study showed that only three camels were suffering from excessive salivation while the remaining camels and cattle were apparently healthy. After 30 day from contact between camels and cattle, salivation, nasal discharge, increase in body temperature and lameness were recorded in seven cattle. During the first VI, FMDV was isolated from 14 camels while all cattle were negative. On the second VI, FMDV was isolated from 17 camel and 25 cattle. FMD viral RNA was identified in 19 camel while all examined cattle were negative during the first RT-PCR. After performing the second RT-PCR, FMD viral RNA was observed in 24 camel and 27 cattle. Two serotypes (O and A) of FMDV were detected in both species and the genetic relationship between FMDV in camels and cattle was observed using RT-PCR. Results of this work proved that RT-PCR is more sensitive than VI in the diagnosis of FMD in camels and cattle in Egypt. In addition, this technique can be used in serotyping FMDV and studying the genetic relationship between FMDV in camels and cattle. The study also showed that FMDV is present in camels even without clinical signs and can be a source of infection for cattle. This is the first study on the use of RT-PCR in the diagnosis and typing of FMDV in camels.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, cattle, foot and mouth disease, FMD virus, asymptomatic infections, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease transmission, disease vectors, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, reverse transcriptase, Egypt.
Lvov, DK; Butenko, AM; Gromashevsky, VL; Shchelkanov, MYu; Kovtunov, AI; Yashkulov, KB; Prilipov, AG; Kinney, R; Aristova, VA; Dzharkenov, AF; Samokhvalov, EI; Savage, HM; Galkina, IV; Deryabin, PG; Bushkieva, BTs; Gubler, DJ; Kulikova, LN; Alkhovsky, SK; Moskvina, TM; Zlobina, LV; Sadykova, GK; Shatalov, AG; Lvov, DN; Usachev, VE; Voronina, AG. West Nile and other emerging-reemerging viruses in Russia. In: G. Berencsi; AS Khan; J. Halouzka (Editors). Emerging Biological Threat: Proceedings of the –NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Emerging Biological Threat, Budapest, Hungary, 5-8 October 2003. 2005; 33-42. ISBN: 158603555X
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) and other emerging and reemerging viruses in Volga-delta and Volga-Akhtuba, Russia, during 2001-02. A total of 38 virus strains were isolated, including 12 WNV, 3 Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), 4 Dhori virus (DHOV) and 19 Batai virus. All WNV strains were isolated in the Volga-delta. All strains in natural habitats were obtained from cormorants [Phalacrocorax] and in anthropogenic biocoenoses from Anopheles messeae, corvids (mostly crows [Corvus]) and Hyalomma marginatum. CCHFV strains were isolated from patients in Volga-Akhtuba, as well as from larvae and nymphs of H. marginatum collected from a hare in Volga-delta. From the same hare and ticks, DHOV strains were also isolated. Batai virus was isolated from A. messeae. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected WNV in tissues of birds, mostly those collected in the Volga-delta and most often among cormorants, coots, herons, gulls [Laridae] and terns [Laridae] in natural biocoenoses. In anthropogenic biocoenoses, positive results were obtained among ground-feeding birds, especially among corvids and mammals. RT-PCR investigation of mosquitoes showed that they were involved in virus circulation among all predominant species in anthropogenic biocoenoses (A. hyrcanus, Culex pipiens, C. modestus and A. messeae) and natural biocoenoses (Coquillettidia richiardii and A. hyrcanus). All isolated WNV strains and RT-PCR positive samples belonged to genotype 1. Serological examination of domestic animals showed that they were infected by WNV, with infection rates being highest among horses, moderate among cattle and camels, and lowest among sheep.
Descriptors: humans, horses, sheep, camels, domestic animals, aquatic wild birds, Corvus, crows, hares, biocoenosis, emerging infectious diseases, epidemiology, genotypes, molecular epidemiology, strains, viral diseases, WNV, Batai virus, West Nile fever, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Dhori virus, Orthobunyavirus, mosquito vectors, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles messeae,Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens, Hyalomma marginatus, Russia.
Paweska, JT; Mortimer, E; Leman, PA; Swanepoel, R. An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody to Rift Valley fever virus in humans, domestic and wild ruminants. Journal of Virological Methods. 2005; 127(1): 10-18. ISSN: 0166-0934
Abstract: This paper describes the development and validation of an inhibition ELISA based on gamma-irradiated tissue culture-derived antigen for the detection of antibody to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in humans, domestic and wild ruminants. Validation data sets derived from field-collected sera in Africa (humans=1367, cattle=649, goats=806, sheep=493, buffalo=258, camels=156) were categorized according to the results of a virus neutralization test. In addition, individual sera from 93 laboratory workers immunized with inactivated RVF vaccine, 136 serial bleeds from eight sheep experimentally infected with wild-type of RVFV, and 200 serial bleeds from 10 sheep vaccinated with the live-attenuated strain of the virus, were used to study the kinetics of RVFV antibody production under controlled conditions. At cut-off values selected at 95% accuracy level by the two-graph receiver operating characteristic analysis the ELISA sensitivity ranged from 99.47% (humans) to 100% (sheep, buffalo, camels). The specificity ranged from 99.29% (sheep) to 100% (camels). Compared to virus neutralization and haemagglutination-inhibition tests, the ELISA was more sensitive in detection of the earliest immunological responses in experimentally infected and vaccinated sheep. Our results demonstrate that the ELISA format reported here can be used as a safe, robust and highly accurate diagnostic tool in disease-surveillance and control programmes, import/export veterinary certification, and for monitoring of the immune response in vaccinees. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: buffaloes, dromedary camels, cattle, humans, goats, sheep, Rift Valley fever virus, antibodies, antibody testing, antibody detection, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, human diseases, immune response, immunization, immunodiagnosis, live vaccines, attenuated vaccines, Rift Valley fever, seroconversion, vaccination, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda.
Sopyev, B; Divanov, B; Charyev, C. Diseases of camels, their preventive maintenance and treatment. In: B. Faye and P. Esenov (Editors). Desertification Combat and Food Safety: The Added Value of Camel Producers, Ashkabad, Turkmenistan, 19-21 April 2004. IOS Press, Amsterdam. 2005; 60-66. ISBN: 1586034731
Descriptors: dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, acaricides, brucellosis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diminazene, disease prevalence, disease prevention, drug therapy, azidine, berenil, hydatid disease, hydatidosis, echinococcosis, epidemiology, helminthoses, licorice, mange, plague, smallpox, trypanosomiasis, vaccination, Brucella, Cephalopina, Echinococcus, Glycyrrhiza, Sarcoptes scabiei, Taenia hydatigena, Trypanosoma, Yersinia pestis, Turkmenistan. Central Asia.
Wernery, U. The most important infectious diseases in camelids. In: B. Faye and P. Esenov (Editors). Desertification Combat and Food Safety: The Added Value of Camel Producers, Ashkabad, Turkmenistan, 19-21 April 2004. IOS Press, Amsterdam. 2005; 67-69. ISBN: 1586034731
Descriptors: camelids, dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, anthrax, aspergillosis, brucellosis, coccidioidomycosis, coccidiosis, endotoxemia, enterotoxemia, melioidosis, mycoses, nematode, infections, paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease, pasteurellosis, rabies, salmonellosis, scabies, smallpox, trematode infections, trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, zoonoses, influenza, Aspergillus, Bacillus anthracis, borna disease virus; Brucella, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Clostridium perfringens, Coccidioides immitis, Digenea, Eimeria, equid herpesviruses; Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Nematoda, Pasteurella, rabies virus, Rhodococcus bacteria, Rickettsia, Rotavirus, Salmonella infections, Sarcoptes scabiei, Trypanosoma evansi.
Abu Elzein, EME; Housawi, FMT; Al Afaleq, AI; Gameel, AA; Ramadan, RO. A note on experimentally induced severe camel orf (Auzdyk disease) in dromedary camels. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2004; 11(2): 101-102. ISSN: 0971-6777
Descriptors: dromedary camels, experimental infection, Contagious ecthyma virus, CPD virus, contagious pustular dermatitis, orf, scabby mouth, sore-mouth, ulcerative dermatosis, experimental transmission, clinical picture.
Abu Elzein, EME; Housawi, FMT; Al Afaleq, AI; Ramadan, RO; Gameel, AA; Al Gundi, O. Clinico-pathological response of dromedary camels and sheep to cross-experimental infection with two virulent orf viruses originating from camels and sheep. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2004; 11(1): 15-19. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: The clinicopathological response of camels and sheep to an experimental cross infection with two virulent field orf viruses (contagious ecthyma virus), originating from camels and sheep, was compared. 10 and 6 sheep and Arabian camels were used in this study, respectively. Sheep were completely refractory to infection with the camel orf virus. Similarly, the camels were resistant to infection with the orf virus originating from sheep. The sheep developed classical clinicopathological lesions against the orf virus of sheep origin and gave a low level of seroconversion. Camels which were inoculated with the camel orf virus also showed classical clinicopathological signs, but no seroconversion was detected. The results were discussed in relation to the epidemiology of the disease in Saudi Arabia. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, sheep, contagious pustular dermatitis, CPD virus, orf, scabby mouth, sore mouth, antibodies, clinical aspects, cross infection, disease prevalence, cytopathogenicity, disease resistance, epidemiology, experimental infection, histopathology, immune response, seroconversion, skin lesions, virus neutralization, contagious ecthyma virus, Saudi Arabia.
Ali, YH; Khalafalla, AI; Gaffar, ME; Peenze, I; Steele, A D. Detection and isolation of group A rotavirus from camel calves in Sudan. In: CTNF Iskandar; L Hassan; GK Dhaliwal; R Yusoff; AR Omar; MAKG Khan ( Editors). Animal Health: A Breakpoint in Economic Development? The 11 th International Conference of the Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine and 16 th Veterinary Association Malaysia Congress, 23-27 August 2004, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. 2004; 302-304. ISBN: 9832871662
Abstract: A total of 332 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic as well as recovered and healthy camel calves in four different areas in Sudan (north, east, central to south and west). Using ELISA, 46 samples (13.9%) were found positive for group A rotavirus. Using EM, 6 out of 22 ELISA positive samples showed the characteristic morphology of rotavirus. Group A rotavirus RNA profile was seen in 11 of 51 tested samples using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). None of 302 samples examined for coronavirus antigen was positive. The results indicate the significant role of rotavirus in the epidemiology of camel calf diarrhea in Sudan. Group A rotavirus subgroup specificity was determined in 31 out of 42 tested samples, in which subgroup II was predominated (54.8%). Eighteen of 21-camel group A rotavirus samples was isolated in MA104 cells, which were identified by ELISA and EM. Cytopathic effects (CPE) were manifested as rounding, elongation, triangulation, vacuolation and granulation of cells while the cell sheet remains intact. The CPE appeared on days 3-5 on the 1st-2nd passages. To our knowledge this is the first report for the determination of camel group A rotavirus subgroup specificity and isolation of camel rotavirus in cell culture.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, diarrhea, group A rotavirus, scouring disease, disease prevalence, epidemiology, Sudan.
Chandel, BS; Kher, HN; Chauhan, HC; Vasava, KA. Serological survey of antibodies to bluetongue virus in domestic ruminants in Gujarat. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2004; 81(7): 737-740. ISSN: 0019-6479
NAL call no.: 41.8 IN2
Abstract: A serological survey of bluetongue virus (BTV) group specific precipitating antibodies was conducted in sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes and camels in Gujarat, India [date not given]. 1623 sera samples were tested using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) method, which included 908 sheep (4 breeds), 199 goats, 150 cattle (4 breeds), 216 buffaloes and 150 camels (2 breeds). It was shown that 407 (25.07%) sera were positive for BTV group specific precipitating antibodies. Species-wise seroprevalence was 24.66, 29.15, 24, 34.72 and 9.33% in sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes and camels, respectively. The rate of seroprevalence in different breeds and status were recorded and are also discussed. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep, antibodies, antibody testing, disease prevalence, disease surveys, domestic animals, epidemiological surveys, epidemiology, immunodiffusion tests, livestock, serological surveys, seroprevalence, viral diseases, bluetongue virus, Gujarat, India.
Chauhan, HC; Chandel, BS; Gerdes, T; Vasava, KA; Patel, AR; Kher, HN; Singh, V; Dongre, RA. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in dromedary camels in Gujarat, India. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2004; 11(2): 141-145. ISSN: 0971-6777
Abstract: In this study, out of 326 sera samples of camels in North Gujarat and Kutch, Gujarat, India, screened for the presence of bluetongue virus (BTV) group specific antibodies [date not given], the overall rate of seroprevalence was 26.69 and 38.34% by BT-AGID and c-ELISA, respectively. Seropositivity was observed in all the animals irrespective of their locations. However, the higher rate of seroprevalence (31.33 and 43.14%) was detected in the camels in BSF, Dantiwada and in the camels showing stiffness and trypanosomiasis by BT-AGID as well as c-ELISA compared to the other camels. BTV serotype specific neutralizing antibodies against BTV serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21 and 24 were detected. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, diagnosis, epidemiology, disease prevalence, disease surveys, erological surveys, seroprevalence, ELISA, neutralizing antibodies, pathogen serotypes, Trypanosoma, trypanosomiasis, viral diseases, bluetongue virus.
El Hakim, UA. Bovine virus diarrhea in camels: role of camels infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in transmission of the disease. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2004; 50(102): 106-121. ISSN: 1012-5973. Note: In English with an Arabic summary.
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate bovine diarrhoea virus (BVD) in camels and to determine the role played by camels in the transmission of BVDV to cattle. 50 cattle in contact with 50 camels were subjected to clinical, serological, virological and biotechnological examinations. Initial laboratory investigations confirmed that all the cattle were free from BVD at the beginning of the study. Clinical examination, indirect ELISA, virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed for each animal. Indirect ELISA, virus isolation and RT-PCR were carried out twice, one month apart. No clinical signs were observed in camels, although some animals were positive for the presence of BVDV in one or more of the previously mentioned tests (except 2 camels that showed severe signs). In cattle, 14 out of 23 infected animals suffered from clinical signs 3 weeks after the study was started, whereas the rest of the animals were apparently healthy. All examined camels were negative in the 1st and 2nd ELISA except for 2 camels that showed a weak positive result in the 2nd ELISA. No cattle were positive in the 1st ELISA, but 16 cattle were positive in the 2nd ELISA. BVDV was observed from 11 camels in the 1st and 2nd isolation, whereas all examined cattle were negative for 1st virus isolation. However, BVDV was isolated from 17 cattle in the 2nd virus isolation. In the first RT-PCR, BVD viral nucleic acid (RNA) was detected in 15 camels. No BVD viral nucleic acid was detected in the all cattle examined during the 1st RT-PCR, whereas in the 2nd RT-PCR, viral nucleic acid of BVD was detected in 15 camels and 23 cattle. Camels and cattle that gave a positive result in ELISA and virus isolation were positive with RT-PCR. Results of this study proved that camel could be infected with BVDV without showing clinical signs. Thus, it could transmit the virus to cattle through contact even for a relatively short time and remain infective for a long time without observation. RT-PCR technique seemed to be more sensitive than ELISA and virus isolation in the diagnosis of persistent form of BVD, whereas virus isolation was more sensitive than ELISA. Camels could play a very important role in the persistence and transmission of BVDV infection among cattle. Therefore, any epidemiological studies on BVDV and control programme planning should put this point of view in consideration. At the same time, RT-PCR technique seemed to be very sensitive and suitable for the diagnosis of BVDV infection in cattle and camels, especially when other tests failed to detect the infection. Therefore, this technique is recommended for use in the screening of camels (especially those imported from Sudan) for their freedom from BVDV. This is the first study on the role of camels in the transmission of BVDV to cattle and the first to use RT-PCR assay in the diagnosis of BVDV in camels, in addition to the first recognition of BVDV genotype-II in Egypt. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, cattle, bovine diarrhea virus, carrier state, persistent infection, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, disease transmission, ELISA, epidemiology, isolation, ELISA, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, reverse transcriptase, serology, Egypt.
El Hassan, OM; Khalafalla, AI; El Hassan, SM. Detection of antibodies against camel contagious ecthyma in Sudan using passive haemagglutination test (PHT). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2004; 3(6): 384-387. ISSN: 1680-5593
Abstract: Antibodies against camel contagious ecthyma virus (CCEV) in camel sera were detected by passive haemagglutination test (PHT) with a mean antibody prevalence of 35%. The test revealed that the infection is widespread in all parts of the Sudan where camels are raised with variable prevalence rate. The antibody prevalence was 42% in Butana, 41% in Darfor and 19% in Blue Nile areas. The antibody prevalence was higher after the rainy season (87.5%) compared to before the rainy season (2.8%) confirming seasonality associated with the rainy season (June-October). The prevalence in the age group of 1-4 years was relatively higher (41%) in comparison with calves less than one year (32%) and adults (35%). Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, age differences, antibody testing, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, antibody tests, disease prevalence, disease surveys, epidemiology, passive hemagglutination, seasonal variation, seroprevalence, wet season, contagious ecthyma virus, parapoxvirus, orf, scabby mouth, rainy season, seasonal changes, Arab Countries, Sudan.
Gerdes, GH. Rift Valley fever. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties. 2004; 23(2): 613-623. ISSN: 0253-1933. ISBN: 9290446218. Note: In English with a French and Spanish summary.
Abstract: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants, camels and humans. It is also a significant zoonosis which may be encountered as an uncomplicated influenza-like illness, but may also present as a haemorrhagic disease with liver involvement; there may also be ocular or neurological lesions. In animals, RVF may be inapparent in non-pregnant adults, but outbreaks are characterised by the onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. Jaundice hepatitis and death are seen in older animals. Outbreaks of RVF are associated with persistent heavy rainfall with sustained flooding and the appearance of large numbers of mosquitoes, the main vector. Localized heavy rainfall is seldom sufficient to create conditions for an outbreak; the simultaneous emergence of large numbers of first generation transovarially infected mosquitoes is also required. After virus amplification in vertebrates, mosquitoes act as secondary vectors to sustain the epidemic.
Descriptors: ruminants, camels, humans, zoonotic disease, Rift Valley Fever, mosquito borne disease, disease outbreaks, etiology, diagnosis, disease control, disease surveys, disease transmission, epidemiology, global warming, abortion, hepatitis, jaundice, mortality, pathogenesis, public health, zoonoses.
Housawi, F; Abu Elzein, ET; Ahmed Gameel; Mohamed Mustafa; Al Afaleq, A; Gilray, J; Al Hulaibi, A; Nettleton, P. Severe Auzdyk infection in one-month-old camel calves (Camelus dromedarius). Veterinarski Arhiv. 2004; 74(6): 467-474. ISSN: 0372-5480. Note: In Englidh with a Croatian summary.
Abstract: Two approximately one-month-old, one-humped camel calves (C. dromedarius) were presented to the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia (SA), with severe lesions on the lips and hard palates (March 2002). Samples were collected and virological, pathological and serological investigations were carried out. The disease was confirmed to be Auzdyk (camel contagious ecthyma). The situation is discussed in relation to the severity of the disease, a condition seen for the first time in very young camels in SA. The results confirmed that very young camel calves can suffer a severe form of this disease. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, young animals, Auzdyk, lesions on lips and hard palate, scabby mouth, orf, dermatitis, contagious ecthyma virus, contagious pustular dermatitis, CPD virus, skin diseases, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, Saudi Arabia.
Khalafalla, AI. Biological properties of camel contagious ecthyma virus. In: CTNF Iskandar; L Hassan; GK Dhaliwal; R Yusoff; AR Omar; MAKG Khan ( Editors). Animal Health: A Breakpoint in Economic Development? The 11 th International Conference of the Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine and 16 th Veterinary Association Malaysia Congress, 23-27 August 2004, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. 2004; 278-280. ISBN: 9832871662
Abstract: Camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) is a sparsely studied disease affecting young camels up to 3 years old. In this study, properties such as cell culture spectrum, plaque morphology, morphological developments of viral particles, growth in embryonated eggs and cellular changes, host range as well as the presence of five parapoxvirus (PPV) genes were studied. The results have suggested that the virus is a species-specific camel pathogen and that no virus cycles occurs between camel and sheep or goats. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: dromedary camels, young animals, contagious pustular dermatitis, sore mouth, ulcerative dermatosis, CCE, Contagious ecthyma virus, parapoxvirus, virology, characterization, hosts.
Kitching, RP. Camelpox. In: JAW Coetzer; RC Tustin. Infectious Diseases of Livestock. Volume Two. By Oxford University Press. 2004; (Ed.2): 1300-1301. ISBN: 0195761707
Descriptors: dromedary camels, camel pox, camel pox virus, clinical picture, etiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease control, epidemiology, pathogenesis, viral diseases.
Wernery, U; Kaaden, OR. Foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review. Veterinary Journal. 2004; 168(2): 134-142. ISSN: 1090-0233
NAL call no: SF601.V484
Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in South American camelids, in dromedaries and Bactrians is reviewed. Recent well-executed experimental studies in New World camels indicate that, although the llama and alpaca can be infected with FMD virus (FMDV) by direct contact, they are not very susceptible and do not pose a risk in transmitting FMD to susceptible animal species. They do not become FMDV carriers. Reports on FMD in dromedaries are, however, conflicting. Serological investigations in Africa and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on thousands of camel sera were negative and experimental infections have been conducted on only a few dromedaries with one serotype and in one country. The design and execution of most of these experiments were poor and therefore the conclusions are questionable. From these investigations, it seems that dromedaries can contract the disease after experimental infection and through close contact with FMD diseased livestock, but do not present a risk in transmitting FMD to susceptible animals. They do not become FMDV carriers. Recent reports from Mongolia describe similar FMD lesions in Bactrian camels. However, so far no samples have tested positive for FMD. To clarify the situation in Bactrians, samples from suspected clinical cases should be tested because other viral vesicular diseases cannot be distinguished from FMD. Thus, further research on the epidemiology of FMD in camelids is necessary. This would include large-scale serological investigations and experimental infections with different FMD serotypes in connection with susceptible contact animals. The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Code chapter on FMD includes camelids as being susceptible species to FMD, giving the impression that they are similar to cattle, sheep, goats and pigs in their potential involvement in the epidemiology of FMD. This is clearly not the case, and this issue should be re-addressed by the relevant authorities. Reproduced with permission of CAB.
Descriptors: Bactrian camels, dromedary camels, experimental infection, foot and mouth disease, FMD virus, disease prevalence, disease transmission, susceptibility to FMD, epidemiology, disease geographical distribution, lesions, reviews, Africa, Mongolia, United Arab Emirates.