Lai, C.L., R. van den Ham, G. van Leenders, J. van der Lugt, and E. Teske (2008). Comparative characterization of the canine normal prostate in intact and castrated animals. Prostate 68(5): 498-507. ISSN: 0270-4137.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prostate diseases in the dog are generally regarded as representative for their human counterparts. We characterized the normal canine prostate in comparison to the normal human prostate. METHODS: Prostates of dogs were examined histomorphologically and by immunohistochemical detection of the markers CK14, HMWCK, CK5, CK18, CK7, UPIII, PSA, and PSMA. RESULTS: Histomorphologically, the canine prostate lacks the human zonal differentiation, has much more prominent acini, while comprising less stromal tissue. In general, the canine prostate epithelium displayed a highly differentiated character, with no cells expressing CK14, minimal amounts of cells expressing HMWCK/CK5 and the vast majority of cells expressing CK18 and PSA. After castration, the prostate epithelium regressed, and the remaining tubules were largely populated by cells showing a ductal phenotype (HMWCK+/CK5+/CK18+/CK7+). CONCLUSIONS: The human and canine prostate are histologically differently organized. The general scheme of cellular differentiation of the prostate epithelium may however be applicable to both species.
Descriptors: keratin 18 metabolism, keratin 5 metabolism, keratin 7 metabolism, orchiectomy veterinary, prostate metabolism, prostate pathology, prostate specific antigen metabolism, biological markers metabolism, cell differentiation, dogs, epithelial cells metabolism, epithelial cells pathology, models, animal, phenotype.
Liu, J.B., G. Wansaicheong, D.A. Merton, S.Y. Chiou, Y. Sun, K. Li, F. Forsberg, P.R. Edmonds, L. Needleman, and E.J. Halpern (2008). Canine prostate: contrast-enhanced US-guided radiofrequency ablation with urethral and neurovascular cooling--initial experience. Radiology 247(3): 717-25.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate in a canine model contrast material-enhanced ultrasonography (US) for guiding and monitoring radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the entire prostate, with urethral and vascular cooling to protect the surrounding structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After approval by the institutional animal use and care committee, an RF electrode was used to ablate the entire prostate in 15 dogs. During ablation, pulse-inversion harmonic US was performed by using an endocavitary probe after an intravenous bolus injection (0.04 mL/kg) and infusion (0.015 muL/kg/min) of a US contrast agent. In group 1 (n = 4), no cooling protection was used during ablation. In group 2 (n = 5), urethral and bladder protection was provided by inserting a 12-F catheter infused with cold saline (8 degrees C +/- 4 [standard deviation]) at a rate of 100 mL/min. In group 3 (n = 6), further protection of the neurovascular bundles (NVBs) was provided by infusing cold saline (8 degrees C +/- 4) into the iliac arteries at a rate of 50 mL/min by means of catheterization of the femoral artery. Pathologic findings among the three groups were compared by using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS: The average volumes of prostate ablation achieved in the three groups were 96.6%, 91.9%, and 92%. Contrast-enhanced pulse-inversion harmonic US allowed visualization and monitoring of urethral and NVB blood flow during the ablation. Without protection, damage to the urethra and the NVB was demonstrated at both US and pathologic examination. There was highly significant difference in urethral damage between groups with and the group without urethral cooling (P = .002), while intraarterial cooling demonstrated a nonsignificant trend toward a decreased NVB damage (P = .069). CONCLUSION: Contrast-enhanced US can guide RF ablation of the entire prostate. Infusion of cold saline provides effective protection for the urethra during such procedures. The application of intraarterial cooling did not provide a significant improvement in the protection of the NVB in this small study. (c) RSNA, 2008.
Descriptors: catheter ablation, prostate surgery, ultrasonography, interventional, cold temperature, contrast media administration and dosage, dogs, ferric compounds administration and dosage, iron administration and dosage, models, animal, oxides administration and dosage, prospective studies, prostate ultrasonography, rectum, saline solution, hypertonic administration and dosage, statistics, nonparametric, urethra injuries.
Shafik, A. (2008). An experimental study on the effect of different types of textiles on conception. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 28(2): 213-6.
Abstract: To study the effect of different types of textiles on conception. A total of 35 female dogs were divided into five equal groups: four test and one control. Each of the four test groups was dressed in one type of textile underpants made of either 100% polyester, 50/50% polyester-cotton mix, 100% cotton, or 100% wool. The pants were worn for 12 months. The dogs were followed during this period and for 6 months after removal of the pants by measuring the serum oestradiol 17beta and progesterone and by mating. Electrostatic potentials were also measured on the textile-covered skin. Eight bitches wearing polyester-containing textile showed diminished serum progesterone in the oestrus of the oestrous cycle, and did not conceive on mating or insemination. Five months after pants had been removed, serum progesterone of the eight dogs had normalised, and they conceived. Electrostatic potentials were detected on the skin of all dogs dressed in polyester-containing textile. The low serum progesterone and non-conception of the eight dogs could point to anovulation and failure of luteinisation. It is suggested that the electrostatic potentials detected on the skin create an 'electrostatic field' that inhibits the ovarian function. However, the effect proved to be reversible.
Descriptors: fertilization, polyesters, textiles, dogs, estradiol blood, models, animal, progesterone blood, static electricity.
Silva, F.C., E. Hatschbach, A.F. Lima, Y.K. Carvalho, and F. Massone (2007). Continuous infusion in adult females dogs submitted to ovariohysterectomy with midazolam-xylazine and/or medetomidine pre-treated with methotrimeprazine and buprenorphine. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira Sociedade Brasileira Para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa Em Cirurgia 22(4): 272-8. ISSN: 0102-8650.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To compare, by continuous infusion of ketamine or medetomidine combined to methotrimeprazine and buprenorphine, ketamine and midazolam, the degree of hypnosis, myorelaxation, anesthetic quality and surgical feasibility through evaluation of possible parametric alterations and recovery quality. METHODS: 20 healthy adult females dogs, aged 3 to 5 years, body weight between 7 and 15 kg, were assigned randomly and homogenously to 2 groups of 10 animals each (n=10), group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2), respectively. Animals of G1 were subjected to a pre-treatment with intravenous 1.0 mg/kg methotrimeprazine and or 3i/kg. After 15 minutes, a 5.0 mg/kg ketamine and 0.2 mg/kg midazolam were intravenously injected. Immediately after induction, an anesthetic combination of 0.4 mg/kg/h midazolam, 20 mg/kg/h ketamine and 1.0 mg/kg/h xylazine, was continuously and intravenously administered for 30 minutes. The same techniques were used in G2 except for the substitution of xylazine for 30ig/kg/h medetomidine. RESULTS: In G1 there was a 1st and 2nd degree atrioventricular heart block, a longer recovery period and lower quality. In G2 a 1st degree atrioventricular heart block occurred but isolated and ephemeral. CONCLUSIONS: The continuous infusion method, besides reducing drugs utilization, prevented collateral effects allowing a more tranquil recovery with no excitations, both protocols permitted the surgical procedure (ovary-hysterectomy) bringing about a reduction in hypnosis and an accentuated myorelaxation. Xylazine and medetomidine showed a similar pharmacodynamic behavior but with different clinical aspects. The electrocardiographic alterations observed in G2 and in a lower degree in G1 must be well studied. Describers: dogs, ketamine, methotrimeprazine, medetomidine, midazolam and xylazine.
Descriptors: adrenergic alpha agonists administration and dosage, anesthetics, intravenous administration and dosage, hypnotics and sedatives administration and dosage, hysterectomy methods, ovariectomy methods, analgesics, opioid administration and dosage, anesthetics, combined administration and dosage, buprenorphine administration and dosage, dogs, dopamine antagonists administration and dosage, drug evaluation, preclinical, hysterectomy standards, infusion pumps, medetomidine administration and dosage, methotrimeprazine administration and dosage, midazolam administration and dosage, models, animal, ovariectomy standards, random allocation, xylazine administration and dosage.