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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Canine Models in Biomedical Research, 1990-2009  / Digestive System  Printer Friendly Page
Canine Models in Biomedical Research,  1990-2009
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Digestive System

Buscaglia, J.M. (2007). Animal laboratory endoscopic research: a fellow's perspective. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 65(6): 882-3. ISSN: 0016-5107.
Descriptors: animal experimentation, endoscopy, dogs, models, animal, swine.

Chaves, N.J., L.T. Magalhaes, R. Colleoni, and J.C. Del Grande (2007). Effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure on the healing process after surgical stapling of the stomach of dogs. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira Sociedade Brasileira Para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa Em Cirurgia 22(5): 379-86. ISSN: 0102-8650.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To assess the initial healing after surgical stapling of the stomach using a linear cutting stapler and creating pneumoperitoneum (12-14 mmHg) for 60 minutes or 120 minutes, and compare it with the healing of a staple line not submitted to increased pressure. METHODS: A total of 30 dogs were divided into three groups of 10 animals each: Group I (control group - surgical stapling), Group II (surgical stapling and increased intra-abdominal pressure for 60 minutes) and Group III (surgical stapling and increased intra-abdominal pressure for 120 minutes). All dogs were maintained under general anesthesia for two hours after surgical stapling. Seven days after surgery, the area around the staple line was macroscopically and microscopically examined. RESULTS: The macroscopic examination of the samples (n = 30) did not show dehiscence, fistula or abscess. Adhesions between the omentum and the staple line were observed in all animals of Groups II and III (n = 20), which were significantly different from Group I (p = 0.008*). The histopathological analysis showed normal healing up to day 7 in the control animals (n = 10). When these results were compared with those of Groups II and III (n = 20), non-parametric tests revealed that there was a significant difference with regard to certain parameters of the early stages of healing, such as fibroblast migration (p = 0.011*), edema (p < 0.001*) and congestion (p = 0.011*). These alterations affected reepithelization (p < 0.001*), and consequently the late stages of healing. CONCLUSIONS: Each group showed different healing stages, and the healing process was delayed in the groups submitted to increased pressure, especially in the group submitted to increased pressure for longer time.
Descriptors: abdomen physiopathology, pneumoperitoneum, artificial methods, stomach surgery, surgical stapling, wound healing physiology, carbon dioxide administration and dosage, cell proliferation, dogs, edema pathology, models, animal, pressure, stomach pathology, time factors, tissue adhesions pathology, wound healing drug effects.

Clarke, J.O., S.B. Jagannath, A.N. Kalloo, V.R. Long, D.M. Beitler, and S.V. Kantsevoy (2007). An endoscopically implantable device stimulates the lower esophageal sphincter on demand by remote control: a study using a canine model. Endoscopy 39(1): 72-6. ISSN: 0013-726X.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Implantable microstimulators (IMS) have been used in a variety of medical conditions. Selective stimulation to increase lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure may be useful in the control of gastroesophageal reflux disease. We evaluated on-demand stimulation of the LES with an endoscopically implanted microstimulator. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed acute experiments in three 30-kg dogs. After LES manometry, a 3.3 mm x 28 mm microstimulator (the Bion) was implanted into the LES. Manometry was repeated with and without IMS stimulation to record the changes in LES pressure. Stimulation amplitude was varied from 3 mA to 10 mA, with a fixed frequency of 20 Hz and a pulse width of 200 microsec. RESULTS: The mean LES pressures prior to IMS implantation in the three dogs were 13.0 mm Hg, 5.0 mm Hg, and 14.9 mm Hg. The mean pressures were not significantly changed by IMS placement. There were no documented changes in LES pressure when the amplitude of stimulation was less than 8 mA. After stimulation of the IMS at a setting of 10 mA in dogs 1 and 2 and at 8mA in dog 3, however, the resultant LES pressures were 62.1 mm Hg, 35.1 mm Hg, and 26.8 mm Hg respectively, more than three times higher than post-implantation baseline levels (P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The LES pressure can be increased using an on-demand microstimulator. The implantation procedure is minimally invasive, represents a novel therapeutic approach to gastroesophageal reflux disease, and may have therapeutic potential for other gastrointestinal motility disorders.
Descriptors: electric stimulation therapy, electrodes, implanted, esophageal sphincter, lower physiology, robotics, dogs, esophagoscopy, manometry, models, animal, prosthesis implantation.

Dong, M.S., Y. Sonoda, H. Konomi, M. Kawamoto, T. Takeda, and M. Tanaka (2003). Total duodenectomy: effects of choecystokinin on the sphincter of oddi motility in conscious dogs. Digestive Disease Week Abstracts and Itinerary Planner: Abstract No. S1160.
Abstract: Objective: Cholecystokinin(CCK) is an important gastrointestinal hormone controlling of the Sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility. The mechanism of CCK action on SO motility is not completely understood. Anatomical and electrophysiological studies suggested direct duodenal neural projections to the SO. However the CCK action via duodeno-SO neural projections under physiological intact animal model has not been reported. The aim of this study is to determine the SO motility response to the CCK via the duodeno-SO neural projections using duodenectomized dogs. Methods: In control group (N=6), Thomas cannula was implanted into the duodenum. In duodenectomy group (N=6), the papilla was sutured to the jejunum and a Thomas cannula implanted opposite to the implanted papilla. In both groups, changes in the SO motility was recorded after intravenous injection of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (20 or 100ng/kg). Results: Injection of 20ng/kg CCK produced initial relaxation followed by contraction in control and no changes in duodenectomy. Injecting of 100ng/kg CCK produced a marked but brief contraction followed by relaxation in controls and only contraction after duodenectomy. Conclusions: (1) Response of SO induced by 20ng/kg CCK was mediated via CCK receptor on the duodenum. (2) The duodenal CCK receptor may be more sensitive to CCK than SO receptor..
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, methods and techniques, pharmacology, total duodenectomy, clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, sphincter motility, modulation.

El Bakry, A.A. (2002). Bowel anastomosis: a comparative study of various surgical techniques. Saudi Medical Journal 23(10): 1232-1236. ISSN: 0379-5284.
Abstract: Objectives: Mechanical suture (stapler) has been in use for bowel anastomosis since the second half of the 20th century, however, it became popular since it was used widely by the United States of America in the late 1960. Since it is more expensive than the conventional method, a local experimental assessment was introduced to compare stapler with conventional methods. Methods: Eighteen local dogs were used, 36 anastomosis were assessed in the animal house operating theater of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between October 1998 and March 2000. Results: The weight needed to disrupt the anastomosis was more in the stapler technique, the amount of intraperitoneal fluid, adhesion and the inflammatory response in histopathological study were less in the stapler technique. Our study has shown that the stapler technique is superior when compared with conventional bowel anastomosis. Conclusion: We recommend stapler use in bowel anastomosis whenever clinically feasible.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, methods and techniques, bowel anastomosis, experimental surgical techniques, laboratory techniques, stapler technique, clinical feasibility, inflammatory response.

Ellis, H. (2008). The first successful gastrectomy. Journal of Perioperative Practice 18(1): 34. ISSN: 1750-4589.
Abstract: Today, gastrectomy is a routine surgical procedure which any competent abdominal surgeon is expected to be able to perform efficiently and, in a reasonably fit patient, to achieve a speedy and safe recovery. It is worth remembering that the first successful gastrectomy, performed in the late 19th century, was hailed as something of a miracle and opened the way for modern elective abdominal surgery.
Descriptors: faculty, medical history, gastrectomy history, gastroenterostomy history, austria, dogs, eponyms, history, 19th century, models, animal.

Enns, G.M. and M.T. Millan (2008). Cell-based therapies for metabolic liver disease. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 95(1-2): 3-10.
NAL Call Number: QP501.B474
Abstract: Liver transplantation is an important therapeutic option for many individuals with metabolic liver disease. Nevertheless, the invasive nature of surgery and limitations of donor organ availability have led to the search for alternatives to whole-organ transplantation. Cell-based therapies have been a particularly active area of investigation in recent years. Hepatocyte transplantations have been performed for a variety of indications, including acute liver failure, end-stage liver disease, and inborn errors of metabolism. Individuals with inborn errors of metabolism who have undergone hepatocyte transplantation have shown clinical improvement and partial correction of the underlying metabolic defect. In most cases, sustained benefits have not been observed. This may be related to inadequate cell dose, variations in the quality of hepatocyte preparations, rejection of the transplanted cells, or senescence of transplanted hepatocytes. Though initial proof of concept with hepatocyte transplantation has been demonstrated by a number of investigators, wide application of this technology has been hindered by the inability to secure a reliable and well-characterized cell source(s) for transplantation and by the challenges of sustained engraftment and expansion of transplanted cells in vivo. Cell-based therapies, including those based on stem cells or more differentiated progenitor cells, may represent the future of cell transplantation for treatment of metabolic liver disease.
Descriptors: hepatocytes transplantation, liver diseases therapy, metabolic diseases therapy, tissue therapy methods, dogs, mice, models, animal, rats, stem cell transplantation.

Ensminger, W., J. Knol, S. Deremer, E. Wilkinson, S. Walker, D. Williams, and J. Maybaum (2004). Effects of dexamethasone or celecoxib on biliary toxicity after hepatic arterial infusion of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine in a canine model. Cancer Research 64(1): 311-315. ISSN: 0008-5472.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 C16
Abstract: Previous work has shown that in humans the dose-limiting toxicity for fluorodeoxyuridine (2-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd)) when administered by hepatic arterial infusion is biliary sclerosis. The current study was undertaken to attempt to modify this toxicity in a canine model that has been demonstrated to closely mimic the clinical situation. Unlike previous studies using this model, in which animals were sacrificed after extensive fibrosis had already occurred, the current experiments were designed so that observations of pathology were made at an earlier time, when the initial inflammatory injury underlying the fibrotic process was still taking place. Implantable pumps were used to deliver FdUrd into the hepatic artery of animals at a rate of 0.3 mg/kg/day in the presence or absence of 10 mg/week dexamethasone or 100 mg/day of celecoxib for 35 days, at which time the animals were beginning to show signs of toxicity. After evaluation for radiological evidence of biliary obstruction, the animals were sacrificed and portions of their livers were processed for examination of microscopic pathology and 2-bromo-5'deoxyuridine labeling index. Dexamethasone treatment protected the animals from biliary sclerosis determined radiologically, further validating this model as being representative of the response in humans. Similarly the Cox-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, appeared to provide protection against radiological changes of biliary stricture, although possibly to a lesser degree than the resultant from dexamethasone. In addition, FdUrd treatment caused elevation of the DNA 2-bromo-5'deoxyuridine labeling index above control levels in biliary epithelial cells. Dexamethasone and celecoxib each significantly attenuated the FdUrd-induced elevation of DNA labeling index in biliary epithelium. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of this canine model for studying the mechanisms of drug-induced biliary sclerosis and reinforce the hypothesis that blocking inflammation may retard the progression of injury that eventually leads to fibrosis. This study suggests that clinical testing of celecoxib as a preventive for hepatic arterial-FdUrd induced biliary damage could prove valuable.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, medical sciences, biliary obstruction, digestive system disease, biliary sclerosis, drug induced, colorectal cancer, neoplastic disease, infusaid model 400 implantable pump, drug delivery device.

Fujino, Y., K. Kakinoki, Y. Suzuki, S. Li, T. Tanaka, Y. Tanioka, T. Sakai, Y. Ku, and Y. Kuroda (2003). Successful 24-hour preservation of ischemically damaged canine small intestine by the cavitary two-layer method. Transplantation 76(5): 777-780. ISSN: 0041-1337.
NAL Call Number: QP89.T73
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of a long-term preservation of the ischemically damaged intestine by the cavitary two-layer method (TLM) in canine small intestinal transplantation. Methods: The grafts were allotransplanted without preservation immediately (group 1) or after 30 minutes of warm ischemia (group 2). The ischemically damaged grafts were also allotransplanted after cold preservation for 24 hours in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (group 3) or the cavitary TLM (group 4). Seven-day survivals, tissue adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations, absorption tests, and histopathology were examined. Results: seven-day survivals in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 8 of 8, 6 of 8, 0 of 8, and 6 of 8, respectively. In group 4, significant recovery of ATP tissue level was seen after preservation compared with group 3, and absorption function and regeneration of the graft mucosa recovered at day 14. Conclusions: Ischemically damaged canine small intestine could be preserved for 24 hours by the cavitary TLM.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, methods and techniques, cavitary two layer method, laboratory techniques, small intestinal transplantation, clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques.

Govendir, M., P.J. Canfield, and D.B. Church (2003). Cellular proliferation in the canine pancreas after d,l-ethionine dosage as detected by double immunohistochemical labelling. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 55(2-3): 129-135. ISSN: 0940-2993.
Abstract: d,l-Ethionine produces pancreatic exocrine necrosis and islet proliferation in hamsters and dogs. As a first step in examining whether induction of islet proliferation has therapeutic applications in animals with exhausted or destroyed insulin-producing beta-cells, we studied pancreatic cellular proliferation after intravenous administration of d,l-ethionine in normal dogs. Double immunohistochemical labelling of pancreatic tissue was used to identify proliferating cells in three groups of six clinically normal crossbred dogs administered d,l-ethionine (100 mg/kg) intravenously three times a week for two weeks. Six additional dogs served as untreated controls. Group I was euthanased and necropsied on day 15 (72 hours after the final dose of ethionine). Groups II and III were euthanased on days 29 and 43 respectively. Utilising markers for proliferating nuclei, insulin and cytokeratin, proliferating cells were classified as acinar, endocrine (both intra or extra-islet), duct or 'other' (i.e. infiltrative or interstitial) and counted under the light microscope (40X magnification). Compared to controls, an increase in the number of proliferating cells was found in all categories except ducts. Acinar cells demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) proliferation, greatest two weeks after ethionine cessation continuing over four weeks. The interstitial, infiltrative or 'other' group also showed proliferation, however this was a more immediate response, which substantially decreased two weeks after ethionine administration. Endocrine cells showed only minor and non-significant proliferative activity and were probably not responsible for a significant increase in apparent beta-cell mass. The number of proliferating duct cells was inconsequential and there appeared to be no specific relationship between any cell populations and duct cells.
Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, methods and techniques, pancreatic disease, digestive system disease, double immunohistochemical labelling, laboratory techniques, immunohistochemistry, immunologic techniques, cellular proliferation, pancreatic exocrine necrosis.

Graham, M.J., A.R. Bell, H.K. Crewe, C.L. Moorcraft, L. Walker, E.F. Whittaker, and M.S. Lennard (2003). Mrna and protein expression of dog liver cytochromes p450 in relation to the metabolism of human cyp2c substrates. Xenobiotica 33(3): 225-237. ISSN: 0049-8254.
NAL Call Number: QD415.A1X4
Abstract: 1. Interpretation of novel drug exposure and toxicology data from the dog is tempered by our limited molecular and functional knowledge of dog cytochromes P450 (CYPs). The aim was to study the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic dog CYPs in relation to the metabolism of substrates of human CYP, particularly those of the CYP2C subfamily. 2. The rate of 7-hydroxylation of S-warfarin (CYP2C9 in humans) by dog liver microsomes (mean+-SD from 12 (six male and six female) dogs=10.8+-1.9 fmol mg-1 protein min-1) was 1.5-2 orders of magnitude lower than that in humans. 3. The rate of 4'-hydroxylation of S-mephenytoin, catalysed in humans by CYP2C19, was also low in dog liver (4.6+-1.5 pmol mg-1 protein min-1) compared with human liver. In contrast, the rate of 4'-hydroxylation of the R-enantiomer of mephenytoin by dog liver was much higher. The kinetics of this reaction (range of Km or K0.5 15-22 muM, Vmax 35-59 pmol mg-1 protein min-1, n=4 livers) were consistent with the involvement of a single enzyme. 4. In contrast to our findings for S-mephenytoin, dog liver microsomes 5'-hydroxylated omeprazole (also catalysed by CYP2C19 in humans) at considerably higher rates (range of Km 42-64 muM, Vmax 22-46 pmol mg-1 protein min-1, n=4 livers). 5. For all the substrates except omeprazole, a sex difference in their metabolism was observed in the dog (dextromethorphan N-demethylation: female range=0.7-0.9, male=0.4-0.8 nmol mg-1 protein min-1 (p<0.02); S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation: female=9-15.5, male=8-12 fmol mg-1 protein min-1 (p<0.02); R-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation: female=16-35, male=11.5-19 pmol mg-1 protein min-1 (p<0.01); omeprazole 5'-hydroxylation: female=15-20, male 13-22 pmol mg-1 protein min-1 (p>0.2)). 6. All dog livers expressed mRNA and CYP3A12, CYP2B11, CYP2C21 proteins, with no sex differences being found. Expression of CYP2C41 mRNA was undetectable in the livers of six of 11 dogs. 7. Correlation analysis suggested that CYP2B11 catalyses the N-demethylation of dextromethorphan (mediated in humans by CYP3A) and the 4'-hydroxylation of mephenytoin (mediated in humans by CYP2C19) in the dog, and that this enzyme and CYP3A12 contribute to S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation (mediated in humans by CYP2C9). 8. In conclusion, we have identified a distinct pattern of hepatic expression of the CYP2C41 gene in the Alderley Park beagle dog. Furthermore, marked differences in the metabolism of human CYP2C substrates were observed in this dog strain compared with humans with respect to rate of reaction, stereoselectivity and CYP enzyme selectivity.
Descriptors: enzymology, biochemistry and molecular biophysics, metabolism.

Horiguchi, K., K.D. Keef, and S.M. Ward (2003). Distribution of interstitial cells of cajal in tunica muscularis of the canine rectoanal region. American Journal of Physiology 284(5 Part 1): G756-G767. ISSN: 0002-9513.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 Am3
Abstract: Electrical and mechanical activity of the circular muscle layer in the rectoanal region of the gastrointestinal tract undergoes considerable changes in the site of dominant pacemaking activity, frequency, and waveform shape. The present study was performed to determine whether changes in the structural organization of the circular layer or in the density, distribution, and ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) could account for this heterogeneity in electrical and mechanical activities. Light microscopy revealed that the structural organization of the circular muscle layer underwent dramatic morphological changes, from a tightly packed layer with poorly defined septa in the proximal rectum to one of discrete muscle bundles separated by large septae in the internal anal sphincter. Kit immunohistochemistry revealed a dense network of ICC along the submucosal and myenteric borders in the rectum, whereas in the internal anal sphincter, ICC were located along the periphery of muscle bundles within the circular layer. Changes in electrical activity within the circular muscle layer can be partially explained by changes in the structure of the muscle layer and changes in the distribution of ICC in the rectoanal region of the gastrointestinal tract.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, muscular system, movement and support.

Horikawa, T., F. Hirayama, and K. Uekama (1995). In-vivo and in-vitro correlation for delayed-release behaviour of a molsidomine/o-carboxymethyl-o-ethyl-beta-cyclodextrin complex in gastric acidity-controlled dogs. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 47(2): 124-127. ISSN: 0022-3573.
NAL Call Number: RS11.J6
Abstract: The in-vivo absorption behaviour of molsidomine from the delayed-release tablets of an O-carboxymethyl-O-ethyl-beta-cyclodextrin complex was investigated using gastric acidity-controlled dogs under fasted and non-fasted conditions. The in-vitro release profiles were generated by changing the pH of the dissolution medium at different rotation paddle speeds. The absorptivity of molsidomine in the high acidity dog was correlated with the pH-changed release profile (pH 1.2 to 7.0 after 2 h), whereas that in the low acidity dog was correlated with the release profile at a constant pH of 7.0. The absorption in fasted dogs was well correlated with the in vitro release at the low-rotation paddle speed ( lt 5 rev min-1), whereas that in the non-fasted dogs was correlated with that of high rotation (100 rev min-1). The present results suggested that the in-vivo delayed-release behaviour of the complex is predictable from the in-vitro release profiles generated using pH-variable dissolution testing apparatus at different rotation speeds of the paddle.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, pharmacology, drug release, ph, vasodilator.

Ishibashi, T., H. Hatano, M. Kobayashi, M. Mizobe, and H. Yoshino (1999). In vivo drug release behavior in dogs from a new colon-targeted delivery system. Journal of Controlled Release 57(1): 45-53. ISSN: 0168-3659.
NAL Call Number: RS201.C64J68
Abstract: The colon-targeted delivery capsule (CTDC), a new capsule-type dosage form for colonic delivery of drugs, was investigated for the in vivo drug release behavior in dogs. A CTDC formulation with prednisolone as a model drug and theophylline as a marker substance for gastric emptying was prepared for this study. The enteric-coated capsule (ECC) formulation with a similar composition was also prepared as the reference. Both formulations were administered to four beagle dogs, and the drug release behavior thereof was compared. Under fasted condition, ECC released prednisolone and theophylline at the same time within 1 h after the gastric emptying. On the other hand the CTDC released prednisolone at 3.2 h after the gastric emptying. Such release behavior of CTDC was approximately consistent with the results obtained from the in vitro dissolution study, suggesting that the pH-sensing and timed-release functions imparted to the CTDC can work in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs as programmed. Under non-fasted condition, however, the gastric emptying of CTDC was found to be considerably delayed, up to about 14 h, and in this case the in vivo dissolution lag time of prednisolone at the small intestine was shortened to about 1.5 h.
Descriptors: gastroenterology, human medicine, medical sciences, pharmaceuticals, pharmacology, bowel disease, digestive system disease, colon targeted delivery capsule, capsule type dosage form, drug delivery method, pharmacodynamics, drug release, gastric emptying.

Jin, L., I.W. Chen, M. Chiba, and J.H. Lin (2003). Interaction with indinavir to enhance systemic exposure of an investigational hiv protease inhibitor in rats, dogs and monkeys. Xenobiotica 33(6): 643-654. ISSN: 0049-8254.
NAL Call Number: QD415.A1X4
Abstract: 1. The use of a beneficial interaction between indinavir and compound A, a potent investigational HIV protease inhibitor to enhance systemic exposure of compound A, was investigated. 2. When administrated alone, compound A underwent extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism in rats and monkeys, resulting in low oral bioavailability. 3. In vitro studies with liver microsomes revealed that compound A metabolism was mediated exclusively by CYP3A enzymes in rats, dogs and monkeys. Indinavir, which also was metabolized predominantly by CYP3A enzymes, extensively inhibited compound A metabolism in microsomes, whereas compound A showed weak inhibitory potency on indinavir metabolism. 4. Consistent with in vitro observations, co-administration of the two compounds resulted in a 17-fold increase in oral AUC of compound A in rats owing to the inhibition of metabolism of compound A by indinavir, whereas compound A did not affect indinavir metabolism as indicated by the unchanged indinavir AUC. Similarly, the systemic exposure of compound A in dogs and monkeys was increased substantially following oral co-administration with indinavir by 7- and > 50-fold, respectively. 5. Enhancement in compound A systemic exposure by indinavir in humans, as predicted based on the in vivo animal and in vitro human liver microsomal data, was confirmed in subsequent clinical studies.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, metabolism, pharmacology, extensive hepatic first pass metabolism.

Kawarada, Y. (2001). [Hepatopancreatoduodenectomy (HPD).]. Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 102(2): 195-8. ISSN: 0301-4894.
Abstract: Since the mid-1980s, simultaneous major resection of the liver and the pancreatic head, so-called HPD, has been performed in Japan to improve the survival rate of patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma. We conducted a study of HPD in dogs in our laboratory from 1986 to 1989 and found that 75% died following 70% hepatectomy with more than 92% pancreatectomy and that only 25% survived. The main cause of death was liver failure. A clinical review of the operative procedures and the outcome of HPD was performed by Mizumoto et al. in our department in 1989. They collected data on 241 patients who underwent HPD for advanced biliary tract carcinoma throughout Japan. The postoperative morbidity and mortality rates after HPD were higher than after other major surgeries. The prognosis after HPD has improved in recent years because of preservation of adequate hepatic or pancreatic parenchyma, improvements in surgical technique, and strict perioperative care. Therefore we plan to review the operative procedures and outcome of HPD again in 2000.
Descriptors: animal model, dogs, major resection, liver, pancrease, Japan, liver failure, mobidity, mortality, human data.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Knapp, B.K., C.M. Parsons, K.S. Swanson, and G.C.J. Fahey (2008). Physiological responses to novel carbohydrates as assessed using canine and avian models. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56(17): 7999-8006.
NAL Call Number: 381 J8223
Abstract: The objective was to quantify in vitro digestion, true metabolizable energy (TME(n)) content, glycemic and insulinemic responses, and gastrointestinal tolerance to fructose (Fruc), maltodextrin (Malt), polydextrose (Poly), pullulan (Pull), resistant starch (RS), sorbitol (Sorb), and xanthan gum (Xan). Limited digestion of RS, Poly, and Xan occurred. Fruc, Malt, and Sorb resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) TME(n) values, Pull was intermediate, and RS and Poly were lowest. Malt had the highest (P < 0.05) area under the curve for glucose and insulin in the glycemic tests. Gastrointestinal tolerance was examined for diets containing carbohydrates at either 100 or 200% of the adequate intake (AI) value for dietary fiber. At 100% and 200% AI, Malt, RS, and Sorb resulted in ideal fecal scores, while Pull and Xan resulted in looser stools and Poly resulted in diarrhea. The carbohydrates studied varied widely in physiological outcomes. Certain carbohydrates could potentially benefit large bowel health.
Descriptors: blood glucose analysis, carbohydrates pharmacology, digestion drug effects, energy metabolism drug effects, gastrointestinal tract drug effects, insulin blood, chickens, dogs, fructose pharmacology, models, animal, polysaccharides pharmacology.

Marcovich, R., A.L. Williams, B.D. Seifman, and J.S.J. Wolf (2001). A canine model to assess the biochemical stress response to laparoscopic and open surgery. Journal of Endourology 15(10): 1005-1008. ISSN: 0892-7790.
Abstract: Purpose: To develop an animal model to assess the stress response to open and laparoscopic surgery. Such a model would allow objective physiologic assessment of the putative benefits of laparoscopy and provide a framework in which to compare modifications in operative and anesthetic technique that might decrease the stress of surgery. Materials and Methods: Mongrel dogs underwent laparoscopic (N = 12) or open surgical (N = 12) left nephrectomy. In 11 control animals, after induction of anesthesia and line placement, the animal underwent either no intervention (open surgery sham; N = 6) or pneumoperitoneum only (laparoscopic sham; N = 5). Serum glucose and cortisol were measured preoperatively, at skin closure, and at 4, 8, and 24 hours postoperatively. Values at each time point were compared in the laparoscopic and open surgical nephrectomy groups and in each of the two nephrectomy groups and their respective shams. Results: Compared with baseline, there was a sharp rise in serum cortisol at the time of skin closure, with a gradual decline to baseline values by 24 hours, in all experimental animals. Significantly lower serum cortisol concentrations were seen at 4 and 8 hours postoperatively in the laparoscopic group than in the open surgery group. Cortisol was significantly higher in the open group than in the sham-open group at all time points, whereas cortisol was greater in the laparoscopic group than in the pneumoperitoneum-only group only at the 4-hour time point. No differences were seen in serum glucose between groups. Conclusions: The serum cortisol concentration appears to be a good measure of surgical stress in the canine model. The rapid decline in serum cortisol after laparoscopy compared with open surgery may indicate a lesser degree, or quicker resolution, of surgical stress in the former. Furthermore, the similarity in cortisol curves between laparoscopy and pneumoperitoneum only suggests that surgical stress in laparoscopic surgery may be attributable mainly to the effects of pneumoperitoneum.
Descriptors: endocrine system, chemical coordination and homeostasis, methods and techniques, pneumoperitoneum, digestive system disease, laparoscopic nephrectomy, open surgical nephrectomy, surgical method, biochemical stress response, surgical stress.

Mata Bilbao, M.L., C. Andres Lacueva, E. Roura, O. Jauregui, E. Escribano, C. Torre, and R.M. Lamuela Raventos (2008). Absorption and pharmacokinetics of green tea catechins in beagles. British Journal of Nutrition 100(3): 496-502. ISSN: 0007-1145.
NAL Call Number: 389.8 B773
Abstract: The present study evaluates for the first time in dogs, the kinetics of green tea catechins and their metabolic forms in plasma and urine. Ten beagles were administered 173 mg (12.35 mg/kg body weight) of catechins as a green tea extract, in capsules. Blood samples were collected during 24 h after intake and urine samples were collected during the following periods of time: 0-2, 2-6, 6-8 and 8-24 h. Two catechins with a galloyl moiety and three conjugated metabolites were detected in plasma. Most of the detected forms in plasma reached their maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) at around 1 h. Median Cmax for ( - )-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), ( - )-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), ( - )-epigallocatechin glucuronide (EGC-glucuronide), ( - )-epicatechin glucuronide (EC-glucuronide), ( - )-epicatechin sulphate (EC-sulphate) were 0.3 (range 0.1-1.9), 0.1 (range 0-0.4), 0.8 (range 0.2-3.9), 0.2 (range 0.1-1.7) and 1 (range 0.3-3.4) micromol/l, respectively. The areas under the plasma concentration v. time curves (AUC0 --> 24) were 427 (range 102-1185) micromol/l x min for EGC-glucuronide, 112 (range 53-919) micromol/l x min for EC-sulphate, 71 (range 26-306) micromol/l x min for EGCG, 40 (range 12-258) micromol/l x min for EC-glucuronide and 14 (range 0.1-124) micromol/l x min for ECG. The values of mean residence time (MRT0 --> 24) were 5 (range 2-16), 2 (range 1-11), 10 (range 2-13), 3 (range 2-16) and 2.4 (range 1-18) h for EGCG, ECG, EGC-glucuronide, EC-glucuronide and EC-sulphate, respectively. In urine, catechins were present as conjugated forms, suggesting bile excretion of EGCG and ECG. Green tea catechins are absorbed following an oral administration and EGC-glucuronide is the metabolic form that remains in the organism for a longer period of time, suggesting that this compound could suffer an enterohepatic cycle.
Descriptors: antioxidants pharmacokinetics, catechin pharmacokinetics, dogs metabolism, tea, administration, oral, biological availability, biotransformation, catechin analogs and derivatives, catechin analysis, catechin chemistry, catechin metabolism, glucuronides analysis, glucuronides metabolism, intestinal absorption drug effects, models, animal, sulfuric acid esters analysis, sulfuric acid esters metabolism, time factors.

Mata Bilbao, M.L., C. Andres Lacueva, E. Roura, O. Jauregui, E. Escribano, C. Torre, and R.M. Lamuela Raventos (2007). Absorption and pharmacokinetics of grapefruit flavanones in beagles. British Journal of Nutrition 98(1): 86-92. ISSN: 0007-1145.
NAL Call Number: 389.8 B773
Abstract: The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of three different grapefruit flavanone forms in dog plasma and demonstrated their absorption after an oral intake of a grapefruit extract; pharmacokinetic parameters of these forms were also determined. Ten healthy beagles were administered 70 mg citrus flavonoids as a grapefruit extract contained in capsules, while two additional dogs were used as controls and given an excipient. The grapefruit flavanone naringin, along with its metabolites naringenin and naringenin glucuronide, was detected in dog plasma. Blood samples were collected between 0 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Naringin reached its maximun plasma concentration at around 80 min, whereas naringenin and naringenin glucuronide reached their maximun plasma concentrations at around 20 and 30 min, respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations of naringin, naringenin and naringenin glucuronide (medians and ranges) were 0.24 (0.05-2.08), 0.021 (0.001-0.3) and 0.09 (0.034-0.12) micromol/l, respectively. The areas under the curves were 23.16 l (14.04-70.62) min x micromol/for nariningin, 1.78 (0.09-4.95) min x micromol/l for naringenin and 22.5 (2.74-99.23) min x micromol/l for naringenin glucuronide. The median and range values for mean residence time were 3.3 (1.5-9.3), 2.8 (0.8-11.2) and 8.0 (2.3-13.1) h for naringin, naringenin and naringenin glucuronide, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate the absorption of grapefruit flavanones via the presence of their metabolites in plasma, thus making an important contribution to the field since the biological activities ascribed to these compounds rely on their specific forms of absorption.
Descriptors: citrus paradisi chemistry, flavanones pharmacokinetics, absorption, administration, oral, biological availability, dogs, flavanones administration and dosage, flavanones blood, intestinal absorption, models, animal, plant extracts administration and dosage, plant extracts pharmacokinetics.

Mcginnity, D.F., M.G. Soars, R.A. Urbanowicz, and R.J. Riley (2004). Evaluation of fresh and cryopreserved hepatocytes as in vitro drug metabolism tools for the prediction of metabolic clearance. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 32(11): 1247-1253. ISSN: 0090-9556.
NAL Call Number: RM301.35.D78
Abstract: The intrinsic clearances (CLint) of 50 neutral and basic marketed drugs were determined in fresh human hepatocytes and the data used to predict human in vivo hepatic metabolic clearance (CLmet). A statistically significant correlation between scaled CLmet and actual CLmet was observed ( r2 = 0.48, p 0.05), and for 73% of the drugs studied, scaled clearances were within 2-fold of the actual clearance. These data have shown that CLint data generated in human hepatocytes can be used to provide estimates of human hepatic CLmet for both phase I and phase II processes. In addition, the utility of commercial and in-house cryopreserved hepatocytes was assessed by comparing with data derived from fresh cells. A set of 14 drugs metabolized by the major human cytochromes P450 (P450s) CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT1A1, 1A4, 1A9, and 2B7) have been used to characterize the activity of freshly isolated and cryopreserved human and dog hepatocytes. The cryopreserved human and dog cells retained on average 94% and 81%, respectively, of the CLint determined in fresh cells. Cryopreserved hepatocytes retain their full activity for more than 1 year in liquid N2 and are thus a flexible resource of hepatocytes for in vitro assays. In summary, this laboratory has successfully cryopreserved human and dog hepatocytes as assessed by the turnover of prototypic P450 and UGT substrates, and both fresh and cryopreserved human hepatocytes may be used for the prediction of human hepatic CLmet.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, enzymology, biochemistry and molecular biophysics, metabolism, hplc, high performance liquid chromatography, chromatographic techniques, laboratory techniques, intrinsic clearance, metabolic clearance.

Mellinger, J.D., B.V. MacFadyen, R.A. Kozarek, N.D. Soper, D.H. Birkett, and L.L. Swanstrom (2007). Initial experience with a novel endoscopic device allowing intragastric manipulation and plication. Surgical Endoscopy 21(6): 1002-5.
NAL Call Number: RD33.53
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Current developments in intraluminal and transluminal natural orifice surgery are limited by issues of access, tissue manipulation, and secure tissue approximation/closure. This report describes an initial laboratory experience with a novel tissue approximation and suturing device. The device is deployed via a previously described platform and is 6 mm in diameter. Desirable qualities of this tissue approximation/closure device include robust tissue grasping, minimal tissue trauma, fully visualized anchor placement via off-axis needle and anchor deployment, full reloadability without instrument withdrawal, single-operator operating capability, torque-stable manipulability, and operator-controlled tension setting of tissue anchor pairs. METHOD: The device was trialed in performing several maneuvers in porcine or canine models. The features of the system allowed bimanual tissue manipulation, full-thickness tissue approximation and plication, and secure closure of an ex vivo gastrotomy hole similar to that used during transluminal surgical interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This device appears to offer promise in achieving more complex endoluminal and potentially transluminal tasks, including secure suture closure of tissue defects and access holes. As such, devices of this type may prove useful in addressing some of the identified barriers to further development of natural orifice surgical intervention. Further investigation of the qualities and capabilities of this device in these settings is warranted.
Descriptors: gastroscopy, stomach surgery, suture techniques instrumentation, dogs, gastroscopes, models, animal, swine.

Mueller, T., B. Van-De-Sluis, A. Zhernakova, E. Van-Binsbergen, A.-R. Janecke, A. Bavdekar, A. Pandit, H. Weirich-Schwaiger, H. Witt, H. Ellemunter, J. Deutsch, H. Denk, W. Mueller, I. Sternlieb, M.-S. Tanner, and C. Wijmenga (2003). The canine copper toxicosis gene murr1 does not cause non-wilsonian hepatic copper toxicosis. Journal of Hepatology 38(2): 164-168. ISSN: 0168-8278.
NAL Call Number: RC845
Abstract: Background: Non-Wilsonian hepatic copper toxicosis includes Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC), endemic Tyrolean infantile cirrhosis (ETIC) and the non-Indian disease known as idiopathic copper toxicosis (ICT). These entities resemble the hepatic copper overload observed in livers of Bedlington terriers with respect to their clinical presentation and biochemical and histological findings. We recently cloned the gene causing copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers, MURR1, as well as the orthologous human gene on chromosome 2p13-p16. Aim: To study the human orthologue of the canine copper toxicosis gene as a candidate gene for ICC, ETIC, and ICT. Methods: We sequenced the exons and the intron-exon boundaries of the human MURR1 gene in 12 patients with classical ICC, one patient with ETIC, and 10 patients with ICT to see whether these patients display any mutations in the human orthologue of the canine copper toxicosis gene. Results: No mutations in the MURR1 gene, including the intron-exon boundaries, were identified in a total of 23 patients with non-Wilsonian hepatic copper toxicosis. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers is not an animal model for the non-Wilsonian hepatic copper toxicosis described in this study.
Descriptors: gastroenterology, human medicine, medical sciences, molecular genetics, biochemistry and molecular biophysics, toxicology, Indian childhood cirrhosis, digestive system disease, etiology, endemic Tyrolean infantile cirrhosis, idiopathic copper toxicosis, metabolic disease, toxicity, etiology, non Wilsonian hepatic copper toxicosis, metabolic disease, toxicity, pathology, clinical presentation.

Mutafova Yambolieva, V.N., K. O'driscoll, A. Farrelly, S.M. Ward, and K.D. Keef (2003). Spatial localization and properties of pacemaker potentials in the canine rectoanal region. American Journal of Physiology 284(5 Part 1): G748-G755. ISSN: 0002-9513.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 Am3
Abstract: The present study investigated the spatial organization of electrical activity in the canine rectoanal region and its relationship to motility patterns. Contraction and resting membrane potential (Em) were measured from strips of circular muscle isolated 0.5-8 cm from the anal verge. Rapid frequency (25 cycles/min (cpm)) Em oscillations (MPOs, 12 mV amplitude) were present across the thickness of the internal anal sphincter (IAS; 0.5 cm) and Em was constant (-52 mV). Between the IAS and the proximal rectum an 18 mV gradient in Em developed across the muscle thickness with the submucosal edge at -70 mV and MPOs were replaced with slow waves (20 mV amplitude, 6 cpm). Slow waves were of greatest amplitude at the submucosal edge. Nifedipine (1 muM) abolished MPOs but not slow waves. Contractile frequency changes were commensurate with the changes in pacemaker frequency. Our results suggest that changing motility patterns in the rectoanal region are associated with differences in the characteristics of pacemaker potentials as well as differences in the sites from which these potentials emanate.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, muscular system, movement and support, pacemaker potentials, spatial localization.

Nagaya, M., S. Kubota, N. Suzuki, M. Tadokoro, and K. Akashi (2004). Evaluation of thermoreversible gelation polymer for regeneration of focal liver injury. European Surgical Research 36(2): 95-103. ISSN: 0014-312X.
Abstract: Liver injuries are often associated with complications including infection of the dead space, bleeding, leakage of bile and so on. We have recently developed a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) which provides a good healing environment for wounds and possibly reduces complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adequate regeneration occurred with a liver defect by using TGP. The sol-gel transition of TGP is reversibly controlled by temperature; TGP is soluble below a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 22degreeC, and becomes solid above the LCST. Soluble TGP can reach anywhere, and gelation of TGP occurs at the wound surface by body temperature to fill the wound/cavity. A section of median part of the left lobe comprising 3% (2 X 2 cm wide and 1 cm deep) of the liver was resected, and the Beagle dogs were assigned to three groups: 'resection alone group', 'resection + fibrin glue (FG) group' and 'resection + TGP group'. The resection alone group and the resection + FG group showed severe fibrosis at week 12, and a scarring was clearly visible. The resection + TGP group showed almost complete healing by week 4, with no adhesion and recession of the wound; the resection site was completely filled with TGP, liver-like capsule organoids emerged to cover the wound and neovascularization was observed within the organoids. Furthermore, the resected liver regenerated completely by week 12, TGP was replaced by hepatocytes, and the presence of hepatic lobules confirmed structural reorganization. The number of RCA-1-positive macrophages accumulating around the wound was significantly reduced in the resection + TGP group compared to the other two groups. In the early stage of liver resection and regeneration, TGP seemed to suppress the accumulation of macrophages and stellate cells. In the late stage, when massive inflammatory cell accumulation had subsided, TGP was degraded, that may contribute to avoid unnecessary inhibition of the liver regeneration process. Collectively, TGP may induce efficient regeneration by reducing the fibrosis and enhancing proliferation, even with a minor liver defect. Because TGP has good biocompatibility, it may become useful as an ideal biomaterial for the treatment of liver injuries.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, methods and techniques, focal liver injury, digestive system disease, injury, resection, experimental surgical techniques, laboratory techniques, liver regeneration, lower critical solution temperature.

Naitoh, T., A. Garcia Ruiz, A. Darvish, A. Vladisavljevic, S. Matsuno, and M. Gagner (1997). Gastrointestinal transit and stress response after laparoscopic vs. Conventional distal pancreatectomy in dogs. Gastroenterology 112(4 SUPPL.): A1461. ISSN: 0016-5085.
NAL Call Number: RC799.G37
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, surgery, medical sciences, conventional distal pancreatectomy, digestive system, gastrointestinal transit, laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy, stress response, surgical method.

Nazarenko, N.A., V.A. Vishnevskii, N.D. Skuba, B.V. Vtiurin, I.M. Buriev, and A.V. Chzhao (2001). Portal'naia embolizatsiia (eksperimental'no-morfologicheskoe issledovanie). Khirurgiia (Mosk). 4: 35-38. ISSN: 0023-1207.
Abstract: Results of experimental-morphological study of influence of unilobar portal embolization by biologic occlusive material RABROM on the liver of 6 laboratory animals are presented. It is shown that portal venous embolization leads to focal necrosis of parenchyma of embolized hepatic lobe, it atrophy and formation of portal cirrhosis. In non-embolized hepatic lobe the distinct signs of increased regeneration and hypertrophy of hepatocytes were revealed. RABROM didn't lead to damage and inflammatory changes of vascular wall that testifies to it biologic inertia. It is recommended to use the method of portal venous embolization for preparation of patients with low functional hepatic reserve for extensive resections.
Descriptors: animal model, unilobar portal embolization, biologic occlusive material, focal necrosis, functional hepatic reserve.

Okabe, S., T. Fujishita, and K. Jinbo (2003). New target for the inhibitors of gastric acid secretion. Inhibition of myosin and actin activities via the apical membrane of parietal cells in dogs. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica 122(1): 74P-77P. ISSN: 0015-5691.
Abstract: This report aims to highlight drugs that are able to inhibit parietal cells from the luminal side, resulting in suppressed gastric acid secretion. Histamine 2HCl was i.v. given continuously to obtain a submaximal stimulation of gastric acid secretion. Wortmannin and ME 3407 (a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor) and cytocharasin D (actin polymerizing inhibitor) were locally applied to denervated gastric pouches prepared in dogs for 5 to 30 min. Each drug, administered 0.5 hr before or 1 hr after histamine infusion was commenced, significantly inhibited stimulated-gastric acid secretion in a time-dependent manner. The antisecretory effect persisted for more than 24 hrs in the case of Wortmannin and 9 hr in the case of ME 3407 at a dosage 1 and 3 mg/pouch for 30 min, respectively. ME 2407, however, had no antisecretory effect when i.v. administered after histamine infusion, or orally administered before histamine infusion. Such results strongly suggest that the apical membrane of parietal cells possesses a ME 4307, Wortmannin and cytocharasin D sensitive portion similar to the basolateral membrane that usually mediates gastric acid secretion. The apical membrane represents an intriguing target for developing new antisecretory drugs, as well as for elucidating the functional features of parietal cells.
Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, veterinary medicine, medical sciences.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Oliveira, A.L., N. Jamel, D.P. Lacombe, M.D. Goncalves, E.J. Abilio, J.E. Manso, and A.C. Costa (2007). Use of intraluminal protection in colonic anastomosis in dogs. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira Sociedade Brasileira Para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa Em Cirurgia 22(1): 57-62. ISSN: 0102-8650.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To test the use of intraluminal protection in colonic anastomosis without intestinal cleansing. The intraluminal liner was fashioned from porcine submucosa preserved in glycerin and then fixed 10 cm anteriorly to the anastomotic site. This technique was compared with the one used in termino-terminal colonic anastomosis without intraluminal protection. METHODS: Twenty-eight dogs were divided into two groups of fourteen animals each. Clinical and histopathological tests were performed on the fourth and twenty-first postoperative days. RESULTS: The morbidity and mortality rates were higher in animals that did not receive the intraluminal liner. Histopathological examinations in animals in which the intraluminal liner was used showed better healing, characterized by milder inflammation and increased amount of collagen. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the use of intraluminal protection decreases complication rates in colonic anastomosis and promotes better healing.
Descriptors: colon surgery, glycerol therapeutic use, intestinal mucosa transplantation, anastomosis, surgical adverse effects, anastomosis, surgical methods, anastomosis, surgical mortality, collagen, dogs, inflammation, models, animal, surgical wound dehiscence etiology, swine, wound healing.

Ouguerram, K., P. Nguyen, M. Krempf, E. Pouteau, F. Briand, E. Bailhache, and T. Magot (2004). Selective uptake of high density lipoproteins cholesteryl ester in the dog, a species lacking in cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity: an in vivo approach using stable isotopes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 138(4): 339-345. ISSN: 1096-4959.
NAL Call Number: QP501.C6
Abstract: Amongst the processes involved in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) from organs to liver, including high density lipoproteins-apolipoprotein AI (HDL-apoAI) dependent tissue uptake and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-mediated transfers, the selective uptake of cholesteryl ester (CE) is of increasing interest through its antiatherogenic role. The purpose of this report is to develop a simple protocol allowing study of this process in an animal model with easier quantification of CE selective uptake. The dog was chosen essentially because this animal has a low CETP activity and an appropriate size to conduce a kinetic study. Tracer kinetics were performed to estimate in vivo the contributions of the pathways involved in HDL-CE turnover in dogs. Stable isotopes, 13C-acetate and D3-leucine as labeled precursors of CE and apoAI, were infused to fasting dogs. Isotopic enrichments were monitored in plasma unesterified cholesterol and in HDL-CE and apoAI by mass spectrometry. Kinetics were analyzed using compartmental modeling. Results concerned the measurement of the activity of cholesterol esterification (0.13+or-0.032 h-1), rate of HDL-apoAI catabolism (0.024+or-0.012 h-1), HDL-CE turnover (0.062+or-0.010 h-1) and CE selective uptake (0.038+or-0.014 h-1). Our results show that CE in dogs is mainly eliminated by selective uptake of HDL-CE (60% of HDL-CE turnover), unlike in other species studied by similar methods in our laboratory. This study shows that among species used to analyze cholesterol metabolism, the dog appears to be the animal in whom HDL-CE selective uptake represents the largest part of HDL-CE turnover.
Descriptors: analytical methods, animal models, cholesterol, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, cholesteryl esters, high density lipoprotein, isotopes, uptake.

Renard, E. (2008). Implantable continuous glucose sensors. Current Diabetes Reviews 4(3): 169-74.
Abstract: Because of the limits of wearable needle-type or microdialysis-based enzymatic sensors in clinical use, fully implantable glucose monitoring systems (IGMS) represent a promising alternative. Long-term use reducing impact of invasiveness due to implantation, less frequent calibration needs because of a more stable tissue environment around the sensor and potential easier inclusion in a closed-loop insulin delivery system are the expected benefits of IGMS. First experiences with subcutaneous and intravenous IGMS have been recently collected in pilot studies. While no severe adverse events have been reported, biointerface issues have been responsible for the failures of IGMS. Tissue reactions around implanted subcutaneous devices and damages of intravenous sensors due to shearing forces of blood flow impaired IGMS function and longevity. In functioning systems, accuracy of glucose measurement reached satisfactory levels for average durations of about 120 days with subcutaneous IGMS and 259 days with intravenous sensors. Moreover, sensor information could help to improve time spent in normal glucose range when provided to patients wearing subcutaneous IGMS and allowed safe and effective closed-loop glucose control when intravenous sensors were connected to implanted pumps using intra-peritoneal insulin delivery. These data could open a favourable perspective for IGMS after improvement of biointerface conditions and if compatible with an affordable cost.
Descriptors: blood glucose analysis, diabetes mellitus, type 1 blood, monitoring, physiologic instrumentation, prostheses and implants, biosensing techniques instrumentation, biosensing techniques methods, dogs, equipment design, models, animal, user computer interface.

Salahi, H., S. Nikeghbalian, A.R. Shamsaee, E. Kheradmand, B. Sabet, H. Jalaeian, B. Geramizadeh, N. Tanideh, and S.A. Malek Hosseini (2007). Comparison of early outcome and histologic findings of enteric drainage with bladder drainage in pancreas transplantation of dogs. Transplantation Proceedings 39(4): 1255-6. ISSN: 0041-1345.
NAL Call Number: RD120.7.T68
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The clinical and pathological findings of enteric-drained (ED) versus bladder-drained (BD) pancreas transplantation are still controversial. In this study, we compared early outcome and histological findings of these 2 methods. METHODS: In an experimental animal model, after diabetization, 16 dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the first group, the pancreas was transplanted with enteric drainage, and in the second group, with bladder drainage. We evaluated early clinical and pathological outcomes. RESULTS: The mean survival time was 11.25 +/- 5.0 (range, 5-20) days for group 1 and 13.6 +/- 7.2 (range, 3-23) days for group 2 (P>.05). Fasting blood sugar values (FBS) before transplantation were 279 +/- 26.8 mg/dL versus 278 +/- 41.6 mg/dL, respectively (P>.05). Two weeks postoperative serum FBS had decreased to 84.9 +/- 2.9 versus 84.2 +/- 0.98, respectively (P>.05). Serum amylase in the BD and ED groups were 378.5 +/- 328 versus 422.6 +/- 54.7 mg/dL, respectively (P>.05). Early leakage was not observed in dogs with BD, whereas it was 37.5% among dogs with ED (P<.05). Clinical and pathological evidences of pancreatic necrosis occurred in 37.5% of dogs with BD versus 62.5% of dogs with ED (P>.05). DISCUSSION: Although the early outcomes of these drainage methods (ED vs BD) were statistically similar more dogs with ED experienced early complications than with BD.
Descriptors: pancreas transplantation methods, pancreas transplantation physiology, dogs, drainage methods, models, animal, pancreas transplantation mortality, pancreas transplantation pathology, survival analysis, treatment outcome, urinary bladder surgery.

Schwach Abdellaoui, K., M. Moreau, M. Schneider, B. Boisramc, and R. Gurny (2002). Controlled delivery of metoclopramide using an injectable semi-solid poly(ortho ester) for veterinary application. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 248(1-2): 31-7. ISSN: 0378-5173.
NAL Call Number: RS122.A1I5
Abstract: In animal health care, current therapeutic regimens for gastrointestinal disorders require repeated oral or parenteral dosage forms of anti-emetic agents. However, fluctuations of plasma concentrations produce severe side effects. The aim of this work is to develop a subcutaneous and biodegradable controlled release system containing metoclopramide (MTC). Semi-solid poly(ortho ester)s (POE) prepared by a transesterification reaction between trimethyl orthoacetate and 1,2,6,-hexanetriol were investigated as injectable bioerodible polymers for the controlled release of MTC. MTC is present in the polymeric matrix as a solubilised form and it is released rapidly from the POE by erosion and diffusion because of its acidic character and its high hydrosolubility. If a manual injection is desired, only low molecular weight can be used. However, low molecular weight POEs release the drug rapidly. In order to extend polymer lifetime and decrease drug release rate, a sparingly water-soluble base Mg(OH)(2) was incorporated to the formulation. It was possible to produce low molecular weight POE that can be manually injected and releasing MTC over a period of several days.
Descriptors: health care, gastrointestinal system, anti-emetic agents, metoclopramide (MTC), pharmacology.

Sonoda, Y., M. Dong, H. Konomi, M. Kawamoto, K. Kobayashi, K. Yamaguchi, and M. Tanaka (2003). Role of duodenum on sphincter of oddi motility in conscious dogs. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 48(9): 1693-1700. ISSN: 0163-2116.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 AM324
Abstract: Our aim was to determine the role of the duodenum in controlling sphincter of Oddi motility using conscious dogs after total duodenectomy. In a control group (N = 6), a cannula was implanted into the duodenum opposite to the papilla to allow retrograde sphincter manometry. In a duodenectomy group (N = 6), the papillae were preserved at total duodenectomy and sutured to the jejunum anastomosed to the stomach (neoduodenum). The cannula was implanted opposite to the implanted papillae. Interdigestive and postprandial sphincter and duodental or neoduodenal motility were recorded by manometric and myoelectric methods. Duodenectomy disrupted sphincter cyclic motility associated with the intestinal migrating motor complex and increased sphincter activity throughout the cycle. Sphincter activity increased immediately after feeding and did not differ between the two groups. In conclusion, during the interdigestive period, the duodenum has a distinct role in regulating sphincter cyclic motility. The initiation of the fed pattern of sphincter motility does not need the duodenum.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, surgery, medical sciences, myoelectric method, laboratory techniques, retrograde sphincter manometry, clinical techniques, total duodenectomy, experimental surgical techniques, laboratory techniques, cyclic motility, duodenal, neoduodenal motility, fed pattern initiation, feeding, interdigestive period, interdigestive sphincter motility, intestinal migrating motor complex, postprandial sphincter motility, sphincter cyclic motility.

Stagner, J.I., H.L. Rilo, and K.K. White (2007). The pancreas as an islet transplantation site. Confirmation in a syngeneic rodent and canine autotransplant model. JOP Journal of the Pancreas 8(5): 628-36.
Abstract: CONTEXT: The availability of islet transplantation is limited by both the number of donor pancreata and the number of islets required for successful transplantation. There is evidence that the liver presents a less than optimal environment for islets that contributes to short- and long-term beta cell destruction or failure. OBJECTIVE: It is our hypothesis that the pancreas is a suitable transplant site and may require fewer islets than standard sites such as the liver or kidney, and could lead to improvements in transplantation outcomes. METHODS: To test this hypothesis both a rodent and a canine model were used. Syngeneic rat islets were transplanted to the pancreas, liver, or kidney of Lewis rats. Fasting blood glucose levels were compared for three months as an index of islet function. Dogs received an islet autotransplant to a pancreatic remnant. Insulin and glucose concentrations were followed for six months. RESULTS: In the rat, normoglycemia was maintained with 600 islets transplanted in the pancreas in contrast to the liver (3,200 islets) or kidney (1,000-2,000 islets). Dogs remained normoglycemic after receiving an intra-pancreatic islet transplant (mean 7,640+/-3,600 islets). There was no evidence of pancreatitis or nutritional deficiency in either species. CONCLUSIONS: The pancreas should be considered as an islet transplant site. The pancreas is the native milieu for islets, and offers the advantage of requiring fewer islets than other conventional sites, thereby increasing the possibility that one donor pancreas may serve one or more recipients.
Descriptors: diabetes mellitus, experimental surgery, islets of langerhans transplantation methods, pancreas surgery, dogs, models, animal, rats, rats, inbred lew, transplantation, autologous.

Sun, S., S. Wang, N. Ge, T. Lei, Q. Lu, Z. Zhou, A. Yang, Z. Wang, and M. Sun (2007). Endoscopic ultrasound-guided interstitial chemotherapy in the pancreas: results in a canine model. Endoscopy 39(6): 530-4.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Interstitial chemotherapy using surgically implanted, biodegradable polymers has been reported. Our aim in this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of endoscopic ultrasound- (EUS-) guided interstitial chemotherapy of the pancreas in a canine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A therapeutic 19-gauge needle with a large channel was inserted into the pancreas under EUS guidance. The polymers for sustained intratumoral release of 5-fluorouracil were implanted into the tissue by the needle. After 14 days of clinical observation, the animals were sacrificed and the tissue response to the local chemotherapy was examined. RESULTS: All the polymers were implanted successfully and no implant migration occurred. Localized tissue fibrous necrosis was achieved in the pancreas, without significant complications. The apoptotic index of the tissue within 1 cm of the focus increased. Biochemical parameters were normal in all the dogs. CONCLUSIONS: EUS-guided implantation of polymers is a safe, simple, and minimally invasive technique for interstitial chemotherapy in the pancreas.
Descriptors: antimetabolites, antineoplastic administration and dosage, endosonography, fluorouracil administration and dosage, pancreas ultrasonography, dogs, feasibility studies, injections, intralesional, models, animal, pancreas pathology, polymers administration and dosage.

Trott, D.J., L.J. Filippich, J.C. Bensink, M.T. Downs, S.E. Mckenzie, K.M. Townsend, S.M. Moss, and J.J.C. Chin (2004). Canine model for investigating the impact of oral enrofloxacin on commensal coliforms and colonization with multidrug-resistant escherichia coli. Journal of Medical Microbiology 53(5): 439-443. ISSN: 0022-2615.
NAL Call Number: QR1.J62
Abstract: A model was developed in dogs to determine the impact of oral enrofloxacin administration on the indigenous coliform population in the gastrointestinal tract and subsequent disposition to colonization by a strain of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (MDREC). Dogs given a daily oral dose of 5 mg enrofloxacin kg-1 for 21 consecutive days showed a significant decline in faecal coliforms to levels below detectable limits by 72 In of administration. Subsequently, faecal coliforms remained suppressed throughout the period of enrofloxacin dosing. Upon termination of antibiotic administration, the number of excreted faecal coliforms slowly returned over an 8-day period, to levels comparable to those seen prior to antibiotic treatment. Enrofloxacin-treated dogs were more effectively colonized by MDREC, evidenced by a significantly increased count of MDREC in the faeces (7.1 +/- 1.5 log10 g-1) compared with non-antibiotic-treated dogs (5.2 +/- 1.2; P = 0.003). Furthermore, antibiotic treatment also sustained a significantly longer period of MDREC excretion in the faeces (26.8 +/- 10.5 days) compared with animals not treated with enrofloxacin (8.5 +/- 5.4 days; P = 0.0215). These results confirm the importance of sustained delivery of an antimicrobial agent to maintain and expand the colonization potential of drug-resistant bacteria in vivo, achieved in part by reducing the competing commensal coliforms in the gastrointestinal tract to below detectable levels in the faeces. Without in vivo antimicrobial selection pressure, commensal coliforms dominated the gastrointestinal tract at the expense of the MDREC population. Conceivably, the model developed could be used to test the efficacy of novel non-antibiotic strategies aimed at monitoring and controlling gastrointestinal colonization by multidrug-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae that cause nosocomial infections.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, infection, pharmacology, antibacterial therapy, clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, oral drug therapy, clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, bacterial colonization, medical microbiology, methodology, nosocomial infections.

Tsuji, Y., H. Yoshimura, F. Uto, T. Tamamoto, I. Asakawa, N. Horikawa, S. Fukugami, H. Sakaguchi, T. Yoshioka, K. Kichikawa, and H. Ohishi (2003). The influence of the metallic stent for irradiation: experimental study by phantom and normal bile duct of dogs. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 57(2 Supplement): S424. ISSN: 0360-3016.
NAL Call Number: RC271.R3
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, methods and techniques, radiation biology, histological examination, histology and cytology techniques, laboratory techniques, irradiation, applied and field techniques, metallic stent, medical equipment, phantom experiment, applied and field techniques, dosimetry.

Tsunoda, Y., H. Yao, J. Park, and C. Owyang (2003). Cholecystokinin synthesizes and secretes leptin in isolated canine gastric chief cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 310(3): 681-684. ISSN: 0006-291X.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 B5236
Abstract: It is well recognized that a product of obese (ob) locus and body weight control hormone, leptin, acts on both short-term satiety for meal-induced termination of food intake (gastric phase) and long-term satiety for energy expenditure via the hypothalamus. The considerable sources of leptin are chief cells for gastric phase and adipocytes for the long-term satiety. The objective of this study was to demonstrate if CCK enhances leptin synthesis and secretion in isolated canine gastric chief cells. Confocal immunofluorescence studies showed that the CCK-A receptor and leptin were colocalized in the endoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated that canine chief cells expressed the leptin peptide and its protein level was enhanced by CCK treatment. An ELISA further showed that CCK dose-dependently secreted leptin from isolated canine chief cells. This was reproduced by the high-affinity CCK-A receptor agonist, CCK-OPE. These results indicate that canine chief cells synthesize and secrete leptin in response to CCK via the high-affinity state of the CCK-A receptor.
Descriptors: cell biology, digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, endocrine system, chemical coordination and homeostasis, metabolism, energy expenditure.

Ueno, T. and J.D.Z. Chen (2004). Vomiting and gastric electrical dysrhythmia in dogs. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 39(4): 344-352. ISSN: 0036-5521.
Abstract: Background: The correlation between gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the association of GMA with vomiting induced by retrograde gastric electrical stimulation or duodenal balloon distention. Methods: Ten dogs were involved in this study. Vomiting was induced by retrograde gastric electrical stimulation in 6 dogs and by duodenal balloon distention in 4 dogs. Computerized spectral analysis and visual analysis were applied to detect the GMA change during various periods before and after vomiting. Results: Gastric dysrhythmia preceded vomiting but was of brief duration. The major pattern of dysrhythmia immediately before vomiting was tachyarrhythmia and gastric slow wave was completely uncoupled before vomiting. Gastric dysrhythmia and slow wave uncoupling were also noticed immediately after vomiting but the dogs recovered quickly. The major pattern of dysrhythmia after vomiting was arrhythmia. GMA was normal during the periods other than 5 min before and during vomiting and 5 min after vomiting. Conclusions: Gastric dysrhythmia seems to be the cause of vomiting induced by retrograde gastric electrical stimulation or duodenal balloon distention. It is brief and characterized with tachyarrhythmia and uncoupling.
Descriptors: cardiovascular system, transport and circulation, digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, veterinary medicine, medical sciences, arrhythmia, heart disease, gastirc electrical dysrhythmia, digestive system disease, vascular disease, nausea, symptom, tachyarrhythmia, vomiting, computerized spectral analysis, laboratory techniques, spectrum analysis techniques, duodenal balloon distention, experimental surgical techniques, electrogastrography, clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques, retrograde gastric electrical stimulation, gastric myoelectrical activity, gastrointestinal motility.

Vastyan, A.M., A.B. Pinter, A.P. Farkas, P. Vajda, J. Lantos, G. Mehes, and E. Roth (2003). Seromuscular gastrocystoplasty in dogs. Urologia Internationalis 71(2): 215-218. ISSN: 0042-1138.
Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of seromuscular gastrocystoplasty (SGCP) in an animal model and to compare it to conventional gastrocystoplasty (CGCP). Materials and Methods: CGCP and SGCP (using gastric segments without mucosa) were each performed in 6 dogs. In both procedures, two-thirds of the dome of the bladder were excised and the gastric segment anastomosed to the bladder remnant. Cystography, cystomanometry, measurements of urine pH, and gross and microscopic pathological studies were carried out preoperatively, and postoperatively, at 6 and 12 weeks. Results: All seromuscular gastric segments proved viable, and 6 weeks after the operation they were covered by a thin layer of transitional epithelium, which had gradually thickened by the end of the 12-week follow-up. There was no difference in bladder capacity and compliance between the two groups, however, fasting urinary pH values were higher (less acidic) in the SGCP group. Conclusions: Stripping off the mucosa of the gastric segment appears to stop hydrochloric acid secretion, thereby lessening the possible risk of ulceration, perforation, dysuria-haematuria, metaplasia and malignancy. The uroepithelium overgrowth of the seromuscular gastric segments might provide a more physiological neo-bladder than when using full-thickness gastrocystoplasty.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, methods and techniques, urinary system, chemical coordination and homeostasis, conventional gastrocystoplasty, seromuscular gastrocystoplasty, experimental surgical techniques, laboratory techniques, bladder capacity, urine pH.

Webber, C., C.A. Stokes, S. Persiani, F. Makovec, A. Mcburney, R.P. Kapil, B.A. John, M. D'amato, and L.F. Chasseaud (2004). Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the cholecystokinin-1 antagonist dexloxiglumide in the dog. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 29(1): 15-23. ISSN: 0378-7966.
NAL Call Number: RM301.E8
Abstract: Single oral doses of 14C-dexloxiglumide were rapidly and extensively absorbed in dogs and also eliminated rapidly with a short half-life. Following single intravenous doses, dexloxiglumide was characterised as a drug having a high clearance (30.7 and 27.0 ml/min/kg in males and females respectively), a low volume of distribution (Vss, 0.34 and 0.27 L/kg in males and females respectively) and a moderate systemic availability (about 33%). It was extensively bound to plasma proteins (89%). Dexloxiglumide is mainly cleared by the liver. Its renal clearance was minor. In only the kidney, liver and gastrointestinal tract, were concentrations of 14C generally greater than those in plasma. 14C concentrations generally peaked at 0.25h and declined rapidly during 24h being present only in a few tissues (such as the kidney, liver and gastrointestinal tract) at 24h. Single intravenous or oral doses were mainly excreted in the faeces (77-89%), mostly during 24h. Urine contained up to 7.5% dose. Mean recoveries during 7 days ranged between 93-97%. Biliary excretion of 14C was prominent (64% dose during 24h) in the disposition of 14C which was probably also subjected to some limited enterohepatic circulation. Unchanged dexloxiglumide was the major component in plasma. Urine and faeces contained several 14C-components amongst which unchanged dexloxiglumide was the most important (eg. about 55% dose in faeces). LC-MS/MS of urine and bile extracts showed that dexloxiglumide was metabolised mainly by O-demethylation and by conjugation with glucuronic acid.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, metabolism, pharmacology, constipation, digestive system disease, irritable bowel syndrome, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, chromatographic techniques, laboratory techniques, spectrum analysis techniques, drug absorption, drug distribution, drug metabolism.

Wijk, H.v., P. Fenn, A. Booth, L. Forsyth, and M. Wight (2004). The development of a recovery bile duct cannulation technique in dogs. Animal Technology and Welfare. 3(3): 199-200. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: QL55.I5
Abstract: The use of surgical models can provide valuable information on new drug candidates. However, the collection of bile from dogs under terminal anaesthesia has many disadvantages, such as post-surgical trauma, the influence of anaesthesia on gastrointestinal motility and hepatic metabolism and the depletion of bile acids. This article describes a recovery model in dog that enables the use of a physiologically normal animal for bile collection. The model was developed from the methodology reported by Kissinger et. al (1998). In this model, the common bile duct is cannulated with a T-piece catheter between the last hepatic duct and the entrance to the duodenum. A balloon at the end of the cannula is inflated to divert bile flow into the proximal cannula for collection via the access port. The model has been refined to allow re-infusion of bile salts from outside the cage directly into the access port connected to the distal cannula.
Descriptors: animal experiments, bile, bile ducts, cannulae, cannulation, collection, laboratory animals, methodology, techniques, dogs.

Wikesjo, U.M.E., W.H. Lim, R.C. Thomson, A.D. Cook, J.M. Wozney, and W.R. Hardwick (2003). Periodontal repair in dogs: evaluation of a bioabsorbable space-providing macroporous membrane with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Journal of Periodontology 74(5): 635-647. ISSN: 0022-3492.
Abstract: Background: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) technologies have been shown to significantly support alveolar bone formation. Biomaterial limitations, however, have restricted the biologic potential for onlay indications. The objective of this study was to evaluate regeneration of alveolar bone and periodontal attachment, and biomaterials reaction following surgical implantation of a space-providing, bioabsorbable, macroporous, polyglycolic acid-trimethylene carbonate (PGA-TMC) membrane combined with a rhBMP-2 construct in a discriminating onlay defect model. Methods: Routine supraalveolar periodontal defects were created at the mandibular premolar teeth in 9 beagle dogs. Contralateral jaw quadrants in subsequent animals were randomly assigned to receive the dome-shaped PGA-TMC (100 to 120 mum pores) membrane with rhBMP-2 (0.2 mg/mL) in a bioresorbable hyaluronan (Hy) carrier or the PGA-TMC membrane with Hy alone (control). The gingival flaps were advanced to submerge the membranes and teeth and sutured. Animals were euthanized at 8 and 24 weeks postsurgery for histologic observations. Results: Jaw quadrants receiving the PGA-TMC membrane alone experienced exposures at various time points throughout the study. Jaw quadrants receiving the PGA-TMC/rhBMP-2 combination remained intact, although one site experienced a late minor exposure. Newly formed alveolar bone approached and became incorporated into the macroporous PGA-TMC membrane in sites receiving rhBMP-2. The PGA-TMC biomaterial was occasionally associated with a limited inflammatory reaction. Residual PGA-TMC could not be observed at 24 weeks postsurgery. Residual Hy could not be observed at any time interval. Regeneration of alveolar bone height (means+-SD) was significantly increased in sites receiving the PGA-TMC/rhBMP 2 combination compared to control (3.8+-1.3 versus 0.7+-0.5 mm at 8 weeks and 4.6+-0.8 versus 2.1+-0.4 mm at 24 weeks; P<0.05). Limited cementum regeneration was observed for PGA-TMC/rhBMP-2 and PGA-TMC control sites. Ankylosis compromised regeneration in sites receiving PGA-TMC/rhBMP-2. Conclusions: The bioabsorbable, space-providing, macroporous PGA-TMC membrane appears to be a compatible biomaterial for bone augmentation procedures. rhBMP-2 significantly enhances alveolar bone augmentation and soft tissue healing when combined with the PGA-TMC membrane.
Descriptors: dental and oral system, ingestion and assimilation, pharmacology, skeletal system, movement and support, ankylosis, joint disease, alveolar ridge augmentation, experimental surgical techniques, laboratory techniques, bioresorbable hyaluronan carrier, prosthetic, periodontal repair, clinical techniques, polyglycolic acid trimethylene carbonate membrane, prosthetic, surgical implantation, clinical techniques, therapeutic and prophylactic techniques, bone regeneration, cementum regeneration, inflammatory reaction, macroporous, soft tissue healing, space providing, supraalveolar periodontal defects, wound healing.

Willis, S., F. Holzl, B. Wein, A. Tittel, and V. Schumpelick (2007). Defecation mechanisms after anterior resection with J-pouch-anal and side-to-end anastomosis in dogs. International Journal of Colorectal Disease 22(2): 161-5. ISSN: 0179-1958.
NAL Call Number: RC860
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis or colonic side-to-end anastomosis is the reconstruction of choice after low anterior resection. However, the mechanisms of defecation after both reconstruction forms are still speculative. METHODS: Low anterior rectal resections were performed in 12 dogs with six colonic J-pouch-anal (pouch) and six coloanal side-to-end (SE) reconstructions. Four months postoperative stool frequency, intestinal transit time, and neorectal compliance were determined by radiography and barostat. Defecation mechanisms were evaluated radiographically during expulsion of artificial stool. RESULTS: One dog with pouch reconstruction could not be evaluated due to an anastomotic leak, while the others had uncomplicated course. Spontaneous stool frequency was significantly increased with both reconstruction methods (control 2.0+/-0.9, pouch 2.7+/-1.2, SE 3.3+/-0.9 day; p<0.05). Intestinal transit time was significantly higher with pouch reconstruction due to storage of stool in the pouch and the descending colon compared to SE (control 760+/-82, pouch 592+/-97, SE 550+/-87 min; p<0.05). Compliance and functional capacity were higher in pouch than in side-to-end reconstructions (pouch 5.0+/-0.7 ml/mmHg, 124+/-23 ml; SE 2.7+/-0.3 ml/mmHg, 92+/-24 ml; p<0.05). During defecation, there were no contractions of the pouch detectable. CONCLUSIONS: The colonic J-pouch reconstruction results in better functional outcome than side-to-end coloanal anastomosis. Our results show that pouch evacuation is passive and independent from pouch motility. The functional principle of the colonic J-pouch is not its reservoir function but a delay of colonic motility.
Descriptors: anal canal surgery, colon surgery, colonic pouches physiology, defecation physiology, proctocolectomy, restorative methods, colectomy, dogs, models, animal.

Xing, J. and J. Chen (2003). Reproducibility of gastric tone, compliance and postprandial gastric accommodation assessed with barostat in dogs. In: Digestive Disease Week and Itinerary Planner 2003, Orlando, FL, USA; May 17-22, 2003, Abstract No. W1479.
Abstract: Electronic barostat is frequently used to evaluate gastric tone, compliance and visceral perception. These functions can be modulated by daily variations and gastric contractions, and the reproducibility of these tests remains unclear. Aim: to assess the intra- and inter-day reproducibility of measurement of gastric tone, compliance and gastric accommodation with barostat in an animal model. Methods: 10 healthy dogs (17-25 kg) were operated and a gastric cannula was implanted in the anterior stomach. Following experiments were conducted in overnight fasted conscious animals: 1) Inter-day gastric tone (30 min) and compliance: 3 sessions tested at the same time of 3 separate days; 2) Intra-day gastric tone (30 min) and compliance: 2 sessions tested in the same day separated by a 30 min interval; 3) Inter-day gastric accommodation: 2 sessions performed on two separate days. Fasting gastric tone (30 min) was recorded first, and continued for 1 hour after ingestion of a liquid meal (Boost 237 ml). A barostat system was used. A balloon (800 ml) attached at the end part of a double-lumen catheter was positioned into the stomach via the cannula. Gastric compliance was evaluated by serial isobaric distention. Gastric tone and accommodation were recorded at operating pressure. Inter-day studies were completed within a period of 2 weeks. Coefficient of Variation (CV) calculated as SD/mean. Mean+-SE, ANOVA or Paired t test, p<0.05 for significance. Results: 1) Gastric tone (n=8) on 3 separate days was 73.1+-6.5ml, 94.4+-9.6 ml and 88.6+-20.3 ml, with a CV of 28.2+-4.4% (10.8%-42.5%); Gastric compliance was also comparable among the 3 sessions, no significant difference; 2) Gastric tone measured on the same day (n=5) was 68.0+-14.8 ml and 65.5+-15.5 ml (p=0.782), with a mean CV of 22.2+-8.0% (1.21%-42.2%); Gastric compliance (n=5) was comparable between the two sessions. 3) Gastric accommodation (n=5): the mean 1 h postprandial gastric volume was similar: 385.5+-55.7 ml vs. 399.6+-98.4 ml, p=0.539, with a CV of 8.8+-4.6% (1.6%-26.7%). Conclusions: Inter- and intra-day gastric tone and compliance and Inter-day gastric accommodation were relatively reproducible in most animals when tested under the same experimental conditions (timing, etc). However, considerable variations may occur in fasting gastric tone and compliance measurement in certain individuals and cautions should be given when interpreting related results.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, methods and techniques, barostat method, laboratory techniques, gastric compliance, gastric tone, modulation, postprandial gastric accommodation.

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