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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Dogs: Animal Welfare Information Center
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Behavior

Adams, K.M., A.M. Navarro, E.K. Hutchinson, and J.L. Weed (2004). A canine socialization and training program at the National Institutes of Health. Lab Animal 33(1): 32-36. ISSN: 0093-7355.
Online: 14752529
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: Well-socialized and obedient dogs are easier to handle and may make better research models. The authors describe the program they have implemented at the NIH, which has benefited both the animals and their caretakers.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment program, positive reinforcement training, canine, social interaction, obedience training, stress, caretaker involvement.

Anderson, G., S. Marinier, D.S. Mills, S.E. Heath, and L.J. Harrington (1997). The effect of food and restricted exercise on behaviour problems in dogs. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Veterinary Behavioural Medicine , April 1-2, 1997, Birmingham, UK, p. 183-186.
Descriptors: diets, dietary protein, exercise, behavior.

Anonymous (2003). Symposium on brain and behavior studies in dogs, Warsaw, Poland, July, 16, 2003. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 63(3): 293-294. ISSN: 0065-1400.
Abstract: This meeting on brain and behavior studies in dogs consists of abstracts written in English for seven presentations. Selected topics include Pavlovian instrumental reactions, perirhinal cortex, agonistic behavior among shepherds, auditory recognition, and human scent identification in police dogs.
Descriptors: behavior, nervous system, neural coordination, pavlovian reactions, agonistic behavior, auditory recognition, human scent identification.
Notes: Meeting Information: Symposium on Brain and Behavior Studies in Dogs, Warsaw, Poland; July 16, 2003.

Appleby, D. (1999). The importance of early canine development [on behaviour]. Veterinary Times 29(10): 10. ISSN: 0379-6213.
Descriptors: postnatal development, animal behavior, behavior, perception, senses, young animals, puppies, stimuli, social behavior, dogs.

Appleby, D.L., J.W.S. Bradshaw, and R.A. Casey (2002). Relationship between aggressive and avoidance behaviour by dogs and their experience in the first six months of life. Veterinary Record 150(14): 434-438. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: The early experiences of dogs showing signs of avoidance behaviour or aggression were compared with those of dogs from the same clinical population that did not show such behaviour. The occurrence of each behavioural sign was tested for its association with the dog's maternal environment, the environment it experienced between three and six months of age, and the age at which it had been acquired. Non-domestic maternal environments, and a lack of experience of urban environments between three and six months of age, were both significantly associated with aggression towards unfamiliar people and avoidance behaviour. Aggression during a veterinary examination was more likely in dogs from non-domestic maternal environments. There was no significant association with either environment for aggression towards familiar people, or towards dogs.
Descriptors: aggressive behavior, animal behavior, environment, dogs.

Asa, C.S. (1997). Hormonal and experiential factors in the expression of social and parental behavior in canids. In: N.G. Solomon and J.A. French (Editors), Cooperative Breeding in Mammals, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, England; New York, NY, p. 129-149. ISBN: 0521454913.
NAL Call Number: QL739.3.C665 1997
Descriptors: behavior, biosynchronization, behavioral ecology, endocrine system, reproduction, hormones, ovulatory cycle, parental behavior, paternal care, reproductive suppression, seasonal reproduction, social behavior, social systems, canids.
Notes: Meeting Information: Symposium on Cooperative Breeding in Mammals held at the 1992 Animal Behavior Society Meetings, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; 1992.

Askew, H.R. (2003). Behandlung Von Verhaltensproblemen Bei Hund Und Katze: Ein Leitfaden Fur Die Tierarztliche Praxis. [Treatment of Behaviour Problems in Dogs and Cats. A Guide for Veterinary Practice], 2nd edition, Parey Buchverlag: Berlin; Germany, 412 p.
Abstract: This is a German translation (by K. Thorstensen) of the 2nd edition of a book originally published in the USA. It is a guide to the diagnosis and treatment of behaviour problems in dogs and cats, and is based on experiences gained over 30 years in the USA. The first section (pp. 1-64) covers the pet behaviour consultation, and contains 6 chapters: introduction, the pet in the family, classification of behaviour problems, the consultation, treatment of behaviour problems, establishment of a practice. The second section covers the dog and is the longest section (pp. 65-321). The chapter headings are: general aspects, fundamentals of treatment, drug therapy (written in association with K. Kohlke), introduction to aggression problems, dominance aggression against family members, defensive aggression against family members, defensive aggression against unknown men, other forms of aggression against men, aggression against other dogs, anger problems, separation anger, inappropriate excretion, further behaviour problems. The section on the cat (pp. 323-395) deals with urine marking of territory, inappropriate urination and defaecation, anger and aggression problems, and further problems. The extra chapter in this edition on drug therapy of behaviour problems covers indications for treatment, side effects and appropriate dosages. The emphasis throughout the book is on differential diagnosis, possible causes and the most effective means of control. Each chapter has a bibliography of references, and the book concludes with a short subject index.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, aggression, animal behavior, defaecation, diagnosis, excretion, small animal practice, therapy, urination, cats, dogs, German translation.
Language of Text: German.

Askew, H.R. (2002). Treatment Behaviour for Problems in Dogs & Cats: A Guide for the Small Animal Veterinarian. 2nd edition, Blackwell Science: Oxford , UK, 400 p. ISBN: 1405106204.
NAL Call Number: SF433 .A85 2002
Descriptors: dogs, cats, behavior therapy, problem behavior.

Bayne, K. (2002). Development of the human-research animal bond and its impact on animal well-being. ILAR Journal 43(1): 4-9. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: For millennia, relationships have developed between animals and people through the context of work, sport, companionship, or some combination of these activities. Often, a bond between animal and human results, which is based on affection and/or respect. In the research environment, it is not uncommon for a bond to develop between the investigator, veterinarian, and/or animal care technicians and the animals with which they work; and such a bond can be just as strong for a mouse as it is for a dog. Circumstances that foster the formation of these bonds include the close and frequent contact between the researchers and their animals during studies or during training of animals to particular tasks, the long periods of time many research animals live in the facilities (often years), the dependency of the animals on the animal care staff for their daily needs, and the veterinarian/patient relationship, which is not unlike that of private practitioners and client-owned animals. In addition, overlaying the fundamental relationship with the research animal are special bonds that can form with certain animals. Among those that engender a special attachment are animals that are particularly friendly, amusing, or intelligent; animals requiring extra supportive care; animals that show courage; animals that represent a milestone in a particular scientific advancement; and animals that reflect humans' own strengths and foibles. The development of these relationships is enriching to both personnel and animals inasmuch as people who care about their animals are committed to promoting and ensuring the well-being of those animals.
Descriptors: human-animal bond, laboratory animals, animal well-being, relationsips between animal care staff, researchers, and other animals.

Bayne, K., B. Beaver, J. Mench and D. Morton (2002). Laboratory animal behavior. In: J. Fox, L. Anderson, F. Loew and F. Quimby (Editors), Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition, Academic Press: London, UK, p. 1240-1264. ISBN: 0122639510.
NAL Call Number: SF996.5 .L33 2002
Descriptors: behavior, animal experiments, animal welfare, laboratory animals.

Beaver, B.V. (1999). Canine Behavior: A Guide for Veterinarians, W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, PA, 355 p. ISBN: 0721659659.
NAL Call Number: SF433.B4-1999
Abstract: This book is a companion to "Feline behaviour: a guide for veterinarians" by the same author (1992).
Descriptors: dog behavior, sensory communication, social behavior, sexual behavior, eliminative behavior, grooming behavior, literature review.

Beaver, B.V. and L.I. Haug (2003). Canine behaviors associated with hypothyroidism. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 39(5): 431-434. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, aggression, clinical aspects, diagnosis, hypothyroidism, therapy, dogs.

Beerda, B., M.B.H. Schilder, J.A.R.A.M. van Hooff, and H.W. de Vries (1997). Manifestations of chronic and acute stress in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52(3/4): 307-319. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: dogs, stress, behavior patterns, immunology, animal physiology, animal welfare, animal well being.
Notes: Special Issue: Behavioural problems of small animals. Includes references.

Beerda, B., M.B.H. Schilder, J.A.R.A.M. van Hooff, H.W. de Vries, and J.A. Mol (2000). Behavioural and hormonal indicators of enduring environmental stress in dogs. Animal Welfare 9(1): 49-62. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Abstract: Selected behavioural and hormonal parameters were compared in a group of privately owned dogswith rlatively low chronic stre (group 1) with 3 groups of dogs (groups 2, 3 and 4) that were kept under conditions of low to relatively high austerity, and had basal urinary ratios of cortisol to creatinine, adrenaline to creatinine and, to a lesser extent, noradrenaline to creatinine, that varied from low to high, respectively. Significant differences were found in cortisol to creatinine ratios when comparing group 1 to groups 2, 3 and 4 and when group 2 was compared to group 4. The mean adrenaline to creatinine ratio in GI differed from that in the remaining groups and the ratio in group 2 differed from that in group 3. Noradrenaline to creatinine ratios differed significantly only between group 1 and group 3. Dopamine to creatinine ratios and noradrenaline to adrenaline ratios did not differ significantly between groups. When dogs were not disturbed, those that were kept under the most austere conditions typically had high levels of locomotor activity, nosing, urinating and paw lifting. After mild disturbance by a slamming door or in the presence of a researcher these animals reacted actively, with increased locomotor activity, circling and nosing, and they showed high levels of behaviours that have previously been associated with acute stress: body shaking, yawning, ambivalent postures and displacement behaviours. Chronic stress in dogs may be identified by increased paw lifting when animals are not disturbed and by ample behavioural expressions of arousal when they are mildly stimulated. Since some behaviours may occur in contexts not related to stress, behavioural data are easily misinterpreted with regard to chronic stress. Interpretation will only be meaningful when physiological measures such as urinary adrenaline to creatinine ratios and, especially, urinary cortisol to creatinine ratios are also determined.
Descriptors: stress, epinephrine, hydrocortisone, creatinine, dopamine, animal housing, norepinephrine, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, animal welfare, hormones.

Beerda, B., M.B.H. Schilder, J.A.R.A.M. van Hooff, H.W. deVries, and J.A. Mol (1999). Chronic stress in dogs subjected to social and spatial restriction. I. Behavioral responses. Physiology and Behavior 66(2): 233-242. ISSN: 0031-9384.
NAL Call Number: QP1.P4
Abstract: 15 Beagles, housed in groups or individually, were subjected to a variety of challenges and their behaviours recorded. The different behaviours under group and individual housing, during challenges, under different weather conditions and differences between bitches and males dogs are presented in tables. The results are discussed in relation to chronic stress.
Descriptors: stress, animal behavior, animal welfare, animal housing, weather, bitches, male animals, animal experiments, group size, dogs.

Beerda, B., M.B.H. Schilder, W. Bernadina, J.A.R.A.M. van Hooff, H.W. de Vries, and J.A. Mol (1999). Chronic stress in dogs subjected to social and spatial restriction. II. Hormonal and immunological responses. Physiology and Behavior 66(2): 243-254. ISSN: 0031-9384.
NAL Call Number: QP1.P4
Descriptors: group housing, chronic stress, social restriction, spatial restriction, beagle dogs, individual housing, salivary and urinary cortisol measurements, animal welfare.

Beerda, B., M.B.H. Schilder, J.A.R.A.M. van Hooff, H.W. de Vries, and J.A. Mol (1998). Behavioural, saliva cortisol and heart rate responses to different types of stimuli in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 58(3-4): 365-381. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Stress parameters that can be measured noninvasively may help to identify poor welfare in dogs that live in private homes and institutions. Behavioural parameters are potentially useful to identify stress, but require further investigation to establish which behaviours are appropriate. In the present study, behaviours were recorded and analysed for signs of acute stress in dogs. Simultaneously, saliva cortisol and heart rate were measured to support the interpretation of the behavioural data with regard to stress. Ten dogs of either sex, different ages and various breeds were each subjected to six different stimuli: sound blasts, short electric shocks, a falling bag, an opening umbrella and two forms of restraint. Each type of stimulus had been selected for its assumed aversive properties and was administered intermittently for 1 min. The stimuli that could not be anticipated by the dogs, sound blasts, shocks and a falling bag, tended to induce saliva cortisol responses and a very low posture. The remainder of the stimuli, which were administered by the experimenter visibly to the dog, did not change the cortisol levels but did induce restlessness, a moderate lowering of the posture, body shaking, oral behaviours, and to a lesser extent, yawning and open mouth. Pronounced increases in the heart rate were nonspecifically induced by each type of stimulus. Heart rate levels normalized within 8 min after stressor administration had stopped. Saliva cortisol levels decreased to normal within the hour. Correlations between behavioural and physiological stress parameters were not significant. From the present results, we conclude that in dogs a very low posture may indicate intense acute stress since dogs show a very low posture concomitant with saliva cortisol responses. Dogs may typically show increased restlessness, oral behaviours, yawning, open mouth and a moderate lowering of the posture when they experienced moderate stress in a social setting. The nonspecific character of canine heart rate responses complicates its interpretation with regard to acute stress.
Descriptors: behavior, philosophy and ethics, animal welfare, body shaking, heart rate response, oral behavior, posture, restlessness, stress.

Bernauer Munz, H. (1999). Prophylaxe in der Tierverhaltenstherapie - Machbares in der alltaglichen Praxis bei Hund und Katze. [Prevention of behavioural disorders in dogs and cats - what can be achieved in daily practice.]. Praktische Tierarzt 80(7): 572-583. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Abstract: It was relatively easy to prepare printed advice for breeders and owners of dogs and cats on steps to be taken to avoid the development of undesirable behaviour in pups and kittens. Examples are provided.
Descriptors: feasibility studies, therapy, small animal practice, behavior, abnormal behavior, prevention, dogs, cats.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Braastad, B.O. and M. Bakken (2002). Behaviour of dogs and cats. In: P. Jensen (Editor), The Ethology of Domestic Animals: An Introductory Text, CABI Publishing: New York, NY, p. 173-192. ISBN: 08519960.
NAL Call Number: SF756.7 .E838 2002
Descriptors: behavior, behavioral problem, aggression, animal welfare, development, domestication, ethology, mating behavior, parental behavior, play, predatory behavior, social behavior, communication between animals.

Christiansen, F.O., M. Bakken, and B.O. Braastad (2001). Behavioural changes and aversive conditioning in hunting dogs by the second-year confrontation with domestic sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72(2): 131-143. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Domesticated dogs occasionally exhibit predatory behaviour towards domestic sheep when running loose in pasture. Both young and old dogs of either sex may chase sheep. Electronic dog collars applying electric shocks are utilized as one method of training dogs to refrain from attacking sheep. This device is used for a number of other training purposes which have raised concern for the welfare of the dogs being trained. This study aims at testing long-term learning effects of previous sheep tests on sheep chasing in hunting dog breeds (Norwegian elkhounds (grey), English setters and hare hunting dogs), in particular with use of electronic dog collars, in addition to uncovering potential secondary negative effects on dogs' behaviour and mental stability (Norway, June-August 1997). The dogs (n=114) were subjected to 3 tests for 2 subsequent years, the second year being reported here. Dogs were tested for reactions to different stimuli, including a sheep, in a path test. In a sheep confrontation test, dogs were fenced in with a sheep group and given electric shocks when approaching 1-2 m from sheep. A questionnaire to the dog owners reported differences in dogs' behaviour between the years. Dogs showed weaker or delayed behavioural responses in both tests in the second year. No dogs showed interest in or attacked a lone sheep in the path test in the second year, while almost two thirds of them did so the first year. In the sheep confrontation test, the dogs exhibited comparatively hesitant initial hunting motivation the second year, being more evident in dogs which received electric shocks the first year. No dogs chased or attacked sheep as their first response in this test, while half of them did so the first year. The proportion of dogs attacking sheep during the entire test was reduced to almost one fourth. The number of electric shocks administered reduced by the second year, and only one of the dogs that received electric shocks the first year received electric shocks the second year. The owners reported no negative effect on the dogs' behaviour during the year ensuing electric shock treatment. 18 of the 24 dogs reported by owners to exhibit behavioural changes lost their previous interest in sheep. The second-year tests indicate that aversive conditioning with the use of electronic dog collar may be an efficient method for reducing the probability of a dog chasing or attacking grazing sheep. No adverse effects were observed with our test procedure.
Descriptors: behavior, animal welfare, hunting dogs, predation, shock waves, hunting dogs, learning, training of animals, shock collars, motivation, temporal variation, adverse effects, chasing behavior, aversion learning, surveys, dogs, sheep.

Christiansen, F.O., M. Bakken, and B.O. Braastad (2001). Behavioural differences between three breed groups of hunting dogs confronted with domestic sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72(2): 115-129. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: When running free in open fields, domestic dogs occasionally display predatory behaviour towards domestic sheep. This has not yet been studied scientifically. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inclination to chase sheep in three breed groups of hunting dogs that are most frequently used in areas with grazing sheep. We studied 41 elkhounds, 29 hare hunting dogs and 68 English setters. Behaviours indicative of motivation for chasing or attacking sheep were examined in three different ways. A path test examined functional traits such as hunting ability, contact willingness, reactivity to sudden noise, and response towards a lone sheep. In a sheep confrontation test, loose-leashed dogs were observed in a fenced enclosure with sheep and given electric shocks through an electronic dog collar if within 1-2 m from the sheep. A questionnaire to the dog owners supplied information on their dog's previous experience with sheep and behavioural responses to various types of novel stimuli. No significant sex differences were found. The elkhounds showed the highest interest in a lone sheep in the path test, and displayed the highest initial hunting motivation, the highest percentage of dogs starting a sheep attack, the highest attack severity, and were most frequently given el. shocks. The hare hunting dogs were intermediate, while setters showed the lowest values for these variables. Dogs reported as showing low fearfulness more frequently acted as potential sheep chasers in the tests. Dogs up to 3 years of age showed a more pronounced initial hunting motivation and more frequent attacks than older dogs, although there were no age differences in the number of el. shocks given in the test. The latter may be related to the more frequent abruption of attacks among younger dogs. The main factors predicting a high hunting motivation and attack severity were lack of previous opportunity to chase sheep, low fearfulness towards gunshots and unfamiliar people, and general interest in sheep shown when encountering them. Probability of sheep chasing differed between dog breeds and age groups. Previous experience and certain character traits were indicative of a high predatory motivation towards sheep.
Descriptors: hunting dogs, predation, behavior, hounds, dog breeds, breed differences, sex differences, age differences, sheep chasing behavior, Norwegian Elkhound, English Setter, hare hunting, path test, behavioral method, contact willingness, hunting ability, reactivity, sheep predation.

Coppola, C.L., T. Grandin, and R.M. Enns (2006). Human interaction and cortisol: can human contact reduce stress for shelter dogs? Physiology and Behavior 87(3): 537-541. ISSN: 0031-9384.
NAL Call Number: QP1.P4
Abstract: Animal shelters are an extremely stressful environment for a dog, most specifically due to social isolation and novel surroundings. The stress response of dogs housed in this environment may be alleviated through human interaction shortly after arrival. During their second day in a public animal shelter, adult stray dogs were either engaged in a human contact session or not. The session involved taking the dog into an outdoor enclosure, playing with the dog, grooming, petting and reviewing basic obedience commands. Each dog interacted with a human for approximately 45 min. Salivary cortisol levels were examined from each dog on their 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 9th day of housing. Animals that engaged in a human contact session had lower cortisol levels on day 3 than animals that did not. Breed type, sex and age did not have an effect on cortisol levels on any day measured. A human interaction session can be beneficial to both animal welfare and adoption procedures. The current study not only utilized the human contact session as a treatment to reduce stress but also as a resource for individual temperament/personality information that could be later used to facilitate compatible adoptions. Human interaction may be an effective means of reducing the cortisol response of dogs in the aversive shelter environment.
Descriptors: human-pet bonding, hydrocortisone metabolism, psychological stress, stress, dogs, saliva.

de Palma, C., E. Viggiano, E. Barillari, R. Palme, A.B. Dufour, C. Fantini, and E. Natoli (2005). Evaluating the temperament in shelter dogs. Behaviour 142(9/10): 1307-1328. ISSN: 0005-7959.
NAL Call Number: 410 B393
Abstract: Seventy-four healthy mixed-breed dogs were studied collecting behavioural data by means of 'focal animal sampling' and 'all occurrences' methods; the ethogram utilised consisted of more than 100 behavioural patterns. All dogs were taken outside the shelter for a walk to analyse their reaction to a novel environment. In addition, three faecal samples were collected from each dog on three consecutive days during daily routine, to measure the levels of cortisol metabolites (CM) to evaluate adrenocortical activity. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) identified five primary factors: 'subordination/aggressiveness', 'intraspecific dominance-activity', 'anxiety-sociability towards dogs', 'playfulness' and 'sociability towards humans'. Dogs that showed a confident -independent temperament in a familiar context (within the shelter), showed fear in novel situations (outside the shelter). Despite the absence of a proper control we hypothesise that the stress levels were low both behaviourally and physiologically: neither stereotypies nor inactivity and lack of interest in the surrounding environment was observed, and the median CM concentration was moderately low. Lower concentrations of faecal CM were recorded in dogs with a temperament 'sociable to human beings' which were also associated with a longer stay in the shelter..
Descriptors: animal behavior, novel environment, ethogram, temperament, aggression, anxiety, playfulness, feces, hydrocortisone, shelters.

Dumenko, V.N. and M.K. Kozlov (2004). Electrographic correlates of "inner states" caused by positive conditioned stimuli in the course of instrumental conditioning in dogs. Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'Nosti Imeni I. P. Pavlova. 54(3): 352-362. ISSN: 0044-4677.
Abstract: Energy characteristics (power spectra) of short-term (less than 1 s) EEG-reactions were studied in dogs in the course of instrumental conditioning. These reactions were observed in different areas of the cortex during selective attention in response to positive conditioned stimuli. They immediately preceded strong blow with a paw on the pedal of feeding cup and taking the reward. The EEG power at these moments was 1.5-3 times higher than the baseline EEG power level in a prestimulus period. The high-frequency structure of corresponding EEG reactions comprised discrete individual spectral peaks both in traditional (1-30 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) ranges and higher-frequency components (80-200 Hz) as well. In some cases, the higher-frequency components (80-200 Hz) were most pronounced.
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, neural coordination, electroencephalography, eeg, diagnostic techniques, gamma frequency, inner state, positive conditioned stimulus, power spectrum, selective attention.
Language of Text: Russian.

Fox, S.M., D.J. Mellor, C.R.O. Lawoko, H. Hodge, and E.C. Firth (1998). Effects of different combinations of halothane, butorphanol, and ovariohysterectomy on behavior in the dog. Veterinary Surgery 27(2): 174. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Descriptors: halothane, ovariectomy, anesthesia, animal behavior, pain, drug combinations, dogs.

Graham, L., D.L. Wells, and P.G. Hepper (2005). The influence of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 91(1-2): 143-153.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2004.08.024
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: odors, lavender, chamomile, relaxation, animal behavior, physical activity, vocalization, animal welfare, essential oils, animal shelter, dogs.

Gramm, U. (1999). Beitrag zur fruhen VVerhaltensontogenese der Hunderasse: Fila Brasileiro. [Contribution to the early behavioural ontogeny of the dog breed Fila Brasileiro.]. Dissertation, Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover: Hannover, Germany. 233 p.
NAL Call Number: DISS F1999117
Descriptors: thesis, breed, Fila Brasileiro, ontogeny, genetics, behavior, early development.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Heath, S. (2003). Behavioural problems in the older dog. European Journal of Companion Animal Practice 13(2): 246-250. ISSN: 1018-2357.
NAL Call Number: SF981.E8
Descriptors: aging, animal behavior, brain, brain diseases, drug therapy, pets, therapeutic diets, therapy, dogs.

Herzog, H. (1997). Human clothing and dog behavior: an unproven hypothesis. Anthrozoos 10(3-4): 82-83.
NAL Call Number: SF411.A57
Descriptors: animal behavior, clothing, experimental design, color, dogs, human.

Hessling, T. (1999). Ein Praxisbericht: Korrekturerziehung verhaltensauffalliger Hunde. [Training and advice on the correction of abnormal aggressive behaviour in dogs.]. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 106(4): 155-156. ISSN: 0341-6593.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 B45
Descriptors: training of animals, aggressive behavior, abnormal behavior, aggression, animal behavior, dogs.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Hewson, C.J., U.A. Luescher, J.M. Parent, and R.O. Ball (2000). Effect of clomipramine on monoamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of behaviorally normal dogs. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 64(2): 123-129. ISSN: 0830-9000.
NAL Call Number: SF601.C24
Abstract: The tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, is an effective treatment for canine compulsive disorder (canine CD). This disorder is a clinical syndrome of abnormal conflict behaviors and its pathophysiology is unknown. However, because clomipramine is an effective treatment, information about the drug's neurochemical effect could enhance the understanding of canine CD. The following experiment used 6 behaviorally normal dogs to assess the effect of clomipramine (3 mg/kg, q24h, PO) on the central turnover of 3 monoamines (serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine) as measured by the concentrations of their respective metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In a randomized, placebo-controlled, AB-BA crossover experiment, cisternal CSF was taken after 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk on each treatment. No effect of clomipramine was detected. This contrasts with human studies that have suggested that clomipramine affects the concentrations of monoamine metabolites in lumbar CSF. However, those papers do not address methodological assumptions, such as (i) metabolites in CSF originate only from the brain, and (ii) concentrations of metabolites in cisternal/lumbar CSF reflect the concentrations in local areas of the brain. Notwithstanding the small sample size, our results suggest that more localized sampling techniques (e.g. microdialysis) are needed when examining the effect of drugs on central monoamine metabolites. Clomipramine's efficacy for canine CD indicates the need for neurobiological research and, to our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind in dogs. The resulting data are preliminary but they can inform optimal neurobiological studies of canine CD.
Descriptors: veterinary medicine, metabolism, nervous system, neural coordination, pharmacology, canine compulsive disorder, behavioral and mental disorders, neurobiological studies.

Higgins, M.A., B.R. Berridge, B.J. Mills, A.E. Schultze, H. Gao, G.H. Searfoss, T.K. Baker, and T.P. Ryan (2003). Identification of biomarkers and mechanisms of the acute phase response in liver using a canine microarray. Toxicological Sciences 72(S-1): 339. ISSN: 1096-6080.
NAL Call Number: RA1190.F8
Descriptors: affymetrix based oligonucleotide microarray, canine microarray, acute inflammatory response, acute phase response mechanisms, biomarker identification, biotransformation, gene expression data, toxicity mechanisms, liver.
Notes: Meeting Information: 42nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; March 9-13, 2003.

Hoffmann, U., H. Hamann, and O. Distl (2003). Genetische Analyse von Merkmalen der Leistungsprufung fur Koppelgebrauchshunde 2. Mitteilung: Unerwunschte Verhaltensmerkmale. [Genetic analysis of traits of the working test for herding dogs 2nd communication: undesired behaviour traits.]. Berliner Und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 116(3/4): 90-95. ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 B45
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of undesirable behaviour traits registered during sheep dog trials in order to evaluate the importance of genetic and environmental sources of variation and to draw conclusions for breeding purposes. The data analysed consisted of 2745 test results recorded at 48 sheep dog trials carried out in Germany from 1994 to 1998, which were attended by 337 sheep dogs. Variance components of undesirable behaviour traits were estimated applying Restricted Maximum Likelihood methods. Additive genetic effects, permanent environmental effects of the animal and the effect of the handler were treated as random factors. Additionally, the linear multivariate animal model included the fixed effects of the age of the dogs at the sheep dog trial, sex, the level of difficulty of the exercises as well as the event itself, the starting number of the dog, the number of the dogs' tests at the particular event and the number of dogs presented on sheep dog trials by their handlers. The inbreeding coefficient was regarded as a linear covariate. The analyses were performed using all sheep dog trial classes and for each of the three classes separately. Age of the dog and starting number did not explain a significant proportion of variance for traits analysed, whereas the event of the sheep dog trial and partly the number of dogs per handler were of significant importance. The estimated heritabilities for the undesirable behaviour traits ranged from h2<less or =>0.001 to h2=0.07 with standard errors in the range between 0.001 and 0.06. The possibilities to select against undesired behaviour traits appear to be rather limited given the heritability estimates and the low number of progeny.
Descriptors: breed, sheep dogs, animal behavior, animal breeding, genetic analysis, genetic effects, heritability, inbreeding, traits.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Hoffmann, W.A. and J.S.J. Odendaal (2001). The effect of behavioral therapy on dog phobia response patterns. Anthrozoos 14(1): 29-37. ISSN: 0892-7936.
NAL Call Number: SF411.A57
Descriptors: dogs, fearfulness, behavior modification, psychotherapy, South Africa.

Horwitz, D.F. (1998). Puppy behavior: problem puppies and early training. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 12: 44-46.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: animal behavior, behavior problems, training of animals.
Notes: Meeting Information: Meeting held on January 10-14, 1998, Orlando, Florida.

Horwitz, D.F. (2001). Dealing with common behavior problems in senior dogs. Veterinary Medicine 96(11): 869-878. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: dogs, behavior problems, old age, diagnosis, treatment, age differences, aggressive behavior, excretion, anxiety, vocalization, mental disorders.

Horwitz, D., D.S. Mills and S. Heath (2002). BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine., British Small Animal Veterinary Association: Quedgeley, Gloucester, 288 p. ISBN: 0905214595.
NAL Call Number: SF433 .B79 2002
Descriptors: dogs, cats, behavior, behavior therapy.

Houpt, K.A. (1997). Sexual behavior problems in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 27(3): 601-615. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: behavior, bitch, male, queen, sexual behavior problems, tom, treatment.

Houpt, K.A. and S. Zicker (2003). Dietary effects on canine and feline behavior. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 33(2): 405-416. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: behavior, nutrition, veterinary medicine, malnutrition, nutritional disease, obesity, aggression, diet, behavioral effects, diet fat content, dietary fiber, energy balance.

Hsu, Y.Y. and J.A. Serpell (2003). Development and validation of a questionnaire for measuring behavior and temperament traits in pet dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(9): 1293-1300. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Objective: To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess behavior and temperament traits of pet dogs. Design: Cross-sectional survey of dog owners. Animals: 1,851 dogs belonging to clients of a veterinary teaching hospital or members of national breed clubs and 203 dogs examined by canine behavior practitioners because of behavior problems. Procedure: Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of 152 items eliciting information on how dogs responded to specific events and situations in their usual environment. Data from completed questionnaires were subjected to factor analysis, and the resulting factors were tested for reliability and validity. Results: Factor analysis yielded 11 factors from 68 of the original questionnaire items that together accounted for 57% of the common variance in questionnaire item scores. Reliability was acceptable for all but 1 of these factors. Behavior problems in 200 of the 203 dogs with behavior problems could be assigned to 7 diagnostic categories that matched 7 of the factors identified during factor analysis of questionnaire responses. Dogs assigned to particular diagnostic categories had significantly higher scores for corresponding questionnaire factors than did those assigned to unrelated diagnostic categories, indicating that the factors were valid. Validity of the remaining 4 factors could not be examined because of a lack of information on dogs with behavior problems related to these factors. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Findings suggest that the resulting 68-item questionnaire is a reliable and valid method of assessing behavior and temperament traits in dogs. The questionnaire may be useful in screening dogs for behavior problems and in evaluating the clinical effects of various treatments for behavior problems.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, aggression, animal behavior, data collection, questionnaires, surveys, temperament.

Hubrecht, R.C. and V. Reinhardt (2002). Comfortable quarters for dogs in research institutions . In: V. Reinhardt and A. Reinhardt (Editors), Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals, 9th edition, Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, DC, p. 56-64.
Online: http://labanimals.awionline.org/pubs/cq/dogs.htm
NAL Call Number: SF406.3 .C66 2002
Descriptors: laboratory housing, design, space allowance, socialization requirements, exercise, enrichment devices, handling, stress.

Hunthausen, W. (1997). Effects of aggressive behavior on canine welfare. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 210(8): 1134-1136. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: aggressive behavior, training of animals, animal welfare, bites, aggression, dogs.

Hvozdik, A. (1997). Etologicke a psychologicke vztahy medzi clovekom a psom. [Behavioural and psychological relationships between people and dogs.]. Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis 22(6): 317-320.
Descriptors: behavior, human animal bond, psychology, pet dogs.
Language of Text: Slovakian, Summary in English.

Hvozdik, A., J. Kottferova, and J.S. Alberto (2003). Etologicke aspekty agresivneho spravania sa u psov. [Ethological aspects of aggressive behaviour in dogs.]. Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis 28(1): 41-43. ISSN: 1335-0099.
Descriptors: aggressive behavior, dogs, urban areas, causes of aggressive neuroses, breed differences.
Language of Text: Slovakian; Summary in English.

Ikeda Douglas, C.J., H. Murphey, B. Muggenburg, E. Head, C.W. Cotman, S.C. Zicker, and N.W. Milgram (2002). Long term maintenance of an antioxidant enriched food plus behavioral enrichment markedly delays age related cognitive decline in beagle dogs. In: Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner: 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, November 2-7, 2002, Orlando, FL, p. Abstract No. 374.5. [CD-Rom]
Online: http://www.sfn.org/index.aspx?pagename=abstracts_ampublications
Descriptors: aging, behavior, nutrition, behavioral enrichment, laboratory techniques, age related cognitive decline, discrimination learning, food control environment, reversal learning.

Ishikawa, K., Y. Eguchi, K. Uetake, and T. Tanaka (2001). Domestic dog's behaviour in confrontation with wild boar: utilization of dogs as aversive stimulus to wild boar. Animal Science Journal 72(10): J594-J604. ISSN: 1344-3941.
NAL Call Number: SF1 .A542
Abstract: We conducted confrontation tests with domestic dogs and wild boars in order to determine whether the dogs have an ability to repel wild boars. Five adult dogs and six wild boars were used. One dog was a female German shepherd used by the police. The others were mongrel companion dogs and were made up of three males and one female. The wild boars, three males and three females, about 16 months old were reared for at least 10 months before the experiment. The confrontation tests were carried out three times a day at 0800-0900 h, 1200-1300 h, and 1600-1700 h. Each dog confronted all wild boars within two days. During the confrontation test period, the dogs expressed significantly greater attention (P<0.01) and bark (P<0.05) to the wild boar than before the confrontation. Moreover, individual differences (P<0.01) were found in the frequency of the dog's barks. While just three seconds before the boar was frightened away, dogs more frequently barked (P<0.01) and turned their gaze (P<0.05) toward the boar than in other observation periods. This indicates that a dog's bark and gaze were aversive stimuli for wild boars. The tendency of barking is well known to widely vary among different breeds and individuals so it is recommended that suitable dogs are selected for repelling wild boars.
Descriptors: behavior, wildlife management, conservation, aversive stimuli, barking, confrontation behavior, gaze.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Jacobs, C., T. De Keuster, and P. Simoens (2003). Assessing the pathological extent of aggressive behaviour in dogs. A review of the literature. Veterinary Quarterly 25(2): 53-60. ISSN: 0165-2176.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V46
Abstract: In this review the variety of parameters used for evaluating the pathological extent of aggressive behaviour is summarised and the practical usefulness of each parameter is discussed. The selected parameters are: the objective analytic description of the aggressive behaviour, the function of the aggression, the presence of the three phases of a normal aggression sequence, the number of bites per attack, the duration of the attack and the frequency of the aggressive behaviour. Other criteria such as the appropriateness of the aggression in relation to the context, the predictability of the aggression and the severity of the caused injury are biased because of the variation caused by numerous external factors. The relevance of the most suitable parameters will be assessed in a further study in which the distribution of aggression modulating neurotransmitter receptors will be determined.
Descriptors: behavioral pathology, aggressive behavior, functional analysis, neurotransmitter receptors, external factors, dogs.

Jewell, D.E. (2003). Einfluss der Futterung auf altersbedingte Verhaltensanderungen beim Hund. [Effects of food on age-related behavioural changes in dogs.]. Praktische Tierarzt 84(3): 178-182. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Abstract: A clinical trial, including 142 dogs aged 7 years or older, was performed in order to investigate whether age-related behavioural changes could be influenced by feeding a special diet. The trial was designed as a randomized double blind study. The control interval was 60 days. Age-related behavioural changes were categorized by the DISHA-system and evaluated with the help of a standardized informant-based questionnaire completed by pet owners. The dogs fed the special diet showed significant improvements in behavioural attributes as compared to the control dogs receiving a leading consumer brand.
Descriptors: age, animal behavior, behavioral changes, diets, dog feeding.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Jochle, W. (1998). Fehlverhalten und Anpassungsprobleme bei Hund und Katze und deren pharmakologische Beeinflussbarkeit. [Undesirable behaviour and adaptation problems in dogs and cats and their control by psychotropic drugs.]. Tierarztliche Praxis 26(6): 410-421.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V433
Descriptors: reviews, neurotropic drugs, antidepressants, abnormal behavior, control, animal behavior, psychotropic drugs, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Juhr, N.C. (2001). Die fruehkastration von hunden aus der sicht der verhaltenskunde. [Early castration of dogs from the point of view of behavior.]. Tierarztliche Umschau 56(4): 199-200. ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: animal behavior, castration, sterilization method, behavioral problems, urine marking, dogs.
Language of Text: German.

Kaleta, T. (2003). Ksztaltowanie sie psa: udomowienie i zachowanie sie. [The making of dog: domestication and behaviour.]. Zycie Weterynaryjne 78(10): 567-570. ISSN: 0137-6810.
NAL Call Number: SF604.Z9
Descriptors: ancestry, animal behavior, domestication, stray animals, dogs, wolves.
Language of Text: Polish, Summary in English.

Karsai, F. (1997). Nehany fontosabb magatartasproblema kutyakban az allatorvos szemszogebol. Kivonatos ismertetes a praxis szamara. [Some important behavioural disorders of dogs from the veterinary point of view. Selected from the German literature.]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 119(3): 163-169.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V644
Descriptors: dog diseases, abnormal behavior.
Language of Text: Hungarian.

Kieffer, J.P. (2002). L'agressivite des chiens, aspects comportementaux, cadre reglementaire et legislatif. [Canine aggression, behavioural aspects, regulations and legislation.]. Bulletin De La Societe Veterinaire Pratique De France 86(2): 114-118. ISSN: 0395-7500.
Descriptors: aggression, aggressive behavior, bites, legislation, dogs.
Language of Text: French.

Kikuzaki, T., K. Suzuki, and T. Ajito (1999). Abnormal behaviour in a dog with brain metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association 52(1): 23-26. ISSN: 0446-6454.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 J275
Descriptors: neoplasms, adenocarcinoma, brain, metastasis, brain diseases, histopathology, abnormal behavior.
Language of Text: Japanese, Summary in English.

Kirton, A., E. Wirrell, and L. Hamiwka (2003). Seizure alerting and response behaviors in dogs living with epileptic children. Annals of Neurology 54(Suppl. 7): S133. ISSN: 0364-5134.
Descriptors: epilepsy, seizures, quality of life, dogs, companion animal.
Notes: Meeting Information: 32nd Annual Meeting of the Child Neurology Society, Miami Beach, FL, USA; October 1-4, 2003.

Kobelt, A.J., P.H. Hemsworth, J.L. Barnett, and G.J. Coleman (2003). A survey of dog ownership in suburban Australia: conditions and behaviour problems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 82(2): 137-148. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: There has been an increasing emphasis in Australia on confining dogs to owner's properties (household backyards) as a solution to problems of dog aggression. Therefore, there is a need to determine the social and physical conditions that make up the dog's backyard environment and how these factors may affect dog behaviour and welfare. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the conditions provided to dogs in suburban Melbourne (Australia) and any behavioural problems associated with these conditions. A survey of 203 dog owners across suburban Melbourne was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of questions relating to demographics, the dogs' routine and confinement and what behaviours the owners observed in their dogs. The relationship between some of the environmental factors and the occurrence of problem behaviour was then examined. The main behaviour problems reported by owners were overexcitement (63%) and jumping up on people (56%). Some of the factors that were correlated with the occurrence of problem behaviours included how well the dog obeyed commands (P < 0.01), whether the owner had owned a dog before (P < 0.01) and how much time was spent with the dog (P < 0.01). Dogs that had obedience training were more likely to obey commands than those that that did not (P < 0.01) and large dogs were more likely to receive training than small dogs (P < 0.01). These findings provide an interesting insight into some of the factors that may be related to the occurrence of behaviour problems in dogs.
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, behavior problems, dog ownership survey, environmental conditions, physical, social, suburban areas.

Koda, N. (2001). Inappropriate behavior of potential guide dogs for the blind and coping behavior of human raisers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 72(1): 79-87. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Inappropriate behaviour of potential guide dogs (puppies; n=11) for the blind and coping behaviour of their adult female raisers (puppy walkers: PWs) were videotaped in their play situation at home from when the puppies were 2-11 or 12 months of age. The frequency of inappropriate behaviour decreased with an increase in the puppies' age, suggesting that human-dog relationships became friendlier. The PWs tended to use moderate coping behaviour to stop the inappropriate behaviour of the puppies. Rejecting interaction with the puppies was effective for stopping the puppies from biting the PWs. Forcible stopping was effective for stopping the puppies from damaging objects. Not responding to the puppies was effective for stopping the puppies from biting the PWs, barking/growling and damaging objects.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, age, aggressive behavior, bites, guide dogs, puppies, training of animals, dogs.

Kogan, L., J.C.Jr. New, P.H. Kass, and J.M. Scarlett (2000). Behavioral reasons for relinquishment of dogs and cats to 12 shelters. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 3(2): 93-106. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: dogs, cats, animal behavior, aggressive behavior, fearfulness, vocalization, interviews, shelters, bites, defecation, behavior problems, animal welfare, USA.

Kubinyi, E., A. Miklosi, F. Kaplan, M. Gacsi, J. Topal, and V. Csanyi (2004). Social behaviour of dogs encountering aibo, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation. Behavioural Processes 65(3): 231-239. ISSN: 0376-6357.
NAL Call Number: QL750.B4
Abstract: The use of animal-like autonomous robots might offer new possibilities in the study of animal interactions, if the subject recognises it as a social partner. In this paper we investigate whether AIBO, a dog-like robot of the Sony Corp. can be used for this purpose. Twenty-four adult and sixteen 4-5 months old pet dogs were tested in two situations where subjects encountered one of four different test-partners: (1) a remote controlled car; (2) an AIBO robot; (3) AIBO with a puppy-scented furry cover; and (4) a 2-month-old puppy. In the neutral situation the dog could interact freely with one of the partners for 1 min in a closed arena in the presence of its owner. In the feeding situation the encounters were started while the dog was eating food. Our results show that age and context influence the social behaviour of dogs. Further, we have found that although both age groups differentiated the living and non-living test-partners for some extent, the furry AIBO evoked significantly increased responses in comparison to the car. These experiments show the first steps towards the application of robots in behavioural studies, notwithstanding that at present AIBO's limited ability to move constrains its effectiveness as social partner for dogs.
Descriptors: behavior, equipment apparatus devices and instrumentation, aibo animal like robot, industrial equipment, sony corp., animal interactions, feeding situation, neutral situation, social behavior.

Kubinyi, E., A. Miklosi, J. Topal, and V. Csanyi (2003). Social mimetic behaviour and social anticipation in dogs: preliminary results. Animal Cognition 6(1): 57-63. ISSN: 1435-9448.
Abstract: Learning contributes to the development of mutual mimicry in group mates. The aim of our study was to investigate whether dogs would initiate walking a detour if they were repeatedly exposed to the detouring behaviour of their owner. Eight dog owners were asked to modify their usual way of approaching their home at the end of their daily walks, namely, to make a short detour before the entrance. Owners performed the detour at least 180 times, over a period of 3-6 months. During the first 30 detours (trials 1-30) all dogs followed the owner on the new route. Between trials 151 and 180, four dogs started to walk the detour before the owner displayed any intention to walk in that direction in 50-93% of the cases. Further observations that were carried out on one dog showed that the initialisation of the detours manifested sooner if a second familiar person started to walk the detours. Interestingly, the dog persisted in initialising detours long after the owners stopped detouring. We describe the observed phenomenon in the framework of social anticipation that manifests when an animal learns the proper sequence of an act performed by another animal, so that it can (1) predict the action in this sequence, and (2) as a result start either a similar or a complementary action as a response. These observations suggest that the dogs' social anticipation ability contributes to behavioural synchronisation and cooperative processes between dog and owner.
Descriptors: behavior, neural coordination, behavioral synchronization, detouring behavior, domestication, learning, mimicry, social anticipation, social mimetic behavior.

Kuussaari, J. (1998). Eroahdistus - koiran yleinen kaytosongelma. [Separation anxiety as a behavioural problem in dogs.]. Suomen Elainlaakarilehti 104(9): 483-485.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N813
Descriptors: animal behavior, anxiety, depression, therapy, drug therapy, propranolol, azaperone, adverse effects, abnormal behavior.
Language of Text: Finnish.

Lalor, T. (2004). Target and retrieval device. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1280(4) ISSN: 0098-1133.
Online: http://www.uspto.gov/web/menu/patdata.html
NAL Call Number: T223 .A21
Descriptors: equipment, hunting training, target and retrieval device, field equipment.

Landsberg, G. (1998). Behavior problems in the geriatric dog and cat. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 12: 59-62.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: animal behavior, behavior problems, old age, dogs, cats.
Notes: Meeting Information: Meeting held on January 10-14, 1998, Orlando, Florida.

Landsberg, G. (2001). The dog that won't get up--senior pet behavior problems. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 15: 206-208.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: dogs, behavior problems, treatment, cognitive dysfunction.
Notes: In the volume: Small animal and exotics. Part of a three volume set. Meeting held January 13-17, 2001 in Orlando, Florida.

Landsberg, G. and D. Horwitz (1998). Behavior of Dogs and Cats: Questions and Answers, Lifelearn Inc., MacNabb House, University of Guelph: Guelph, Ontario, Canada, 113 p.
Abstract: A compilation of client information sheets on the various types of behaviour regarded by owners as undesirable in dogs and cats, with special attention to aggressive behaviours, and with instructions for training.
Descriptors: veterinary medicine, small animal practice, aggression, abnormal behavior, training of animals, dogs, cats, behavioral therapy.

Landsberg, G.M., W.L. Hunthausen and L.J. Ackerman (1997). Handbook of Behaviour Problems of the Dog and Cat., Veterinary handbook series., Butterworth Heinenann: Oxford; Boston, 211 p. ISBN: 0750630604.
NAL Call Number: SF433.L35 1997
Descriptors: cats, dogs, psychology, problem behaviors, behavior therapy.

Lane, D. and J. Rutter (2002). Early socialisation of puppies. Veterinary Record 150(2): 55.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Two letters written in response to a letter from R. Newey (VR, December 22/29, 201, p.780).
Descriptors: early puppy vaccination, canine distemper, guide dogs for the blind, temperaments, puppy classes, behavior, socialization.

Ledger, R.A. and J.M. Stephen (2004). Reducing dog return rates at rescue shelters: Applying science for animal welfare. Animal Welfare 13(Suppl.): S247. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, temperament test, RSPCA, animal welfare, owner dog compatibility, rescue shelter, return rate.
Notes: Meeting Information: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Symposium on Science in the Service of Animal Welfare, Edinburgh, UK; April 2-4, 2003.

Lepper, M., P.H. Kass, and L.A. Hart (2002). Prediction of adoption versus euthanasia among dogs and cats in a california animal shelter. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(1): 29-42. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate determinants of adoption of cats and dogs from a large municipal animal shelter. The subjects were 4,813 cats and 3,301 dogs impounded by the Sacramento County Department of Animal Care and Regulation and offered for adoption September 9, 1994 to May 26, 1995. The study constructed models predicting the conditional probability of adoption using logistic regression and a final multiple logistic regression model from variables found to be important predictors of adoption. Age, sex, coat color, and reason for relinquishment were major determinants of adoption in cats. Age, sex, coat color, reason for relinquishment, breed, purebred status, and injury status were major determinants of adoption in dogs. Shelter personnel could utilize this information to increase the adoption of frequently overlooked animals. Alternatively, shelters could use this to focus their resources on animals with characteristics the public prefers.
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, models and simulations, euthanasia, multiple logistic regression model, Sacramento County Department of Animal Care and Regulation, adoption, age differences, breed differences, coat color, municipal animal shelter, relinquishment.

Lester, P.A., J.S. Gaynor, P.W. Hellyer, K. Mama, and A.E. Wagner (2003). The sedative and behavioral effects of nalbuphine in dogs. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 27-31. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: We compared the degree of sedation and frequency and intensity of adverse behaviors in dogs associated with nalbuphine when combined with acepromazine or xylazine compared with those of acepromazine or xylazine alone. Twenty-four dogs (13 female, 11 male) undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy or castration were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Group NX received 0.5 mg/kg nalbuphine and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine subcutaneously (s.c.). Group X received 0.5 mg/kg xylazine s.c. Group NA received 0.5 mg/kg nalbuphine and 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine s.c. Group A received 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine s.c. All dogs received 0.01 mg/kg glycopyrrolate s.c. All doses were administered preoperatively. Preoperative resting measurements of heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and body weight were obtained. Sedation was scored both inside and outside a kennel prior to drug administration and at 10, 20, and 30 min after drug administration. Dogs were assessed for behavioral responses (leg withdrawal, shivering, rigidity, orienting, panting, struggling, vocalization, wide-eyed facial expression, breath holding, salivating, hiding, biting, or requiring a muzzle) during three time periods: placing the dog on the table, clipping and prepping of forelimb, and intravenous catheterization. Postoperative recovery behaviors were scored. Expired halothane concentrations were recorded at 15, 30, and 45 min postinduction. Significant differences occurred in the level of sedation at 30 min between dogs receiving nalbuphine and xylazine or xylazine only compared with dogs receiving acepromazine. There was a significant difference in behavioral scores with respect to leg withdrawal and orienting during clipping/prepping between dogs receiving nalbuphine and xylazine compared with dogs receiving xylazine. The combination of nalbuphine and xylazine is a useful premedicant which provided greater sedation than acepromazine and reduced some anxiety behaviors more than did xylazine alone. Nalbuphine is an inexpensive opioid and currently is not a controlled substance in the U.S.
Descriptors: behavior, pharmacology, adverse behaviors, anxiety behaviors.

Lindell, E.M. (1997). Diagnosis and treatment of destructive behavior in dogs. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Small Animal Practice 27(3): 533-547. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: diagnosis, treatment, destruction, anxiety, reviews, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, dogs.

Lindsay, S.R. (2000). Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training. 1st edition, Iowa State University Press: Ames, Iowa , 410 p. ISBN: 0813807549 .
NAL Call Number: SF433 .L56 2000
Descriptors: behavior, training, adaptation, learning, domestication, neurobiology, development, assessement of behavior problems, treatment options.

Lucidi, P., N. Bernabo, M. Panunzi, P.D. Villa, and M. Mattioli (2005). Ethotest: a new model to identify (shelter) dogs' skills as service animals or adoptable pets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 95(1/2): 103-122. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: The paucity of dogs dedicated to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) for disabled people creates long waiting lists worldwide and compromises the health of the few certified animals by demanding too much work from them at times, thus jeopardizing their future as service dogs. In an attempt to obviate this situation, a mathematical model has been conceived to select animals endowed with a set of specific inborn skills from a population of sheltered dogs. The model is able to select dogs capable of creating a special bond with humans and able to work anywhere and with any human partner or team; it represents a rapid, inexpensive and coherent method and has been validated after 1 year of observation. The algorithm consists of three steps. Step A is a test assessing the aggressiveness and temperament of animals and selection occurs based on a binary criterion (yes or no). Step B is a test comprising three items and selects animals able to interact with humans; dogs have to fulfil two conditions to pass on to Step C. Step C is a test evaluating the animal's ability to respond appropriately to easy commands (trainability) given by different partners; dogs have to fulfil two interrelated conditions judged more flexibly than in test B. The aims of the Ethotest are: (a) to prevent aggressive animals from entering animal-assisted activity and/or Therapy programmes; (b) to select dogs with the right aptitude and especially to restrict selection to dogs that offer consistent responses; (c) to include both male and female purebreds or mix breeds older than 1 year of age; (d) to identify animals able to work with different partners. Moreover, the aim of this contribution is to share with the scientific community an easy method to select shelter dogs as safe companion animals..
Descriptors: algorithms, animal behavior, pets, tests, temperament, aggression, human-animal relations, training.

Lund, J.D. and M.C. Jorgensen (1999). Behaviour patterns and time course of activity in dogs with separation problems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 63(3): 219-236. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: behavior problems, anxiety, vocalization, video recordings, animal behavior, physical activity, behavior patterns.

Lund, J.D., M.C. Jorgensen, D.S. Mills, S.E. Heath, and L.J. Harrington (1997). Separation anxiety in pet dogs behaviour patterns and time course of activity. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Veterinary Behavioural Medicine, April 1-2, 1997, Birmingham, UK, p. 133-142.
Descriptors: separation, anxiety, behavior.

Lund, J.D. and D.B. Sorensen (1997). Aflivning af familiehunde pa grund af adfaerdsproblemer. [Euthanasia of companion dogs because of behavioural problems.]. Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 80(15): 655-659.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 D23
Abstract: Behavioural problems were the reason for euthanasia in 15.6% of the dogs euthanized in 6 small animal clinics in Denmark during a 3-month period in summer, 1995. Of these dogs, 29% were below 2, and 71% below 7 years of age; dogs euthanized for other reasons were over 10 years old. The behavioural problems (mainly aggression to owners and/or others) for which the animals were killed were more common in large dogs (63.3%) and males (67.7%).
Descriptors: age, sex, animal behavior, aggression, euthanasia, dogs.
Language of Text: Danish, Summary in English.

Lund, J.D. and K.S. Vestergaard (1998). Development of social behaviour in four litters of dogs (Canis familiaris). Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 39(2): 183-193. ISSN: 0044-605X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 AC87
Abstract: The development of social behaviour in 4 litters of dogs was observed without interfering with the puppies from birth to 8 weeks of age. Direct and continuous observation was combined with video recording. Three of the litters were observed during one session of 2 h once a week, and the fourth litter during one session of 40 minutes twice a week. Social interactions were divided into investigation of litter mates (licking, sniffing or investigating orally); social play; and interactions in which agonistic elements (dominance postures, threats, bites or submission) were displayed. The different forms of social interactions appeared for the first time when the puppies were between 14 and 21 days of age. Social investigation appeared first and was followed by play and agonistic interactions. From week 5, differences between the puppies in the tendency to initiate social play and agonistic interactions emerged. Generally, within litters individual differences were consistent over weeks 6-8 (positive correlations between weeks), whereas the tendency in the puppies during these weeks were negatively correlated with those of week 3 (play) or weeks 3 and 4 (agonistic interactions), indicating a rebound effect for both play and agonistic behaviour. No significant correlations were found for social investigation. More often than expected males played or engaged in agonistic behaviour with other males, whereas these behaviours occurred less often than expected between females. Both males and females, however, preferred male partners for agonistic interactions. No sex differences were found in the direction of social investigation. Agonistic behaviour was often responded to by play and play was often responded to by agonistic behaviour, and the results indicated that before 8 weeks of age differences in social behaviour between the puppies were already established.
Descriptors: social behavior, postnatal development, young animals, newborn animals, sex, age, dogs.
Language of Text: English, Summary in Danish.

Maarschalkerweerd, R.J., N. Endenburg, J. Kirpensteijn, and B.W. Knol (1997). Influence of orchiectomy on canine behaviour. Veterinary Record 140(24): 617-619. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: 122 dog owners were interviewed on the effects of orchiectomy on the behaviour, side effects, and testosterone-dependent disease processes in their dogs. Behavioural problems were the main reason for orchiectomy, unwanted sexual behaviour being the most common, together with roaming, aggression, and abnormal urination behaviour. Objectionable sexual behaviour, inter-male aggression, roaming, and abnormal urination were reduced after orchiectomy in about 60% of the dogs. Side effects included increased bodyweight, increased appetite and decreased activity in less than 50% of the dogs, and there was a correlation between increased appetite and bodyweight. The clinical signs of testosterone-dependent disease in most of the dogs either decreased or disappeared after orchiectomy.
Descriptors: postoperative complications, body weight, food intake, testosterone, pets, mating behavior, urination, vices, aggression, surgery, castration.

Mallonee, J.S. and P. Joslin (2004). Traumatic stress disorder observed in an adult wild captive wolf (canis lupus). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 7(2): 107-126. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Tenino was an adult female wolf, born in the wild and placed into captivity at 1 year of age because of her participation in livestock depredation. Her method of capture, well documented, involved being darted twice by helicopter and translocated twice. This method of capture would have exposed her to the 2 factors that are important in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder in humans: uncontrollability and unpredictability. In a case study we conducted, Tenino displayed symptoms that were similar to those of humans with posttraumatic stress disorder. These symptoms included hypervigilance, exaggerated startles, generalized fear, avoidance, and arousal. She also displayed looking up behaviors that occured during the presence of perceived threats such as a neighboring rancher's gunshots; the keeper truck; some keeper activity; and, occasionally, aircraft. When compared to 3 other wolves, including her enclosure mate, these behaviors were exclusive to Tenino.
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, traumatic stress disorder, arousal, avoidance, exaggerated startles, generalized fear, hypervigilance, looking up behavior, uncontrollability, unpredictability.

Malm, K. (1999). Problembeteende hos hundar: ett omrade med manga aspekter. [Behavioural problems in dogs: a topic with many aspects.]. Svensk Veterinartidning 51(7): 363-368. ISSN: 0346-2250.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N813
Descriptors: animal behavior, aggression, training of animals, pets, neurotropic drugs, case reports, dogs.
Language of Text: Swedish.

Manuel, M.F., J.H.A. Abalos, and C.D. Solis (2002). Some acute behavioural and physiological effects observed in local Philippine dogs voluntarily fed with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the diet. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine 39(1): 50-51. ISSN: 0031-7705.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P53
Abstract: Twelve 4- to 7-month-old Philippine nondescript dogs of both sexes were fed monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the diet in quantities varying from 0, 5 and 10% of the amount of food given, using the Latin square design. Both physiological and behavioural parameters were examined in all animals an hour before and after feeding. Doses of MSG as high as 10% did not induce any noticeable change in the behaviour of the dogs. On the other hand, some temporary physiological changes such as tachycardia, vomiting and excretion of dark-coloured faeces were observed in 10 of the dogs.
Descriptors: adverse effects, monosodium glutamate, poisoning, toxicity, dogs.

Marston, L.C., P.C. Bennett, and G.J. Coleman (2005). Adopting shelter dogs: owner experiences of the first month post-adoption. Anthrozoos 18(4): 358-378. ISSN: 0892-7936.
NAL Call Number: SF411.A57
Abstract: A number of studies have examined factors associated with the relinquishment of pet dogs to animal welfare shelters. In Australia, however, there has been little investigation of new owners' experiences when they subsequently adopt one of these dogs. To address this, telephone interviews were conducted with 62 persons who had recently adopted a shelter dog in Melbourne, Australia. Data relating to adopter demographics, factors influencing the selection of a dog and problems experienced post-adoption were collected. Shelter dogs were primarily acquired to replace a deceased pet or as companions to humans or other dogs. Selection was influenced by the dog's size, general appearance and behavior, with adopters preferring dogs who behaved in a calm and friendly manner. Common problems reported during the initial post -adoptive period were hyperactivity/boisterousness, compatibility issues with an existing pet and pulling on the lead. Escaping was strongly associated with separation-related problems. Three-quarters of the sample walked their dogs daily for 30 minutes or more, with larger dogs exercised for longer. Most dogs were exercised off-lead for some period, particularly larger dogs. This study indicates that improving assessment and matching procedures, and providing in -house and post-adoptive training could increase rehoming success rates..
Descriptors: adoption, animal behavior, animal welfare, hyperactivity, interviews, ownership, dogs.

Marston, L.C. and P.C. Bennett (2003). Reforging the bond: towards successful canine adoption. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 83(3): 227-245. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: While most human-canine relationships are very fulfilling others fail, resulting in a large number of animals being abandoned or relinquished to animal shelters each year. This paper reviews our current understanding of the canine relinquishment and adoption process, with the aim of identifying those areas in which research is incomplete or absent. In order to achieve this aim, the process of canine ownership, relinquishment and adoption is broken down into a number of logical stages, which are then evaluated separately. The areas reviewed include the reasons why people acquire dogs, factors involved in their relinquishment, the effects of shelter admission upon canine behaviour, the evaluation of a dog's potential for adoption, characteristics of adopters, factors influencing a prospective adopter's choice and problems which may be experienced post-adoption. The review identifies deficiencies in our current knowledge and indicates valid directions for future research.
Descriptors: behavior, philosophy, ethics, animal shelter, animal welfare, human-canine relationship, pet adoption, shelter relinquishment.

Matre, J. and R. Kyllingen (1999). Hund: adferd og samspill. Kartlegging og maling av adferd hos hund. [Dogs: behaviour and interaction. Recording and assessing the behaviour of dogs.]. Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 111(6): 426-428. ISSN: 0332-5741.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N813
Descriptors: behavior, pets, record keeping, assessment.
Language of Text: Norwegian.

Matre, P.J., R. Fjellanger, and T. Owren (1999). Hund: adferd og samspill. Avklaring av noen begreper innenfor laeringspsykologien. [Dogs: behaviour and interaction. Clarification of some concepts in the psychology of learning.]. Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 111(3): 162-165. ISSN: 0332-5741.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N813
Descriptors: training, psychology, behavior, learning.
Language of Text: Norwegian.

Matre, P.J., R. Fjellanger, and T. Owren (1999). Hund: adferd og samspill. Den vanskelige utfordringen. Fra ny laering til varige endringer i vaeremater. [Dogs: behaviour and interaction. The difficult challenge. From new learning to lasting changes in behaviour.]. Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 111(5): 355-357. ISSN: 0332-5741.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N813
Descriptors: animal behavior, learning, animal welfare, training of animals, restraint of animals.
Language of Text: Norwegian.

Matre, P.J., R. Fjellanger, and T. Owren (1999). Hund: adferd og samspill. Holdninger til innlaering. [Dogs: behaviour and interaction. Attitudes to learning.]. Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 111(2): 84-87.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N813
Descriptors: animal behavior, abnormal behavior, training, dogs.
Language of Text: Norwegian.

Max, A. and A. Grabiec (2000). Leczenie niepozadanych zachowan samczych psow i kotow. [Treatment of undesirable sexual behaviour in dogs and cats.]. Zycie Weterynaryjne 75(1): 19-22. ISSN: 0137-6810.
NAL Call Number: SF604.Z9
Descriptors: sexual maturity, urination, spraying, male animals, castration, diazepam, abnormal behavior, animal behavior, mating behavior, treatment, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: Polish.

McGreevy, P.D., P.K.d. Torre, D.L. Evans, and P.K. della Torre (2003). Animal behaviour learning environment: software to facilitate learning in canine and feline behaviour therapy. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 30(4): 308-317. ISSN: 0748-321X.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J62
Abstract: Interactive software has been developed on CD-ROM to facilitate learning of problem formulation, diagnostic methodology and therapeutic options in dog and cat behaviour problems. Students working in small groups are presented with a signalment, a case history and brief description of the problem behaviour as perceived by the client. Students then navigate through the case history by asking the client questions from an icon-driven question pad. Animated video responses to the questions are provided. Students are then required to rate the significance of the questions and answers with respect to the development of the unwelcome behaviour. Links to online self-assessments and to resource materials about causation and treatment options are provided to assist students in their decision-making process. The activity concludes with a software-generated e-mail submission that includes the recorded history, diagnosis and recommended treatment for assessment purposes.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, animal behavior, computer software, diagnosis, teaching materials, therapy, veterinary education, cats, dogs.

Meek, P.D. (1999). The movement, roaming behaviour and home range of free-roaming domestic dogs, Canis lupus familiaris, in coastal New South Wales. Wildlife Research 26(6): 847-855. ISSN: 1035-3712.
NAL Call Number: S960.W5
Abstract: Ten free-roaming domestic dogs from an Aboriginal community in New South Wales, Australia, were radio-collared to determine the sizes of their home ranges and to observe their wandering behaviour. Dogs were tracked over 5 sessions between April 1994 and April 1995. Five of the dogs went on wandering forays, while the other 5 roamed only within the vicinity of the community. Home-range size was highly variable within the study group: the mean for the wandering dogs was 927 ha whereas that of the sedentary dogs was 2.6 ha. Dogs travelled 8-30 km on forays. All forays were initiated at night and those that were recorded had an average duration of 26 h. Foray destinations were usually riparian habitats where macropod quarry were abundant. The potential for dogs to spread diseases over large areas is discussed.
Descriptors: animal behavior, disease transmission, telemetry, monitoring, ecology, animal ecology, dogs.

Mentzel, R.E. (1997). Conductas indeseables en perros internados. [Undesirable behaviour in confined dogs.]. Revista De Medicina Veterinaria Buenos Aires 78(6): 432-438. ISSN: 0325-6391.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 B86
Abstract: The study was carried out in a canine rehabilitation centre over a 16-month period. A total of 194 mongrel dogs, aged 3 months to 12 years, were studied. All dogs showing abnormal behaviour were submitted to an ethological examination consisting of a review of the case history, physical examination, direct observation and neurological examination. Behavioural abnormalities in decreasing order of frequency were: intraspecific aggression, timidity, hyperactivity, digging, aggression due to fear, destructive chewing, excessive barking, eating of puppies, melancholy, stereotyped movements, aggression due to pain, maternal aggression, possessive aggression, territorial aggression, maternal indifference and fear of other dogs. It is suggested that similar problems could be found in other confined populations such as in shelters, refuges, breeding kennels and hospitals.
Descriptors: mongrel dogs, abnormal behavior, rehabilitation, case histories, physcial exam, neurological exam, aggression, timidity, hyperactviity, pain, fear.
Language of Text: Spanish, Summary in English.

Mertens, P.A. (2003). Compulsive behavior in dogs. NAVC Clinician's Brief August: 15-16, 44. ISSN: 1542-4014.
NAL Call Number: SF601 .N67
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, dogs, compulsive behavior, dermatitis, diagnosis, drug therapy.

Mertens, P.A., G. Coles, J. Dobson, J. Elliott, C. Elwood, E. Hall, S. Heath, P. Hill, P.H. Moore, J. Innes, A. Jeffery, S. Redrobe, S. Tasker, J. Williams, P. Wotton, and P. Yam (2003). The ageing dog: A behavioural perspective. In: Scientific Proceedings Veterinary Programme: British Small Animal Veterinary Association 46th Annual Congress, April 3-6, 2003, Birmingham, UK, British Small Animal Veterinary Association: Quedgeley, UK, p. 148-152.
Descriptors: aging, behavior, drug therapy, environment, therapy.

Mertens, P.A. and J. Unshelm (1997). Owner compliance in veterinary medicine: canine and feline behaviour therapy. Tierarztliche Umschau 52(12): 701-704. ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: behavior therapy, veterinary medicine, dog and cat owners, owner acceptance of advice, applied animal behavior, behavior counselling, veterinarians.
Language of Text: German.

Mertens, P.A. and J. Unshelm (1997). Zur Akzeptanz tierarztlicher Leistungen durch den Tierhalter - die Verhaltenstherapie von Hund und Katze. [The attitude of owners of dogs and cats to a veterinarian's proposals for behavioural therapy.]. Tierarztliche Umschau 52(12): 701-704.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: small animal practice, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, dogs, cats.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Mikkelsen, J. and J.D. Lund (1999). Aflivning af hunde pa grund af adfaerdsproblemer. En epidemiologisk undersogelse over euthanasi af hunde i Danmark - med saerlig fokus pa aggressionsproblemer. [Euthanasia of dogs because of behavioural problems. An epidemiological study on euthanasia of dogs in Denmark - with particular reference to aggression problems.]. Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 82(11): 474-479. ISSN: 0106-6854.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 D23
Abstract: A study based on a questionnaire sent to 120 veterinary clinics in Denmark in the period July 1997 to April 1998 covered 2493 dogs that required euthanasia for various reasons, and a control group of 2247 treated for other conditions. Age-related and behavioural problems were the most frequent reasons for euthanasia, with aggressive behaviour recorded in about two-thirds of the 23.6% with behavioural problems; less than 16% had received treatment for their problems, and about 42.4% were below 3 years of age. Large breeds and male dogs (two-thirds of those with behavioural problems) were significant risk factors for euthanasia.
Descriptors: euthanasia, aggression, animal behavior, age, breeds, epidemiology, surveys, dogs.
Language of Text: Danish, Summary in English.

Miklosi, A., J. Topal, and V. Csanyi (2004). Comparative social cognition: what can dogs teach us? Animal Behaviour 67(Part 6): 995-1004. ISSN: 0003-3472.
NAL Call Number: 410 B77
Descriptors: behavior, communication, evolution and adaptation, sociology, population studies, comparative social cognition, ethology, social learning, social relationships.

Mills, D.S. (1997). Separating a dog's bite from its owner's problem: Conceptualising behaviour problems. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Veterinary Behavioural Medicine, April 1-2, 1997, Birmingham, UK, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare: Potters Bar, Herts, Great Britain, p. 7-9. ISBN: 0900767979.
NAL Call Number: QL750.I67 1997
Descriptors: behavior, problems, biting, aggression, human-animal relationships.

Muller, G. (2000). Les troubles comportementaux a l'elevage chez le chien. [Behavioural problems in dog breeding kennels.]. Point Veterinaire 31(205): 109-116. ISSN: 0335-4997.
NAL Call Number: SF602.P6
Descriptors: animal behavior, abnormal behavior, kennels, training of animals, dogs.
Language of Text: French, Summary in English.

Neidhart, L. and R. Boyd (2002). Companion animal adoption study. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(3): 175-192. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption.
Descriptors: behavior, philosophy and ethics, neutering, spaying, adopt a thon, luv a pet location, petsmart, age differences, animal shelter, companion animal adoption, compatibility, counseling, education, health, mortality, personality, pet retention, veterinary care.

Neilson, J.C., B.L. Hart, K.D. Cliff, and W.W. Ruehl (2001). Prevalence of behavioral changes associated with age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Med Ical Association 218(11): 1787-1791. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: dogs, behavior change, incidence, behavior problems, aging, vision disorders, hearing impairment, body weight, memory, learning ability, age differences.

Neilson, J.C., R.A. Eckstein, and B.L. Hart (1997). Effects of castration on problem behaviors in male dogs with reference to age and duration of behavior. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211(2): 180-182. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Objective: To determine whether 9 problem behaviors in adult male dogs were affected by castration and to examine the influence of age and duration of problem behavior on behavioral effects of castration. Design: Cohort study. Animals: 57 male dogs gt 2 years old at the time of castration that had gtoreq 1 of the targeted problem behaviors. Procedure: Data were collected by telephone contact with owners to identify dogs that had gtoreq 1 problem behavior before castration and to estimate the improvement lie, decrease) in the objectionable behaviors after castration. Problem behaviors of interest included urine marking in the house, mounting, roaming, fear of inanimate stimuli, aggression toward human family members, aggression toward unfamiliar people, aggression toward other dogs in the household, aggression toward unfamiliar dogs, and aggression toward human territorial intruders. Results: Effects of castration on fear of inanimate stimuli or aggression toward unfamiliar people were not significant. For urine marking, mounting, and roaming, castration resulted in an improvement of gtoreq 50% in gtoreq 60% of dogs and an improvement of gtoreq 90% in 25 to 40% of dogs. For remaining behaviors, castration resulted in an improvement of gtoreq 50% in lt 35% of dogs. Significant correlations were not found between the percentage of improvement and age of the dog or duration of the problem behavior at the time of castration. Clinical Implications: Castration was most effective in altering objectionable urine marking, mounting, and roaming. With various types of aggressive behavior, including aggression toward human family members, castration may be effective in decreasing aggression in some dogs, but fewer than a third can be expected to have marked improvement. Age of the dog or duration of the problem behavior does not have value in predicting whether castration will have a beneficial effect.
Descriptors: behavior, reproductive system, adult, age, aggression, behavior, castration, duration, male, mounting, problem behaviors, roaming, surgical method, urine marking, veterinary medicine.

Netto, W.J. and D.J.U. Planta (1997). Behavioural testing for aggression in the domestic dog. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52(3-4): 243-263. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Aggressive behaviour in dogs is an increasing problem in The Netherlands. In an attempt to find a solution to this problem the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Conservation and Fisheries has financially supported a study aimed at developing an aggression test for dogs. The primary goal is to use the test as an instrument for excluding very aggressive individuals of certain breeds from breeding. On the basis of two pilot studies a test has been developed with 43 sub-tests in which a variety of stimuli are presented relating to contexts that are known to elicit aggression in dogs. In the final test, 112 dogs, 75 of which were potentially aggressive breeds (PAB) and a group of 37 "control dogs", were tested. Questionnaires were used to collect information about the aggressive history of the dog. The results show clear differences in the aggression-eliciting properties of the sub-tests. Dogs with and without biting history differ significantly in their biting/attack behaviour during the test (Mann-Whitney U-test, P = 0.02). This difference is also found -for only the PAB-dogs (MWU-test, P = 0.007). For reliability of analysis, 37 dogs were re-tested. The comparison between test and re-test shows a significant correlation for total attack (SPCC = 0.78) and biting/attack (SPCC = 0.68). So that the test can be implemented in practice, two "Models for Unacceptable Aggression (MUAs)" are discussed. To validate the results of the test and the application of the MUAs the results are compared with the biting history of the dogs. The results of an MUA based exclusively on the biting/attack behaviour shows a significant relation with the biting history for all dogs and for the PAB-dogs. On the basis of these results we consider the test to be a useful instrument for the assessment of aggressive tendencies in dogs, provided the test is performed by trained researchers or trained judges and test assistants.
Descriptors: behavior, aggression, attack behavior, behavior, behavioral testing, biting, methodology, the Netherlands.

O' Farrell, V. (1997). Owner attitudes and dog behaviour problems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52(3-4): 205-213. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: In the treatment of dog behaviour problems, assessment of the owner's attitude is usually an essential part of the diagnostic process. Questionnaire studies of groups of owners reveal wide variation in both degree and kind of owner attachment. Individual-centred methods such as the Kelly Repertory Grid demonstrate the complexity of such attachments. It is suggested that the psychoanalytic concept of projection can often best explain their irrational aspects: experimental evidence is adduced and clinical examples discussed. With regard to particular types of behaviour problems, there is evidence of an association between dominance aggression in the dog and the anthropomorphic involvement of the owner; also between over-excitement and displacement activities in the dog and anxiety in the owner. Owner anxiety is not associated with a higher incidence of phobias in the dog; a dog's phobia, however, does tend to cause greater distress to a more anxious owner.
Descriptors: behavior, attitudes, pets, abnormal behavior, diagnosis, psychological factors, psychology, human behavior, dogs.

Odendaal, J.S.J. (1997). A diagnostic classification of problem behavior in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 27(3): 427-443. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: behavior, pathology, abnormal behavior, behavior, classification system, diagnostic classification, diagnostic consistency, patient, veterinary clinical ethology, veterinary medicine.

Odendaal, J.S.J. and R.A. Meintjes (2003). Neurophysiological correlates of affiliative behaviour between humans and dogs. Veterinary Journal 165(3): 296-301. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V484
Abstract: Few physiological parameters for positive human-companion animal contact have been identified and those that are established have all been in humans. The implication is that if the physiological reactions are mutual, dogs would experience the same psychological benefits from these neurophysiological changes as humans. Therefore, we have determined the role of certain neurochemicals during affiliation behaviour on an inter-species basis. Our results indicate that concentrations of beta-endorphin, oxytocin, prolactin, beta-phenylethylamine, and dopamine increased in both species after positive interspecies interaction, while that of cortisol decreased in the humans only. Indicators of mutual physiological changes during positive interaction between dog lovers and dogs may contribute to a better understanding of the human-animal bond in veterinary practice.
Descriptors: behavior, nervous system, veterinary medicine, affiliation behavior, neurophysiological correlates, human-animal interaction.

Ogburn, P., S. Crouse, F. Martin, and K. Houpt (1998). Comparison of behavioral and physiological responses of dogs wearing two different types of collars. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 61(2): 133-142. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Physiological and behavioural responses of dogs while wearing two different types of collars were compared. The 2 types of collar were a traditional buckle nylon neck collar, and a newly developed nylon head collar. Before and following tests of obedience training and restraint, measurements were made of blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and pupillary dilation to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of behaviour during physiological measurements and during the tests of responses to training. Plasma corticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol levels were measured at the conclusion of testing. There were no significant differences in the physiological responses to the 2 types of collars. There was a trend for physiological responses to diminish during the course of the testing with both collars. This was attributed to a physiological accommodation to handling and training. Evaluation of behavioural responses indicated that during testing, dogs were more unruly and disobedient and pulled on the leash while wearing traditional neck collars, but pawed at their noses more and watched the handler less while wearing head collars. The dogs more frequently lowered their heads and ears when wearing the head collar. It is suggested that owners of dogs wearing head collars may be interested to know that their dogs are not physiologically stressed when the collars are initially applied, despite nose pawing.
Descriptors: stress, animal behavior, blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, corticotropin, hydrocortisone, training of animals, husbandry, harness, restraint of animals, training of animals, eyes, responses, vocalization, animal behavior, social dominance, blood plasma, pupil dilation.

Orlowski, T., T. Jezierski, and T. Bednarek (2001). The behaviour of water-working dogs during a simulated rescue of drowning persons. Animal Science Papers and Reports 19(2): 157-166. ISSN: 0860-4037.
NAL Call Number: SF1.A53
Abstract: The paper presents an unusual, documented research on behaviour of water-working dogs during a simulated rescue of drowning humans evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. During the rescue, humans grasped a special harness worn by the dogs. Six dogs (two Newfoundlands, three German Shepherds and one Labrador Retriever) were used. Variation of the time and speed of particular phases of the rescue action were analysed depending on dog, distance to the drowning person (25, 40 and 80 m) and water and air temperature during the action. The dogs differed significantly in their manner of entering the water (P<0.01). Only one dog always jumped into the water immediately after receiving the command. The other dogs needed extra encouragement or prompting in 28-83% of tests, mostly consisting of the handler throwing an object into the water to persuade the dog to enter the water. Two dogs on one occasion each refused to enter the water unless behind the handler in a boat. The manner and time of entering the water was significantly affected by the distance to the drowning person (P<0.01). At longer distances to the drowning man, the dogs entered the water less willingly and after longer hesitation. The dogs differed in the time taken to tow the rescued person to land (P=0.025). Of all the breeds studied, German Shepherds tended to swim faster both when swimming towards the drowning person and when towing the person to land. The mean swimming speed when towing to land was considerably lower, compared to that when swimming towards the drowning person. Unexpectedly, the lowest swimming speed was observed at the distance of 25 m between the drowning person and the water edge. The effect of air and water temperature on swimming speed was inconsistent: mean speed was higher at higher air temperature and lower at higher water temperature. The experiment demonstrated that dogs can be useful during a water-rescue action.
Descriptors: behavior, air temperature, behavior, drowning, rescue, swimming speed, water temperature.

Osella, M.C., L. Bergamasco, and P. Badino (2003). I disturbi comportamentali geriatrici del cane: valutazione clinica, comportamentale ed approccio terapeutico. [Age-related behavioural disorders in dogs: clinical, behavioural and therapeutic approach.]. Veterinaria Cremona 17(2): 41-47. ISSN: 0391-3151.
Abstract: Practicing veterinarians have long been aware of geriatric behavioural changes in pet dogs, often described by the owners as "normal aging" or "senility". The first diagnostic tool is a good knowledge of the potential behavioural changes associated with aging; afterwards any underlying medical conditions (neurologic, hormonal, structural, disease processes etc.) related to the behavioural changes should be identified. Old pet dogs exhibit multiple behavioural or "cognitive" problems indicative of cognitive dysfunction, which in some canine patients are sufficiently severe to disrupt the dog's function as an adequate pet. Aim of this study has been to analyse the different geriatric behavioural problems by mean of behaviour and clinical evaluation. During 1999-2001, forty-five dogs had been selected in the population of elderly dogs referred for behavioural abnormalities without primary organ failure. The following diagnosis has been established: cognitive dysfunction (7 cases), age-related dysthymia (3), age-related hyper-aggressiveness syndrome (8), involutive depression (6), age-related hyperattachment syndrome (6), age-related phobias (3), age-related generalized anxiety (12). In each case a therapeutic plan was implemented, including the environmental and the behavioural aspects, the human-animal relationship and a drug therapy when necessary. The recovery grade was excellent (70%) and good (25%) in most of the cases, encouraging further research on the topic.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, aging, animal behavior, geriatrics, therapy, dogs.
Language of Text: Italian, Summary in English.

Ostrander, E.A., M.A. Fleming, C.S. Mellersh, M. Gibbs, L.V. Francisco, and N.A. Wiegand (1997). A canine linkage map for analyzing breed specific behaviors in border collies and newfoundlands. American Journal of Human Genetics 61(4 Suppl.): A241. ISSN: 0002-9297.
NAL Call Number: QH431.A1A54
Descriptors: genetics, dogs, animal behavior, canine linkage mapping, gene mapping method, breed specific behaviors, border collies, Newfoundlands, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; October 28-November 1, 1997.

Overall, K.L. (1998). Animal behavior case of the month. [Separation anxiety in a dog]. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212(11): 1702-1704. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal behavior, anxiety, treatment, abnormal behavior, drug therapy, psychotropic drugs, dogs.

Overall, K.L. (1998). Animal behavior case of the month. [Stereotypical motor behaviour as a manifestation of separation anxiety in a dog]. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 213(1): 34-36. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal behavior, abnormal behavior, case reports, diagnosis, treatment, social behavior, dogs.

Overall, K.L. (1999). Teaching your aggressive dog deferential behavior. Veterinary Medicine 94(11): 984-985. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: dogs, training of animals, aggressive behavior.

Overall, K.L. (1999). Using active behavior modification to treat dominance aggression in dogs. Veterinary Medicine 94(12): 1044-1047. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: aggression, dominance, abnormal behavior, animal behavior, treatment, dogs.

Overall, K.L. (1999). Using avoidance and passive behavior modification to treat canine dominance aggression. Veterinary Medicine 94(11): 981-982. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: dogs, behavior problems, aggressive behavior, behavior modification, social dominance.

Overall, K.L. and D. Dyer (2005). Enrichment strategies for laboratory animals from the viewpoint of clinical veterinary behavioral medicine: emphasis on cats on dogs. ILAR Journal 46(2): 202-215. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: Behavioral wellness has become a recent focus for the care of laboratory animals, farm and zoo animals, and pets. Behavioral enrichment issues for these groups are more similar than dissimilar, and each group can learn from the other. The emphasis on overall enhancement for laboratory dogs and cats in this review includes an emphasis on behavioral enrichment. Understanding the range of behaviors, behavioral choices, and cognitive stimulation that cats and dogs exhibit under non-laboratory conditions can increase the ability of investigators to predict which enrichments are likely to be the most successful in the laboratory. Many of the enrichment strategies described are surprisingly straightforward and inexpensive to implement.
Descriptors: laboratory dogs, laboratory cats, literature review, behavioral enrichment, environmental enrichment, cognitive stimulation, costs.

Overall, K.L. and W. Webber (1998). Obsessive-compulsive behaviours and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in dogs and cats. Veterinary Continuing Education 185: 97-105. ISSN: 0112-9643.
Descriptors: behavior, abnormal behavior, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), dogs, cats.

Pal, S.K. (2005). Parental care in free-ranging dogs, Canis familiaris. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 90(1): 31-47. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2004.08.002
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, free ranging, gestation period, lactation, parental care, parturition, physical attack, regurgitation.

Pal, S.K., B. Ghosh, and S. Roy (1998). Agonistic behaviour of free-ranging dogs (Canis familiaris) in relation to season, sex and age. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59(4): 331-348. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00108-7
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Observations on the agonistic behaviour of 12 free-ranging dogs from 2 neighbouring groups were recorded in Katwa town, India. Both intra- and inter-group agonistic encounters were recorded for 4 h/day from March 1995 to February 1996. Agonistic encounters were more common between inter- than intra-group members (P<0.05). The mean number of intra- and inter-group agonistic encounters were greatest in the winter (13.33±1.89 and 32.25± 4.43 per season per dog respectively) and late monsoon (12.33±1.99 and 27.75±2.01 per season per dog), when the females were lactating and in oestrus, respectively. Dominance hierarchies were established among the adult dogs of either sex, based on aggressive encounters. Although individual differences in agonism were observed, overall levels of aggression were higher among the adult females than the other groups. Overall levels of submission were higher among the juvenile males than the other groups.
Descriptors: agonistic behavior, aggression, age, sex differences, seasons, breeding season, estrus, lactation, behavior, dogs.

Pal, S.K., B. Ghosh, and S. Roy (1998). Dispersal behaviour of free-ranging dogs (Canis familiaris) in relation to age, sex, season and dispersal distance. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 61(2): 123-132. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00185-3
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: The dispersal of free-ranging dogs from Katwa, West Bengal, India, was studied between January 1993 and December 1996. Between January 1993 and September 1996, 315 pups were observed from 64 litters. Pups were born between October and March each year, with a peak between November and January. The mortality rate was 68% during the first 4 months, with 102 individuals surviving to the juvenile stage (4 to 12 months). The rates of dispersal were 39.3 and 23.3% in juveniles and adults, respectively. Mean home range sizes were 4.8±1.7 and 8.4±1.7 ha for non-dispersing and dispersing dogs, respectively. Moreover, there were significant seasonal variations in the home range sizes of both non-dispersing and dispersing dogs. Juvenile males were the predominant dispersers. Dispersal occurred in all seasons and dispersal rates did not differ between seasons. However, during late monsoon (September to November), dispersal was significantly greater among males than females. The mean dispersal distance of 1.702±0.425 km was relatively small, and did not differ between males and females.
Descriptors: dogs, puppies, mortality, territory, dispersal, sex differences, age differences, seasonal variation, seasons, west bengal, monsoon season, behavior, stray animals, seasonality, seasonal variation, age differences, sex differences, dispersal, movement .

Pal, S.K., B. Ghosh, and S. Roy (1999). Inter- and intra-sexual behaviour of free-ranging dogs (Canis familiaris). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62(2-3): 267-278. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00220-2
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: During March 1994 to February 1997 the sexual behaviour of a total of 292 free-ranging dogs was observed weekly in the town of Katwa in West Bengal. Of all resident females, 20 oestrus females were studied as focal animals. The number of males which courted a female ranged from 6 to 28 (mean 13.27 for first oestrus bitches and 14.57 for older bitches). There was a positive correlation between the number of males associated with a particular oestrous bitch and the duration of each association (0.767, P<0.05). All courting males (n = 277) attempted to mount oestrus bitches but only 159 successfully copulated (144 young adults and 15 old adults). Mounting rate was higher for old than young males (mean 31.73 and 9.68 respectively; P<0.05) but a higher proportion of young than old adults copulated successfully (42 and 20%). Most females showed mating preferences and allowed some males to mount readily while avoiding and attacking other males; however, non-preferred dominant males were observed to mate forcibly. There was a negative correlation between the number of males present in an association and the number of successful copulators (-0.993, P<0.05). Occasionally, copulations were performed by opportunist males after being present only a short time. The majority (74%) of male-male encounters observed in the courting areas were aggressive. Only 74 female-female interactions were observed of which 22 were aggressive. Both male-male and female-female mountings were observed.
Descriptors: copulation, mating behavior, mating preferences, age, dogs, estrus, mating behavior, India.

Pal, S.K. (2003). Reproductive behaviour of free-ranging rural dogs in West Bengal, India. Acta Theriologica 48(2): 271-281. ISSN: 0001-7051.
NAL Call Number: 410 AC88
Abstract: Reproductive behaviour of free-ranging dogs Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 was studied in a village in the state of West Bengal, India. Increased synchronized breeding was the most striking feature of this study. October (late monsoon) represented the peak period of mating for the feral dogs. Of all courting males, only 41% were observed to mount and copulate. On average, each male mounted 5.47 [plus or minus] 2.49 (mean [plus or minus] SD) times per hour. Of all mountings, only 10% were successful matings, ie copulatory ties. There was a negative correlation between the number of courting males and the number of successful copulations. The average duration of copulatory tie was 15.73 [plus or minus] 7.75 min. Several factors interrupting the duration of copulatory ties were identified. December was the peak period of pup rearing. Mean litter size was 5.70 [plus or minus] 2.03 with a male-biased sex ratio 1.41:1. Only a single annual breeding cycle recorded here differed from the previous studies on European and American dogs. Mothers spent most of the time with their pups at the dens during the early stage of rearing. The duration of time spent at dens by mothers was minimum when the pups were highly mobile at the age of 10 weeks. The lactating mothers were observed to be more aggressive immediately following litter production. Typically, an old adult male remained near the den as a 'guard'.
Descriptors: dogs, reproductive behavior, West Bengal, Bhabanibera village, free ranging individuals.
Language of Text: English, Summary in English.

Palestrini, C. and M. Verga (2002). Lo sviluppo comportamentale del cane. [Behavioural development of dogs.]. Summa 19(2): 33-37.
Descriptors: animal behavior, dogs.
Language of Text: Italian, Summary in English.

Penaliggon, J., D.S. Mills, S.E. Heath, and L.J. Harrington (1997). The use of nicergoline in the reversal of behavioural changes due to ageing in dogs: A multicentre clinical field trial. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Veterinary Behavioural Medicine, April 1-2, 1997, Birmingham, UK, 37-41 p.
Descriptors: animal behavior, drug therapy, aging, dogs.

Pinson, D.M. (1997). Myocardial necrosis and sudden death after an episode of aggressive behavior in a dog. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211(11): 1371-1372. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: sudden death, necrosis, aggression, abnormal behavior, case reports, myocardium, stress, dogs.

Pobel, T. and M. Caudrillier (1997). Evaluation of the efficacy of selegiline hydrochloride in treating behavioural disorders of emotional origin in dogs. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Veterinary Behavioural Medicine, April 1-2, 1997, Birmingham, UK, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare: Potters Bar, Herts, Great Britain, p. 42-50.
NAL Call Number: QL750.I67 1997
Descriptors: selegiline hydrochloride, efficacy, treatment, behavioral disorders, emotions.

Pobel, T. and P. Pageat (1997). Applying gehan's strategy to the determination of an effective dose of (-)selegiline hydrochloride for treating behavioural problems of emotional origin in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 20 (Suppl. 1): 187-188. ISSN: 0140-7783.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Descriptors: behavioral disorders, veterinary medicine, dosage, evaluation of dog's emotional disorder, Gehan's strategy, levo selegiline hydrochloride, monoamine oxidase inhibitor drug, dogs, emotion.
Notes: Meeting Information: 7th European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology International Congress, Madrid, Spain; July 6-10, 1997.

Podberesck, A.L., P. Pageat, Y. Tessier, P. Neville, D.F. Horwitz, and P.A. Mertens (1998). Verhaltenstherapie bei Hund und Katze, Teil 2. [Behavioural therapy in dogs and cats. II .]. Tierarztliche Praxis 26(6): 66-78.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V433
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, treatment, animal behavior, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: German.

Podberscek, A.L., Y. Hsu, and J.A. Serpell (1999). Evaluation of clomipramine as an adjunct to behavioural therapy in the treatment of separation-related problems in dogs. Veterinary Record 145(13): 365-369. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: 49 dogs showing signs of separation-related problems were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group A (15 dogs) received a placebo twice daily; group B (17) received clomipramine at 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg twice daily; and group C (17) received clomipramine at 1.0 to 2.0 mg/kg twice daily. All the dogs also received behavioural therapy. Their owners were required to complete questionnaires about their dog's behaviour initially and 1, 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment with clomipramine began. Bipolar rating scales were used to monitor the frequencies of 'general', 'attachment-related' and 'separation-related' behaviours. Kruskal-Wallis tests and Kendall Rank correlations were used to determine any initial differences between the treatment groups, and the association between the initial scores and behavioural changes after 1 week of treatment with clomipramine. Extended Mantel-Haenszel statistics were used to evaluate the effects of clomipramine treatment vs. the placebo, and Page's test was used to assess the effectiveness of behavioural therapy on its own. There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics of the owners of the dogs assigned to the 3 groups. The dogs differed slightly in age between groups, and the dogs in the 2 clomipramine-treated groups were reported as showing problems at a significantly earlier age than those in the placebo group. Clomipramine treatment had a sustained suppressive effect on the dogs' general activity levels, and a more modest suppressive effect on their attachment-related tendency to want much physical contact with their owners. The typical signs of separation-related behaviour problems were not significantly affected by treatment with clomipramine, but behavioural therapy on its own was highly effective in reducing behavioural problems.
Descriptors: therapy, behavioral changes, animal behavior, placebos, treatment, abnormal behavior, anxiety, drug therapy, antidepressants, neurotropic drugs, dogs.

Rooney, N.J., J.W.S. Bradshaw, and I.H. Robinson (2000). A comparison of dog-dog and dog-human play behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 66(3): 235-248. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: In an observational study of dogs being walked by their owners (402), dogs which were walked together, and had opportunities to play with one another, played with their owners with the same frequency as dogs being walked alone. This finding was supported by a questionnaire survey of 2585 dog owners in which dogs in multi-dog households played slightly more often with their owners than dogs in single-dog households. The performance of dog-dog play does not, therefore, seem to suppress the dogs' motivation to play with their owners as would be predicted if they were motivationally interchangeable. In an experimental comparison of dog-dog and dog-human toy-centred play, the dogs were more likely to give up on a competition, to show and present the toy to their play partner, if that partner was human. When 2 toys were available, dogs playing with other dogs spent less time showing interest in both toys and possessed one of the toys for longer, than dogs playing with people. Overall, the dogs were more interactive and less likely to possess the object when playing with a person. It is concluded that dog-dog and dog-human play are structurally different, supporting the idea that they are motivationally distinct, and that there is no reason to assume that the consequences of dog-dog play can be extrapolated to play with humans.
Descriptors: behavior, play, motivation, toys, social behavior, dogs, human-animal interaction.

Rose, J.V., S. King, and C. Raymond (2004). Differences in the levels of canine urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid between sexes, breeds and in relation to some behavioural traits. Animal Welfare 13(Suppl.): S257-S258. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: metabolism, neural coordination, breed differences, dominant behavior, gender differences, nervous behavior, behavioral traits.
Notes: Meeting Information: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Symposium on Science in the Service of Animal Welfare, Edinburgh, UK; April 2-4, 2003.

Ruefenacht, S., S. Gebhardt Henrich, T. Miyake, and C. Gaillard (2002). A behaviour test on german shepherd dogs: Heritability of seven different traits. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 79(2): 113-132. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: dogs, German Shepherd, animal behavior, temperament, aggression, fearfulness, gender differences, heritability, phenotypic correlation, genetic correlation, hip dysplasia, selection intensity, animal breeding, selection criteria.

Savic Jevdenic, S., R. Ratajac, I. Stojanov, J. Likic, and D. Trailovic (2001). Uticaj rata mart/juni 1999. Godine na ponasanje pasa u novom sadu. [Influence of air raids during spring 1999. On dog behaviour in Novi Sad]. Veterinarski Glasnik 55(1-2): 79-85. ISSN: 0350-2457.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J93
Descriptors: behavior, sociology, population studies, aggression, behavioral and mental disorders, air raids, behavior, fear, war.
Language of Text: Serbian.

Schmidt, W.D. (2002). Verhaltenstherapie Des Hundes. [Behavioural Therapy in Dogs.], Schlutersche GmbH & Co. KG, Verlag und Druckerei: Hannover; Germany, 176 p.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, inappropriate excretion, aggression, fears and phobias, behavioral therapy, case reports, dangerous dog legislation.
Language of Text: German.

Schmidt, W.D. (2003). Einsatz von Dog Appeasing Pheromon (D.A.P.) in der Verhaltenstherapie beim Hund. [Use of dog appeasing pheromone (D.A.P.) in behavioural therapy of the dog.]. Praktische Tierarzt 84(11): 824-835. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Abstract: Dog appeasing pheromone (D.A.P.) has a positive effect on many fear-related behavioural changes and can also be used in combination with other drugs used in behavioural therapeutical regimes. The effect of the pheromone is only visible after sometime, hence, it must be administered for a certain period before effects become evident. First experiences of the author showed that D.A.P. was effective in several cases of dogs with fear-related behavioural changes. In most of these cases, no signs of fear were present after 16 weeks of therapy. Most dog owners, however, want to give D.A.P. longer to prevent recurrence of fear. The article gives an introduction into the mechanisms of action of pheromones and describes some clinical cases.
Descriptors: animal behavior, fearfulness, pheromones, dogs.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Schmutz, S.M. and J.K. Schmutz (1998). Heritability estimates of behaviors associated with hunting in dogs. Journal of Heredity 89(3): 233-237. ISSN: 0022-1503.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 Am3
Descriptors: dog behavior, genetics, breeding stock, heritability of traits, hunting behavior, North American Versatile Hunting Dog Association (NAVHDA), large Munsterlander.

Schwartz, S. (1997). Canine and Feline Behavior Problems: Instructions for Veterinary Clients. 2nd edition, Mosby: St. Louis, MO , 144 p. ISBN: 0815189095.
NAL Call Number: SF433.S38 1997
Abstract: Loose-leaf sheets are intended to be photocopied for handing to clients, to help them cope with behavioural problems in dogs and cats, such as aggression, predation and destructiveness. Training for obedience is included.
Descriptors: dogs, cats, behavior problems, diagnosis, treatment.

Seksel, K., E.J. Mazurski, and A. Taylor (1999). Puppy socialisation programs: short and long term behavioural effects. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62(4): 335-349. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: puppies, training of animals, learning, stimuli, temperament, breed differences, animal behavior, sex differences.

Seksel, K. and W. Webber (1998). Developmental aspects of behaviour: puppies and kittens. Veterinary Continuing Education 185: 23-28. ISSN: 0112-9643.
Descriptors: puppies, kittens, behavior, postnatal development, young animals, cats, dogs.

Shapovalova, K.B. (1998). Participation of cholinergic systems of the shell and core parts of nucleus accumbens in regulation of instrumental behavior of dogs. Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'Nosti Imeni I. P. Pavlova. 48(6): 1099-1103. ISSN: 0044-4677.
Abstract: Different effects of carbacholine microinjections in the core and shell parts of the n. accumbens were revealed in chronic experiments carried out in 6 dogs. Both kinds of microinjections led to unspecific and prolonged motor activation of the instrumental defensive reaction.
Descriptors: behavior, nervous system, neural coordination, defensive behavior.
Language of Text: Russian.

Shapovalova, K.B. (1999). Muscarinic receptors of the neostriatum and instrumental behavior in dogs. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 25(1-2): 1155. ISSN: 0190-5295.
NAL Call Number: QP351.S6
Descriptors: behavior, nervous system, muscarinic receptors, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 29th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience., Miami Beach, Florida, USA; October 23-28, 1999.

Shepherd, K. (1999). Behavioural changes following limb amputation in dogs. Veterinary Record 144(7): 185-186. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Anecdotal evidence for behavioural changes after limb amputation in dogs is presented and the reasons for the changes are discussed.
Descriptors: surgery, animal behavior, amputation, limbs, dogs.

Shull, E.A. (2002). Effects of an investigational food on age-related behavioural changes in dogs. In: Symposium on brain aging and related behavioral changes in dogs, January 11, 2002, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17-19 p.
Descriptors: animal behavior, dog foods, nutrition, nutritive value, dogs.

Slabbert, J.M. and O.A.E. Rasa (1997). Observational learning of an acquired maternal behaviour pattern by working dog pups: an alternative training method? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53(4): 309-316. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: German shepherd pups from untrained bitches and bitches trained in the location of narcotics were either separated from their mothers at 6 weeks (standard raised) or at 3 months of age (extended maternal care). Pups with extended maternal care which were allowed to observe their trained mothers locating and retrieving a sachet of odour-producing narcotic between the ages of 6 and 12 weeks performed the same task significantly better than non-exposed pups when tested at the age of 6 months, without further reinforcement during the interim period. This difference in performance was independent of the duration of maternal care or maternal origin of the pups and was attributed to differences in early experience acquired through observational learning.
Descriptors: behavior, veterinary medicine, acquired maternal behavior pattern, behavior, breed German shepherd, drug sniffing bitch, duration, maternal care, narcotics location training, observational learning, untrained bitch, working dog performance.

Spangenberg, E.M.F., L. Bjorklund, and K. Dahlborn (2006). Outdoor housing of laboratory dogs: effects on activity, behaviour and physiology. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 98(3/4): 260-276. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Laboratory dogs are mainly housed indoors and outdoor housing is often considered to be an insecure and uncontrollable alternative. This study aimed to assess the effects of outdoor housing of laboratory dogs on their general physiology, activity and activity-related behaviours. Eight male Beagles dogs were randomised into two groups and housed pair wise in indoor housing (IH, 11 m2), with or without access to an outdoor kennel (OH, 11 m2) during daytime. Activity (steps per hour), behaviour, and usage of outdoor facilities were recorded during 6 weeks in a cross-over design. In addition, the dogs were weighed once weekly and blood samples were taken three times a week to monitor physiological parameters for kidney, liver, pancreas and immune system functions. Four of the dogs were housed with access to outdoor kennel prior to the study and the other four had only been housed indoors. The effect of housing type and previous housing was analysed. OH resulted in a significantly higher activity level, a higher frequency of moving and a lower frequency of passive behaviour. Alanine amino transferase, white blood cell count, granulocytes and neutrophils were significantly higher in IH, while cholesterol was lower, compared to OH, although all physiological parameters were kept within normal ranges. The dogs spent on average 162+or-11 out of 500 possible min/day outside and the average frequency of entering the outdoor kennel was 102+or-7 times per day. The duration of time spent outdoors was significantly longer during the second and third weeks of OH, compared to the first week. In conclusion, laboratory dogs can be housed with access to an outdoor kennel without altering their general physiology. Further, it clearly increased the voluntary activity and activity-related behaviours of the dogs and should therefore be beneficial for their welfare..
Descriptors: activity, alanine aminotransferase, behavior, animal experiments, physiology, Beagle, kidneys, laboratory animals, liver, neutrophils, pancreas.

Spooner, S. (1998). La medecine du comportement en clientele canine et feline. [Abnormal behaviour in the dog and cat.]. Medecin Veterinaire Du Quebec 28(2): 69-73.
NAL Call Number: SF602.M8
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, diagnosis, treatment, dogs, cats.
Language of Text: French.

Stafford, K. and W. Webber (1998). Canine and feline behaviour: impact on society. Veterinary Continuing Education 185: 113-119. ISSN: 0112-9643.
Descriptors: social behavior, animal behavior, human animal interactions, pets, dogs, cats.

Stephen, J.M. and R.A. Ledger (2004). Temperament and stress in kennelled dogs. Animal Welfare 13(Suppl.): S256. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, philosophy and ethics, kennelling, applied and field techniques, battersea dogs' home, RSPCA, fear, rescue kennel, stress, temperament.
Notes: Meeting Information: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Symposium on Science in the Service of Animal Welfare, Edinburgh, UK; April 2-4, 2003.

Stephen, J.M. and R.A. Ledger (2005). An audit of behavioral indicators of poor welfare in kenneled dogs in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 8(2): 79-96. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: This survey-based study describes the prevalence and onset of behavioral indicators of poor welfare in dogs kenneled at United Kingdom rescue shelters. It describes key factors contributing to individual variation in behaviors. At 8 rescue shelters, staff trained in the care of nonhuman animals recorded daily whether dogs in their care displayed each of 15 behaviors. The study originally involved 302 dogs; for the first 14 days, it monitored only 148 dogs daily. The study observed dogs for a maximum of 6 weeks from admittance, observing all 15 behaviors at least once during the first 2 weeks (n = 148). The proportion of dogs observed to perform each behavior differed within the sample. The most commonly observed behavior (24.3% of dogs) was excessive barking. The remaining 14 behaviors ranged from listlessness (20.3%) to repetitive tail-chasing (1.3%). Over the 6 weeks, the proportion observed to pace repetitively and wall bounce increased. The proportion who lacked appetite and displayed fear -associated behavior decreased. Breed differences, gender, and age partially explained variability in the onset and prevalence of behavioral indicators of poor welfare in kenneled dogs.
Descriptors: animal husbandry statistics and numerical data, behavior, animal physiology, animal welfare, dogs, england epidemiology, incidence, pedigree, prevalence, questionnaires, social isolation.

Suzuki, M. (2004). Apparatus for determining dog's emotions by vocal analysis of barking sounds and method for the same. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1284(2) ISSN: 0098-1133.
Online: http://www.uspto.gov/web/menu/patdata.html
NAL Call Number: T223 .A21
Abstract: A method of determining a dog's emotions from its voice with objective supports. The invention follows the procedures of converting dog's voices into electrical audio signals, extracting characteristics in a time to frequency component relation map of the audio signals as a input voice pattern, storing in advance in memory reference voice patterns for various emotions that respectively represent characteristics of time to frequency component relation maps, comparing the input voice pattern with the reference voice patterns, and determining what a dog feels by declaring emotion of the particular reference voice pattern showing the highest correlation with the input voice pattern as a result of the comparison, and emotions represented by the reference voice patterns include "loneliness", "frustration", "aggressiveness", "assertiveness", "happiness", and "wistfulness", and hence, the present invention attains an effective way of determining dog's emotions with objective supports.
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, communication, equipment apparatus devices and instrumentation, voice input apparatus, computer software.

Takeuchi, Y., N. Ogata, K.A. Houpt, and J.M. Scarlett (2001). Differences in background and outcome of three behavior problems of dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70(4): 297-308. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: In order to characterize the three major behaviour problems, aggression toward owners, aggression toward strangers and separation anxiety, backgrounds of dogs and general outcomes of the behavioural treatments were analyzed retrospectively. There were 169 cases of aggression toward owners, 84 cases of aggression toward strangers and 78 cases of separation anxiety which did not overlap each other during the 5 years from 1993 to 1997 at Cornell University Animal Behaviour Clinic. Based on the case records, including discharge instructions, follow-up information, and pre-presentation questionnaires, several variables were compared among these three groups. The sexual status of these groups was not statistically different, although dogs with aggression toward owners had the highest proportion of males and there were more males in all behaviour groups than in the hospital population. Also, breed types were different among three groups with a significantly higher proportion of mixed breed dogs among dogs with separation anxiety and aggression to strangers as compared to dogs with aggression to owners and to the hospital population. A higher percentage of dogs in the separation anxiety group tended to live in apartments and to be disciplined only verbally by the owner than in the other two groups. Age differences were apparent among the three groups in relation to when the dogs were obtained, and the separation anxiety group was different from at least one of the other groups in the age when first obtained, the age the owners first noticed the problem, and the age of behavioural examination. Regarding the general outcome of the behavioural treatment, there were no significant differences among the behavioural groups with regards to the proportion of dogs reported improved. These results provide new characterizations of these three major behaviour problems.
Descriptors: dogs, animal behavior, behavior problems, aggressive behavior, social dominance, territoriality, anxiety, sex differences, breed differences, age differences, animal housing, training of animals, treatment, behavior modification, separation anxiety.

Tanabe, Y. and K. Yamazaki (2001). Differences in behavioural characteristics of dog breeds based on a survey of consultations with clients. Emphasis on their suitability as family pets. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Japan 54(1): 9-14. ISSN: 0447-0192.
Descriptors: animal behavior, breed differences, dog breeds, pets, surveys, dogs.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Topal, J., A. Miklosi, and V. Csanyi (1997). Dog-human relationship affects problem-solving behavior in the dog. Anthrozoos 10(4): 214-224. ISSN: 0892-7936.
NAL Call Number: SF411.A57
Descriptors: dogs, animal behavior, human-animal interaction, learning.

Topal, J., A. Miklosi, V. Csanyi, and A. Doka (1998). Attachment behavior in dogs (canis familiaris): a new application of ainsworth's (1969) strange situation test. Journal of Comparative Psychology 112(3): 219-229. ISSN: 0735-7036.
NAL Call Number: BF671.J6
Abstract: Fifty-one owner-dog pairs were observed in a modified version of M. D. S. Ainsworth's (1969) Strange Situation Test. The results demonstrate that adult dogs (Canis familiaris) show patterns of attachment behavior toward the owner. Although there was considerable variability in dogs' attachment behavior to humans, the authors did not find any effect of gender, age, living conditions, or breed on most of the behavioral variables. The human-dog relationship was described by means of a factor analysis in a 3-dimensional factor space: Anxiety, Acceptance, and Attachment. A cluster analysis revealed 5 substantially different classes of dogs, and dogs could be categorized along the secure-insecure attached dimensions of Ainsworth's original test. A dog's relationship to humans is analogous to child-parent and chimpanzee-human attachment behavior because the observed behavioral phenomena and the classification are similar to those described in mother-infant interactions.
Descriptors: behavior, anxiety, behavioral and mental disorders, ainsworth's strange situation test, analytical method, acceptance, attachment behavior, dog owner interaction.

Turner, D.C. (1997). Treating canine and feline behaviour problems and advising clients. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52(3-4): 199-204. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: In this introductory paper, pet behaviour counselling and therapy is considered. A case is made for cooperation between veterinarians and trained pet behaviour advisors and for qualification of professionals working in the field. The general causes of behaviour problems, as well as general principles of treatment, are considered. The importance of careful examination of the case in order to arrive at a differential diagnosis of the problem is illustrated by two examples: urine marking versus undesirable elimination in cats; and destructiveness related to separation anxiety versus boredom in dogs. Behaviour towards the client is also considered.
Descriptors: diagnosis, treatment, behavior, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, behavior patterns, pet behavior counseling, behavioral therapy, veterinary profession, pets, dogs, cats.

Turner, D.C. (2002). Das verhalten von hunden und katzen. Beruehrungspunkte zwischen mensch und tier. [The behaviour of dogs and cats. Points of contact between man and animal.]. Vierteljahrsschrift Der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zuerich 147(2): 51-61. ISSN: 0042-5672.
NAL Call Number: 508 Z8
Descriptors: domestication of dogs, breeding, breed differences, dogs, cats, behavior, human-companion animal relationship.
Language of Text: German.

van Winkle Martinez, K.D. (2003). Conditioning for adoptable behaviors in shelter dogs. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 96(Suppl.): 45. ISSN: 0019-2252.
NAL Call Number: 500 Il6
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, adoptable behavior, condition training, animal shelters, dogs.
Notes: Meeting Information: 95th Annual Meeting of the Illinois State Academy of Science, Normal, Illinois, USA; April 45, 2003.

Vandaele, E. and A. Girard (2001). Pheromones des femelles allaitantes: les apaisines des mammiferes contre le stress et l'anxiete .[Soothing pheromones (apaisins) from lactating mammals for treating stress and anxiety in dogs]. Point Veterinaire 32(217): 16-17. ISSN: 0335-4997.
NAL Call Number: SF602.P6
Descriptors: anxiety, pheromones, stress, treatment, dogs, feeding.
Language of Text: French.

Varshney, J.P. (2001). Aberrant canine behaviours: an overview. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 21(1): 1-9. ISSN: 0970-051X.
NAL Call Number: SF703.I54
Abstract: Various behavioral problems in dogs such as aggression, aberrant sexual behaviors, urination and defecation are discussed. Also, the diagnosis and management of these behavioral disorders, through environmental alterations or physiologic manipulation, are described.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, aggressive behavior, diagnosis.

Verga, M. (1997). Comportamenti "disturbati" od "indesiderabili" nel cane domestico. Ia Parte: individuazione del problema ed ipotesi di intervento. [Abnormal or undesirable behaviour in dogs. I. Identification of the problem and possible therapeutic approaches.]. Praxis Veterinaria Milano 18(2): 13-15.
Descriptors: dog diseases, therapy, diagnosis, abnormal behavior.
Language of Text: Italian.

Verga, M. and C. Palestrini (2001). Disturbi comportamentali nel cane: il problema dell'aggressivita.. [Behavioural disorders in dogs: aggression.]. Summa 18(7): 57-63.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, aetiology, aggression, aggressive behavior, animal behavior.
Language of Text: Italian, Summary in English.

Virga, V., K.A. Houpt, and J.M. Scarlett (2001). Efficacy of amitriptyline as a pharmacological adjunct to behavioral modification in the management of aggressive behaviors in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 37(4): 325-330. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Abstract: The efficacy of amitriptyline as a pharmacological adjunct to behavioural modification in the clinical management of aggressive behaviours in dogs in New York, USA was evaluated in 2 phases. 12 dogs presenting for aggressive behaviours were treated sequentially with amitriptyline (2 mg/kg body weight, per os [PO] bid) and a placebo for 4 weeks in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Standardized protocols for behaviour modification were implemented throughout the trial. Owners maintained behavioural records and reported on the number of aggressive incidents as well as the dog's overall improvement at the end of each 4-week period. In the second phase (1998-99), 27 cases of dogs presenting with aggressive behaviours and treated with amitriptyline were reviewed, and clients were contacted to record each dog's response to treatment. Reports were compared to those for dogs receiving behaviour modification alone (i.e., placebo phase of prospective study). No significant difference was observed in the patients' responses to adjunctive amitriptyline versus behaviour modification alone.
Descriptors: aggressive behavior, animal behavior, antidepressants, combination therapy.

Wells, D. and P.G. Hepper (2000). The influence of environmental change on the behaviour of sheltered dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 68(2): 151-162. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(00)00100-3
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: shelters, animal welfare, temperament, cages, consumer preferences, environment, enrichment, animal behavior, behavior change.

Wells, D.L. (2003). Lateralised behaviour in the domestic dog, Canis familiaris. Behavioural Processes 61(1-2): 27-35. ISSN: 0376-6357.
NAL Call Number: QL750.B4
Descriptors: paw use, domestic dogs, paw preference, sex differences.

Wells, D.L., L. Graham, and P.G. Hepper (2002). The influence of auditory stimulation on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter. Animal Welfare 11(4): 385-393. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Abstract: This study explored the influence of five types of auditory stimulation (human conversation, classical music, heavy metal music, pop music, and a control) on the behaviour of 50 dogs housed in a rescue shelter. The dogs were exposed to each type of auditory stimulation for 4 h, with an intervening period of one day between conditions. The dogs' position in their kennels (front, back), their activity (moving, standing, sitting, resting, sleeping), and their vocalisation (barking, quiet, other) were recorded over 4 h at 10 min intervals during each condition of auditory stimulation. The dogs' activity and vocalisation were significantly related to auditory stimulation. Dogs spent more time resting and less time standing when classical music was played than when any of the other stimuli were played. Exposure to heavy metal music encouraged dogs to spend significantly more of their time barking than did other types of auditory stimulation. Classical music resulted in dogs spending significantly more of their time quiet than did other types of auditory stimulation. It is suggested that the welfare of sheltered dogs may be enhanced through exposure to appropriate forms of auditory stimulation. Classical music appears particularly beneficial, resulting in activities suggestive of relaxation and behaviours that are considered desirable by potential buyers. This form of music may also appeal to visitors, resulting in enhanced perceptions of the rescue shelter's environment and an increased desire to adopt a dog from such a source.
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, philosophy and ethics, activity, animal welfare, auditory stimulation, captivity, moving, music, rescue shelter, resting, sitting, sleeping, standing, vocalization.

Wells, D.L., L. Graham, and P.G. Hepper (2002). The influence of length of time in a rescue shelter on the behaviour of kennelled dogs. Animal Welfare 11(3): 317-325. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Abstract: Animal rescue shelters provide temporary housing for thousands of stray and abandoned dogs every year. Many of these animals fail to find new homes and are forced to spend long periods of time in kennels. This study examined the influence of the length of time spent in a rescue shelter ( < 1 month, 2-12 months, 1-5 years, > 5 years) on the behaviour of 97 dogs. The dogs' position in their kennels (front, back), their activity (moving, standing, sitting, resting, sleeping), and their vocalisation (barking, quiet, other) were recorded over a 4 h period at 10 min intervals. The dogs' behaviour was significantly related to the length of time the animals had spent in the rescue shelter. Dogs housed in the shelter for over five years spent more of their time at the back of their kennels, more time resting, and less time barking than dogs housed in the shelter for shorter periods of time. The age of the dog could not account for the significant results found, suggesting that environmental factors were responsible for the change in the dogs' behaviour. The findings suggest that lengthy periods of time spent in a captive environment may encourage dogs to behave in a manner that is generally considered unattractive by potential buyers. This may decrease the chances of such dogs being adopted, resulting in longer periods of time spent in the kennel environment and the possible development of further undesirable behaviours.
Descriptors: animal behavior, environmental factors, kennels, shelters, stray animals, duration, physical activity, vocalization, rest, age differences, animal welfare.

Wells, D.L. and P.G. Hepper (1998). A note on the influence of visual conspecific contact on the behaviour of sheltered dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 60(1): 83-88. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00146-4
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: kennel design, housing, single housing, rescue shelter, behavior, visual contact, animal welfare, animal shelters.

Wells, D.L. and P.G. Hepper (2000). Prevalence of behaviour problems reported by owners of dogs purchased from an animal rescue shelter. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 69(1): 55-65. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(00)00118-0
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: This study examined the prevalence of behaviour problems exhibited by dogs within 4 weeks of acquisition from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland. 1547 people who had purchased a dog from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland were sent a postal questionnaire designed to collect information on the behaviours exhibited by their dog within the first month of acquisition. 556 people responded to the survey, representing a response rate of 37%. The majority of respondents (68.3%) reported that their dog exhibited a behaviour problem, the most common being fearfulness. Most of those respondents (89.7%) who returned their dog to the shelter did so because the animal exhibited behaviour that they considered undesirable. Male dogs showed more unacceptable behaviours than females, specifically inter-male aggression, sexual problems and straying tendencies. More stray dogs displayed undesirable behaviour than unwanteds, specifically straying tendencies. Puppies were less likely to exhibit unacceptable behaviours than juveniles or adults, particularly fearfulness, sexual problems and straying tendencies. More juvenile dogs showed excessive activity and excessive barking than puppies or adults. More adult dogs displayed aggression towards other dogs than juveniles or puppies. Findings indicate that dogs purchased from rescue shelters do exhibit behaviour problems that may lead to their return. The number of dogs admitted or returned to rescue shelters with behaviour problems may be reduced by raising public awareness regarding the value of behaviour therapy and introducing behaviour therapy schemes to rescue shelters.
Descriptors: aggression, fearfulness, puppies, animal behavior, behavior problems, fearfulness, sex differences, age differences, aggressive behavior, stray animals, animal welfare, behavior modification, vocalization, hyperactivity, abnormal behavior, northern Ireland, destructiveness.

Wells, D.L. and P.G. Hepper (2001). The behavior of visitors towards dogs housed in an animal rescue shelter. Anthrozoos 14(1): 12-18. ISSN: 0892-7936.
NAL Call Number: SF411.A57
Abstract: The behavior of visitors towards dogs housed in rescue shelters has been subject to little research. This study explored the behavior of 76 visitors to a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland as they toured the dogs' kennels. The number of dogs that visitors stopped to look at, the nature of all interactions that visitors initiated with the dogs and the outcome of the visitors' tour of the shelter, were examined. The influence of the visitors' sex and the size of the group touring the kennels, on the visitors' behavior was also explored. On average, the visitors stopped to look at 29% of the total number of dogs available for purchase. Dogs housed in cages closest to the shelter entrance were more likely to attract attention from the visitors than those housed further away. When they stopped to look at a dog, visitors spent an average of 70 seconds in front of the animal's cage. Thirty-one of the visitors initiated an interaction with a dog, which lasted for an average of 20 seconds. Three visitors purchased a dog at the end of their tour of the shelter. Individuals who purchased a dog spent significantly more time standing in front of their future pet's cage, and engaged in more interactions with this animal, than dogs that they did not purchase. The size of the group touring the shelter was significantly related to the visitors' behavior. Individuals touring the shelter alone stopped in front of more dogs' cages, spent more time in front of the dogs' enclosures, initiated more interactions, and purchased more dogs, than those visiting in pairs or groups. The visitors' sex was unrelated to their behavior. The findings suggest that visitors to rescue shelters only show an interest in a small proportion of dogs available for purchase. Elucidating exactly what factors influence visitors' perceptions of, and behavior towards, sheltered dogs may further our understanding as to why so many animals are overlooked for purchase every year..
Descriptors: animal housing, human behavior, kennels, shelters, visitors, dogs.

Wells, D.L. (2004). A review of environmental enrichment for kennelled dogs, Canis familiaris. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 85(3-4): 307-317. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2003.11.005
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Domestic dogs can be housed in a variety of confined conditions, including kennels, shelters and laboratories. Concern over the well-being of dogs housed in human care has prompted much research in recent years into the enrichment of environments for kennelled dogs. This paper highlights the findings and recommendations arising from this work. Two types of general enrichment method are discussed, namely animate (i.e. enrichment through the provision of social contacts with conspecifics and humans) and inanimate (i.e. enrichment through the provision of toys, cage furniture, auditory and olfactory stimulation). The benefits and, where relevant, possible disadvantages, to these various types of enrichment method are highlighted throughout.
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, animal welfare, animate enrichment, auditory stimulation, cage furniture, dog kennel, environmental enrichment, housing conditions, human contact, inanimate enrichment, olfactory stimulation, rescue shelter, social contact, toys.

Wickens, S., R. Hubrecht, T. Buckwell, D. Gregory, D. Robb, M. Wilsson, and I. Rochlitz (2001). Report of the 2000 UFAW/RSPCA Carnivore Welfare Group meeting. Animal Technology 52(1): 43-47. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: QL55.I5
Descriptors: social behavior, aggression, housing, animal welfare, cages, laboratory animals, metabolism cages, carnivores, cats, dogs.

Wiesner, D. (1998). Untersuchungen zum Verhalten des Hundes in Zusammenleben mit dem Menschen. Ein Beitrag zum Verstandnis moglicher problematischer Entwicklungen sowie zu ihrer systematischen Erfassung. [Behaviour of dogs living in proximity to human beings, and the recording of behavioural problems.]. Dissertation, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Justus-Liebig-Universitat: Giessen, Germany. 250 p.
Descriptors: animal behavior, recording, human-animal interaction, thesis.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Wiesner, D. and H. Bostedt (2000). Untersuchungen zum Verhalten des Hundes im Zusammenleben mit dem Menschen. Teil 1: Darstellung des methodischen Vorgehens und erste Ergebnisse. [Behaviour of dogs living with humans. Part 1: description of methods and first results.]. Tierarztliche Praxis 28(4): 239-246. ISSN: 1434-1239.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V433
Descriptors: behavior, pets, data collection, recording, dogs.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Wiesner, D. and H. Bostedt (2000). Untersuchungen zum Verhalten des Hundes im Zusammenleben mit dem Menschen. Teil 2: Ergebnisse (Fortsetzung). [Evaluation of behaviour in companion dogs. Part 2: Results.]. Tierarztliche Praxis 28(6): 399-404. ISSN: 1434-1239.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V433
Abstract: The prevalence of aggressive behaviour was studied in companion dogs. A relationship was found between the dog behaviour and owners treatment of dogs.
Descriptors: behavior, abnormal behavior, aggression, companion dogs, dog-owner interaction.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Wilden, I. (1997). Peculiarities in the social behaviour of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and consequences for the management. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, August 21-25, 1995, Copenhagen, Copenhagen Zoo: Frederiksberg, p. 260-267. ISBN: 8789431146.
Descriptors: Lycaon pictus, social behavior, housing, litter box lay out, implications for management in captivity, African wild dogs.

Wilsson, E. and P.E. Sundgren (1997). The use of a behaviour test for selection of dogs for service and breeding. II. Heritability for tested parameters and effect of selection based on service dog characteristics. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54(2-3): 235-241. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: 1002 German shepherds and 467 Labrador retrievers, bred by the Swedish Dog Training Centre (SDTC) during 1983-91, and 308 German shepherds and 330 Labrador retrievers, from private breeders, were subjectively scored on behavioural traits. The score for each trait were pooled to give an index value for each dog. The heritability for this index value was 0.24. Heritability was also calculated for 4 factors (mental stability, willingness to please, friendliness and ardour) derived from a factor analysis of the test results. Heritability estimates for these 4 factors were 0.15-0.32. From 1986, all breeding animals at the SDTC were recruited from litters where the mean index value was above average. By 1992, the average index value for male German shepherds had increased from about 8 units to 9 units. German shepherds bred by the SDTC had higher index values than privately bred dogs. Ways in which to collect information about dog behaviour are discussed and it is suggested that a subjective evaluation of certain behaviour characteristics is superior to a factual description of reactions. [For Pt. I see pp.279-295 of volume 53 of the same journal].
Descriptors: German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, genetics, heritability, selection, behavior, breeding, selection index, working animals, characteristics, animal behavior, behavior patterns, selection criteria.

Wilsson, E. and P.E. Sundgren (1998). Behaviour test for eight-week old puppies - heritabilities of tested behaviour traits and its correspondence to later behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 58(1-2): 151-162. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Play and exploratory behaviour, and behaviour when isolated (total of 10 tests) was tested in 630 German Shepherd puppies at 8 weeks of age. All dogs were also tested at 450-600 days of age using to regimen for selection of service dogs. Significant sex differences were found in 4 of the 10 puppy tests. Generally, female puppies showed significantly shorter fetch times, were more active and showed more exploratory behaviour than male puppies. There were also significant correlations between scores for different puppy tests. Correspondence of puppy test results to adult performance was negligible and the puppy test was not useful in predicting adult suitability for service dog work. Heritability for scores in the puppy tests ranged from 0.20 for retrieving behaviour to 0.53 for activity. Maternal effects on the puppy test results were found when estimations based on sire and dam variances were compared.
Descriptors: temperament, genetics, ontogeny, puppies, traits, behavior, sex differences, heritability, maternal effects, physical activity, searching behavior, social behavior, play, performance testing, age differences, vocalization, fearfulness, human-animal interaction.

Wirant, S.C. and B. Mcguire (2004). Urinary behavior of female domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): influence of reproductive status, location, and age. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 85(3-4): 335-348. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2003.09.012
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: The urinary behavior of adult domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) is sexually dimorphic with respect to the posture (males lift a leg and females squat), frequency of urination (males urinate more frequently than females), and tendency to direct urine at specific objects in the environment (males are more likely than females to direct their urine). Such behavioral differences have led to the belief that urination functions largely, or exclusively, in elimination in female dogs, while having the additional function of scent marking in male dogs. In this study, we observed urinary behavior of six spayed and six non-estrous intact female Jack Russell Terriers during walks on and off their home area. The females ranged in age from 0.4 to 11.2 years. Frequency of urination was positively correlated with age, and females four or more years old directed the majority of their urinations at objects in the environment. Overall, females urinated more frequently and directed more of their urinations when walked off their home area than when walked within their home area. Spayed females were more likely than non-estrous intact females to ground-scratch following defecation; we detected a similar trend for ground-scratching after urination. There was, however, considerable variation among spayed females in the tendency to display ground-scratching behavior. Overall, the most common posture displayed by females while urinating was the squat-raise. Other postures, in order of their frequency of occurrence included squat, arch-raise, combination, and handstand. Females used the squat-raise and arch-raise postures more when off their home area than when on their home area. Overall, there was substantial individual variation among females in the postures used while urinating. Our data indicate that female urinary behavior varies with location and reproductive status, and that substantial individual differences exist among females for some patterns of behavior. Additionally, the large percentages of directed urinations by spayed (60.8%) and non-estrous intact females (56.7%) in our study suggest that urination in female dogs does not function solely in elimination, but that it also has a significant role in scent marking, even when females are not in estrus.
Descriptors: veterinary medicine, age, home area, location, reproductive status, scent marking, urinary behavior, urinary frequency, urination direction, urination posture.

Wiseman, M.L., A.M. Nolan, J. Reid, and E.M. Scott (2001). Preliminary study on owner-reported behaviour changes associated with chronic pain in dogs. Veterinary Record 149(14): 423-424. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: This article presents and discusses the results of a study conducted on owners of 13 dogs diagnosed with chronic degenerative diseases. The owners were asked to assess and report changes in the dog's behaviour, attitude and demeanor. The reports of the owners were compared with the assessment of 6 veterinary surgeons regarding chronic pain. The data provided by the owners suggest that dog owners maybe valuable source of information about behavioural disturbances.
Descriptors: behavior, behavioral changes, pain, chronic, degenerative diseases.

Wisniewska, V. and G. Kulasek (1998). Wybrane rodzaje zachowan u psow. [Selected behavioural patterns in dogs.]. Magazyn Weterynaryjny 7(1): 54-57. ISSN: 1230-4425.
Descriptors: aggression, animal behavior.
Language of Text: Polish.

Yamada, M. and M. Tokuriki (2000). Spontaneous activities measured continuously by an accelerometer in Beagle dogs housed in a cage. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62(4): 443-447. ISSN: 0021-5295.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Abstract: Spontaneous physical activity for investigating behavioural drug toxicity was recorded continuously in 10 Beagle dogs housed in individual cages for 2 h using an accelerometer and a video camera. Gross differentiation of quantitative behavioural parameters was possible with the accelerometer alone when threshold and acceleration volume values were set at 0.10 G and _251. At these settings, the accelerometer revealed only movements of whole-body, whereas at threshold value of 0.02 G movements of individual body parts could be identified.
Descriptors: animal behavior, abnormal behavior, drug toxicity, instruments, dogs.

Yamamoto, T. (2003). Unusual behaviour and a post-traumatic stress-like syndrome (PTSD) in dogs after a vigorous earthquake on a seismic scale of 5+. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Japan 56(7): 535-541. ISSN: 0447-0192.
Abstract: After an earthquake on 4th March 2001 in the Chugoku district in western Japan, 155 dogs were surveyed in and around Iwakuni city. Abnormal behaviour was reported in 82 (53%) of the dogs, which showed trembling, howling, restlessness, scampering about, or wild excitement. Of the 82 dogs, 15 developed a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with persistent tremor, anorexia, intermittent howling, excitement, or repeated diarrhoea; these symptoms persisted for one year in one dog, 3-4 weeks in 9 dogs and less than 10 days in 5 dogs. The unusual behaviour started about an hour before the earthquake in 4 dogs.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, animal behavior, earthquakes, dogs.
Language of Text: Japanese, Summary in English.

Yeon, S.C., H.N. Erb, and K.A. Houpt (1999). A retrospective study of canine house soiling: diagnosis and treatment. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 35(2): 101-106. ISSN: 0587-2781.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Abstract: A retrospective study was conducted to determine the relative frequency and type of elimination problem seen in dogs at a university referral practice and to evaluate the efficacy of the suggested treatments. Cases presented to the Animal Behaviour Clinic at Cornell University between 1987 and 1996 were reviewed. Of 1173 cases, 105 (9%) were house-soiling cases. Of these cases, outcome information was obtained from 70. Within the diagnosis of house soiling, incomplete housebreaking (n=59; 84%) were the most frequent referral cases, of which 48 cases (81%; 95% confidence interval, 69% to 90%) improved. Separation anxiety was considered the second most common underlying cause (n=27; 39%), of which 85% (n=23; 95% confidence interval, 66% to 96%) improved. Behaviour modification was the most often suggested treatment (n=58), with 48 (83%) cases improving. Behaviour modification consisted of accompanying the dog to the preferred elimination area, rewarding the dog for eliminating there, and punishing the dog only when caught in the act of house soiling. It is concluded that correct house training, behaviour modification involving positive reinforcement, and appropriate punishment are essential to diminish house-soiling problems in dogs.
Descriptors: diagnosis, treatment, animal behavior, training of animals, urination, excretion, defecation, abnormal behavior, training of animals, motivation, diagnosis, age differences, sex differences.

Yonezawa, A., R. Ando, C. Watanabe, S. Furuta, M. Kutsuwa, S. Sakurada, and Y. Kimura (2001). Alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists: effects on ejaculation, penile erection and pelvic thrusting behavior in dogs. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 70(1): 141-147. ISSN: 0091-3057.
NAL Call Number: QP901.P4
Abstract: We previously reported that systemic administration of yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, exerts a biphasic effect (stimulating and suppressing) on ejaculation in dogs, when this function is analyzed using the amount of ejaculated semen in response to genital stimulation. To clarify the effect of alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade on male sexual function, we investigated the effects of four selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists, rauwolscine, idazoxan, RX821002 and mydaglizole, on sexual responses (ejaculation, penile erection and pelvic thrusting behavior) elicited by manual penile stimulation in dogs. Rauwolscine (intraperitoneal, 30 min before the testing) caused a biphasic effect on ejaculation; the amount of ejaculated semen produced by the stimulation was significantly increased by the lower doses (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg), whereas it was decreased by the higher doses (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg). The higher doses of rauwolscine also markedly inhibited both penile erection and pelvic thrusting behavior. Idazoxan and RX821002, at doses of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, caused a significant increase in the amount of ejaculated semen without affecting other sexual functions. RX821002 (2.0 mg/kg), but not idazoxan (2.0 mg/kg), moderately inhibited both penile erection and pelvic thrusting behavior. Mydaglizole, a peripherally acting alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, did not affect the sexual responses at any doses (0.1-4.0 mg/kg). In the ejaculatory declining test, all alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists (0.1 mg/kg), except for mydaglizole, completely prevented the decrease in ejaculatory capacity produced by antecedent ejaculation. These results indicate that, though the range of the effective dose is narrow, the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists that can block the central alpha2-adrenoceptors have the stimulatory effects on ejaculatory function. The difference of the sexual effects may be based on the action except for the alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade.
Descriptors: behavior, pharmacology, ejaculation, pelvic thrusting behavior, penile erection, sexual function.

 

 

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