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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Dogs: Animal Welfare Information Center
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Anonymous (2004). Reaction of the Dutch pet food industry to a letter on health claims. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 129(8): 277. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Descriptors: animal husbandry, foods, nutrition, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, animal care, animal nutrition, food production, health claims, pet food, animal feed, pet food industry, the Netherlands.
Language of Text: German.

Bailoni, L. and I. Cerchiaro (2005). The role of feeding in the maintenance of well-being and health of geriatric dogs. Veterinary Research Communications 29(Suppl. 2): 51-55. ISSN: 0165-7380.
NAL Call Number: SF601 .V38
Abstract: Ageing, like all physiological effects, has a multifactorial origin and is linked to the progressive reduction in the function of some organs and systems. Feeding can play an important role in the control of the ageing process by the improvement of quality of life and the prevention of some pathologies associated with age (renal diseases, obesity, rheumatism, dental pathologies, cardiovascular disorders). Clinical nutrition of old dogs allows us to clarify the animals' nutritional requirements, the required balance of nutrients, the quality of ingredients and dietetic function of some substances.Twenty commercial dry foods formulated for old dogs were analysed. A wide variability of chemical composition was observed among the samples. Very different values were found for size and hardness of kibbles (parameters correlated with the incidence of some dental diseases). Good availability of foods with different nutritional characteristics could be useful to the needs of geriatric dogs. Similarly, a balanced home-made ration could satisfy the specific requirements of old dogs and gratify their owners. In conclusion, a diet for ageing dogs should be "personalized", considering both the nutritional and extra -nutritional factors, which contribute to guarantee optimal well-being and health.
Descriptors: animal feed standards, animal nutrition, physiology, nutritional requirements, aging physiology, geriatric dogs.

Hennessy, M.B., V.L. Voith, T.L. Young, J.L. Hawke, J. Centrone, A.L. McDowell, F. Linden, and G.M. Davenport (2002). Exploring human interaction and diet effects on the behavior of dogs in a public animal shelter. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(4): 253-273. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: dogs, animal behavior, human-animal relations, animal stress, diet, pet foods, digestibility, protein sources, play, fearfulness, animal welfare.

Hesta, M., W. Roosen, G.P.J. Janssens, S. Millet, and R. De Wilde (2003). Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels. British Journal of Nutrition 90(6): 1007-1014. ISSN: 0007-1145.
NAL Call Number: 389.8 B773
Abstract: An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50% with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3% fructo-oligosaccharides or 3% isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3% of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected.
Descriptors: nutrition, protein levels, canine diets, fecal odor, prebiotic addition to diet, digestibility, fecal ammonia concentration.

Houpt, K.A. and S. Zicker (2003). Dietary effects on canine and feline behavior. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 33(2): 405-416. ISSN: 0195-5616.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V523
Descriptors: behavior, nutrition, veterinary medicine, malnutrition, nutritional disease, obesity, aggression, diet, behavioral effects, diet fat content, dietary fiber, energy balance.

Ikeda Douglas, C.J., H. Murphey, B. Muggenburg, E. Head, C.W. Cotman, S.C. Zicker, and N.W. Milgram (2002). Long term maintenance of an antioxidant enriched food plus behavioral enrichment markedly delays age related cognitive decline in beagle dogs. In: Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner: 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, November 2-7, 2002, Orlando, FL, p. Abstract No. 374.5. [CD-Rom]
Descriptors: aging, behavior, nutrition, behavioral enrichment, laboratory techniques, age related cognitive decline, discrimination learning, food control environment, reversal learning.

Jewell, D.E. (2003). Einfluss der Futterung auf altersbedingte Verhaltensanderungen beim Hund. [Effects of food on age-related behavioural changes in dogs.]. Praktische Tierarzt 84(3): 178-182. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Abstract: A clinical trial, including 142 dogs aged 7 years or older, was performed in order to investigate whether age-related behavioural changes could be influenced by feeding a special diet. The trial was designed as a randomized double blind study. The control interval was 60 days. Age-related behavioural changes were categorized by the DISHA-system and evaluated with the help of a standardized informant-based questionnaire completed by pet owners. The dogs fed the special diet showed significant improvements in behavioural attributes as compared to the control dogs receiving a leading consumer brand.
Descriptors: age, animal behavior, behavioral changes, diets, dog feeding.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Long, J.P. and S.C. Greco (2000). The effect of propofol administered intravenously on appetite stimulation in dogs. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science. 39(6): 43-46. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: This study attempts to qualify and quantify the effect of propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol) on appetite stimulation in healthy young adult dogs. Six purpose-bred male dogs (age, 6 months) were obtained from a Class A vendor. Dogs were housed individually and provided water ad libitum throughout the study period. All dogs were fed ad libitum to ensure that test conditions and degree of satiety were identical. Each dog was assigned randomly to either an experimental group or control each day of the study. The experimental groups received single bolus intravenous injections of propofol at different dosage levels (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 3.0 mg/kg of body weight), and the control group received saline. The administrator was blinded to the animal's identification and dose. Dosages greater than 3.0 mg/kg resulted in profound sedation and ataxia, which physically inhibited the dogs from obtaining the food; therefore 3.0 mg/kg was the highest dose tested. Dogs were weighed daily to ensure accurate dosing. Dosing was performed at the same time each day to minimize variability. Food intake amounts were recorded at 15, 30, 60, 120, and 1440 min after injection. Food intake was expressed as [food intake (g)/body weight (kg)/unit time (min.)]. After a 1-week rest period, the study was repeated. Data were analyzed with a type RBF-65 randomized-block factorial design (ANOVA). Each dog served as its own control. The two experiments were analyzed separately, and a P-value of less than 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. An increase (P<0.05) in food consumption was observed solely during the 0-to-15-min time interval; no significant increase in food consumption was observed at any other time point. This data supports propofol's appetite stimulating effect in the initial 15 min after injection. Additional studies are required to explore the mechanism for this effect and to determine whether it occurs in other species.
Descriptors: pets, feed intake, appetite, feeding behavior, anorexia, drugs, treatment, stimulation, propofol, dogs.

Manuel, M.F., J.H.A. Abalos, and C.D. Solis (2002). Some acute behavioural and physiological effects observed in local Philippine dogs voluntarily fed with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the diet. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine 39(1): 50-51. ISSN: 0031-7705.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P53
Abstract: Twelve 4- to 7-month-old Philippine nondescript dogs of both sexes were fed monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the diet in quantities varying from 0, 5 and 10% of the amount of food given, using the Latin square design. Both physiological and behavioural parameters were examined in all animals an hour before and after feeding. Doses of MSG as high as 10% did not induce any noticeable change in the behaviour of the dogs. On the other hand, some temporary physiological changes such as tachycardia, vomiting and excretion of dark-coloured faeces were observed in 10 of the dogs.
Descriptors: adverse effects, monosodium glutamate, poisoning, toxicity, dogs.

Nap, R.C. (1999). Voeding van hond en kat in intensive care. [Feeding of dogs and cats kept in intensive care.]. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 68(5): 246-248. ISSN: 0303-9021.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V84
Descriptors: intensive care, animal feeding, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Shull, E.A. (2002). Effects of an investigational food on age-related behavioural changes in dogs. In: Symposium on brain aging and related behavioral changes in dogs, January 11, 2002, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17-19 p.
Descriptors: animal behavior, dog foods, nutrition, nutritive value, dogs.

Spears, J.K. and G.C.J. Fahey (2004). Resistant starch as related to companion animal nutrition. Journal of AOAC International 87(3): 787-791. ISSN: 1060-3271.
NAL Call Number: S583.A7
Abstract: Companion animal diets may contain up to 50% starch, derived from cereal grains. The amount of resistant starch (RS) in an ingredient depends on the origin and form of the ingredient and on the processing conditions to which the ingredient has been exposed. Extrusion has proven to be a means of optimizing utilization of starch by companion animals. Although the RS fraction of starch typically decreases by extrusion, retrogradation can result in increased concentrations of this fraction. Limited research exists regarding the effects of RS in companion animal nutrition and gastrointestinal health. Existing in vitro and in vivo research indicates that certain RS sources are readily fermented in the large bowel, producing short-chain fatty acids, whereas others are less fermentable, resulting in excellent laxation properties. Feeding dogs a diet high in RS may result in an increase in fecal bulk due to an increased excretion of microbial matter in those cases where RS is highly fermentable, or to indigestibility of the RS source in other cases. RS has a role to play as a potential proxy for dietary fiber, especially for those companion animals fed diets high in protein and fat and devoid of traditional dietary fiber.
Descriptors: companion animal diets, cereal grains, resistant starch (RS), animal care, nutrition, dietary fiber, gastrointestinal health.

Weber, M.P., D. Hernot, P.G. Nguyen, V.C. Biourge, and H.J. Dumon (2004). Effect of size on electrolyte apparent absorption rates and fermentative activity in dogs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 88(9-10): 356-365. ISSN: 0931-2439.
NAL Call Number: 389.78 Z3
Abstract: The objectives of the study were to assess overall electrolyte absorption capacity as well as fermentative activity in dogs varying in body size in order to verify whether these parameters can explain the poor faecal quality in large dogs. Four breeds of dogs were used: six Miniature Poodles (MP), six Standard Schnauzers (SS), six Giant Schnauzers (GS) and six Great Danes (GD). Net absorption rates of electrolytes were assessed by calculating the apparent digestibility of sodium and potassium and measuring their content in stool. Fermentative activity was calculated by measuring faecal concentrations of lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids. The results showed higher faecal concentrations of fermentation products and electrolytes as well as poorer digestibility of electrolytes in Giant Schnauzers and Great Danes. Strong positive correlations were found between these different parameters and stool quality (scores and moisture). Lower overall electrolyte absorption and higher fermentative activity could thus be factors capable of explaining poorer faecal quality in these two large dog breeds.
Descriptors: animal care, digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, body size absorption relationship, fecal quality, fermentation products.

Wedekind, K.J., S. Yu, and G.F. Combs (2004). The selenium requirement of the puppy. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 88(9-10): 340-347. ISSN: 0931-2439.
NAL Call Number: 389.78 Z3
Abstract: Current selenium (Se) recommendations for the puppy are based on extrapolation from other species (0.11 mg Se/kg diet). The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the Se requirement in puppies. Thirty beagle puppies (average = 8.8 weeks old) were utilized in a randomized complete block design with age, litter and gender used as blocking criteria. Puppies were fed a low Se (0.04 mg Se/kg diet) torula yeast-based diet for 14 days (pre-test period) after which this same diet was supplemented with five levels of Na2SeO3 for 21 days (experimental period) to construct a response curve (0, 0.13, 0.26, 0.39 or 0.52 mg Se/kg diet). Response variables included Se concentrations and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities (GSHpx) in serum as well as serum total triiodothyronine (TT3), serum total thyroxine (TT4) and serum free T4 (FT4). No significant changes in food intake and body weight gain occurred, and no clinical signs of Se deficiency were observed. A breakpoint for serum GSHpx could not be determined in our study due to analytical difficulties. A broken-line, two-slope response in serum Se occurred with a breakpoint at 0.17 mg Se/kg diet. When Se from the basal diet was added to this estimate, the breakpoint for serum Se equated to 0.21 mg Se/kg diet. TT3 increased linearly with increasing Se intake, whereas TT4 was unchanged. However, the ratio of TT4 : TT3 decreased linearly in response to supplemental Se. In summary, although we estimated the selenium requirement for the puppy based on serum Se, our 0.21 mg Se/kg diet estimate is higher than that seen for adult dogs, kittens, rats or poultry (0.13, 0.15, 0.15 and 0.15 mg Se/kg diet respectively). This difference may be due to the fact that GSHpx was used as the biomarker of Se status.
Descriptors: animal care, nutrition, body weight, diet regimen, food intake.

Yaissle, J.E., C. Holloway, and C.A.T. Buffington (2004). Evaluation of owner education as a component of obesity treatment programs for dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 224(12): 1932-1935. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Objective-To compare results of a conventional obesity treatment program with those of an obesity treatment program that included education of owners of obese dogs. Design-Nonblinded prospective clinical trial. Animals-60 obese dogs with a body condition score (BCS) of 8/9 or 9/9. Procedure-Dogs were randomly assigned to control or owner education (EDU) treatment groups. A 6-month weight loss period was followed by an 18-month weight maintenance period. Daily caloric intake to induce loss of I % of body weight/wk was calculated for each dog after assessment of prior diet history. The daily caloric intake for weight maintenance was estimated to be 20% greater than that calculated for weight loss with adjustments of +/- 5% as required. Weight and BCS were recorded monthly for each dog. Owners of dogs in the EDU group were required to attend monthly classes that addressed nutrition-related topics during the 6-month weight loss period. Results-Dogs in both treatment groups had significantly lower weight at the end of the weight loss period, compared with initial weight. Mean weight loss at 6 months was 14.7% in the control group and 15% in the EDU group; this difference was not significant. During the weight maintenance period, percentage weight loss was maintained in both treatment groups. Mean changes in BCS at 6 months (relative to time 0) were -1.5 in the control group and -1.7 in the EDU group. At 24 months, mean changes in BCS (relative to time 0) were -2.1 in the control group and -2.2 in the EDU group. No significant differences in BCS were identified between treatment groups at either 6 or 24 months. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Mean decrease in BCS of 2 and mean weight loss of 15% were achieved and maintained in all dogs. An obesity treatment program that included dietary changes and monthly weight checks during the weight loss and weight maintenance periods was sufficient to achieve these results.
Descriptors: animal care, education, nutrition, veterinary medicine, obesity, nutritional disease, prevention and control, therapy, body condition score, diagnostic techniques, caloric intake, diet history, owner education, treatment program, weight loss, weight maintenance.

Yamka, R.M., S.E. Kitts, A.D. True, and D.L. Harmon (2004). Evaluation of maize gluten meal as a protein source in canine foods. Animal Feed Science and Technology 116(3-4): 239-248. ISSN: 0377-8401.
NAL Call Number: SF95.A55
Descriptors: dog foods, apparent digestibility, apparent digestibility, maize gluten meal (mgm), feeding value, grain product, poultry product.



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