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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Dogs: Animal Welfare Information Center
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He, Q., J.C. Fyfe, A.A. Schaffer, A. Kilkenney, P. Werner, E.F. Kirkness, and P.S. Henthorn (2003). Canine imerslund-grasbeck syndrome maps to a region orthologous to hsa14q. Mammalian Genome 14(11): 758-764. ISSN: 0938-8990.
NAL Call Number: QL737.R638M68
Abstract: Selective malabsorption of cobalamin (vitamin B12) accompanied by proteinuria, known as Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome or megaloblastic anemia 1 (I-GS, MGA1; OMIM 261100), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. In Finnish kindreds, I-GS is caused by mutations in the cubilin gene (CUBN), located on human Chromosome (Chr) 10. However, not all patients have CUBN mutations, and three distinct mutations in the amnionless gene, AMN, were very recently identified in patients from Norwegian and Israeli families. The present study demonstrates that in a large canine I-GS pedigree, the disease is genetically linked (peak multipoint LOD score 11.74) to a region on dog Chr 8 that exhibits conserved synteny with human Chr 14q. Multipoint analysis indicates that the canine disease gene lies in an interval between the echinoderm microtubule-associated, protein-like 1 (EML1) gene and the telomere. A single critical recombinant further suggests that the disease gene is between markers in EML1 and the G protein-coupled receptor (G2A) gene, defining an I-GS interval in the human genome that contains the AMN gene. Thus, these comparative-mapping data provide evidence that canine I-GS is a homologue of one form of the human disease and will provide a useful system for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease in humans.
Descriptors: canine Imerslund Grasbeck syndrome, whole genome scan, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, mendelian inheritance.

Hoffmann, U., H. Hamann, and O. Distl (2003). Genetische Analyse von Merkmalen der Leistungsprufung fur Koppelgebrauchshunde 2. Mitteilung: Unerwunschte Verhaltensmerkmale. [Genetic analysis of traits of the working test for herding dogs 2nd communication: undesired behaviour traits.]. Berliner Und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 116(3/4): 90-95. ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 B45
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of undesirable behaviour traits registered during sheep dog trials in order to evaluate the importance of genetic and environmental sources of variation and to draw conclusions for breeding purposes. The data analysed consisted of 2745 test results recorded at 48 sheep dog trials carried out in Germany from 1994 to 1998, which were attended by 337 sheep dogs. Variance components of undesirable behaviour traits were estimated applying Restricted Maximum Likelihood methods. Additive genetic effects, permanent environmental effects of the animal and the effect of the handler were treated as random factors. Additionally, the linear multivariate animal model included the fixed effects of the age of the dogs at the sheep dog trial, sex, the level of difficulty of the exercises as well as the event itself, the starting number of the dog, the number of the dogs' tests at the particular event and the number of dogs presented on sheep dog trials by their handlers. The inbreeding coefficient was regarded as a linear covariate. The analyses were performed using all sheep dog trial classes and for each of the three classes separately. Age of the dog and starting number did not explain a significant proportion of variance for traits analysed, whereas the event of the sheep dog trial and partly the number of dogs per handler were of significant importance. The estimated heritabilities for the undesirable behaviour traits ranged from h2<less or =>0.001 to h2=0.07 with standard errors in the range between 0.001 and 0.06. The possibilities to select against undesired behaviour traits appear to be rather limited given the heritability estimates and the low number of progeny.
Descriptors: breed, sheep dogs, animal behavior, animal breeding, genetic analysis, genetic effects, heritability, inbreeding, traits.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Housley, D.J.E., E. Ritzert, and P.J. Venta (2004). Comparative radiation hybrid map of canine chromosome 1 incorporating snp and indel polymorphisms. Genomics 84(2): 248-264. ISSN: 0888-7543.
NAL Call Number: QH447 .B63
Descriptors: molecular genetics, chromosome mapping, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, genetic pool and sequence method, radiation hybrid mapping, evolutionary chromosomal breakpoint, genbank sequence data, gene order, genome sequence.

Kaufhold, J., H. Hamann, and O. Distl (2005). Populationsgenetische Analyse der neu gezuchteten Hunderasse Elo. [Population genetic analysis of the dog breed Elo recently created.]. Berliner Und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 118(1-2): 67-75. ISSN: 0005-9366.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 B45
Abstract: The breeding of the dog breed Elo was started in 1987. This dog breed was established by using 16 dogs of nine different breeds. All pedigree information of the dogs from 1987 to 2002 was included for the analysis of the proportion of genes of the different founder breeds, of the inbreeding coefficient, and relationship coefficients. Additionally, the number of died puppies per litter were investigated. The Eurasian dog breed contributed about 48% of the genes in the whole Elo dog population. Old English sheepdog and Chow Chow contributed about 23% and 10% of the genes. The other dog breeds were of minor importance. The mean inbreeding and relationship coefficients of the whole Elo dog population were 12.04% and 19.22%, respectively. With the exception of 3.5% of animals, all Elo dogs were related to each other. The mean litter size was 6.39 puppies. The percentage of stillborn puppies per litter averaged at 9.47%. The inbreeding coefficients of the puppies and of their dams, the age of the sire and the dam at the time of birth of the puppies, the litter size, the puppies' year of birth and the proportion of genes of the Chow Chow showed a significant effect on the number of stillborn puppies per litter. The heritability for the frequency of stillborn puppies was estimated using a linear animal model. After transformation of the linear estimates to the underlying liability scale, the heritability amounted to h2 = 0.15.
Descriptors: Elo breed, breeding, genetics, inbreeding coefficient, heritability, number of stillborn puppies.
Language of Text: German.

Kukekova, A.V., W. Wang, J.K. Lowe, E.A. Ostrander, G.D. Aguirre, and G.M. Acland (2003). Exclusion of GNGT1 gene as a positional candidate for canine rcd2 disease. In: Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) - Annual Meeting Abstract Search and Program Planner, May 4-8, 2003, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, p. Abstract No. 2325.
Descriptors: rod cone dysplasia type 2 (rcd2), canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), dogs, molecular genetics, eye disease, genetic diseases, laboratory techniques.

McGreevy, P.D. and F.W. Nicholas (1999). Some practical solutions to welfare problems in dog breeding. Animal Welfare 8(4): 329-341. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Abstract: This paper reviews the history of established dog breeds, summarizes current health and welfare problems and makes suggestions for their resolution.
Descriptors: dog breeds, animal welfare, animal health, breeding programmes, selection, reviews, congenital abnormalities, dog diseases, dogs.

Nie, W., J. Wang, P. Perelman, A.S. Graphodatsky, and F. Yang (2003). Comparative chromosome painting defines the karyotypic relationships among the domestic dog, Chinese raccoon dog and Japanese raccoon dog. Chromosome Research 11(8): 735-740. ISSN: 0967-3849.
NAL Call Number: QH600 .C47
Abstract: The Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides, 2n=54+2-3B) and Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes p. viverrinus, 2n=38+3-4B) are two subspecies of the same species. The genome-wide comparative chromosome map between the Japanese raccoon dog and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) has been established by fluorescence in-situ hybridization with a set of domestic dog painting probes. In this study, we established the comparative chromosome map for the Chinese raccoon dog and domestic dog. In total, dog probes specific for the 38 autosomes delineated 41 conserved chromosomal segments in the Chinese raccoon dog. Probes from dog chromosomes 1, 13 and 19 each painted two Chinese raccoon dog chromosome segments. Fifteen dog autosomal probes each hybridized to one Chinese raccoon dog chromosome, while each of the other dog autosomal probes painted to a single Chinese raccoon dog chromosomal arm. Dog X chromosome probe delineated the entire X chromosome of the Chinese raccoon dog; the dog Y chromosome probe hybridized to the pseudoautosomal region at the Xpter as well as the entire Y chromosome of the Chinese raccoon dog. Comparative analysis of the distribution patterns of conserved segments defined by dog paints in the genomes of the Chinese and Japanese raccoon dogs demonstrates that their differences in the karyotypes of these two subspecies could have resulted from eight Robertsonian translocations. The large difference in chromosome number between the Chinese and Japanese raccoon dogs suggests that they should be considered as two distinct species.
Descriptors: evolution and adaptation, molecular genetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, robertsonian translocation, comparative chromosome painting, karyotype evolution, karyotypic relationships.

Rijsselaere, T., A. Van Soom, D. Maes, and A. De Kruif (2004). Age-related differences in canine semen quality parameters. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 39(4): 264. ISSN: 0936-6768.
Descriptors: aging, animal care, reproductive system, reproduction, burker counting chamber, laboratory equipment, age related fertility, conception rate, litter size, spermatogenesis.
Notes: Meeting Information: 8th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction (ESDAR), Warsaw, Poland; September 23-25, 2004.

Ronsse, V., J. Verstegen, K. Onclin, F. Farnir, and H. Poulet (2004). Risk factors and reproductive disorders associated with canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1). Theriogenology 61(4): 619-636. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) is presumed to be enzootic in the dog population and is associated with fertility disorders and neonatal mortality. In this study we screened for risk factors affecting CHV-1 antibody titers and investigated the association between antibody titers and reproductive disorders. Therefore, serum from 545 dogs used for reproduction was analysed with an ELISA. Using a forward stepwise procedure and retaining significant risk factors (P<0.05), best fitting multifactorial generalized linear model (glm) procedures were built for males and females. The effect of antibody titers on reproductive disorders was analysed with logistic regression analysis. The association between reproductive disorders and seroprevalence was analysed in chi-square analyses using contingency tables. In both sexes, kennel cough and breeding management were found to have an impact on the CHV-1 antibody titer. Also, the influence of kennel cough on the antibody titer was correlated to the hygienic status of the kennel. In females, age, kennel size and cycle stage had an effect on CHV-1 antibody titers. Furthermore, kennel size and hygiene were found to be correlated. In males, mating experience had an impact on CHV-1 antibody titers. An association was observed between serological status and a history of abortion in bitches. In conclusion, this study suggests CHV-1 antibody titers may be affected by many factors, both on an environmental and host level. Therefore, interpretation of the serological status requires precaution. Furthermore, oronasal and venereal transmission seem to play a role in the spreading of infection.
Descriptors: animal care, female, canine herpesvirus 1 infection, viral disease transmission, kennel cough, breeding management, fertility, hygiene, kennel housing, mortality, venereal transmission.

Ruefenacht, S., S. Gebhardt Henrich, T. Miyake, and C. Gaillard (2002). A behaviour test on german shepherd dogs: Heritability of seven different traits. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 79(2): 113-132. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: dogs, German Shepherd, animal behavior, temperament, aggression, fearfulness, gender differences, heritability, phenotypic correlation, genetic correlation, hip dysplasia, selection intensity, animal breeding, selection criteria.

Schmutz, S.M. and J.K. Schmutz (1998). Heritability estimates of behaviors associated with hunting in dogs. Journal of Heredity 89(3): 233-237. ISSN: 0022-1503.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 Am3
Descriptors: dog behavior, genetics, breeding stock, heritability of traits, hunting behavior, North American Versatile Hunting Dog Association (NAVHDA), large Munsterlander.

Shiboleth, M. (2004). The Canaan dog: Expanding the gene pool from the desert. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 59(1-2): 28. ISSN: 0334-9152.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R25
Descriptors: animal care, genetics, wildlife management, conservation, breeding, domestic environment, gene pool, natural habitat, wild population.

Tanabe, Y. and K. Yamazaki (2001). Differences in behavioural characteristics of dog breeds based on a survey of consultations with clients. Emphasis on their suitability as family pets. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Japan 54(1): 9-14. ISSN: 0447-0192.
Descriptors: animal behavior, breed differences, dog breeds, pets, surveys, dogs.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Weber, M.P., D. Hernot, P.G. Nguyen, V.C. Biourge, and H.J. Dumon (2004). Effect of size on electrolyte apparent absorption rates and fermentative activity in dogs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 88(9-10): 356-365. ISSN: 0931-2439.
NAL Call Number: 389.78 Z3
Abstract: The objectives of the study were to assess overall electrolyte absorption capacity as well as fermentative activity in dogs varying in body size in order to verify whether these parameters can explain the poor faecal quality in large dogs. Four breeds of dogs were used: six Miniature Poodles (MP), six Standard Schnauzers (SS), six Giant Schnauzers (GS) and six Great Danes (GD). Net absorption rates of electrolytes were assessed by calculating the apparent digestibility of sodium and potassium and measuring their content in stool. Fermentative activity was calculated by measuring faecal concentrations of lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids. The results showed higher faecal concentrations of fermentation products and electrolytes as well as poorer digestibility of electrolytes in Giant Schnauzers and Great Danes. Strong positive correlations were found between these different parameters and stool quality (scores and moisture). Lower overall electrolyte absorption and higher fermentative activity could thus be factors capable of explaining poorer faecal quality in these two large dog breeds.
Descriptors: animal care, digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, body size absorption relationship, fecal quality, fermentation products.



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