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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Dogs: Animal Welfare Information Center
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Clinical and Laboratory Techniques

Battersby, I., K. Murphy, S. Tasker, and K. Papasouliotis (2006). Retrospective study of fever in dogs: laboratory testing, diagnoses and influence of prior treatment. Journal of Small Animal Practice 47(7): 370-376. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: Objectives: To analyse the demographic information of dogs referred for investigation of fever, to determine the usefulness of various diagnostic investigations and to assess the effect of treatment before referral on the presence of fever at referral, the duration of the investigation and the ability to reach a final diagnosis. Methods: The clinical records of 66 dogs, in which fever was part of the clinical signs documented by the referring veterinary surgeon, were reviewed. The effects of treatment 24 hours before referral on temperature at initial consultation and on time to diagnosis were evaluated. The effect of body temperature at initial consultation on cost and on time to diagnosis was also determined. The effect of insurance on costs incurred was assessed. The utility of different diagnostic investigations was recorded, and cases were classified according to the final diagnosis. Results: Only 34.8 per cent of dogs were diagnosed with immune-mediated disease, with most frequent diagnoses being steroid-responsive meningitis and polyarthritis. Treatment 24 hours before referral significantly increased the time to diagnosis (P=0.004) and affected the presence of fever at referral (P=0.006). Insurance status did not significantly affect cost incurred by the owner. Clinical Significance: This study documents a high incidence of immune-mediated disease in dogs referred for investigation of fever. It also documents a higher incidence of inflammatory central nervous system disease in febrile dogs than that reported previously. Of the diagnostic modalities employed in the majority of cases, radiography, cytology and bacteriological and fungal cultures (fluids/tissues) were the most useful. It is suggested that treatment is withdrawn or withheld before commencing diagnostic investigation of fever..
Descriptors: animal health, central nervous system, cytology, diagnosis, fever, immunological diseases, laboratory diagnosis, laboratory tests, medical treatment, radiography, small animal practice, veterinarians, dogs.

Dunphy, E.D., F.A. Mann, J.R. Dodam, K.R. Branson, C.C. Wagner Mann, P.A. Johnson, and M.A. Brady (2002). Comparison of unilateral versus bilateral nasal catheters for oxygen administration in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 12(4): 245-251. ISSN: 1534-6935.
NAL Call Number: SF778.J68
Abstract: Objective: To determine the effect of bilateral nasal oxygen supplementation on tracheal airway and arterial blood gas parameters. Design: Original research. Setting: Research Laboratory. Animals: Eight normal dogs. Interventions: None. Measurements: Intra-tracheal oxygen concentration and arterial oxygen partial pressure at three different oxygen flow rates given through either unilateral or bilateral nasal catheters. Main results: FIO2 and PaO2 were significantly increased with higher total oxygen flow rates, but the increase was the same whether the higher flow was delivered through one nasal catheter or divided and administered though two nasal catheters. The use of bilateral nasal catheters allowed a tracheal FIO2 as high as 0.60 with minimal patient discomfort. Conclusions: The benefit of bilateral nasal catheters for oxygen supplementation is the ability to provide high total oxygen flows with decreased risk of patient discomfort. If the desired oxygen flow can be achieved with a unilateral nasal catheter, then the only benefit of bilateral catheters is increased patient comfort. The use of bilateral nasal oxygen catheters for oxygen supplementation can result in an FIO2 that is high enough to produce oxygen toxicity with prolonged administration.
Descriptors: artificial respiration, blood gases, catheters, oxygen, toxicity, toxicology.

Garrido Farina, G.I. and M.A. Cornejo Cortes (2000). Metodo de inclusion en parafina para diagnostico rapido por medio de microondas. [A paraffin inclusion method for fast diagnosis using microwaves.]. Veterinaria Mexico 31(4): 375-379. ISSN: 0301-5092.
NAL Call Number: SF604.V485
Abstract: A protocol for fast embedded paraffin by a microwave process for histological and clinical samples for light microscopy was developed. Tissue specimens, dog's liver, polyp, skin and lung, cat's brain, kidney, and rat's ovary, uterine horn and artery were processed by using a standard household microwave oven (600 watts) at 75% power. This study was done using progressive alcohol solutions (dehydration), bencene-etanol solutions (clearing) and paraffin for the infiltration. A group of specialists reviewed the material and photographs of the different organs processed with three different inclusion techniques. Results of the observation revealed: no difference between the histokinette (HK) and microwave oven. There were apparent morphological differences between the last two processes and the Robinson & Fayen technique (RF). This process could allow results to be reported within 30 min. after the specimens were evaluated in the laboratory. The morphology for the microwave-processed samples was better than the one observed by the fast diagnostic process technique of RF, and no discerning differences with the routine histokinette method were found.
Descriptors: microscopy, analytical methods, tissues, microwave ovens, sample processing.
Language of Text: Spanish, Summary in English.

Gauvin, D.V., L.P. Tilley, F.W. Smith Jr., and T.J. Baird (2006). Electrocardiogram, hemodynamics, and core body temperatures of the normal freely moving laboratory beagle dog by remote radiotelemetry. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods 53(2): 128-39. ISSN: 1056-8719.
NAL Call Number: QP901.J6
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to provide baseline normative values for circadian changes in the time-series data collected over the course of a normal day in laboratory-housed dogs and to assess the relative efficiency of standard correction formulas to correct for the variations in QT intervals and heart rate functions. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-three beagle dogs (65 M, 58 F) were equipped with radiotelemetry transmitters and continuously monitored, while freely moving in their home cages. Electrocardiograms (ECGs), hemodynamic parameters (diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressures) as well as core body temperatures were recorded for 22 h. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Blood pressures and core body temperatures demonstrated only very slight variations in their respective values over the 22 -h monitoring period. ECGs were measured by a computerized waveform analysis program and quantitative elements reported as RR, PR, QRS, and QT intervals. Little circadian rhythmicity was demonstrated in the ECG intervals. Standard study-specific correction formulas appeared to satisfactorily normalize (i.e., compensate for) the relationship between heart rate and QT intervals in these beagle dogs but elevated the values of the QTc as compared to the uncorrected QT intervals. In sharp contrast, a subject-specific correction method based on analysis of covariance produced a more linear function between heart rates and QT intervals and, more importantly, provided QTc values within the normal range of actual, recorded QT interval data.
Descriptors: body temperature physiology, physiology, electrocardiography instrumentation, hemodynamic processes physiology, telemetry instrumentation, thermography instrumentation, electrocardiography methods, reference values, telemetry methods, thermography methods.

Goossens, H.A.T., J.H.J. Maes, and A.E.J.M. Van Den Bogaard (2003). The prevalence of antibodies against b. Burgdorferi, an indicator for lyme borreliosis in dogs? A comparison of serological tests. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 128(21): 650-657. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Abstract: Five serological tests for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative micro-organism of Lyme borreliosis (LB), were compared in 1177 sera from Dutch dogs: 401 healthy working hunting dogs, 100 healthy city pet dogs, 629 city dogs suspected of having LB with various clinical symptoms, and 47 hunting dogs with intermittent lameness. The results of the in-house species-independent enzyme immunoassay (i.e. an EIA which can be used to test serum samples from different animal species) showed a strong agreement (kappa: 0.78-0.81) with those of an experimental and a commercially available EIA (Genzyme VirotechTM, Ruesselsheim, Germany) for the detection of canine IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the in-house EIAs for the detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi was independent of the antigenic heterogeneity, as demonstrated by the results of sera from dogs suspected of LB with various clinical symptoms: lameness (n=60), and neurological (n=60) and skin disorders (n=52). Because of its high sensitivity for IgM antibodies, the indirect assay (DiagastTM, Pessac, France) proved to be an interesting tool for the detection of an acute Lyme infection in dogs. However, in this study a positive serological result could not be linked to any clinical symptom that has been related to LB in dogs. Results showed no difference in seroprevalence between dogs considered at high or at low risk of a B. burgdorferi infection. It was concluded that LB is an uncommon disease in the Dutch dog population despite the fact that many of Dutch dogs are infected with B. burgdorferi. Because of this low prevalence, the use of any immunoassay to support the clinical diagnosis of LB in dogs might be of limited value. Nevertheless, the species-independent EIA could be valuable in seroepidemiological studies when sera of several different animal species need to be tested.
Descriptors: infection, veterinary medicine, Lyme borreliosis, bacterial disease, diagnosis, symptom, diagast enzyme immunoassay, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, genzyme virotech enzyme immunoassay, in house species independent enzyme immunoassay, antigenic heterogeneity, method comparison, method sensitivity.

Gracner, D., L. Bedrica, D. Sakar, I. Harapin, V. Hahn, C. Labura, G. Greguric Gracner, M. Samardzija, and V. Kuticic (2004). Haufigkeit des vorkommens der blutgruppe dea 1.1 Bei autochthonen kroatischen hunderassen: dalmatiner, istrianer bracke und kroatischer schaferhund. [Prevalence of blood group DEA 1.1 in native Croatian dog breeds: Dalmatians, Istrian hound and Croatian sheepdog.]. Tierarztliche Umschau 59(8): 439-444. ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T445
Abstract: The present investigation includes 90 clinically healthy dogs of Croatian native breeds: 30 Dalmatians, 30 Istrian Hounds and 30 Croatian Sheepdogs. The goal of the study was to determine the prevalence of blood group DEA (Dog Erythrocyte Antigen) 1.1, which is the most immunogenic and therefore clinically most important for a dog's blood transfusion potential. The overall occurrence of DEA 1.1 was 84.4% in 90 tested dogs, while 15.6% dogs were DEA 1.1 negative. The frequency of DEA 1.1 was 87.8% in female (n=49) and 80.5% in male (n=41) dogs, a uniform distribution in both sexes. The prevalence of blood group DEA 1.1, within tested breeds was 96.7% in Dalmatians, 90.0% in Croatian Sheepdogs and 66.7% in Istrian Hounds. The high frequency of DEA 1.1-positive dogs in three Croatian middle-large breeds (< 25 kg) indicated they are not suitable as blood donors. The hazard of transfusion reactions, caused by incompatibility of dog erytrhocyte antigen is relatively small in Dalmatians, since only 3% of that breed is DEA 1.1-negative. The autoagglutination reaction was not detected in any of the 90 dogs studied, which makes determination of the blood group DEA 1.1 easier.
Descriptors: animal care, transport, circulation, transfusion, therapeutic, prophylactic techniques, blood group DEA 1.1, blood transfusion potential.
Language of Text: Croatian.

Griffin, A., M.B. Callan, F.S. Shofer, and U. Giger (2003). Evaluation of a canine D-dimer point-of-care test kit for use in samples obtained from dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation, thromboembolic disease, and hemorrhage. American Journal of Veterinary Research 64(12): 1562-1569. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Objective-To evaluate a canine D-dimer point-of-care (cD-d POC) test kit for use in healthy dogs and dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), thromboembolic disease (TED), and hemorrhage. Animals-12 healthy dogs, 18 dogs with DIC, 23 dogs with TED (19 acute and 4 chronic), and 18 dogs with hemorrhage. Procedure-The cD-d POC, canine D-dimer ELISA (cD-d ELISA), human D-dimer latex agglutination (hD-d LA), and fibrin degradation product (FDP) tests were performed on citrated plasma. Results-All healthy dogs had negative cD-d POC test results and mean cD-d ELISA value of 0.2 U/mL. All dogs with DIC had positive cD-d POC test results and mean cD-d ELISA value of 44 U/mL. Dogs with acute TED had a mean cD-d ELISA value of 34 U/mL, and 17 of 19 had positive cD-d POC test results. Mean cD-d ELISA value in dogs with hemorrhage was 14 units/mL, and 15 of 18 had positive cD-d POC test results. The cD-d ELISA values in dogs with hemorrhage were significantly higher than those of healthy dogs but lower than those of dogs with DIC and acute TED. The cD-d POC, cD-d ELISA, and hD-d LA tests were comparable in differentiating healthy dogs from dogs with DIC, acute TED, or hemorrhage and appeared to be superior to measurement of FDPs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The cD-d POC test kit can be quickly and easily used and reliably detects dogs with DIC or acute TED. Positive results may also be seen in dogs with internal hemorrhage.
Descriptors: veterinary medicine, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC), hemorrhage, canine D-dimer point-of-care test, fibrin degradation product test, test kit evaluation.

Groene, A., S. Fonfara, S. Markus, and W. Baumgaertner (1999). Rt-pcr amplification of various canine cytokines and so-called house-keeping genes in a species-specific macrophage cell line (dh82) and canine peripheral blood leukocytes. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 46(5): 301-310. ISSN: 0931-1793.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Z52
Abstract: Total ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolated from a continuous canine macrophage cell line (DH82) was used in reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) for the detection of transcripts of interleukin (IL)-8, -12, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Three different methods of RNA isolation (standard guanidinium-thiocyanate method with and without application of RNA matrix, and boiling) were used and compared in regard to RT-PCR results. The most suitable method was used to establish RT-PCR amplification of mRNA transcripts of IL-2, -10, and interferon-gamma (IFN) in RNA isolated from canine peripheral blood leukocytes. Integrity of RNA isolates was ensured by amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) or beta-actin. IL-8, -12, and TNF were amplified from RNA isolated by various methods. Use of guanidinium-thiocyanate with and without RNA matrix gave the most consistent results. Boiling as a mean of RNA isolation was quick and easy, but the RT-PCR results wereextremely variable and multiple smaller bands were observed in the agarose gel in some preparations. IL-2, -10 and IFN transcripts were amplified from RNA isolated with guamidimium-thiocyanate from leukocytes stimulated with concanavalin A. DNase-treatment of RNA isolates was necessary to assure the destruction of genomic DNA and to avoid amplification of genomic sequences. This was especially a problem when using primers for GAPDH, beta-actin, IL-12, and TNF. Lack of DNase-treatment may lead to false positive results. This may be especially a problem when amplification of so-called house-keeping genes is used as internal control for RNA integrity. These findings demonstrated that isolation of total RNA with guanidinium-thiocyanate followed by DNase-treatment gave reliable and consistent results for detection of cytokine transcripts by RT-PCR in a canine macrophage cell line and canine peripheral blood leukocytes.
Descriptors: genetics, immune system, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, detection method.

Grosenbaugh, D.A., J.E. Gadawski, and W.W. Muir (1998). Evaluation of a portable clinical analyzer in a veterinary hospital setting. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 213(5): 691-694. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Blood samples from 50 dogs, 50 cats and 28 horses, all healthy, were analysed on a portable clinical analyser (i-STAT) to determine concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, and ionized calcium and values of haematocrit (Hct), pH and blood gases (PCO2, PO2). Values obtained were compared with those obtained from the same blood samples, using a standard automatic analyser (serum sodium, potassium, chloride, BUN, and glucose concentrations), a cell counter (Hct), a blood gas analyser (pH, PCO2, PO2), and a calcium-pH analyser (ionized calcium). Bias (mean difference between values obtained on the same sample by different methods) and variability (s.d. of differences) were determined for all values. Data were also subjected to Deming regression analysis. Correlation coefficients were >0.90 for all values except potassium and ionized calcium concentrations. Bias and variability were within clinically acceptable limits (+or-2 s.d.) for all but potassium, ionized calcium, and glucose concentrations and Hct. Species-dependent variability was observed for glucose concentration and Hct. Most differences between values obtained with the portable clinical analyser and standard clinical laboratory systems could be accounted for by differences in type of sample tested (blood vs. serum). It is concluded that the portable clinical analyser is suitable for point-of-care analysis in critical care situations and for routine blood biochemical analysis when extensive laboratory support is unavailable.
Descriptors: blood analysis, blood gases, blood chemistry, hematology, portable instruments, cats, dogs, horses.

Hall, E.J. (1999). Clinical laboratory evaluation of small intestinal function. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Small Animal Practice 29(2): 441-469. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: small intestine, diarrhea, hematology, albumins, globulins, sodium, potassium, enzymes, cholesterol, feces, bacteriology, virology, cytology, intestinal absorption, diagnosis, bile, scintigraphy, biopsy, Giardia, Clostridium.

Hansen, B. and T. DeFrancesco (2002). Relationship between hydration estimate and body weight change after fluid therapy in critically ill dogs and cats. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 12(4): 235-243. ISSN: 1534-6935.
NAL Call Number: SF778.J68
Abstract: Objective: To characterize the relationship between clinical estimates of hydration in dogs and cats admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and changes in their body weight following 24-48 hours of fluid therapy. Design: Outcome study. Setting: ICU at a veterinary teaching hospital (VTH) in North Carolina, USA, from May 2000 to May 2001. Animals: A total of 151 dogs and 42 cats with various medical disorders that have not undergone surgery within 48 hours of admission into the ICU were consecutively admitted into the study. Animals with any condition predisposing to excess fluid loss or retention were excluded: heart disease, sepsis, trauma, pancreatitis, pleural or pericardial effusion, ascites, and pathologic oliguria. Animals that acquired any of the following during the observation period were excluded: gastrointestinal fluid loss, oedema or diseases predisposing to oedema, oliguria, diuretic therapy, and body fluid drainage or haemorrhage. Fluid therapy was ordered based on estimate of hydration at admission. Other treatments were not modified or withheld. Interventions: Physiologic data were collected at the time of admission and 24-48 hours later. Measurements and main results: Hydration was estimated on admission to the ICU using clinical judgement with no supporting laboratory data. Each admitting clinician used this estimate to plan fluid therapy. Fluid therapy was defined as the administration of any enteral or parenteral fluids as well as any decision to withhold fluids. Paired measurements taken on admission and at 24-48 hours included packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma solids (TS), and body weight. Amount and type of fluids or blood products administered were noted. Neither clinician estimates of dehydration nor baseline PCV or TS predicted clinically significant changes in body weight following fluid therapy, and there was no relationship between weight change and changes in PCV or TS. Conclusions: A clinical diagnosis of dehydration in our ICU does not predict weight gain following fluid therapy. Neither baseline PCV/TS nor changes in these measurements following 24-48 hours of fluid therapy predicted changes in body weight.
Descriptors: body weight, dehydration, fluid therapy, hemoglobin value, rehydration, cats, dogs.

Hawthorne, L. (2002). A project to clone companion animals. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(3): 229-231. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: genetics, molecular genetics, philosophy and ethics, reproduction, genetic abnormality, genetic disease, cloning, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, code of bioethics, genetic savings & clone, missyplicity project, animal welfare, embryo viability, gene expression, overpopulation, research funding.

He, Q., J.C. Fyfe, A.A. Schaffer, A. Kilkenney, P. Werner, E.F. Kirkness, and P.S. Henthorn (2003). Canine imerslund-grasbeck syndrome maps to a region orthologous to hsa14q. Mammalian Genome 14(11): 758-764. ISSN: 0938-8990.
NAL Call Number: QL737.R638M68
Abstract: Selective malabsorption of cobalamin (vitamin B12) accompanied by proteinuria, known as Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome or megaloblastic anemia 1 (I-GS, MGA1; OMIM 261100), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. In Finnish kindreds, I-GS is caused by mutations in the cubilin gene (CUBN), located on human Chromosome (Chr) 10. However, not all patients have CUBN mutations, and three distinct mutations in the amnionless gene, AMN, were very recently identified in patients from Norwegian and Israeli families. The present study demonstrates that in a large canine I-GS pedigree, the disease is genetically linked (peak multipoint LOD score 11.74) to a region on dog Chr 8 that exhibits conserved synteny with human Chr 14q. Multipoint analysis indicates that the canine disease gene lies in an interval between the echinoderm microtubule-associated, protein-like 1 (EML1) gene and the telomere. A single critical recombinant further suggests that the disease gene is between markers in EML1 and the G protein-coupled receptor (G2A) gene, defining an I-GS interval in the human genome that contains the AMN gene. Thus, these comparative-mapping data provide evidence that canine I-GS is a homologue of one form of the human disease and will provide a useful system for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease in humans.
Descriptors: canine Imerslund Grasbeck syndrome, whole genome scan, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, mendelian inheritance.

Hillier, A., L.K. Cole, K.W. Kwochka, and C. Mccall (2002). Late-phase reactions to intradermal testing with dermatophagoides farinae in healthy dogs and dogs with house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63(1): 69-73. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence of late-phase reactions to intradermal testing with Dermatophagoides farinae in healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis and an immediate reaction to D farinae. Animals: 6 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis and immediate reactions to D farinae. Procedure: Intradermal tests were performed with D farinae at 1:1,000 wt/vol and 1:50,000 wt/vol concentrations, and skin reactivity was evaluated after 0.25, 6, and 24 hours. Serum D farinae-specific IgE antibodies were assayed. Extent of lesions (atopy index) and pruritus (visual analogue scale) were evaluated in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Results: Late-phase reactions were observed in healthy dogs at 6 hours (n=2 dogs) and 24 hours (1) with the 1:1,000 wt/vol concentration, and at 6 hours (1) and 24 hours (1) with the 1:50,000 wt/vol concentration of allergen. Late-phase reactions in healthy dogs were only observed in dogs with an immediate reaction to D farinae. Late-phase reactions were observed in 11 of 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis at 6 and 24 hours with the 1:1,000 wt/vol concentration and in 10 of 20 at 6 and 24 hours with the 1:50,000 wt/vol concentration of allergen. There was no difference in mean atopy index, mean visual analogue scale of pruritus, or mean serum D farinae-specific IgE concentration of dogs with a late-phase reaction, compared to dogs without a late-phase reaction. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Late-phase reactions may be observed after an immediate reaction to intradermal skin testing in healthy and allergic dogs but are more commonly observed in dogs with atopic dermatitis.
Descriptors: Dermatophagoides farinae, house dust mites, atopy, dermatitis, skin tests, allergic reactions, allergens, dosage, clinical aspects, IgE, immune system, integumentary system, veterinary medicine, house dust mite induced atopic dermatitis, genetic disease, immune system disease, integumentary system disease, lesion, injury, pruritus, atopy index, evaluation method, intradermal testing, detection method, visual analogue scale, evaluation method, late phase reactions.

Horand, F., C. Cretinon, F. Condevaux, and J. Descotes (2003). Exploration of the phagocytic activity in rats, monkeys and dogs using two human kits. Toxicology Letters 144(Suppl. 1): s34-s35. ISSN: 0378-4274.
NAL Call Number: RA1190.T62
Descriptors: bursttest flow cytometric kit, phagotest flow cytometric kit, phagocytic activity, dogs, rats, monkeys.
Notes: Meeting Information: 41st Congress of the European Societies of Toxicology EUROTOX 2003 ' Science for Safety', Florence, Italy; September 28-October 1, 2003.

Housley, D.J.E., E. Ritzert, and P.J. Venta (2004). Comparative radiation hybrid map of canine chromosome 1 incorporating snp and indel polymorphisms. Genomics 84(2): 248-264. ISSN: 0888-7543.
NAL Call Number: QH447 .B63
Descriptors: molecular genetics, chromosome mapping, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, genetic pool and sequence method, radiation hybrid mapping, evolutionary chromosomal breakpoint, genbank sequence data, gene order, genome sequence.

Ikegami, K., K. Tagawa, M. Kobayashi, and T. Osawa (2003). Prediction of in vivo drug release behavior of controlled-release multiple-unit dosage forms in dogs using a flow-through type dissolution test method. International Journal of Pharmaceutics (Kidlington) 258(1-2): 31-43. ISSN: 0378-5173.
NAL Call Number: RS122.A1I5
Abstract: A newly designed flow-through type dissolution test method (FT method) was applied to predict in vivo drug release behaviors in dogs of controlled-release multiple unit dosage forms. The in vivo drug release behaviors were directly observed by measuring the residual amount of drugs in preparations recovered from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after oral administration. Theophylline (TP), acetaminophen (AA), and phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA), which have different solubility, were used as model drugs. In vivo drug release behaviors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of dogs were similar to the results of the Wagner-Nelson method. In vivo release behaviors of TP and AA, until 2 h after administration, were well correlated to in vitro behaviors obtained by the paddle method at 100 rpm. However, the in vivo release rates of TP and AA were gradually decreased because of a lack of fluid in the lower region of the GI tract, their poor solubility, the difference of the release rates, and so on. Non-sink conditions, which would reflect TP and AA release in the lower region of the GI tract, were obtained by the FT method at a cell volume of 0.5 ml and a flow rate of 0.37 ml/h (TP), 0.48 ml/h (AA), respectively. The in vitro release profiles obtained by the FT method combining sink and non-sink conditions were similar to their in vivo profiles. On the other hand, in the case of PPA, the in vivo release profiles were considerably similar to the in vitro ones obtained by both the paddle method and the FT method. In conclusion, the FT method combining sink and non-sink conditions will give a good in vitro/in vivo correlation regarding release behavior for controlled-release multiple unit dosage forms.
Descriptors: metabolism, pharmacology, Wagner-Nelson method, flow through type dissolution test method, in vivo drug release behavior prediction, drug dosage, drug release behavior, drug solubility, in vitro - in vivo correlation, non sink condition.

Irimajiri, M., M.A. Miller, M.A. Green, C.B. Jaeger, G.D. Hutchins, and A.U. Luescher (2003). Breed dependence of regional cerebral metabolism in the dog assessed by 18f-fdg pet. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 44(5 Suppl.): 218P-219P. ISSN: 0161-5505.
NAL Call Number: RM845.J78
Descriptors: compulsive disorder, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, anatomical regions of interest, hearing, regional cerebral metabolism, breed dependence, vision .
Notes: Meeting Information: 50th Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; June 21-25, 2003.

Iversen, L., A.L. Jensen, R. H<o>ier, M. Skydsgaard, and F. Kristensen (1998). Development and validation of an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of thyroglobulin autoantibodies in canine serum samples. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 15(6): 525-536. ISSN: 0739-7240.
NAL Call Number: QL868.D6
Abstract: An ELISA to detect thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TGAB) in canine serum was developed and validated. The test result for each sample was derived from the optical density readings and expressed as an Ab-score (%) calculated from 3 in-house calibrators. The assay specifically detected TGAB as judged from lack of response in the assay after samples had been incubated with specific antigen. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 2.0 to 4.9% and from 4.6 to 9.9%, respectively. The detection limit, an Ab-score of 5.6%, was close to the median Ab-score of 10% observed in 132 healthy dogs. The median Ab-score of 11 dogs with primary hypothyroidism and lymphocytic thyroiditis, 35 dogs with skin diseases, and 63 dogs with non-thyroidal diseases was 340, 12 and 8%, respectively. The prevalence of TGAB in hypothyroid dogs with lymphocytic thyroiditis (sensitivity) was 91% (95% confidence limits: 59-99%). In dogs with dermatological diseases without lymphocytic thyroiditis the prevalence of TGAB was 3% corresponding to a specificity of 97% (95% confidence limit: 85-100%). In dogs with non-thyroidal diseases and healthy dogs the prevalence of TGAB was 5 and 6%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of serum TGAB was evaluated by subjecting the data from 11 dogs with lymphocytic thyroiditis and 35 control dogs to receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. The area (W) under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (W=0.966; 95% confidence limit 87-100%) was significantly higher than that of a worthless test (0.5), indicating that serum TGAB measurements distinguished between dogs with and without lymphocytic thyroiditis.
Descriptors: ELISA, thyroglobulin, autoantibodies, hypothyroidism, thyroid diseases, autoimmune diseases, dogs.

Jahr, J.S., F. Lurie, B. Driessen, J.A. Davis, R. Gosselin, and R.A. Gunther (2002). The HemoCue, a point of care B-hemoglobin photometer, measures hemoglobin concentrations accurately when mixed in vitro with canine plasma and three hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC). Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 49(3): 243-248. ISSN: 0832-610X.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Accuracy of measurement of low hemoglobin concentrations using the HemoCue, a B-hemoglobin photometer (HemoCue AB, Angelholm, Sweden) may exhibit significant variability. Infusion of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) results in low concentrations of plasma hemoglobin. Our study assessed B-hemoglobin photometer measurement accuracy of three HBOC: (hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine; Oxyglobin, Biopure Corp., Cambridge, MA, USA); hemoglobin glutamer-250 (bovine; Hemopure, Biopure Corp, Cambridge, MA, USA), and hemoglobin-raffimer, (human; Hemolink, Hemosol, Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada). METHODS: In the laboratory, 45 split canine plasma samples were mixed with hemoglobin glutamer-200 (8.13, 16.25, 32.5 g x L(-1) concentrations), 45 samples were mixed with hemoglobin glutamer-250 (8.13, 16.25, 32.5 g x L(-1) concentrations), 45 with hemoglobin-raffimer (12.5, 25.0, 50.0 g x L(-1) concentrations), and measured. Plasma samples without HBOC served as control. Hemoglobin concentration was determined by a laboratory analyzer (Coulter Corporation, Hiafeah, FL, USA) and B-hemoglobin photometer (HemoCue, Angelholm, Sweden). Two independent technicians performed blinded sample measurements and randomly tested each sample five times. Results were analyzed according to Bland and Altman analysis. RESULTS: B-hemoglobin photometer demonstrated high repeatability for all three HBOCs. Repeatability coefficients were 0.37 g x L(-1) and 0.48 g x L(-1) for hemoglobin glutamer-200, 0.39 g x L(-1) and 0.4 g x L(-1) for hemoglobin glutamer-250 and 1.07 g x L(-1) and 0.85 g x L(-1) for hemoglobin-raffimer. An acceptable agreement was found between the B-hemoglobin photometer and the laboratory analyzer for all three HBOCs tested. CONCLUSION: The B-hemoglobin photometer accurately determined the concentration of three HBOC solutions dissolved in canine plasma.
Descriptors: hemoglobin, measurement, technology, photometer, canine plasma.

Johnson, P.A., F.A. Mann, J. Dodam, K. Branson, C. Wagner Mann, M.A. Brady, and E. Dunphy (2002). Capnographic documentation of nasoesophageal and nasogastric feeding tube placement in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 12(4): 227-233. ISSN: 1534-6935.
NAL Call Number: SF778.J68
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of capnography to document proper placement of naso-oesophageal (NE) and nasogastric (NG) feeding tubes. This study was conducted in 3 phases. Phase I of this study was designed in order to test the efficacy of capnography to distinguish placement of a feeding tube in the alimentary tract versus the respiratory tract. Phase II was designed in order to document that carbon dioxide (CO2) could be measured through a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) feeding tube. Phase III was performed in order to evaluate the technique of continuous monitoring during insertion of the feeding tube into the oesophagus and stomach as would be performed during a clinical-tube placement. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Research laboratory. Animals: 24 adult dogs. Interventions: In Phase I, sedated dogs were instrumented with an intratracheal catheter and an 8 French feeding tube placed nasally into the distal oesophagus and later advanced into the stomach. In Phase II, dogs were anaesthetized and an 8 French feeding tube was placed down the endotracheal tube, then into the oesophagus and later advanced into the stomach. In Phase III, sedated dogs were instrumented with an 8 French feeding tube inserted intranasally and then advanced to the level of the nasopharynx, distal oesophagus and, lastly, the stomach. Fluoroscopy was used in order to determine location of the feeding tube. Measurements and main results: Phase I measurements included respiratory rate and CO2 from the trachea, oesophagus, and stomach and pH of gastric fluid sample. Phase II measurements included respiratory rate and CO2 from the endotracheal tube, feeding tube in the endotracheal tube, feeding tube in the distal oesophagus, and feeding tube in the stomach. Phase III data collection included respiratory rate and CO2 as the tube was passed through the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oesophagus and stomach. Phase I fluid samples were collected from 5 of the 9 dogs and had pH values from 1.68 to 4.20. In both phases, values for the respiratory rate and CO2 from the oesophagus and stomach were 0+or-0, significantly lower (P<0.001) than the values from the trachea. In Phase II, there was no significant difference between the respiratory rates (P=0.886) and CO2 (P=0.705) readings obtained from the endotracheal tube compared to readings from the feeding tube in the endotracheal tube. In Phase III, there was a significant difference (P<0.001) between the respiratory rates and CO2 readings obtained from the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx when compared to those readings obtained from the oesophagus and stomach. Measurement of CO2 and respiratory rate resulted in a reading of 0 every time the feeding tube was in the oesophagus or stomach.
Descriptors: carbon dioxide, gastric juices, nasopharynx, esophagus, pH, respiration, respiration rate, stomach, techniques, trachea, tube feeding, dogs.

Kamonrat, P., D. Kaenkangploo, K. Phiwipha, and K. Duangdaun (2002). Radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs. Part I: New stress-radiographic positioning techniques. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 32(3): 47-59. ISSN: 0125-6491.
NAL Call Number: SF604.T43
Abstract: Two new stress-radiographic positioning techniques, namely 60° and 90° stress techniques, were introduced for quantifying hip joint laxity in dogs. The comparative characteristics and efficiency of these new techniques with angled hindlimbs were evaluated relative to the standard hip-extended radiographic technique. Forty, healthy, mongrel dogs with normal hip joint conformation were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency before 3 radiographs of the standard, 60°, and 90° stress techniques were taken. For the 60° stress technique, hindlimbs were extended in parallel to each other at 60° angled to the table top and stifles were slightly rotated inward; femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. For the 90° stress technique, femurs were positioned perpendicular to the table top; stifles were 90° flexed and adducted and femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. The subluxation index (SI) and dorsolateral subluxation score (DLS score) were calculated from 3 radiographic views for both hip joints to quantitate the relative degree of joint laxity. Results of the study indicated that the 60° (SI=0.20±0.045; DLS score=62.5±7.96%) and 90° (SI=0.23±0.044; DLS score=61.2±9.47%) stress-radiographs yielded significantly (p < 0.001) higher degree of hip joint laxity than the standard technique (SI=0.17±0.035; DLS score=66.9±8.09%). The 90° stress technique is the most sensitive technique for measurement of the hip joint laxity as the SI values of the 90° stress technique were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than those of the 60° technique. The findings suggested that the 60° and 90° stress-radiographic positioning techniques, oriented similarly to those of a standing dog are more practical and efficient than the standard hip-extended technique for demonstrating maximal coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs with normal hip joint conformation. Both new techniques may prove useful in studies of hip joint laxity or subluxation related to canine hip dysplasia in more susceptible dogs.
Descriptors: diagnosis, femur, hip dysplasia, hips, joints animal, radiography, surgery, dogs.
Language of Text: Thai, Summary in English.

Kasakov, L. and M. Vlaskovska (2003). The in vivo effect of intravenous atp on the activity of smooth muscles in the canine, rat and human stomach and intestine. Biomedical Research (Aligarh) 14(1): 75-79. ISSN: 0970-938X.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, muscular system, x ray imaging, imaging and microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques.

Khoo, S.M., D.M. Shackleford, C.J.H. Porter, G.A. Edwards, and W.N. Charman (2003). Intestinal lymphatic transport of halofantrine occurs after oral administration of a unit-dose lipid-based formulation to fasted dogs. Pharmaceutical Research 20(9): 1460-1465. ISSN: 0724-8741.
NAL Call Number: RS1
Abstract: Purpose: To examine whether the small quantities of lipid present in unit-dose microemulsion formulations comprising medium- (C8-10) or long-chain (C18) glyceride lipids can stimulate the intestinal lymphatic transport of halofantrine (Hf), a model lymphatically transported drug. Methods: Hf (50 mg) was administered to thoracic lymph duct- and cephalic vein-cannulated fasted greyhound dogs. Drug was formulated as a single soft gelatin capsule containing approximately 1 g of a microemulsion preconcentrate based on either medium- or long-chain glycerides. Thoracic lymph was collected, and systemic plasma samples taken over 10 h postdose. Results: The extent of lymphatic transport of Hf after administration of the long-chain lipid formulation was high (28.3% of dose), and significantly higher than that seen after administration of the medium-chain formulation (5.0% of dose). Plasma levels of Hf were not significantly different across the two formulations when assessed by AUC0-10h. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that the small amounts of lipid present within a single lipid-based dose form can support substantial intestinal lymphatic transport in the fasted state. Furthermore, microemulsions based on long-chain glycerides appear to be more effective with respect to lymphatic transport than the equivalent medium-chain formulation.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, pharmaceuticals, pharmacology, oral administration, fasting.

Kii, Y., K. Nakatsuji, I. Nose, M. Yabuuchi, M. Matsuda, and T. Ito (2003). Effects of antihistamines, ebastine and terfenadine, on electrocardiogram in conscious dogs and cats. Drug Development Research 58(2): 209-217. ISSN: 0272-4391.
NAL Call Number: RM301.35.D78
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ebastine and terfenadine on the electrocardiogram of conscious dogs and cats. In dogs, terfenadine at oral doses of 30 mg/kg twice a day for 7 days prolonged the electrocardiographic QT interval and the corrected QT (QTc) interval on the seventh day, whereas the drug did not affect these parameters on the first day. Plasma concentrations of terfenadine and its active metabolite, fexofenadine, reached 306 and 8,541 ng/mL, respectively, on the seventh day. Ebastine at oral doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg once a day for 7 days was without effect on the QT and QTc intervals, whereas the drug slightly shortened the RR interval. On the seventh day following the dose of 100 mg/kg, plasma concentrations of ebastine and its active metabolite, carebastine, reached 36 and 1,939 ng/mL, respectively. In conscious cats, terfenadine at oral doses of 30 mg/kg twice a day for 7 days prolonged the QT and QTc intervals, QRS duration, JT and the corrected JT intervals. Unexpectedly, terfenadine induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia and premature beats. On the other hand, ebastine at oral doses of 100 mg/kg once a day for 7 days was without effect on the electrocardiographic parameters in cats. These results suggest that the electrocardiographic changes indicative of the proarrhythmic potential of terfenadine can be evaluated in conscious dogs and especially in conscious cats by repeated oral administration, and that ebastine does not induce such changes.
Descriptors: cardiovascular system, transport and circulation, pharmacology, toxicology, electrocardiography, diagnostic techniques, qt interval.

Klukowska, J., I. Szczerbal, O. Rickli, M. Switonski, G. Dolf, and C. Schelling (2004). Seven bacterial artificial chromosome-derived canine microsatellite-linking physical and genetic maps. Animal Genetics 35(3): 252-253. ISSN: 0268-9146.
Descriptors: molecular genetics, fish, fluorescence in situ hybridization, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, pcr, polymerase chain reaction, linkage analysis, expected heterozygosity, polymorphism information content.

Klukowska, J., I. Szczerbal, A. Wengi Piasecka, M. Switonski, C. Schelling, A. Gmur, and G. Dolf (2004). Characterization and mapping of canine microsatellites isolated from bac clones harbouring dna sequences homologous to seven human genes. Animal Genetics 35(5): 404-407. ISSN: 0268-9146.
Abstract: Human primers specific for the genes LEP, HBB, PAX3, ESR2, TPH1, ABCA4 and ATP2A2 were used to identify clones in a canine BAC library. Subcloning of the positive BACs in plasmids, screening with microsatellite motifs and subsequent sequencing allowed for the identification of eight novel microsatellites. The presence of the gene of interest was confirmed by sequencing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products amplified in the positive BACs. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the positive BACs as probes allowed for the chromosomal localization of the insert DNAs in two canid species, dog (Canis familiaris) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The use of gene-associated microsatellites may accelerate the identification of candidate genes for phenotypic traits in linkage studies.
Descriptors: molecular genetics, fluorescent in situ hybridization, fish, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, polymerase chain reaction, pcr, chromosomal localization, linkage study, phenotypic trait.

Klukowska, J., I. Szczerbal, A. Wengi Piasecka, M. Switonski, C. Schelling, A. Gmur, and G. Dolf (2004). Identification of two polymorphic microsatellites in a canine bac clone harbouring a putative canine maoa gene. Animal Genetics 35(1): 75-76. ISSN: 0268-9146.
Descriptors: genetics, polymerase chain reaction, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques.

Kobelt, A.J., P.H. Hemsworth, J.L. Barnett, and K.L. Butler (2003). Sources of sampling variation in saliva cortisol in dogs. Research in Veterinary Science 75(2): 157-161. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Abstract: The main advantage of collecting saliva cortisol as opposed to plasma cortisol is that it is non-invasive and therefore it is now widely used in stress measurement studies on farm animals and dogs. Although a plasma cortisol response to handling associated with blood collection generally occurs at 3 min from the commencement of handling, there is no information in the literature on the time course of the response of salivary cortisol concentration to handling. The aims of these experiments were to (1) determine if there is a response to up to 4 min handling that affects cortisol concentration in saliva and (2) determine the main causes of variation in saliva cortisol in dogs over time. In experiment 1, saliva was collected from six Kelpies at 0 min then 2, 3 or 4 min after the commencement of restraint. There was no handling effect found in up to 4 min sampling time. In experiment 2, saliva was collected from six Labrador Retrievers five times in 2 h (14:00-16:00), three days a week for four weeks. Some of the sources of variation in saliva cortisol over time included between dog variation that varied over a period of days and variation between occasions that affected the group of dogs as a whole.
Descriptors: dental and oral system, ingestion and assimilation, endocrine system, non invasive stress measurement, laboratory techniques, sampling variation, stress.

Kurien, B.T., N.E. Everds, and R.H. Scofield (2004). Experimental Animal Urine Collection: A Review. Laboratory Animals 38(4): 333-361. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: Animal urine collection is a vital part of veterinary practice for ascertaining animal health and in scientific investigations for assessing the results of experimental manipulations. Untainted animal urine collection is very challenging, especially with small rodents, and is an almost impossible task under conditions of microgravity. The fundamental aspects of urine collection are: (1) ease of collection, (2) quality of sample, (3) prevention of contamination, (4) severity of procedures used, (5) levels of pain caused to the animal and (6) refinement of methods to reduce stress, pain or distress. This review addresses the collection of urine for qualitative and quantitative purposes from rodents, rabbits, felines, canines, avian species, equines, porcines, ungulates and certain non-human primates, with animal welfare in mind. Special emphasis has been given to rodents, canines and non-human primates, since they are the animals of choice for research purposes. Free catch (voluntary voiding), methods with mild intervention, surgical methods, modified restraint, cage and special requirement methods have been reviewed here. Efforts need to be taken to provide appropriate animal husbandry and to nurture the animals in as natural an environment as possible since experimental results obtained from these research subjects are, to a great extent, dependent upon their well-being. A continuous refinement in the procedures for collecting urine from experimental animals will be the most efficient way of proceeding in obtaining pure urine specimens for obtaining reliable research data.
Descriptors: animal experiments, animal welfare, collection, laboratory animals, metabolism cages, methodology, reviews, sampling, stress, surgery, techniques, ungulates, urine, urine analysis, birds, cats, dogs, horses, pigs, primates, rabbits, rodents.

Kurth, T. (2001). Postoperative Nachbehandlung bei caninen Mammatumoren mit biologischen Praparaten. [Postoperative care of canine mammary tumours with biological preparations.]. Biologische Tiermedizin 18(1): 20-28. ISSN: 0723-6212.
NAL Call Number: SF603.B54
Abstract: In this clinical study, the efficacy of an adjuvant therapy with the homeopathic combination remedies Para-Benzochinon-Injeel forte, Coenzyme compositum, Ubichinon compositum and Lymphomyosot after surgical resection of mammary tumours was examined in 34 dogs. The results concerning survival rate and the frequency of recurrence and metastasis were compared with data from literature, in which only a surgical resection of the tumours without adjuvant therapy was done. By means of the treatment described, the survival rate and the number of recurrences and metastasis were improved, compared with previous data.
Descriptors: homeopathy, mammary gland neoplasms, neoplasms, treatment, dogs.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Lanevschi, A. and K.J. Wardrop (2001). Principles of transfusion medicine in small animals. Canadian Veterinary Journal 42(6): 447-454. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: The purpose of this review was to provide the reader with an updated overview of small animal transfusion medicine, and an approach to integrating it into private practice, based on a review of the veterinary and human literature spanning the last 3 decades. Electronic, online databases that were searched included CAB International and Medline; multiple keywords or subject headings were searched that were appropriate to each of the sections reviewed: canine and feline blood groups, blood-typing and crossmatching, donors, blood collection, storage, blood components, blood transfusion, blood component therapy, blood substitutes, and adverse reactions. The safe use of blood component therapy requires knowledge of blood groups and antibody prevalence, and knowledge of the means to minimize the risk of adverse reactions by including the use of proper donors and screening assays that facilitate detection of serological incompatibility. The 2 assays available to the practitioner are crossmatching, which is readily done in-house, and blood typing. Blood typing is available in the form of a commercial testing kit, through use of purchased reagents, or via a request to an external laboratory. The risk of potentially fatal adverse reactions is higher in cats than in dogs. The decision to transfuse and the type of product to administer depend on several factors, such as the type of anemia and the size of the animal. In conclusion, transfusion medicine has become more feasible in small animal practice, with improved access to blood products through either on-site donors, the purchase of blood bank products, external donor programs, or the availability of blood component substitutes.
Descriptors: literature reviews, canine, feline, small animal, blood-typing and crossmatching, blood collection, blood transfusion.

Langova, V., A.J. Mutsaers, B. Phillips, and R. Straw (2004). Treatment of eight dogs with nasal tumours with a alternating doses of doxorubicin and carboplatin in conjunction with oral piroxicam. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(11): 676-680. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: Objective To determine the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy in the treatment of canine nasal tumours. Design Retrospective clinical study Procedure Eight dogs with histologically confirmed nasal tumours were staged by means of complete blood count, serum biochemical analysis, cytological analysis of fine needle aspirate of the regional lymph nodes, thoracic radiographs and computed tomography scan of the nasal cavity. All dogs were treated with alternating doses of doxorubicin, carboplatin and oral piroxicam. All dogs were monitored for side effects of chemotherapy and evaluated for response to treatment by computed tomography scan of the nasal cavity after the first four treatments. Results Complete remission was achieved in four dogs, partial remission occurred in two dogs and two had stable disease on the basis of computed tomography evaluation. There was resolution of clinical signs after one to two doses of chemotherapy in all dogs. Conclusions This chemotherapy protocol was efficacious and well tolerated in this series of eight cases of canine nasal tumours.
Descriptors: pharmacology, toxicology, tumor biology, nasal tumor, neoplastic disease, respiratory system disease, therapy, chemotherapy, complete blood count, diagnostic techniques, computed tomography scan, imaging and microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques, cytological analysis, serum biochemical analysis, thoracic radiography.

Lehtonen, S., E. Lehtonen, K. Kudlicka, H. Holthofer, and M.G. Farquhar (2004). Nephrin forms a complex with adherens junction proteins and cask in podocytes and in madin-darby canine kidney cells expressing nephrin. American Journal of Pathology 165(3): 923-936. ISSN: 0002-9440.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 J825
Abstract: Mutations in the NPHS1 gene encoding nephrin lead to congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type. Nephrin is a key component of the glomerular slit diaphragms between epithelial foot processes, but its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood. To further clarify the molecular mechanisms involved we investigated the interactions between nephrin and other components of the foot processes and filtration slits, especially adherens junction proteins, and searched for novel nephrin interacting proteins. Using co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays we show here that nephrin forms a multiprotein complex with cadherins and p120 catenin and with three scaffolding proteins, ZO-1, CD2AP, and CASK, in kidney glomeruli and when expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. CASK was identified as a novel binding partner of nephrin by mass spectrometry and was localized to podocytes; in the glomerulus. CASK is a scaffolding protein that participates in maintenance of polarized epithelial. cell architecture by linking membrane proteins and signaling molecules to the actin cytoskeleton. Our results support a model whereby the glomerular slit diaphragms are composed of cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin and cadherin superfamilies that are connected to each other and to the actin cytoskeleton and signaling networks via the cytoplasmic scaffolding proteins CASK, CD2AP, and ZO-1.
Descriptors: cell biology, electrophoretic techniques, co-immunoprecipitation, fluorescence activated cell sorting, immunoblotting, immunoelectron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence, mass spectrometry, pull down assay, genetic techniques, sucrose velocity gradient centrifugation.

Leitner, M., J.E. Aurich, G. Galabova, C. Aurich, and I. Walter (2003). Lectin binding patterns in normal canine endometrium and in bitches with pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Histology and Histopathology 18(3): 787-795. ISSN: 0213-3911.
Abstract: Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and pyometra in the bitch are dioestral syndromes, supposed to be caused by hormonal disturbances and changes in endometrial steroid hormone receptor levels. Histologically, the endometria show cystic dilated glands and, if bacteria succeed in invading the uterus, pyometra may develop in the following metoestrus. In this study, lectin histochemistry was performed on paraffin sections to compare carbohydrate expression of uterine glands and surface epithelium in healthy dogs and in dogs with CEH and pyometra. Lectin binding is a useful tool to identify glycoconjugates, especially of the glycocalyx, which has essential functions in the endometrium during reproduction. Uterine tissue was obtained from 18 healthy bitches in metoestrus or anoestrus and 18 bitches with a clinical diagnosis of CEH or pyometra. Normal endometria showed cycle-dependent changes in SBA, PNA, HPA and UEA binding during metoestrus and anoestrus. LCA did not show cycle-dependent changes and WGA bound to Golgi regions in the apical parts of surface epithelial cells only in metoestrous. Endometria with inflammatory alterations lost cycle-specific lectin binding patterns and, with increasing severity of pathological changes, showed a marked decrease in binding intensity to the glandular and surface epithelial glycocalyx and secretions. In dogs with CEH, unaltered glands with generally strong lectin binding to the glycocoalyx and Golgi regions were found adjacent to altered glands. The decrease of lectin binding in pyometra cases is supposed to be a result of glandular exhaustion after cystic hyperplasia. In addition, bacterial adhesion to sugar residues on the uterine surface epithelium might impede lectin binding.
Descriptors: reproduction, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra, reproductive system disease.

Lowery, T., S. Dinterman, K. Weigand, B. Brown, and L. Walker (2001). A cart cage for transferring macaques, capuchins, and small dogs. Lab Animal 30(1): 45-46. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: monkeys, transport of animals, cage design, wheels, Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, dogs, cage size, animal welfare, safety at work, animal use refinement.

Lurie, F., J.S. Jahr, J.M. Davis, Z. Umarova, and B. Driessen (2002). Reliability of plasma hemoglobin concentration measurement using the HemoCue(R), a point of care hemoglobin photometer, after infusions of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hboc). In: 2000 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Abstracts of Scientific Papers, October 16-18, 2000, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. Abstract No. 408.
Descriptors: HemoCue(R), coulter analyzer, medical equipment, hemocue photometer, plasma hemoglobin concentration measurement.

Lurye, J.C., E.N. Behrend, and R.J. Kemppainen (2002). Evaluation of an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitative measurement of serum total thyroxine concentration in dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(2): 243-249. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Objective: To compare serum total thyroxine (T4) concentrations obtained with an in-house ELISA and a validated radioimmunoassay (RIA). Design: Laboratory trial. Sample Population: 50 canine and 50 feline serum samples submitted for measurement of total T4 concentration with the RIA; samples were selected to represent a wide range of concentrations ( < 6 to 167 nmol/litre). Procedure: Results of the ELISA and RIA were compared by calculating correlation coefficients, examining linearity, determining bias and precision and evaluating clinical interpretations. Results: Correlation coefficients for results of the 2 methods were 0.84 for the canine samples and 0.59 for the feline samples. Examination of bias plots revealed large variations in ELISA results, compared with RIA results. For the feline samples, the ELISA consistently overestimated total T4 concentration obtained with the RIA. When results of the 2 methods were categorized (low, borderline low, normal, borderline high or high), results were discordant for 24 (48%) and 29 (58%) of the canine samples and for 18 (36%) and 28 (56%) of the feline samples (depending on whether borderline high ELISA results were considered normal or high). Reliance on results of the ELISA would have led to inappropriate clinical decisions for 31 (62%) canine samples and 25 (50%) feline samples. The ELISA coefficients of variation for the pooled canine and feline samples were 18 and 28%, respectively. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Substantial discrepancies between ELISA and RIA results for T4 concentrations were detected. Thus, we conclude that the in-house ELISA kit is not accurate for determining serum total T4 concentrations in dogs and cats.
Descriptors: blood chemistry, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, ELISA, radioimmunoassay, thyroxine, cats, dogs.

Marassi, C.D., I.A. Moraes, and W. Lilenbaum (2004). Comparacao entre antigenos de b. Canis e de b. Ovis para o diagnostico da brucelose canina em testes de imunodifusao em gel-agarose. [Comparison between a B. canis and B. ovis antigens for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis on gel-agarose immunodiffusion tests.]. Revista Brasileira De Reproducao Animal 28(2): 103-107. ISSN: 0102-0803.
NAL Call Number: QP251.R48
Descriptors: B. canis, B. ovis, gel-agarose immunodiffusion (AGID) test, brucellosis diagnosis, bacterial disease, reliability of tests.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Masterson, T.J., P.V. Loubert, and D. Schmitz (2004). Angular dimensions are a good predictor of functional joint motion. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 38: 143.
Descriptors: angular dimentions, joints, imaging, experimental surgical techniques, health care implications, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Seventy-Third Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Tampa, FL, USA; April 14-17, 2004.

Mealey, K.L. and S.A. Bentjen (2004). Method of detecting ivermectin sensitivity in a canine subject by identifying a mutation in a mdr1-encoding sequence. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1286(2) ISSN: 0098-1133.
NAL Call Number: T223 .A21
Abstract: This invention provides the identification of a truncation polymorphism of the mdr1 gene that is linked to ivermectin sensitivity in subjects, such as collies. Also provided are methods for detecting drug transport sensitivity in a subject, and animal models and in vitro cell systems using cells from animals having an mdr1 truncation.
Descriptors: patent, molecular genetics, parasitology, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, method for detecting ivermectin sensitivity, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques.

Meucci, V., A. Gasperini, G. Soldani, G. Guidi, and M. Giorgi (2004). A new hplc method to determine glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow in conscious dogs by single intravenous administration of lohexol and p-aminohippuric acid. Journal of Chromatographic Science 42(2): 107-111. ISSN: 0021-9665.
NAL Call Number: 381 J8225
Abstract: A high-performance liquid chromatography method to determine iohexol (IOX) and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in the plasma of dogs is evaluated according to recovery, reproducibility, and linearity utilizing a gradient pump. The mobile phase consists of 50mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate with 0.5mM tetrabutylammonium chloride, the pH is adjusted to 4.1, methanol is added to the final ratio of 90:10 (v/v), the flow rate is set at 1 mL/min, and separation is achieved with an ODS2 Luna column. The UV detector is set at 254 nm. IOX and PAH are used for evaluation of the effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present method tested in three dogs demonstrates the accuracy in the evaluation of ERPF and GFR. Because of its precision and simplicity and low cost, it can be considered a good tool for ERPF and GFR in small animal practice.
Descriptors: urinary system, high perforhumance liquid chromatography, chromatographic techniques, laboratory techniques, glomerular filtration rate, determination, renal plasma flow.

Meyers Wallen, V.N. (2003). Sry and sox9 expression during canine gonadal sex determination assayed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Molecular Reproduction and Development 65(4): 373-381. ISSN: 1040-452X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.M64
Abstract: Testis induction is associated with gonadal Sry and Sox9 expression in mammals, and with Sox9 expression in vertebrates where Sry is absent. In mammals, Sry might initiate testis induction by upregulating Sox9 expression; however, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. Models of Sry-negative XX sex reversal (XXSR), in which testes develop in the absence of Sry, could provide the link between Sry and Sox9 in testis induction. To define the stages at which testis determination occurs in the canine model, Sry and Sox9 expression were measured in normal urogenital ridges (UGR) and gonads by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Testicular Sry expression rose continuously during canine developmental ages comparable to human carnegie stages (CS) 16-18, with maximal expression at CS 18. Sox9 was expressed in both male and female canine UGR up to CS 17, at which time testis expression became tenfold greater than in the ovary. Although Sox9 was detected by qRT-PCR in ovaries and mesonephroi of both sexes, expression was detected only in canine testes by whole mount in situ hybridization (WMISH). The timing of Sry and Sox9 expression is consistent with a role in testis determination: Sry expression begins at CS 16 in testes, followed by upregulation of Sox9 expression at CS 17. The quantity and temporal and spatial patterns of Sry and Sox9 expression in normal canine gonads are similar to those in humans, sheep, and pigs. These studies should provide the basis for understanding the mechanism of testis induction in the canine model of Sry-negative XXSR.
Descriptors: development, molecular genetics, reproductive system, reproduction, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, laboratory techniques, whole mount in situ hybridization, genetic techniques, XX sex reversal, sex determination.

Mikkelsen, L.F., H. Bentsen, and B. Gerlach (2003). The restraint platform: refinement of long term restraining of dogs for experimental procedures. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science 30(4): 217-219. ISSN: 0901-3393.
Abstract: All experimental procedures should be evaluated and, if possible, altered to reduce discomfort, pain and/or distress and to enhance the involved animal's well-being. This short communication describes a new method for the long term restraining of dogs for experimental procedures like multiple blood sampling. The newly developed platform offers the dog a choice either to lie down, sit upright, or stand up, and facilitates an easy blood sampling procedure while ensuring a good and safe restraining of the dog.
Descriptors: animal welfare, blood sampling, methodology, restraint of animals, pain, distress.
Language of Text: English, Summary in Danish.

Mischke, R., H. Wolling, and I. Nolte (2004). Detection of anticoagulant activities of isolated canine fibrinogen degradation products x, y d and e using resonance thrombography. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 15(1): 81-88. ISSN: 0957-5235.
Descriptors: blood and lymphatics, transport and circulation, resonance thrombography, laboratory techniques.

Morton, D.B., P. Hawkins, R. Bevan, K. Health, J. Kirkwood, P. Pearce, L. Scott, G. Whelan, and A. Webb (2003). Refinements in telemetry procedures. Laboratory Animals 37(4): 261-297. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: This report discusses telemetry procedures including the costs, harms and benefits involved. It also discusses the refinements in husbandry for rodents, dogs and non-human primates used in telemetry studies. It focuses on the refinements in the use of internally or externally mounted devices for transmitting or storing physiological data from experimental animals in the laboratory and in the field.
Descriptors: dogs, rodents, non-human primates, animal welfare, implantation, laboratory animals, telemetry.

Naish, C., R. Mitchell, J. Innes, M. Halliwell, and D. Mcnally (2003). Ultrasound imaging of the intervertebral disc. Spine 28(2): 107-113. ISSN: 0362-2436.
Abstract: Study Design. In vitro ultrasound imaging of dog intervertebral discs was performed. Objective. To determine te reliability of ultrasound imaging in the detection of structural changes associated with disc pathology. Summary of Background Data. Little work has been done to evaluate the potential applications of ultrasound in the imaging of intervertebral discs. Initial in vitro studies, however, have indicated that ultrasound imaging is capable of producing images of the disc that contain a high degree of structural information. Methods. Explanted lumbosacral discs from 13 non-chondrodystrophic dogs, mean age 5 years and 8 months, were stripped of all surrounding tissues and scanned using ultrasound before being sectioned and photographed. The ultrasound images were graded according to criteria chosen to reflect progressive stages of disc degeneration, allowing correlation with the grading scale used to assess the photographic images of the discs. Grades assigned to each disc were compared using Cronbach's alpha to determine the reliability of the images obtained using ultrasound. Results. The results for the anterior anulus fibrosus produced an alpha value of 0.924; those for the nucleus pulposus produced a value of 0.821; whereas those for the posterior anulus fibrosus produced a value of 0.882. Where the grade given to the ultrasound image did not match those given in visual assessment the disparity was never greater than one grade. Ultrasound images of several discs demonstrated echo patterns, that matched, in both location and appearance, real structural defects identifiable on the sectioned discs. Conclusions. Ultrasound images of intervertebral discs relate well to their pathologic condition. In addition, ultrasound is able to locate specific pathologic defects.
Descriptors: pathology, radiology, skeletal system, structural disc defect, connective tissue disease, diagnosis, ultrasound imaging, diagnostic techniques, imaging and microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques, pathological defects.

Padar, Z., M. Angyal, B. Egyed, S. Furedi, J. Woller, L. Zoldag, and S. Fekete (2001). Canine microsatellite polymorphisms as the resolution of an illegal animal death case in a Hungarian zoological gardens. International Journal of Legal Medicine 115(2): 79-81. ISSN: 0937-9827.
Abstract: Several animal carcasses were found in the paddocks of a Hungarian County Zoo during 1 week. The 14 animals killed were thought to be the victims of a dogfight training. The primary suspect was the security guard of the Zoo with his guard dogs. DNA tests were carried out on hairs and bloodstains and 10 canine-specific STR loci were analysed by fluorescently labelled multiplex PCR using the ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer. The results confirmed that the killer was a single animal and all of the guard dogs were excluded.
Descriptors: illegal, dogfight training, DNA tests, canine-specific STR loci, ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer.

Pan, H.E., B. Su, V.F. Pang, and C.R. Jeng (2003). Detection of cytokine in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Taiwan Veterinary Journal 29(3): 181-188. ISSN: 1682-6485.
NAL Call Number: SF604 .C54
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to establish a semi-quantitative system for detecting cytokines in canine peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC). The mRNA levels of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), a house-keeping gene, was used as an internal control to standardize the variations among samples. After determination of the optimal condition of RT-PCR, the mRNA levels of cytokine genes, including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), could be detected from unstimulated and concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated PBMC derived from six clinically healthy dogs. IL-10 was constitutively expressed in the unstimulated PBMC, however, IL-2 and IL-4 were not detectable. In Con A stimulated PBMC, all the 4 cytokines examined were strongly expressed after two hours of Con A incubation. The expression levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma in unstimulated and Con A-stimulated PBMC were at least 2.5-fold difference. This assay is sensitive to detect semiquantitativity the canine PBMC cytokines.
Descriptors: immune system, molecular genetics, semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques.

Peters, I.R., C.R. Helps, E.L. Calvert, E.J. Hall, and M.J. Day (2005). Cytokine mRNA quantification in histologically normal canine duodenal mucosa by real-time RT-PCR. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 103(1-2): 101-111. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call Number: SF757.2.V38
Descriptors: inflammatory bowel disease, taqhuman PCR, real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR), canine duodenum, cytokine mRNA.

Peters, I.R., C.R. Helps, R.M. Batt, M.J. Day, and E.J. Hall (2003). Quantitative real-time rt-pcr measurement of mrna encoding alpha-chain, pigr and j-chain from canine duodenal mucosa. Journal of Immunological Methods 275(1-2): 213-222. ISSN: 0022-1759.
NAL Call Number: QR180.J6
Abstract: IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin class in mucosal secretions and secretory deficiencies may predispose to chronic enteropathies. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) facilitates the transport of IgA across the epithelial border. Critical to the transport of IgA by pIgR is the presence of a polypeptide joining chain (J-chain) linking the IgA monomers of the dimeric IgA molecule. In this study we examine the difference in expression of mRNA transcripts for pIgR, alpha-chain and J-chain by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in endoscopic biopsies from the duodenum of dogs with and without chronic diarrhoea. One-step, real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify the level of expression of transcripts for the housekeeper gene G3PDH, pIgR, alpha-chain and J-chain. There was no significant difference in expression of any transcript between dogs with (n=11) and without (n=8) chronic diarrhoea. Expression of alpha-chain mRNA in both groups had a similar bimodal distribution, as individuals either expressed relatively 'high' or 'low' levels of this transcript. The secretion of IgA by plasma cells is under the control of Th-2 cyokines, therefore the finding of 'high' and 'low' levels of alpha-chain expression may reflect different levels of these cytokines in duodenal mucosa.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, immune system, chronic diarrhea, digestive system disease, chronic enteropathy, quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques.

Pratelli, A., M. Tempesta, G. Greco, V. Martella, and C. Buonavoglia (1999). Development of a nested PCR assay for the detection of canine coronavirus. Journal of Virological Methods 80(1): 11-15. ISSN: 0166-0934.
NAL Call Number: QR355.J6
Abstract: A nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) assay was developed for canine coronavirus (CCV) and tested using the USDA strain, 45/93, field strain, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV, field strain), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, Purdue strain), bovine coronavirus (BCV, 9WBL-77 strain), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, M-41 strain) and faecal samples of dogs with CCV enteritis. A 230-bp segment of the gene encoding for transmembrane protein M of CCV is the target sequence of the primer. The n-PCR amplified both CCV and TGEV strains and also gave positive results on faecal samples from CCV infected dogs. n-PCR has a sensitivity as high as isolation on cell cultures, and can be used for diagnosis of CCV infection in dogs.
Descriptors: polymerase chain reaction, laboratory diagnosis, enteritis, gastroenteritis, coronavirus, dogs, infectious bronchitis virus, feline peritonitis virus.

Pritt, S., J.F. Nostrant, P. Samalonis, B. Lotocki, and R.M. Harrison (2004). Clinical blood draws: when do they require IACUC approval? Lab Animal 33(1): 17-21. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: blood withdrawal, institutional policy, institutional animal care and use committee, regulations.

Rao, L., C. Ding, and D.S. Khoury (2004). Nonfluoroscopic localization of intracardiac electrode-catheters combined with noncontact electrical-anatomical imaging. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 32(12): 1654-1661. ISSN: 0090-6964.
NAL Call Number: TA164.J6
Descriptors: intracardiac echocardiography (ICE), noncontact mappy, imaging, heart, nonfluroscopic method, catheters, cardiac anatomy, diagnosing arrythmias.

Rao, L., R. He, C. Ding, and D.S. Khoury (2004). Novel noncontact catheter system for endocardial electrical and anatomical imaging. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 32(4): 573-584. ISSN: 0090-6964.
NAL Call Number: TA164.J6
Abstract: The study objective was to integrate noncontact mapping and intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) in a single catheter system that enables both electrical and anatomical imaging of the endocardium. We developed a catheter system on the basis of a 9-F sheath that carried a coaxial 64-electrode lumen-probe on the outside and a central ICE catheter (9 F, 9 MHz) on the inside. The sheath was placed in the right atrium (RA) of 3 dogs, and in the left ventricle (LV) of 3 other dogs. To construct cardiac anatomy, the ICE catheter was pulled back over several beats inside the sheath starting from the tip and two-dimensional tomographic images were continuously acquired. To recover endocardial electrograms, the probe was advanced over the sheath and single-beat noncontact electrograms were simultaneously recorded. Endocardial contact electrodes were placed at select sites for validation as well as for pacing. Three-dimensional electrical-anatomical images reconstructed during sinus and paced rhythms correctly associated RA and LV activation sequences with underlying endocardial anatomy (overall activation error = 3.4 +/- 13.2 ms; overall spatial error = 8.0 +/- 3.5 mm). Therefore, accurate fusion of electrical imaging with anatomical imaging during catheterization is feasible. Integrating single-beat noncontact mapping with ICE provides detailed, three-dimensional electrical-anatomical images of the endocardium, which may facilitate management of arrhythmias.
Descriptors: morphology, arrhythmia, heart disease, catheter system, tomography, imaging and microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques, intracardiac echocardiography (ICE).

Rappard, G., G.J. Metzger, P.T. Weatherall, and P.D. Purdy (2004). Interventional mr imaging with an endospinal imaging coil: preliminary results with anatomic imaging of the canine and cadaver spinal cord. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology 25(5): 835-839. ISSN: 0195-6108.
Abstract: Percutaneous intraspinal navigation (PIN) is a new minimally invasive approach to the subarachnoid space. Using conventional radiographic fluoroscopy, entrance is gained to the lumbar subarachnoid space, allowing navigation throughout the spinal canal. Using an antenna/guidewire introduced via PIN, we performed endospinal MR imaging of the thoracic spinal cord in a cadaver and canine subject. Comparison images were obtained with an optimal surface coil. PIN allows endospinal MR imaging of the spinal cord, providing significant signal-to-noise ratio gains over conventional imaging.
Descriptors: nervous system, neural coordination, endospinal magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic techniques, imaging and microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques, percutaneous intraspinal navigation, radiographic fluoroscopy, signal to noise ratio.

Reading, M.J. and H.J. Field (1999). Detection of high levels of canine herpes virus-1 neutralising antibody in kennel dogs using a novel serum neutralisation test. Research in Veterinary Science 66(3): 273-275. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: It is widely held that only cells of canine origin support canine herpesvirus(-1) (CHV-1) replication and, that cytopathic effect (CPE) develops relatively slowly. Here we show that mink fetal lung cells (NBL-7 cell line) are permissive for CHV-1 and can be used to produce a sensitive test for neutralising antibody by plaque reduction in the presence of complement. The test was applied to the investigation of CHV-1 virus neutralising antibody levels in three kennel populations. The results showed that 26 out of 28 dogs were neutralising antibody positive (titre greater than or equal to 2) and, 11 out of 28 had titres of greater than or equal to 1024. The serum samples were analysed by enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA); 27 out of 28 were graded as ELISA IgG positive (titre greater than or equal to 500) and 26 of 28 were graded as ELISA IgM positive (titre greater than or equal to 50).
Descriptors: dogs, canine herpesvirus, neutralizing antibodies, neutralization tests, antibody testing, cell lines, lungs, mink.

Rekitt, M., M. Staub, U. Andresen, and H. Sauerwein (2003). Orientierende Untersuchungen zum oxidativen Stress bei Hunden. [Orientational studies on oxidative stress in dogs.]. Tierarztliche Umschau 58(2): 70, 73-78. ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T445
Abstract: A new method (d-ROM test, with the Form-CR photometer) was investigated for its usefulness in diagnosing oxidative stress in dogs, by measuring the peroxide content in blood samples. 40 dogs of various ages and breeds from a veterinary practice in Germany were examined. 20 were healthy and 20 had various diseases. The mean value for oxidative stress in the 40 dogs was 92±32 Carratelli units (1 Carratelli unit = 0.08 mg H2O2/dl). This value was less than that found in horses (110 Carr. units) and in man (210 Carr. units). About 37% of the dogs had values greater than 100 Carr. units, and were classed as oxidatively stressed. Male dogs had significantly higher values than bitches (108.6 and 84.0 Carr. u., respectively) and values were also significantly higher in entire males than in castrated males. Mean haptoglobin concentration in blood samples was 1.6±1.5 mg/ml, and was significantly higher in diseased than in healthy dogs (2.0±1.5 and 1.2±1.5 mg/ml, respectively). Haptoglobin concentration also increased significantly with age. In an experiment with 15 dogs classed as oxidatively stressed, 7 were given, for 3 weeks, a nutritional supplement (Vivomax) containing vitamins E and C, Se and plant extracts with antioxidative and immunomodulatory effects. In 6 of the dogs, oxidative stress values decreased by 30% compared with untreated dogs. However, haptoglobin concentration was not affected. It is concluded that the test is suitable for use in veterinary practice for diagnosing oxidative stress, but that the results of these experiments needed to be tested on a larger number of animals.
Descriptors: age, ascorbic acid, bitches, blood chemistry, blood proteins, feed additives, feed supplements, hydrogen peroxide, plant extracts, selenium, sex, stress, vitamin E, dogs.
Language of Text: German.

Rosati, S., M. Ortoffi, M. Profiti, A. Mannelli, W. Mignone, E. Bollo, and L. Gradoni (2003). Prokaryotic expression and antigenic characterization of three recombinant leishmania antigens for serological diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 10(6): 1153-1156. ISSN: 1071-412X.
Abstract: Three recombinant antigens of Leishmania chagasi (=L. infantum) were expressed in prokaryotic systems and evaluated (using a panel of dog sera characterized by parasitological and serological immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) techniques) as diagnostic markers of infection. The whole open reading frame encoding K9, the gene fragment encoding the repetitive sequence of K26, and the 3'-terminal gene fragment encoding a single 39-amino-acid subunit of the kinesin-related protein K39 (K39sub) were amplified from L. infantum DNA and cloned into a pGEX-2T expression vector in frame with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The sensitivity and specificity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using K26 as an antigen (evaluated with sera from 20 parasitologically positive and 20 parasitologically negative dogs) were both 100% (95% confidence interval (CI)=83.2 to 100). When K9 and K39sub were used, sensitivity was 95% (95% CI=75.1 to 99.9) and specificity was 100% (95% CI=83.2 to 100). Using 182 field sera, a good agreement was found between the recombinant K26 ELISA and IFAT (K=0.92; 95% CI=0.86 to 0.98) results and between the K9 and K39sub ELISA (used in parallel) and IFAT (K=0.87; 95% CI=0.80 to 0.95) results. The results demonstrate that each antigen carries immunodominant epitopes and that their combination may further increase the sensitivity of currently available serological tests.
Descriptors: blood and lymphatics, transport and circulation, immune system, integumentary system, canine leishhumaniasis, integumentary system disease, parasitic disease, diagnosis, elisa, diagnostic techniques, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, immunofluorescent antibody test, serodiagnosis.

Sandhu P, Vogel JS, Rose MJ, Ubick EA, Brunner JE, Wallace MA, Adelsberger JK, Baker MP, Henderson PT, Pearson PG, and Baillie TA (2004). Evaluation of microdosing strategies for studies in preclinical drug development: demonstration of linear pharmacokinetics in dogs of a nucleoside analog over a 50-fold dose range. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 32(11): 1254-1259. ISSN: 0090-9556.
NAL Call Number: RM301.35.D78
Abstract: The technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was validated successfully and used to study the pharmacokinetics and disposition in dogs of a preclinical drug candidate (7-deaza-2'-C-methyladenosine; Compound A), after oral and intravenous administration. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether Compound A displayed linear kinetics across subpharmacological ( microdose) and pharmacological dose ranges in an animal model, before initiation of a human microdose study. The AMS-derived disposition properties of Compound A were comparable to data obtained via conventional techniques such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting analyses. Compound A displayed multiphasic kinetics and exhibited low plasma clearance (5.8 ml/min/kg), a long terminal elimination half-life (17.5 h), and high oral bioavailability 103%). Currently, there are no published comparisons of the kinetics of a pharmaceutical compound at pharmacological versus subpharmacological doses using microdosing strategies. The present study thus provides the first description of the full pharmacokinetic profile of a drug candidate assessed under these two dosing regimens. The data demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic properties of Compound A following dosing at 0.02 mg/kg were similar to those at 1 mg/kg, indicating that in the case of Compound A, the pharmacokinetics in the dog appear to be linear across this 50-fold dose range. Moreover, the exceptional sensitivity of AMS provided a pharmacokinetic profile of Compound A, even after a microdose, which revealed aspects of the disposition of this agent that were inaccessible by conventional techniques.
Descriptors: dogs, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), pharmacokinetic profile, drug screening.

Scholz, C., M.J. Johansen, R. Newman, M. Andreeff, M. Konopleva, and T. Madden (2003). Sensitive and specific method for the determination of CDDO methyl ester in mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human plasma by LC-tandem mass spectrometry. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 94th Annual Meeting, July 11-14, 2003, Washington, DC, USA, Vol. 44, p. 1262.
Descriptors: LC tandem mass spectrometry, solid phase extraction, laboratory techniques, methyl ester, rat, mouse, dog, monkey, human, plasma.

Skoumalova, A., J. Rofina, Z. Schwippelova, E. Gruys, and J. Wilhelm (2003). The role of free radicals in canine counterpart of senile dementia of the alzheimer type. Experimental Gerontology 38(6): 711-719. ISSN: 0531-5565.
NAL Call Number: QP86.E85
Abstract: The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown. In recent time oxidative stress has been discussed as an important contributor. In the present study we investigated the role of free radicals in the spontaneous canine model of Alzheimer's disease. We analysed end-products of lipid peroxidation: lipofuscin-like pigments (LFP), protein carbonyls, and vitamin E to obtain data on oxidative damage in brain of demented dogs. When the generation of free radicals is intensive the toxic products of lipid peroxidation can diffuse from the site of the primary formation and merge with erythrocytes. Therefore we also determined the level of lipid peroxidation in red blood cells. In brain of demented animals the level of LFP increased (to 247%, P < 0.05) as well as of protein carbonyls (to 438%, P < 0.01) while the vitamin E concentration was lowered (to 34%, P < 0.01) when compared to age-matched non-demented controls. The end-products of lipid peroxidation have been found increased also in erythrocytes of demented dogs (250%, P < 0.05). These results indicate intensive production of free radicals in brain of animals with dementia which induces damage to erythrocytes. Detection of the specific products of free radical damage in blood samples could be used for diagnostic purposes.
Descriptors: aging, behavior, metabolism, nervous system, neural coordination, Alzheimer's disease, behavioral and mental disorders, nervous system disease, etiology, senile dementia, mental disorders, nervous system disease, etiology, lipid peroxidation end products.

Thoesen, M.S., W.S. Berg Foels, T. Stokol, K.M. Rassnick, M.S. Jacobson, S.V. Kevy, and R.J. Todhunter (2006). Use of a centrifugation-based, point-of-care device for production of canine autologous bone marrow and platelet concentrates. American Journal of Veterinary Research 67(10): 1655-61. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To analyze a centrifugation-based, point-of-care device that concentrates canine platelets and bone marrow-derived cells. ANIMALS: 19 adult sexually intact dogs. PROCEDURES: Anticoagulated peripheral blood (60 mL) and 60 mL of anticoagulated bone marrow aspirate (BMA) were concentrated by centrifugation with the centrifugation-based, point-of-care device to form a platelet and a bone marrow concentrate (BMC) from 11 dogs. Blood samples were analyzed on the basis of hemograms, platelet count, and PCV. The BMA and BMC were analyzed to determine PCV, total nucleated cell count, RBC count, and differential cell counts. The BMC stromal cells were cultured in an osteoinductive medium. Eight additional dogs were used to compare the BMC yield with that in which heparin was infused into the bone marrow before aspiration. RESULTS: The centrifugation-based, point-of-care device concentrated platelets by 6-fold over baseline (median recovery, 63.1%) with a median of 1,336 x 10(3) platelets/microL in the 7-mL concentrate. The nucleated cells in BMCs increased 7-fold (median recovery, 42.9%) with a median of 720 x 10(3) cells/microL in the 4-mL concentrate. The myeloid nucleated cells and mononuclear cells increased significantly in BMCs with a significant decrease in PCV, compared with that of BMAs. Stromal cell cultures expressed an osteoblastic phenotype in culture. Infusion of heparin into the bone marrow eliminated clot formation and created less variation in the yield (median recovery, 61.9%). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Bone marrow-derived cell and platelet-rich concentrates may form bone if delivered in an engineered graft, thus decreasing the need for cancellous bone grafts.
Descriptors: blood platelets physiology, bone marrow cells physiology, cell separation instrumentation, cell separation veterinary, centrifugation veterinary, point of care systems, blood component removal veterinary, cells, cultured, centrifugation instrumentation, dogs, stromal cells.

Thomas, R.A., D. Mcfarland, L.A. Tierney, P.K. Narayanan, and L.W. Schwartz (2004). Ena-78 induced up-regulation of cd11b in whole blood: A novel assay for c-x-c chemokine induced neutrophil activation in dogs. Cytometry 59A(1): 131. ISSN: 0196-4763.
NAL Call Number: QH573 .C958
Descriptors: blood and lymphatics, immune system, flow cytometry, neutrophil activation, dogs, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Presented at XXII Congress of the International Society for Analytical Cytology.

Trunsky, J. (2003). Dog feces collection bag dispenser and receptacle. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1271(3) ISSN: 0098-1133.
NAL Call Number: T223 .A21
Descriptors: patent, animal waste, sanitation, dog feces collection bag.

Tseng, L.W., D. Hughes, and U. Giger (2001). Evaluation of a point-of-care coagulation analyzer for measurement of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and activated clotting time in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62(9): 1455-1460. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: To evaluate a point-of-care coagulation analyser (PCCA) in dogs with coagulopathies (n=32, with and without evidence of bleeding) and healthy dogs (n=27), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and activated clotting time (ACT) were determined using a PCCA and standard methods. Using the PCCA, mean (±SD) PT of citrated whole blood (CWB) from healthy dogs was 14.5±1.2 seconds, whereas PT of non-anticoagulated whole blood (NAWB) was 10.4±0.5 seconds. Activated partial thromboplastin time using CWB was 86.4±6.9 seconds, whereas aPTT was 71.2±6.7 seconds using NAWB. Reference ranges for PT and aPTT using CWB were 12.2-16.8 seconds and 72.5-100.3 seconds, respectively. Activated clotting time in NAWB was 71±11.8 seconds. Agreement with standard PT and aPTT methods using citrated plasma was good (overall agreement was 93% for PT and 87.5% for aPTT in CWB). Comparing CWB by the PCCA and conventional coagulation methods using citrated plasma, sensitivity and specificity were 85.7 and 95.5% for PT and 100 and 82.9% for aPTT, respectively. Overall agreement between the PCCA using NAWB and the clinical laboratory was 73% for PT and 88% for aPTT. Using NAWB for the PCCA and citrated plasma for conventional methods, sensitivity and specificity was 85.7 and 68.4% for PT and 86.7 and 88.9% for aPTT, respectively. The PCCA detected intrinsic, extrinsic, and common pathway abnormalities in a similar fashion to clinical laboratory tests.
Descriptors: blood, blood coagulation, blood coagulation disorders, clotting, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, diagnostic value, prothrombin, thromboplastin.

Verwaerde, P., C. Malet, M. Lagente, F. de la Farge, and J.P. Braun (2002). The accuracy of the i-STAT portable analyser for measuring blood gases and pH in whole-blood samples from dogs. Research in Veterinary Science 73(1): 71-75. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: To assess the suitability of the i-STAT portable analyser for use by non-laboratory personnel, we measured blood gases and pH in venous blood samples from 100 dogs. Deming's regression and bias plots were used to compare i-STAT results with those obtained by laboratory professionals using two different autocalibrated benchtop analysers. Overall accuracy of the portable analyser proved excellent for pH, pO(2), and pCO(2) (r=0.978, 0.968 and 0.997, respectively), with Deming's regression slopes close to 1.00 (0.96, 0.97 and 1.08 for pH, pO(2), and pCO(2), respectively) and intercepts close to zero (0.28, 0.47 kPa and 0.46 kPa for pH, pO(2), and pCO(2), respectively). The accuracy of the i-STAT was also satisfactory for calculated parameters: bicarbonates, total CO(2), base excess and oxygen saturation. Our findings show this portable analyser to be a valid substitute for expensive benchtop analysers in situations requiring mobility, or when small numbers of tests are to be performed by users not specialized in laboratory techniques.
Descriptors: i-STAT portable analyser, blood gases, pH, venous blood samples.

Volkmann, D.H. (2006). The effects of storage time and temperature and anticoagulant on laboratory measurements of canine blood progesterone concentrations. Theriogenology 66(6-7): 1583-1586. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: The effects of anticoagulant, storage time, storage temperature, and assay method, on laboratory measurements of blood progesterone concentrations of dogs is unclear; these factors have had a dramatic effect on blood progesterone concentrations in other species (particularly cows). In six experiments, we determined the effects of assay technique (chemiluminescence versus radioimmunoassay (RIA)), storage time, and temperature, as well as the use of heparinized plasma versus serum (coagulated blood) on measured progesterone concentrations of bitches. The studies showed that: (a) RIA measured significantly higher serum progesterone concentration (SPC) than chemiluminescence; (b) refrigeration of whole blood during the first 2 h after sample collection significantly decreased measured SPC; (c) progesterone concentration in heparinized plasma was not affected by storage temperature of whole blood for at least 5 h; (d) refrigeration of whole, clotted blood did not affect SPC, provided that samples were held at room temperature for the first 2 h after collection. These findings are of particular importance when blood samples are collected for determination of the initial rise in SPC that is associated with the LH surge in estrous bitches.
Descriptors: blood preservation , progesterone, specimen handling, anticoagulants, chemiluminescent measurements, radioimmunoassay, temperature.

Wiedemann, K., E. Fleischer, and P. Dressler (2002). Zur Geschichte der Seitentrennung der Atemwege. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 37(1): 8-15. ISSN: 0939-2661.
Abstract: Techniques to separate the airways to both lungs were employed in the laboratory by renowned physiologists like Pfluger and C. Bernard to study gas exchange. Pfluger's catheter, as used by Wolffberg in 1871 in the dog, essentially constituted an early example of endobronchial single lumen tube, and was to be the first airway separator introduced into man by Loewy and v. Schrotter in 1905 in experiments on circulation. As a variation of this device the carinal hook made ist appearance used by Hess in 1912 in rabbits. While the endobronchial catheters afforded airtight access to only one lung at a time for concomitantly studying ventilation in both lungs, a short tracheal cannula was combined with one introduced into the left main bronchus by Head in 1889, constituting as it were the prototype of double lumen (DL) tubes applicable to rabbits and turtles even. Werigo described 1892 a coaxial DL-tracheostomy cannula for dogs which construction principle was adopted in the first DL-bronchoscope used in man. In lung surgery during the 30s and 40s the ventilated lung was prevented from drowning by pus or secretions from the lung under surgery by sealing off ist main bronchus, either by endobronchial intubation or by a bronchial blocker inserted alongside the endotracheal tube. This principle gave rise to sophisticated devices, from the fixed combination of tube and blocker to the present-day tube housing a movable blocker. Remarkably, DL-intubation in its proper sense then was performed in bronchospirometry only. This technique was introduced by Jacobaeus upon suggestion of Liljestrand when dissatisfied with the restriction to sequential spirometry by customary bronchoscopic catheterization, relying on Frenckner's ingenious DL-bronchoscope. Rubber DL-tubes were developed by Gebauer 1939 and Zavod 1940 exclusively with bronchospirometry in mind, even E. Carlens primarily constructed his tube to improve this procedure. After its usage in over 100 bronchospirometries it was introduced for the first time in November 1949 for its familiar purpose: the resection of a tuberculous abscess in the right upper lobe. Once introduced into thoracic anaesthesia, the DL-principle so far fostered a wide variety of tube designs.
Descriptors: bronchi, anatomy, histology, artificial respiration, history of techniques used, literature review, instrumentation, methods, anesthesiology.

Wiedmeyer, C.E., P.J. Johnson, L.A. Cohn, and R.L. Meadows (2003). Evaluation of a continuous glucose monitoring system for use in dogs, cats, and horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(7): 987-992. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for use in dogs, cats, and horses. Design: Prospective clinical study. Animals: 7 horses, 3 cats, and 4 dogs that were clinically normal and 1 horse, 2 cats, and 3 dogs with diabetes mellitus. Procedure: Interstitial glucose concentrations were monitored and recorded every 5 minutes by use of a CGMS. Interstitial glucose concentrations were compared with whole blood glucose concentrations as determined by a point-of-care glucose meter. Interstitial glucose concentrations were also monitored in 2 clinically normal horses after oral and IV administration of glucose. Results: There was a positive correlation between interstitial and whole blood glucose concentrations for clinically normal dogs, cats, and horses and those with diabetes mellitus. Events such as feeding, glucose or insulin administration, restraint, and transport to the clinic were recorded by the owner or clinician and could be identified on the graph and associated with time of occurrence. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Our data indicate that use of CGMS is valid for dogs, cats, and horses. This system alleviated the need for multiple blood samples and the stress associated with obtaining those samples. Because hospitalization was not required, information obtained from the CGMS provided a more accurate assessment of the animal's glucose concentrations for an extended period, compared with measurement of blood glucose concentrations. Use of the CGMS will promote the diagnostic and research potential of serial glucose monitoring.
Descriptors: blood chemistry, blood sugar, diabetes mellitus, techniques, cats, dogs, horses, blood collection, continuous glucose monitoring system, stress.

Xu, X., L. Qian, and J.D.Z. Chen (2004). Anti-dysrhythmic effects of long-pulse gastric electrical stimulation in dogs. Digestion 69(2): 63-70. ISSN: 0012-2823.
NAL Call Number: QP141.A1D5
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, gastric dysrhythmia, digestive system disease, long pulse gastric electrical stimulation, anti dysrhythmic stimulation effects, gastric motility, gastric myoelectrical activity, gastric pacing, gastric slow wave coupling.

Yamada, M. and M. Tokuriki (2000). Spontaneous activities measured continuously by an accelerometer in Beagle dogs housed in a cage. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62(4): 443-447. ISSN: 0021-5295.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Abstract: Spontaneous physical activity for investigating behavioural drug toxicity was recorded continuously in 10 Beagle dogs housed in individual cages for 2 h using an accelerometer and a video camera. Gross differentiation of quantitative behavioural parameters was possible with the accelerometer alone when threshold and acceleration volume values were set at 0.10 G and _251. At these settings, the accelerometer revealed only movements of whole-body, whereas at threshold value of 0.02 G movements of individual body parts could be identified.
Descriptors: animal behavior, abnormal behavior, drug toxicity, instruments, dogs.

Yan, C.J., C.H. Lin, Y.H. Lien, L.H. Lu, and H.P. Huang (2004). Study of blood pressure in the geriatric canine population in taiwan. Taiwan Veterinary Journal 30(3): 222-229. ISSN: 1682-6485.
NAL Call Number: SF604 .C54
Abstract: This survey aimed to establish blood pressure (BP) references of clinically healthy geriatric dogs using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector, and to investigate the effects of age, breed, sex, body weight, and body condition on blood pressures. Two hundreds and seven clinically healthy dogs were studied. One hundred and thirty-six healthy geriatric dogs and seventy-one healthy adult dogs were measured. The mean BP of geriatric dogs was 157.9 +/- 24.4 mmHg. The mean BP of healthy adult dogs was 150.8 +/- 22.3 mmHg. Systolic BP measurements were significantly higher in the geriatrics compared to the adult dogs (P = 0.04). Systolic BP measurements higher than 206.7 mmHg were defined as hypertension, and those less than 109.1 mmHg were defined as hypotension. Blood pressure measurements were found to be waved with age. Shih-Tzu presented higher BP than other breeds in both geriatric and adult dogs, however it was not statisitically significant. Sex, body weight, and body condition did not affect BP distributions.
Descriptors: aging, animal care, blood and lymphatics, transport and circulation, hypertension, vascular disease, diagnosis, doppler myocardial imaging, microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques.
Language of Text: Chinese.

Yuan, A.S., M.L. Morris, K.C. Yin, J.Y.K. Hsieh, and B.K. Matuszewski (2003). Development and implementation of an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for the determination of an angiogenic polypeptide in dog and rat plasma. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 33(4): 719-724. ISSN: 0731-7085.
NAL Call Number: RS400
Abstract: A quantitative method based on electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for the determination of the angiogenic agent aFGF-S117 has been developed and validated. Two polyclonal antibodies specific to aFGF-S117 and a wild-type aFGF antibody were selected for the analysis. The assay was based on the non-competitive sandwich immunoassay principle in which the drug is trapped with a biotinylated antibody that is immobilized on a streptavidin magnetic particle. The drug is then sandwiched with a ruthenium chelated second antibody. The assay demonstrates good accuracy and reproducibility at plasma concentration of 0.5 ng/ml.
Descriptors: veterinary medicine, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, non competitive sandwich immunoassay.

Zhang, D., B. Yuan, M. Qiao, and F. Li (2003). HPLC determination and pharmacokinetics of sustained-release bupropion tablets in dogs. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 33(2): 287-293. ISSN: 0731-7085.
NAL Call Number: RS400
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics and bioequivalency of a newly developed sustained-release bupropion tablet was studied in six dogs after single oral administration and compared with a regular tablet (RT) in randomized two-period crossover design. A sensitive and rapid HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of bupropion in dog plasma. The compound and the internal standard (I.S.) (hydroxyethylfludiazepam) were extracted from the plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction. The extracts were analyzed by a reversed-phase HPLC with 50 mmol/l phosphate buffer (pH 5.5)-methanol (45:55, v/v) as the eluent. The assay was specific for bupropion. The calibration curves were linear in the range between 1 and 750 ng/ml. The validated lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/ml. The overall precision (expressed as R.S.D.) of quality controls were within 15%. The method was successfully applied to the bioequivalency study of bupropion in the two formulations. The Cmax of sustained-release tablet (ST) was significantly lower than that of the RT and the Tmax was significantly longer than that of the RT (P < 0.05). The relative bioavailability of the ST was (99.1 +- 1.51)%, the results of ANOVA and two one sided tests indicated that the new ST exhibited good sustained release properties and was bioequivalent to the RT.
Descriptors: sustained-release buproprion tablet, dogs, oral administration, HPLC methodology, calibration curves, drug formulations.



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