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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Dogs: Animal Welfare Information Center
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American Kennel Club (1998). National parent club canine health conference of the American Kennel Club and the AKC Canine Health Foundation (St. Louis, Missouri, USA; October 31-November 3, 1997). Canine Practice 23(1): 11-28. ISSN: 1057-6622.
NAL Call Number: SF991.A1C3
Abstract: This meeting contains abstracts of 28 papers, written in English, covering nutrition, genetics, eye diseases, endocrine disorders, and kidney disease in dogs.
Descriptors: endocrine disorders, endocrine disease, eye disease, kidney disease, urologic disease, genetics, nutrition, meeting summary.

Anderson, G.S. and N.R. Huitson (2004). Myiasis in pet animals in British Columbia: the potential of forensic entomology for determining duration of possible neglect. Canadian Veterinary Journal 45(12): 993-998. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: Results of a survey of veterinarians in British Columbia included 25 past cases of myiasis and 10 active cases. Most respondents received at least 5 to 10 cases per year, with some as high as 30 per year. This study revealed some advantages and disadvantages of using forensic entomology in living animals.
Descriptors: neglect, forensic entomology, myiasis.

Battersby, I., K. Murphy, S. Tasker, and K. Papasouliotis (2006). Retrospective study of fever in dogs: laboratory testing, diagnoses and influence of prior treatment. Journal of Small Animal Practice 47(7): 370-376. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: Objectives: To analyse the demographic information of dogs referred for investigation of fever, to determine the usefulness of various diagnostic investigations and to assess the effect of treatment before referral on the presence of fever at referral, the duration of the investigation and the ability to reach a final diagnosis. Methods: The clinical records of 66 dogs, in which fever was part of the clinical signs documented by the referring veterinary surgeon, were reviewed. The effects of treatment 24 hours before referral on temperature at initial consultation and on time to diagnosis were evaluated. The effect of body temperature at initial consultation on cost and on time to diagnosis was also determined. The effect of insurance on costs incurred was assessed. The utility of different diagnostic investigations was recorded, and cases were classified according to the final diagnosis. Results: Only 34.8 per cent of dogs were diagnosed with immune-mediated disease, with most frequent diagnoses being steroid-responsive meningitis and polyarthritis. Treatment 24 hours before referral significantly increased the time to diagnosis (P=0.004) and affected the presence of fever at referral (P=0.006). Insurance status did not significantly affect cost incurred by the owner. Clinical Significance: This study documents a high incidence of immune-mediated disease in dogs referred for investigation of fever. It also documents a higher incidence of inflammatory central nervous system disease in febrile dogs than that reported previously. Of the diagnostic modalities employed in the majority of cases, radiography, cytology and bacteriological and fungal cultures (fluids/tissues) were the most useful. It is suggested that treatment is withdrawn or withheld before commencing diagnostic investigation of fever..
Descriptors: animal health, central nervous system, cytology, diagnosis, fever, immunological diseases, laboratory diagnosis, laboratory tests, medical treatment, radiography, small animal practice, veterinarians, dogs.

Benetka, V., J. Kolodziejek, K. Walk, M. Rennhofer, and K. Mostl (2006). M gene analysis of atypical strains of feline and canine coronavirus circulating in an Austrian animal shelter. Veterinary Record 159(6): 170-174. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Coronavirus-positive samples of faeces collected in an Austrian animal shelter from 12 cats and 10 dogs were analysed by reverse transcriptase-pcr with primers amplifying a segment of the M protein gene, and by sequence analysis. In addition, the samples were subjected to S gene typing, using primers that differentiated between feline coronavirus (fcov) types I and II. A phylogenetic analysis of the M gene sequences revealed not only clearly segregating canine coronavirus (ccov) in the dogs, typical ccov sequences and the recently described fcov-like ccov, but also at least two genetic clusters of fcov in the cats, one species-specific, the other more closely related to fcov-like ccov. The M gene sequences of these new feline strains had at most 88 per cent identity with the fcov-like ccov strain 259/01 and only up to 85 per cent with any fcov sequence available in GenBank. In the phylogenetic tree they occupy an intermediate position between feline and canine coronaviruses.
Descriptors: coronavirus, animal shelters, Austria, dogs, cats, genetic techniques, M gene sequences.

Benjamin, S.A., A.C. Lee, and W.J. Saunders (1999). Classification and behavior of canine mammary epithelial neoplasms based on life-span observations in Beagles. Veterinary Pathology 36(5): 423-436. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: As part of a study of the effects of low-level radiation, 1343 Beagles, including 671 males and 672 females, were evaluated over their full lifetime for the occurrence of mammary neoplasia; there were 139 control males and 138 control females and 532 irradiated males and 534 irradiated females. All nodules found in surgical specimens or at necropsy were evaluated histologically. The overall incidence, metastasis and recurrence rates, and contribution to mortality of mammary neoplasms were determined. A histogenetically based reclassification of epithelial mammary tumours is proposed. Of the 672 female dogs, 70.8% (476) had at least one mammary neoplasm; 60.7% (408) had more than one. Two male dogs had mammary neoplasms. Of 1639 mammary carcinomas in the 672 females, 18.7% (307) were classified as ductular carcinomas (arising from the small interlobular or intralobular ductules), whereas 80.7% (1,322) were classified as adenocarcinomas of other histogenetic origin. Of 73 fatal carcinomas, ductular carcinomas accounted for 48 fatalities (65.8%), whereas other adenocarcinomas accounted for only 20 fatalities (27.4%). Radiation had no effect on this ratio. Ductular carcinomas also had a higher rate of metastasis than did adenocarcinomas. It is concluded that existing classifications of mammary carcinomas do not recognize the characteristic morphological features, the degree of malignancy, and the prognostic importance of these ductular carcinomas. Metastasis rates did not differ between simple and complex carcinomas or between those lesions and adenocarcinomas in mixed tumours. True carcinosarcomas metastasized more frequently (100%, or 5/5) than did adenocarcinomas in mixed tumours (34.4%, or 22/64), emphasizing the importance of not lumping these tumours under the classification of malignant mixed tumours.
Descriptors: neoplasms, adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, classification, lesions, malignant course, metastasis, mortality, radiation, mammary gland diseases, mammary glands, adenoma.

Bensignor, E. and D.N. Carlotti (2002). Sensitivity patterns to house dust mites and forage mites in atopic dogs: 150 cases. Veterinary Dermatology 13(1): 37-42. ISSN: 0959-4493.
NAL Call Number: SF901.V47
Abstract: This study investigated intradermal test reactions to extracts of six species of mites in 150 dogs with atopic dermatitis. At least one positive reaction was seen in 120 animals (80%). Dermatophagoides farinae attracted the highest number of positive reactions (108 dogs, 90% of dogs and 72% of atopic dogs showing positive reactions). Positive reactions to other mites were not uncommon, with many dogs testing positive for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (32% of dogs tested), Acarus siro (35%), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (30%), Glycyphagus domesticus (27%) and Lepidoglyphus destructor (23%). Sensitivity to D. farinae alone occurred commonly (57% of cases), but multiple sensitivities were seen frequently with the other mites. Cases of sensitivity to only one mite were also seen: D. pteronyssinus (five cases), T. putrescentiae (one case) and G. domesticus (one case). Further studies are needed to appreciate more clearly the precise role played by the different species of mite in canine atopic dermatitis.
Descriptors: case reports, diagnosis, house dust mites, skin tests, Acarus siro, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, dogs, Glycyphagus domesticus, Lepidoglyphus destructor, mites, Tyrophagus putrescentiae.
Language of Text: English, Summaries in German, Spanish and French.

Bhopale, V.M., E.K. Kupprion, F.T. Ashton, R. Boston, and G.A. Schad (2001). Ancylostoma caninum: the finger cell neurons mediate thermotactic behavior by infective larvae of the dog hookworm. Experimental Parasitology 97(2): 70-76. ISSN: 0014-4894.
NAL Call Number: 436.8 Ex7
Descriptors: ancylostoma caninum, neurons, ultrastructure, host seeking behavior, nematode larvae.

Brodzki, A., W. Lopuszynski, R. Komsta, M. Orzelski, and I. Balicki (2004). Die beurteilung der ergebnisse in der therapie und analyse des therapieverlaufs von malignen tumoren der zehen beim hund. [Analyses of the treatment of malignant digital neoplasia of dogs: Clinical, radiological and histological evaluation.]. Tierarztliche Umschau 59(10): 594-596, 599-600. ISSN: 0049-3864.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T445
Descriptors: malignant digital neoplasia, malignant melanoma, neoplastic disease, mortality, surgery, pulmonary metastases, squamous cell carcinoma, clinical examination, histological examination, subungual squamous cell carcinoma, dogs.
Language of Text: German.

Day, T.K. (2003). Current development and use of hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying (HBOC) solutions. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 13(2): 77-93. ISSN: 1534-6935.
NAL Call Number: SF778.J68
Descriptors: blood, hemoglobin, morbidity, oxygen, product development, literature reviews, hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solutions.

de Oliveira Mendes C, Paraguai de Souza E, Borja-Cabrera GP, Maria Melo Batista L, Aparecida dos Santos M, Ellner Parra L, Menz I, Palatnik M, and Palatnik de Sousa CB (2003). IgG1/IgG2 antibody dichotomy in sera of vaccinated or naturally infected dogs with visceral leishmaniosis. Vaccine 21(19-20): 2589-2597. ISSN: 0264-410X.
NAL Call Number: QR189.V32
Abstract: Canine antibody IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 anti-FML responses were investigated in dogs vaccinated with the fucose-mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine of Leishmnania donovani and in dogs with naturally acquired visceral leishmaniosis. While similar levels of total IgG antibodies were seen in the seropositive naturally infected dogs and in vaccinees, significant differences between the groups were found regarding their IgG1/IgG2 anti-FML antibody composition (P < 0.005). Higher IgG1 absorbencies were seen in infected dogs, while the IgG2 subtype was predominant in pre-immune sera, and in vaccinated animals, both after the first and the third dose (P < 0.005). The average ratio between IgG1/IgG2 was then 1.124 for infected animals and 0.733 for FML-vaccinees. Also, a significant increase in IgG2 antibodies was observed from the first to the third vaccine injection (P < 0.005). In the infected dogs, a high correlation between their IgG absorbance (Abs) values and the number of symptoms (P = 0.017) was disclosed. Thus, the analysis of IgG subclasses disclosed a dichotomous response to visceral leishmaniosis: IgG1 associated to natural infection and IgG2 associated to a humoral response subsequent to the FML-vaccine treatment. An IgG1/IgG2 gtoreq 1 would characterize the sera of visceral leishmaniasis infected animals evoluting towards the overt disease while ratios ltoreq 1 would characterize the sera response of vaccinated protected dogs.
Descriptors: immune system, parasitology, visceral leishhumaniasis, parasitic disease, immunoglobulin G1, immunoglobulin G2, antibody dichotomy.

Decaro, N., A. Pratelli, A. Tinelli, V. Martella, M. Camero, D. Buonavoglia, M. Tempesta, A.M. Caroli, and C. Buonavoglia (2004). Fecal immunoglobulin a antibodies in dogs infected or vaccinated with canine coronavirus. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 11(1): 102-105. ISSN: 1071-412X.
Abstract: Fecal secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in dogs infected or vaccinated with canine coronavirus (CCV) were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study was carried out with 32 fecal samples collected just before inoculation and at 28 days postinoculation. Five groups were studied: naturally infected dogs, experimentally infected dogs, dogs inoculated with a modified live (ML) CCV vaccine by the intramuscular route, dogs inoculated with an ML CCV vaccine by the oronasal route, and dogs given an inactivated CCV vaccine. Both the naturally and the experimentally infected dogs developed high levels of fecal IgAs. Interestingly, dogs inoculated with the ML CCV vaccine by the oronasal route developed levels of fecal IgA that were higher than those observed in the dogs inoculated with the same CCV vaccine by the intramuscular route or those observed in dogs inoculated with the inactivated vaccine. A relationship between the level of fecal IgAs to CCV and the degree of protection against CCV infection was observed.
Descriptors: immune system infection, ELISA, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques.

Edwards, D.S., W.E. Henley, E.R. Ely, and J.L.N. Wood (2004). Vaccination and ill-health in dogs: a lack of temporal association and evidence of equivalence. Vaccine 22(25-26): 3270-3273. ISSN: 0264-410X.
NAL Call Number: QR189.V32
Descriptors: immune system, infection, pharmacology, immunization, vaccination, canine health, evaluation, canine pathologies, ill health, equivalence evidence, temporal associations, field studies, methodology, questionnaire results, vaccination adverse events, vaccine safety studies.

Feldman, E.C., B. Hoar, R. Pollard, and R.W. Nelson (2005). Pretreatment clinical and laboratory findings in dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism: 210 cases (1987-2004). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227(5): 756-761. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pretreatment clinical and laboratory findings in dogs with naturally occurring primary hyperparathyroidism. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 210 dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism and 200 randomly selected, age-matched control dogs that did not have primary hyperparathyroidism. PROCEDURE: Medical records for dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism were reviewed for signalment; clinical features; and results of clinicopathologic testing, serum parathyroid hormone assays, and diagnostic imaging. RESULTS: Mean age of the dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism was 11.2 years (range, 6 to 17 years). The most common clinical signs were attributable to urolithiasis or urinary tract infection (ie, straining to urinate, increased frequency of urination, and hematuria). Most dogs (149 [71%]) did not have any observable abnormalities on physical examination. All dogs had hypercalcemia, and most (136 [65%]) had hypophosphatemia. Overall, 200 of the 210 (95%) dogs had BUN and serum creatinine concentrations within or less than the reference range, and serum parathyroid hormone concentration was within reference limits in 135 of 185 (73%) dogs in which it was measured. Urolithiasis was identified in 65 (31 %) dogs, and urinary tract infection was diagnosed in 61 (29%). Mean serum total calcium concentration for the control dogs-was significantly lower than mean concentration for the dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism, but mean BUN and serum creatinine concentrations for the control dogs were both significantly higher than concentrations for the dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that urolithiasis and urinary tract infection may be associated with hypercalcemia in dogs-with primary hyperparathyroidism, but that development of renal insufficiency is uncommon.
Descriptors: urinary tract infections, blood, dog diseases, urine, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, hypophosphatemia, retrospective studies, risk factors, urinalysis.

Foster, A.P., T.G. Knowles, A.H. Moore, P.D.G. Cousins, M.J. Day, and E.J. Hall (2003). Serum IgE and IgG responses to food antigens in normal and atopic dogs, and dogs with gastrointestinal disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 92(3-4): 113-124. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call Number: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: In human food allergy, with or without concurrent atopy, there may be significant increases in serum allergen-specific IgE. Serological methods have been tried but are not currently recommended for diagnosis of suspected food allergy in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate humoral immune responses to food antigens in dogs. Serum IgG and IgE antibodies specific for food antigens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal anti-dog IgG and IgE reagents. Antigens tested were beef, chicken, pork, lamb, chicken, turkey, white fish, whole egg, wheat, soybean, barley, rice, maize corn, potato, yeast and cow's milk. Three groups were examined: normal dogs, dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD); and dogs with one of four types of gastrointestinal (GI) disease: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), food-responsive disease, and infectious diarrhoea. Statistically significant differences in food-specific antibodies were not detected between the GI subgroups. There were statistically significant differences in the IgE concentration between the normal dogs, and dogs with atopic or GI disease, for all of the antigens tested. There were statistically significant differences in the average IgG concentrations between the normal dogs, and dogs with atopic or GI disease, for all of the antigens tested, except egg and yeast. The relationship of antigen responses for pooled data was analysed using principle component analysis and cluster plots. Some clustering of variables was apparent for both IgE and IgG. For example, all dogs (normal and diseased) made a similar IgG antibody response to chicken and turkey. Compared with other groups, atopic dogs had more food allergen-specific IgE and this would be consistent with a Th2 humoral response to food antigens. Dogs with GI disease had more food allergen-specific IgG compared with the other groups. This may reflect increased antigen exposure due to increased mucosal permeability which is a recognised feature of canine intestinal disease.
Descriptors: atopic dermatitis, food allergy, infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, humoral immune responses, food antigens, canines, serum IgG antibodies, serum IgE antibodies, beef, meat products, chicken, egg, poultry products, cow's milk, dairy products, lamb, pork, maize corn, grain products, barley, wheat, potato, vegetable, rice, soybean, turkey, white fish, seafood, yeast.

Foster, A.P., J.D. Littlewood, P. Webb, J.L.N. Wood, K. Rogers, and S.E. Shaw (2003). Comparison of intradermal and serum testing for allergen-specific ige using a fcepsilonrialpha-based assay in atopic dogs in the uk. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 93(1-2): 51-60. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call Number: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Atopic dermatitis in dogs is a common allergic skin disease that affects substantial numbers of dogs in the UK. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of an intradermal test (IDT) and an in vitro test in a large cohort of dogs. Dogs were intradermal tested with Greer allergens (Greer Labs Inc, Lenoir, NC, USA) using standard techniques. At the same time blood samples were drawn and submitted for evaluation by ELISA using the ALLERCEPTTM Definitive Allergen Panels for allergen-specific IgE, a commercial assay that uses a biotinylated recombinant extracellular domain of the high affinity Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcepsilonRIalpha). The allergens used in the two tests included grass, tree and weed pollens, moulds, flea saliva/whole flea extract and house dust mite species. The optical density readings from the ELISA for each allergen were compared with the results of the IDT for 265 dogs. The prevalence of positive reactions in the ELISA was equal to or greater than the results of the IDT in the case of almost all of the allergens, but two notable exceptions were the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. These two allergens were the most common positive reactions by IDT (prevalence D. farinae 78.9%, D. pteronyssinus 66.4%). The results of the two tests were significantly different (McNemar's test, P<0.05) for 16 of the 22 allergens. The sensitivities of the ELISA compared to the IDT (where there were more than 3 dogs with positive reactions in both tests) varied between 19.3 and 77.1% (D. pteronyssinus 19.3% and D. farinae 67.9%) and the specificities varied between 64.2 and 96.6% (D. pteronyssinus 96.6% and D. farinae 89.3%).
Descriptors: immune system, veterinary medicine, atopic dermatitis, genetic disease, immune system disease, integumentary system disease, elisa, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, definitive allergen panel, allercept, bioassay techniques, intradermal test, serum testing, allergen hypersensitivity.

Ghisleni, G. and F. Caretto (1999). Alcune piante d'appartamento tossiche per il cane e il gatto. [Some house plants poisonous for cats and dogs.]. Veterinaria Cremona 13(3): 65-73. ISSN: 0394-3151.
Descriptors: pets, reviews, poisonous plants, therapy, treatment, poisoning, toxic substances, Gloriosa superba, Helleborus niger.
Language of Text: Italian, Summary in English.

Ghorbel, A., S. Zrelli, S. Haddad, A. Ghram, A. Chabchoub, F. Landoulsi, and M.B. Ayed (2000). Profils serologique et hematologique de l'ehrlichiose canine et humaine dans les chenils de Tunis et Bizerte (Tunisie). [Serological and haematological survey of canine and human ehrlichiosis in the kennels of Tunis and Bizerte (Tunisia).]. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 151(5): 429-436.
NAL Call Number: SF604.R48
Abstract: In a survey of 153 dogs and 195 dog owners in Tunisia, the seroprevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis or E. chaffeensis) was 68.62% in dogs and 4.1% in owners. In the seropositive dogs, thrombocytopenia was the most frequently observed abnormality (63.3%).
Descriptors: seroprevalence, thrombocytopenia, surveys, dogs.
Language of Text: French, Summary in English.

Gieger, T.L., A.P. Theon, J.A. Werner, M.C. McEntee, K.M. Rassnick, and H.E.V. DeCock (2003). Biologic behavior and prognostic factors for mast cell tumors of the canine muzzle: 24 cases (1990-2001). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 17(5): 687-692. ISSN: 0891-6640.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J65
Abstract: The medical records of 24 dogs with histologically confirmed mast cell tumours (MCT) of the muzzle were retrospectively evaluated to determine their biologic behaviour and prognostic factors. Information on signalment, tumour grade and stage, treatment methods, and pattern of and time to failure and death was obtained from the medical record. Twenty-three dogs were treated with combinations of radiotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapy; 1 dog received no treatment. There were 2 Grade I, 15 Grade II, and 7 Grade III tumours. Tumours were stage 0 (n=8), stage 1 (5), stage 2 (6), stage 3(4), and stage 4 (1). Mean and median survival times of treated dogs were 36 and 30 months, respectively. Prognostic factors affecting survival time included tumour grade and presence of metastasis at diagnosis. Dogs with Grade I and II tumours survived longer than dogs with Grade III tumours. Variables, including sex, age, gross versus microscopic disease, and treatment type were not found to affect survival. Local control rate was 75% at 1 year and 50% at 3 years. Tumour grade was the only variable found to affect local control. Dogs with Grade 1 tumours had longer disease-free intervals than those with Grade II tumours, and dogs with Grade II tumours had longer disease-free intervals than dogs with Grade III tumours. Eight of 9 dogs dying of MCT had local or regional disease progression. Muzzle MCT are biologically aggressive tumours with higher regional metastatic rates than previously reported for MCT in other sites.
Descriptors: case reports, clinical aspects, disease course, mast cells, metastasis, neoplasms, nose, pathogenesis, prognosis, reviews, skin diseases, therapy, dogs.

Giroux, P. (1998). Chiropractic care of sporting dogs. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 12: 690-691.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: medicine, spine, chiropractic medicine.
Notes: Meeting Information: Meeting held on January 10-14, 1998, Orlando, Florida.

Glass, E.V., R.A. Reid, A. Hillier, and G.R. Needham (2003). Use of an amplified ELISA technique for detection of a house dust mite allergen (Der f 1) in skin and coat dust samples from dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 64(2): 162-165. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Objective: to use an amplified ELISA technique to document the presence and quantify the concentration of the house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, in skin and coat dust samples collected from dogs. Animals: 29 pet dogs of various breeds. Procedure: dogs were weighed, and body surface area in square meters was determined. Skin and coat dust samples were obtained by vacuuming dogs. Collected dust was analysed by use of standard and amplified ELISA techniques. Results: by use of the standard ELISA technique, Der f 1 was detected in skin and coat dust samples from 6 of 29 (21%) dogs. Mean concentration of Der f 1 in the 6 samples with positive assay results was 16.16 ng/ml (range, 5.61 to 31.24 ng/ml). Samples with negative assay results were retested for dust mite allergen by use of an amplified ELISA technique; an additional 14 dogs had positive assay results. Mean concentration of allergen was 0.36 ng/ml (range, 0.19 to 2.20 ng/ml). Combining both techniques, 20 of 29 (69%) dogs had positive assay results for Der f 1. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: results of our study indicate that house dust mite allergens are present on the skin and in the coat of dogs, and this source of allergen may act as a reservoir for allergen exposure in hypersensitive dogs. Use of an amplified ELISA technique to determine environmental concentrations of house dust mite allergens in homes and on dogs will help to identify the relationship between immunologic findings and environmental exposures in dogs with atopic dermatitis.
Descriptors: allergens, coat, ELISA, house dust mites, skin, Dermatophagoides, dogs, mites.

Gmeiner, H., A. Zaisser, and K.J. Saers (2001). Chirurgische Versorgung von malignen, rippenassoziierten Brustwandtumoren beim Hund. [Surgical treatment of malignant, rib cage associated tumors in dogs.]. Praktische Tierarzt 82(3): 166-172. ISSN: 0032-681X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P882
Abstract: The article describes a surgical treatment of malignant, rib cage associated tumors in the dog. After a description of clinical signs and pathology of the two most common neoplasia in this localization (osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma) an overview of literature of this rarely performed operation is given. A combination of diaphragma transposition and abdominal flap was used. The results of these operations are shown and analysed in 10 cases. As a potential form of analgesia the intercostal nerve block was used. It was possible to verify a relatively positive prognosis for the treatment of chrondrosarcoma.
Descriptors: abdomen, neoplasms, reviews, ribs, surgery, surgical operations, dogs.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Goossens, H.A.T., J.H.J. Maes, and A.E.J.M. Van Den Bogaard (2003). The prevalence of antibodies against b. Burgdorferi, an indicator for lyme borreliosis in dogs? A comparison of serological tests. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 128(21): 650-657. ISSN: 0040-7453.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 T431
Abstract: Five serological tests for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative micro-organism of Lyme borreliosis (LB), were compared in 1177 sera from Dutch dogs: 401 healthy working hunting dogs, 100 healthy city pet dogs, 629 city dogs suspected of having LB with various clinical symptoms, and 47 hunting dogs with intermittent lameness. The results of the in-house species-independent enzyme immunoassay (i.e. an EIA which can be used to test serum samples from different animal species) showed a strong agreement (kappa: 0.78-0.81) with those of an experimental and a commercially available EIA (Genzyme VirotechTM, Ruesselsheim, Germany) for the detection of canine IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the in-house EIAs for the detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi was independent of the antigenic heterogeneity, as demonstrated by the results of sera from dogs suspected of LB with various clinical symptoms: lameness (n=60), and neurological (n=60) and skin disorders (n=52). Because of its high sensitivity for IgM antibodies, the indirect assay (DiagastTM, Pessac, France) proved to be an interesting tool for the detection of an acute Lyme infection in dogs. However, in this study a positive serological result could not be linked to any clinical symptom that has been related to LB in dogs. Results showed no difference in seroprevalence between dogs considered at high or at low risk of a B. burgdorferi infection. It was concluded that LB is an uncommon disease in the Dutch dog population despite the fact that many of Dutch dogs are infected with B. burgdorferi. Because of this low prevalence, the use of any immunoassay to support the clinical diagnosis of LB in dogs might be of limited value. Nevertheless, the species-independent EIA could be valuable in seroepidemiological studies when sera of several different animal species need to be tested.
Descriptors: infection, veterinary medicine, Lyme borreliosis, bacterial disease, diagnosis, symptom, diagast enzyme immunoassay, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, genzyme virotech enzyme immunoassay, in house species independent enzyme immunoassay, antigenic heterogeneity, method comparison, method sensitivity.

Goy Thollot, I., C. Pouzot, M. Chambon, and J.M. Bonnet (2005). Regulation de la natremie et desequilibres hydrosodes chez le chien et le chat en soins intensifs. [Natremia regulation and hydro-electrolytic desequilibriums in dogs and cats in intensive care.]. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 156(11): 556-568. ISSN: 0035-1555.
NAL Call Number: SF604.R48
Abstract: Sodium ion is the major component of the extra-cellular fluid. As an osmotic solute, he plays a key role in water movements between intra- and extracellular compartments, and in electrolytes homeostasis. Patients with hyponatremia may have decreased, normal, or increased plasma osmolarity, whereas hypernatremia always induces increased plasma osmolarity. Hypoosmotic hyponatremia, called true hyponatremia, can be associated to normal, decreased or increased extra-cellular volume. Hypernatremia develops most often because of loss of pure water or hypotonic solutes from the animal, but in rare cases it results from gain of sodium. Hyponatremia induces a cellular edema and hypernatremia leads to an intracellular dehydration. Cerebral cells are particularly sensitive to water movements. Nervous symptoms are most likely associated with sodium disorders: confusion, seizures, coma or death. The clinical signs are more related to the rapidity of the onset than to the severity of the associated osmolarity variations. The main goals of treatment are to normalize plasma osmolarity and sodium concentration as well as to manage the underlying disease. Because of cerebral cells adaptations mechanisms, all corrections have to be progressive to avoid irreversible cerebral injury..
Descriptors: animal welfare, brain, cerebral cortex, extracellular fluids, hypernatraemia, hyponatraemia, intensive care, ions, osmolarity, sodium, cats, dogs.

Green, S.L., D.M. Bouley, M.J. Pinter, L.C. Cork, and G.T. Vatassery (2001). Canine motor neuron disease: Clinicopathologic features and selected indicators of oxidative stress. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 15(2): 112-119. ISSN: 0891-6640.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J65
Descriptors: dog breeds, hereditary diseases, peripheral nerves, dominant lethals, neuromuscular diseases, atrophy, histopathology, blood chemistry, vitamin E, stress, creatine kinase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, enzyme activity, Brittany spaniels.

Guglielmone, A.A., A. Estrada Pena, A.J. Mangold, D.M. Barros Battesti, M.B. Labruna, J.R. Martins, J.M. Venzal, M. Arzua, and J.E. Keirans (2003). Amblyomma aureolatum (pallas, 1772) and amblyomma ovale koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae): hosts, distribution and 16s rdna sequences. Veterinary Parasitology 113(3-4): 273-288. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Abstract: DNA sequences of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 were obtained to determine genetic differences between these tick species. Collections of these species are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. Seven ticks collections (four from Brazil, one from Argentina, one from Uruguay and one from USA) house a total of 1272 A. aureolatum (224 males, 251 females, 223 nymphs and 574 larvae) and 1164 A. ovale (535 males, 556 females, 66 nymphs and 7 larvae). The length of the sequenced mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment for A. aureolatum was 370 bp and for A. ovale was 373 bp. The DNA sequence analysis showed a 13.1% difference between the two species. Apart from one male A. ovale found on a toad, all adult ticks were found on mammals. The majority of adult specimens of both tick species were removed from Carnivora (96.1 and 84.3% of A. aureolatum and A. ovale, respectively), especially from dogs (53.1% of A. aureolatum, and 46.4% of A. ovale). Collections on wild Canidae were higher for A. aureolatum (23.3%) than for A. ovale (7.1%). On the other hand, collections of A. ovale adults on wild Felidae were higher (18.3%) than findings of A. aureolatum (9.2%). The contribution of other mammalian orders as hosts for adults of A. aureolatum and A. ovale was irrelevant, with the exception of Perissodactyla because Tapiridae contributed with 13.0% of the total number of A. ovale adults. Adults of both tick species have been found occasionally on domestic hosts (apart of the dog) and humans. Most immature stages of A. aureolatum were found on Passeriformes birds, while rodents and carnivores were the most common hosts for nymphs and larvae of A. ovale. A. aureolatum has been found restricted to the Neotropical region, covering the eastern area of South America from Uruguay to Surinam, including northeastern Argentina, eastern Paraguay, southeastern Brazil and French Guiana. A. ovale showed a distribution that covers the Neotropical region from central-northern Argentina throughout the Neotropics into the Nearctic region of Mexico with a few records from the USA, also with collection sites in Paraguay, Bolivia, most Brazilian states, Peru, Ecuador, French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Belize, Guatemala and several states of Mexico.
Descriptors: biogeography, population studies, molecular genetics, parasitology, DNA sequence analysis, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, genetic differences, host preferences, species distribution.

Gunnarsson, L., G. Zakrisson, D. Christensson, and A. Uggla (2003). Transmission of the canine nasal mite, Pneumonyssoides caninum. Acta Parasitologica 48(1): 64-67. ISSN: 1230-2821.
NAL Call Number: QL757.A27
Abstract: Three Beagle bitches were experimentally inoculated with between 28 and 36 Pneumonyssoides caninum mites. The bitches were housed together with a male Beagle for up to 33 weeks and mated when were in heat. The aim of the experiment was to study if transmission of P. caninum from the bitches to the puppies took place. Whelping occurred between 10 and 34 weeks post inoculation (p.i.). Two bitches were kept isolated with their litters until the puppies were 8 weeks old. Then they were euthanized and necropsies performed. The 3rd bitch had only one puppy born alive which died after one week. At that point, the bitch was euthanized and necropsies were performed. Two to 4 P. caninum mites were found in the inoculated bitches 18 to 42 weeks p.i. but no mites were found in their offspring. Thus, the transmission of P. caninum infection is still unknown.
Descriptors: Beagle, bitches, disease transmission, experimental infection, laboratory animals, Pneumonyssoides caninum.

Gwaltney Brant, S.M., J.C. Albretsen, and S.A. Khan (2000). 5-Hydroxytryptophan toxicosis in dogs: 21 cases (1989-1999). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 216(12): 1937-1940. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: To determine epidemiological characteristics, clinical findings, and treatment outcome of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) toxicosis in dogs, the cases of 21 dogs with evidence of accidental 5-HTP ingestion were examined. Information was retrieved from the National Animal Poison Control Center database. Records of dogs ingesting 5-HTP between January 1989 and February 1999 were reviewed for information on signalment, dose ingested, clinical signs (onset, severity, duration), treatments administered, and outcome. Clinical signs of toxicosis developed in 19 of 21 (90%) dogs. Neurological signs included seizures (9 dogs), depression (6), tremors (5), hyperaesthesia (5), and ataxia (4). Gastrointestinal tract signs included vomiting or diarrhoea (12 dogs), signs of abdominal pain (3), and hypersalivation (2). Other clinical signs were hyperthermia (7 dogs) and transient blindness (3). Three dogs died. No important clinical laboratory or PM findings were reported. The doses of 5-HTP ingested ranged from 2.5 to 573 mg/kg (1.1 to 260 mg/lb) of body weight; the minimum toxic dose reported in the study was 23.6 mg/kg (10.7 mg/lb), and the minimum lethal dose was 128 mg/kg (58.1 mg/lb). Onset of signs ranged from 10 minutes to 4 hours after ingestion, and signs lasted up to 36 hours. Of 17 dogs with clinical signs of toxicosis that received treatment, 16 recovered; treatment consisted of decontamination, seizure control, thermoregulation, fluid therapy, and supportive care. It is concluded that ingestion of 5-HTP in dogs can result in a potentially life-threatening syndrome resembling serotonin syndrome in humans, which requires prompt and aggressive care.
Descriptors: poisoning, ataxia, blindness, diarrhoea, fluid therapy, hyperthermia, ingestion, vomiting, drug toxicity, adverse effects.

Halliwell, R.E.W., S.M. Gilbert, and M. Tan (1998). Induced and spontaneous IgE antibodies to Dermatophagoides farinae in dogs and cats: evidence of functional heterogeneity of IgE. Veterinary Dermatology 9(3): 179-184. ISSN: 0959-4493.
NAL Call Number: SF901.V47
Abstract: Sixty-five atopic dogs and 10 atopic cats from the UK were examined for D. farinae-specific IgE using intradermal skin tests and ELISA. 24 healthy dogs and 5 laboratory dogs, and 15 healthy cats and 10 laboratory cats were controls. There were no significant differences in IgE levels in atopic and in healthy animals. However, IgE levels in laboratory dogs and cats, presumably unexposed to house dust mites, were very low or undetectable. IgE antibodies were induced in 10 laboratory-reared cats using low-dose antigenic stimulation in aluminium hydroxide. All cats developed detectable IgE, but not all developed positive skin tests. However, serum from those cats with positive skin tests gave positive Prausnitz-Kustner tests. It is suggested that the distinction between atopic and healthy dogs may result from a heterogeneity of either IgE or of the high-affinity mast cell receptor. The feline data indicated the existence of a heterogeneity of IgE.
Descriptors: IgE, ELISA, antibodies, heterogeneity, diagnosis, skin tests, skin diseases, blood serum, house dust mites, dermatitis, Dermatophagoides farinae, dogs, cats, Arachnida, Acari.
Language of Text: English, Summaries in French, Spanish and German.

Hansen, B.D. (2003). Assessment of pain in dogs: veterinary clinical studies. ILAR Journal 44(3): 197-205. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1143
Abstract: Hundreds of thousands of animals are presented to US veterinarians annually for surgery or for evaluation of painful disease. This large population offers the opportunity for clinical research of both acute and chronic pain syndromes. Although there is growing interest by veterinary clinical specialists to explore the nature of animal pain and how best to treat it, this resource is relatively unknown to the pain research community. Computer-assisted collection of behavioral data has created new opportunities for characterizing the pain experience in animal species for the benefit of both animals and humans. This review describes the current state of veterinary clinical pain studies in dogs and an application of computer-assisted behavioral analysis.
Descriptors: surgery, disease, pain, assessment, chronic, acute, surgery, behavioral paramenters, behavioral analysis.

Hart, R.C., R.M. Jerram, and K.S. Schulz (2000). Il trattamento postoperatorio nei cani sottoposti a interventi di chirurgia spinale: Parte II. [Postoperative care for dogs after spinal surgery. II.]. Veterinaria Cremona 14(2 Suppl.): 5-15. ISSN: 0394-3151.
Abstract: Postoperative complications are discussed.
Descriptors: postoperative care, spinal surgery, recovery, dogs.
Language of Text: Italian.

Harvey, J.W. (2006). Pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, and clinical implications of erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies in dogs, cats, and horses. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 35(2): 144-156. ISSN: 0275-6382.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A54
Abstract: Deficiencies of enzymes involved in erythrocyte metabolism can have significant effects on erythrocyte function and survival. Animals with pyruvate kinase (PK) or phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiencies have shortened erythrocyte life spans and regenerative anemia. PK-deficient dogs (but not PK -deficient cats) develop progressive myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis of bone marrow and hemochromatosis and cirrhosis of the liver. PFK-deficient dogs have sporadic episodes of hyperventilation-induced intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria. Cytochrome b5 reductase (Cb5R) deficiency in dogs and cats results in persistent methemoglobinemia and cyanotic mucous membranes. Severe deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-controlling enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, resulted in anemia with eccentrocytosis in an American saddlebred colt. Horses with erythrocyte flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) deficiency have both eccentrocytosis (attributable to severe deficiency in glutathione reductase activity) and methemoglobinemia (attributable to Cb5R deficiency); the dual enzyme deficiency occurs because FAD is a required cofactor for both enzymes. Erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies do not usually shorten life expectancy, except for PK-deficient dogs and potentially PFK -deficient dogs during a hemolytic crisis. Although enzyme deficiencies are rare causes of anemia and methemoglobinemia, the ability to diagnose deficient animals allows for the possibility of eliminating these undesirable traits in future breeding. DNA-based assays are available for PK and PFK deficiencies; whereas, biochemical tests of enzyme activity are required for other deficiencies. Continued research is needed to document additional enzyme deficiencies that likely occur and to develop additional DNA-based assays to detect heterozygous animals.
Descriptors: anemia, bone marrow, cirrhosis, clinical aspects, enzyme activity, enzymes, erythrocytes, glucose 6 phosphatase, hemochromatosis, hemoglobinuria, laboratory diagnosis, metabolic disorders, methemoglobinaemia, pathogenesis, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, cats, dogs, horses.

Hayashiya, S., K. Tani, T. Iwanaga, and Y. Taura (2001). Hyposensitization therapy using a house dust-mite antigen on canine atopic dermatitis. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association 54(3): 204-207. ISSN: 0446-6454.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 J275
Abstract: Hyposensitization therapy using dust mite allergens was performed on 16 dogs with atopic dermatitis [Japan]. Efficacy evaluations conducted 6 months after initial hyposensitization therapy showed that 4 dogs (25.0%) demonstrated an excellent response, 7 dogs (43.8%) a good response, and 5 dogs (31.3%) a poor response. Overall, the therapy was considered successful in the cases of 11 dogs (68.8%), most of which improved within one or 2 months. In short, hyposensitization therapy using house dust mite allergens are effective in treating dogs with atopic dermatitis.
Descriptors: allergens, dermatitis, house dust mites, immune desensitization, atopy, arthropod allergies, skin diseases, dogs, Dermatophagoides.
Language of Text: Japanese, Summary in English.

Hillier, A., L.K. Cole, K.W. Kwochka, and C. Mccall (2002). Late-phase reactions to intradermal testing with dermatophagoides farinae in healthy dogs and dogs with house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63(1): 69-73. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence of late-phase reactions to intradermal testing with Dermatophagoides farinae in healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis and an immediate reaction to D farinae. Animals: 6 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis and immediate reactions to D farinae. Procedure: Intradermal tests were performed with D farinae at 1:1,000 wt/vol and 1:50,000 wt/vol concentrations, and skin reactivity was evaluated after 0.25, 6, and 24 hours. Serum D farinae-specific IgE antibodies were assayed. Extent of lesions (atopy index) and pruritus (visual analogue scale) were evaluated in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Results: Late-phase reactions were observed in healthy dogs at 6 hours (n=2 dogs) and 24 hours (1) with the 1:1,000 wt/vol concentration, and at 6 hours (1) and 24 hours (1) with the 1:50,000 wt/vol concentration of allergen. Late-phase reactions in healthy dogs were only observed in dogs with an immediate reaction to D farinae. Late-phase reactions were observed in 11 of 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis at 6 and 24 hours with the 1:1,000 wt/vol concentration and in 10 of 20 at 6 and 24 hours with the 1:50,000 wt/vol concentration of allergen. There was no difference in mean atopy index, mean visual analogue scale of pruritus, or mean serum D farinae-specific IgE concentration of dogs with a late-phase reaction, compared to dogs without a late-phase reaction. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Late-phase reactions may be observed after an immediate reaction to intradermal skin testing in healthy and allergic dogs but are more commonly observed in dogs with atopic dermatitis.
Descriptors: Dermatophagoides farinae, house dust mites, atopy, dermatitis, skin tests, allergic reactions, allergens, dosage, clinical aspects, IgE, immune system, integumentary system, veterinary medicine, house dust mite induced atopic dermatitis, genetic disease, immune system disease, integumentary system disease, lesion, injury, pruritus, atopy index, evaluation method, intradermal testing, detection method, visual analogue scale, evaluation method, late phase reactions.

Hillier, A., K.W. Kwochka, and L.R. Pinchbeck (2000). Reactivity to intradermal injection of extracts of dermatophagoides farinae, dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, house dust mite mix, and house dust in dogs suspected to have atopic dermatitis: 115 cases (1996-1998). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217(4): 536-540. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Objective: To compare reactivities to intradermal injection of extracts of Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, house dust mite mix, and house dust in dogs suspected to have atopic dermatitis. Design: Retrospective study. Animals: 115 dogs. Procedures: Records of all dogs suspected to have atopic dermatitis that underwent intradermal testing between October 1996 and July 1998 were reviewed. Reactivities to intradermal injection of crude mixed house dust mite (1:25,000 wt/vol) and crude house dust (25 PNU/ml) extracts were compared with reactivities to intradermal injection of individual extracts of D farinae and D pteronyssinus (1:50,000 wt/vol). Results: Ninety dogs were confirmed to have atopic dermatitis including 61 of the 69 dogs with positive reactions to either or both of the individual house dust mite extracts. Intradermal testing with the mixed house dust mite extract had sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 96%, and accuracy of 83%. Intradermal testing with the house dust extract had sensitivity of 30%, specificity of 93%, and accuracy of 56%. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Results suggest that use of crude mixed house dust mite and crude house dust extracts for intradermal testing in dogs is not as accurate a method of determining house dust mite hypersensitivity as is the use of individual D farinae and D pteronyssinus extracts mainly because of the high percentage of false-negative results. Extracts of individual house dust mites are recommended for intradermal testing of dogs suspected to have atopic dermatitis.
Descriptors: skin tests, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, house dust mites, house dust, atopy, dermatitis, accuracy, immune system, veterinary medicine.

Hirose, M., S. Chiba, and K.R. Laurita (2003). Pacap causes triggered activity in isolated canine left atria. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 91 (Suppl.): 98P. ISSN: 1347-8613.
Descriptors: atrial fibrillation, heart disease, action potentials, left atria, pacap.
Notes: Meeting Information: 76th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Pharmacological Society, Fukuoka, Japan; March 24-26, 2003.

Hoffman, M. and L.J. Ackerman (1998). Dogs: The Ultimate Care Guide: Good Health, Loving Care, Maximum Longevity, Rodale Press: Emmaus, PA, 450 p. ISBN: 0875965326 .
NAL Call Number: SF427.D57 1998
Descriptors: care, health, husbandry.

Holloway, S.A. (1998). Stress- and performance-related illness in sporting dogs. In: M.S. Bloomberg, J.F. Dee and R.A. Taylor (Editors), Canine Sports Medicine and Surgery, Saunders: Philadelphia, PA, p. 28-34. ISBN: 0721650228.
NAL Call Number: SF991.6.C36 1998
Descriptors: dogs, stress, athletic perforhumance, disease control, physiology, racing animals, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, greyhound, symptoms, literature reviews.

Holm, J.L., D.L. Chan, and E.A. Rozanski (2003). Acute pancreatitis in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 13(4): 201-213. ISSN: 1534-6935.
NAL Call Number: SF778.J68
Descriptors: diagnostic techniques, drug therapy, necrosis, pancreatitis, physiopathology, prognosis, surgical operations, dogs.

Holton, L., J. Reid, E.M. Scott, P. Pawson, and A. Nolan (2001). Development of a behaviour-based scale to measure acute pain in dogs. Veterinary Record 148(17): 525-531. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: A composite scale for assessing pain in dogs in a hospital setting has been developed on the basis of observations of their behaviour. Initially, 279 words and expressions suggested by 69 veterinary surgeons were reduced into 47 words and expressions which were allocated into 7 behaviour categories: demeanour and response to people, posture, mobility, activity, response to touch, attention to painful area and vocalization. Three statistical methods, hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and analysis of variance with multiple comparisons and empirical cumulative distributions, were used to validate these procedures, and a questionnaire accompanied by a list of definitions was designed around the expressions. The new composite scale is more detailed than previously reported scales for assessing pain in dogs on the basis of their behaviour, and the methods used in its development are based on sound scientific principles.
Descriptors: analytical methods, animal behavior, pain, posture, vocalization.

Horak, I.G. and S. Matthee (2003). Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. Xliii. Ixodid ticks of domestic dogs and cats in the Western Cape province. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 70(3): 187-195. ISSN: 0030-2465.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 On1
Abstract: Ticks were collected at monthly intervals for 16 consecutive months from individual dogs by their owners in or close to the town of Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province. They were also collected for 27 consecutive months from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at three veterinary clinics in Stellenbosch, and from dogs upon admission to an animal welfare shelter. At one of the veterinary clinics ticks were also collected from cats. Dog owners collected six ixodid species from their pets and the most numerous of these were Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae. Twelve ixodid tick species and the argasid tick, Otobius megnini were collected from dogs at veterinary clinics and the animal shelter, and H. leachi, R. gertrudae and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were the most numerous. A total of nine dogs were infested with the Karoo paralysis tick, Ixodes rubicundus. No clear pattern of seasonality was evident for H. leachi, which was present throughout the year. The largest numbers of adult R. gertrudae were generally present from August to October, while adult R. sanguineus were collected during October 2000, February and March 2001, from January to April 2002 and during October 2002. Five ixodid tick species, of which H. leachi was the most numerous and prevalent, were collected from cats.
Descriptors: epidemiology, population studies, parasitology, veterinary medicine, tick infestation, parasitic disease, seasonality.

Horwitz, D., D.S. Mills and S. Heath (2002). BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine., British Small Animal Veterinary Association: Quedgeley, Gloucester, 288 p. ISBN: 0905214595.
NAL Call Number: SF433 .B79 2002
Descriptors: dogs, cats, behavior, behavior therapy.

Hoskins, J.D. and C.E. Swiderski (2006). Neonatal care of puppy, kitten, and foal. In: D.M. McCurnin and J.M. Bassert (Editors), Clinical Textbook for Veterinary Technicians., 6th edition, Elsevier Saunders: St. Louis, MO, p. 382-399. ISBN: 0721606121.
NAL Call Number: SF745 .C625 2006
Descriptors: newborn animals, puppies, kittens, young animals, foals, husbandry, dogs, cats, horses.

Hunter, T.L. (2001). Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a 10-year-old dog. Canadian Veterinary Journal 42(9): 727-729. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: diagnosis, hematology, histopathology, postmortem examinations, respiratory diseases, acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Language of Text: English, Summary in French.

Inokuma, H., S. Yamamoto, and C. Morita (1998). Survey of tick-borne diseases in dog infested with rhipicephalus sanguineus at a kennel in Okayama prefecture, Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 60(6): 761-763. ISSN: 0916-7250.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Abstract: Serological tests were performed to investigate extent of tick-borne diseases in dogs infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus at a kennel in Okayama Prefecture. Three of 22 dogs (13.6%) were positive for Ehrlichia canis. Two of 19 dogs (10.5%) were positive for Rickettsia japonica. Three of 22 dogs (13.6%) were positive for Babesia gibsoni. None of these animals were positive for Coxiella burnetti or Hepatozoon canis. A microfilaria was detected in a drop smear of hemolymph from an engorged female tick, however species was not determined. It is possible that these ticks can transmit pathogens to domestic dogs which are rare in Japan.
Descriptors: infection, parasitology, vector biology, veterinary medicine, tick borne bacterial diseases, bacterial disease, tick borne parasitic diseases, parasitic disease.

Inoue, S., Y. Motoi, T. Kashimura, K. Ono, and A. Yamada (2003). Safe and easy monitoring of anti-rabies antibody in dogs using his-tagged recombinant n-protein. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 56(4): 158-160. ISSN: 1344-6304.
Abstract: The virus neutralization (VN) test is a reliable indicator of adequate vaccination in animals. However, the VN test is tedious and complicated to perform. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), though rapid and simple compared to the VN test, is complicated and hazardous during preparation of the viral antigen. In an effort to overcome the disadvantage of ELISA, the recombinant His-tagged nucleoprotein (His-rNP) expressed in Escherichia coli was used as a safe antigen for ELISA (i.e., live virus was not used). Antirabies antibody levels were determined by fluorescent ELISA (FELISA) using His-rNP as an antigen. The presence of anti-rabies VN antibody was determined by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). The VN titers by RFFIT were found to correlate well with the FITC-signal determined by the FELISA (r=0.616). The sensitivity and specificity of the FELISA were 91.7 and 100%, respectively. This study showed that the His-rNP could be useful as an antigen of ELISA to test for anti-rabies antibody in vaccinated dogs. Several studies in Japan have investigated the antibody level in the sera of vaccinated dogs. A safe and convenient test using His-rNP would contribute to our understanding of the status of herd immunity among not only domestic dogs but also stray dogs in Japan.
Descriptors: immune system, fluorescent ELISA, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, virus neutralization test, herd immunity status.

Itoh, N., N. Muraoka, M. Aoki, and T. Itagaki (2003). Prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection in household dogs. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 77(6): 430-435. ISSN: 0387-5911.
Abstract: A total of 1,505 household dogs were investigated for the prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection by fecal examination in relation to their fecal conditions, rearing environments, origins, age, sex and breed. Strongyloides spp. infection was demonstrated in 29 of 1,505 (1.93%) dogs. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected in 28 dogs, and Strongyloides planiceps was detected in one dog. The rate of Strongyloides spp. infection was higher in dogs reared indoors, originated from pet shops/breeding kennels and aged 1-6 months. The infected rate was higher in dogs excreting soft feces. No significant sex-related difference was observed in Strongyloides spp. infection. The rate was high in Pomeranians and low in mongrels. The detection of S. stercolaris in dogs reared indoors will involve a serious problem in public health, because the parasite has zoonoitic potential. It suggests that a positive sanitary instruction against a dog's owner and a worker in pet shops/breeding kennels seems necessary for prevention of transmission from dogs to humans. Furthermore, the reliable treatment for dogs infected with S. stercoralis seems to be important.
Descriptors: household dogs, Strongyloidiasis, fecal examination, isolation, purification, zoonoses.

Jogeland, M., H. Raue, and U. Petersson (2002). Inventering av invartesparasiter hos hundar i Skane 1999-2000. [Inventory of internal parasites in dogs in Skane 1999-2000.]. Svensk Veterinartidning 54(13): 635-637. ISSN: 0346-2250.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 N813
Abstract: Samples were taken from 230 dogs living in Skane, the southern part of Sweden. The dog owners were supplied with sampling material and took care of the sampling themselves. Three faecal samples on three consecutive days were taken from each dog. These three samples were thereafter sent by post to a laboratory where they were carefully mixed into one collecting sample. This collecting sample was analysed by a NaCl-flotation method and Telemanns sedimentation method. Of the 230 sampled dogs 15 (6,5%) were positive, one dog with coccidia and 14 with T. canis. One of the dogs with T. canis also shed eggs from Alaria alata.
Descriptors: feces, infestation, Alaria alata, dogs, Toxocara canis, Sweden.
Language of Text: Swedish, Summary in English.

Junot, S., C. Decosne Junot, and E. Troncy (2002). Diagnostic du coup de chaleur chez le chien et chez le chat. [Diagnosis of heat stress in dogs and cats.]. Point Veterinaire 33(227): 38-40. ISSN: 0335-4997.
NAL Call Number: SF602.P6
Descriptors: clinical aspects, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, heat stress, physiopathology, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: French.

Junot, S., C. Decosne Junot, and E. Troncy (2002). Traitement du coup de chaleur chez le chien et chez le chat. [Treatment of heat stress in dogs and cats.]. Point Veterinaire 33(228): 38-40. ISSN: 0335-4997.
NAL Call Number: SF602.P6
Descriptors: body temperature, clinical aspects, diagnosis, heat stress, hyperthermia, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: French.

Kaenkangploo, D., P. Kamonrat, M. Kalpravidh, K. Duangdaun, K. Phiwipha, and K. Marissak (2002). Radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs. Part II: Comparison of stress-radiographic positioning techniques in dogs with hip dysplasia. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 32(3): 61-69. ISSN: 0125-6491.
NAL Call Number: SF604.T43
Abstract: Two stress-radiographic positioning techniques for evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs with hip dysplasia were compared with the standard technique. Forty, healthy, large breed dogs were divided into two groups of 20 dogs. Group 1 had normal hips. Group 2 were dogs with mild to moderate grade of hip dysplasia according to the Orthopaedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) standard. Dogs were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency before 3 radiographic techniques, standard hip-extended, 60° and 90° stress techniques, were taken. For the 60° stress technique, hind legs were extended in parallel to each other at 60° to the table top and femoral heads were manually pushed craniodorsally during exposure. For the 90° stress technique, femurs were positioned perpendicular to the table top; stifles were 90° flexed and adducted and femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. Subluxation index (SI) and dorsolateral subluxation score (DLS score) of coxofemoral joints were assessed from radiographs. The SI of normal dogs from standard, 60°, and 90° stress techniques were 0.15, 0.20, and 0.23, and of dysplastic dogs were 0.34, 0.40, and 0.41, respectively. The degrees of subluxation assessed from the two stress technique radiographs were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than those shown on the standard technique radiographs in both groups of dogs. DLS scores of normal dogs from standard, 60° and 90° stress techniques were 65.1%, 64.3%, and 61.0%, and of dysplastic dogs were 55.4%, 53.6%, and 47.6%, respectively. Mean of DLS scores assessed from the 90° radiographs was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those assessed from radiographs of other two techniques in both groups of dogs. The findings suggested that the 90° stress technique is more efficient than the standard and 60° stress techniques for radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs with mild hip dysplasia and early detection of hip dysplasia in dogs that show no clinical signs.
Descriptors: femur, hip dysplasia, hips, joints animal, radiography, dogs.
Language of Text: Thai, Summary in English.

Kakoma, I., A. Sainz, M. Tesouro, I. Amusategui, C. Kim, J. Biggerstaff, J. McPeak, and M.G. Levy (2000). Standardization of the diagnostic criteria for canine ehrlichiosis. Towards a universal case definition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 916: 396-403. ISSN: 0077-8923.
Abstract: Canine ehrlichiosis is a highly variable syndrome presenting a significant differential diagnostic difficulty. It imitates many metabolic and infectious diseases and lacks standardized diagnostic criteria, common reagents, and database resources. A clinical diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis may be based on the manifestation of fever, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, nasolacrimal discharge, epistaxis, and exclusion of autoimmune and common canine vector borne diseases. These parameters are not invariably observed especially in the atypical form of the disease often caused by species other than Ehrlichia canis. A definitive diagnosis is based on the presence of specific antibodies to ehrlichial agent(s), the demonstration of the aetiological agent(s) itself, or specific amplicons by a strigently quality controlled PCR protocol. The relationship of the various clinical and laboratory parameters, the status of the currently available tests, and their real or presumed predictive value are discussed in the context of stimulating an effort to formulate an international standard for the diagnosis of this and related diseases of man and animals.
Descriptors: anorexia, antibodies, autoimmune diseases, case definitions, thrombocytopenia, Ehrlichia canis.
Notes: Meeting Information: 5th Biennial Conference of the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Key West, Florida, USA; June 12-16, 1999.

Kamonrat, P., D. Kaenkangploo, K. Phiwipha, and K. Duangdaun (2002). Radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs. Part I: New stress-radiographic positioning techniques. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 32(3): 47-59. ISSN: 0125-6491.
NAL Call Number: SF604.T43
Abstract: Two new stress-radiographic positioning techniques, namely 60° and 90° stress techniques, were introduced for quantifying hip joint laxity in dogs. The comparative characteristics and efficiency of these new techniques with angled hindlimbs were evaluated relative to the standard hip-extended radiographic technique. Forty, healthy, mongrel dogs with normal hip joint conformation were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency before 3 radiographs of the standard, 60°, and 90° stress techniques were taken. For the 60° stress technique, hindlimbs were extended in parallel to each other at 60° angled to the table top and stifles were slightly rotated inward; femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. For the 90° stress technique, femurs were positioned perpendicular to the table top; stifles were 90° flexed and adducted and femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. The subluxation index (SI) and dorsolateral subluxation score (DLS score) were calculated from 3 radiographic views for both hip joints to quantitate the relative degree of joint laxity. Results of the study indicated that the 60° (SI=0.20±0.045; DLS score=62.5±7.96%) and 90° (SI=0.23±0.044; DLS score=61.2±9.47%) stress-radiographs yielded significantly (p < 0.001) higher degree of hip joint laxity than the standard technique (SI=0.17±0.035; DLS score=66.9±8.09%). The 90° stress technique is the most sensitive technique for measurement of the hip joint laxity as the SI values of the 90° stress technique were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than those of the 60° technique. The findings suggested that the 60° and 90° stress-radiographic positioning techniques, oriented similarly to those of a standing dog are more practical and efficient than the standard hip-extended technique for demonstrating maximal coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs with normal hip joint conformation. Both new techniques may prove useful in studies of hip joint laxity or subluxation related to canine hip dysplasia in more susceptible dogs.
Descriptors: diagnosis, femur, hip dysplasia, hips, joints animal, radiography, surgery, dogs.
Language of Text: Thai, Summary in English.

Kang, S., C. Lee, O. Park, J. Leem, H. Yoon, O. Kweon, S.M. Kang, C.H. Lee, O.J. Park, J.H. Leem, H.J. Yoon, and O.K. Kweon (2002). Efficacy of fipronil-applied canine hair against house dust mites. Journal of Veterinary Clinics 19(2): 215-218. ISSN: 1598-298X.
Abstract: It is known that house dust mites which settle on sofa, carpet, and dust in the house ignite asthma and allergic rhinitis. Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus are distributed widely and densely in Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of shed hair of dogs which were applied topically with fipronil (Frontline) against house dust mites. House dust mites were cocultured with fipronil-applied hair of dog for 12 h. The death rate of mites in the coculture was compared with that of mites cultured without hair. The larger amount of hair, the more mites were killed. The death rate of mites was significantly higher than control until 2 weeks after Frontline application. Hair which had been shed at 3 days after Frontline application always killed the smaller number of mites than those not shed. It is suggested that the use of Frontline in pets controls house dust mites effectively.
Descriptors: disease control, hair, mortality, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, dogs.
Language of Text: Korean, Summary in English.

Kayali, U., R. Mindekem, N. Yemadji, A. Oussiguere, S. Naissengar, A.G. Ndoutamia, and J. Zinsstag (2003). Incidence of canine rabies in n'djamena, chad. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 61(3): 227-233. ISSN: 0167-5877.
NAL Call Number: SF601.P7
Abstract: This work describes for the first time the incidence risk of passively reported canine rabies, and quantifies reported human exposure in N'Djamena (the capital of Chad). To diagnose rabies, we used a direct immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). From January 2001 to March 2002, we were brought 34 rabies cases in dogs and three cases in cats. Canine cases were geographically clustered. The annual incidence risk of canine rabies was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.7) per 1000 unvaccinated dogs. Most of the rabid dogs were owned-although free-roaming and not vaccinated against rabies. Most showed increased aggressiveness and attacked people without being provoked. Eighty-one persons were exposed to rabid dogs and four persons to rabid cats (mostly children < 15 years old). Most of the exposed persons were neighbours or family members of the animal owner. Most exposures were transdermal bites, but nearly half of all exposed persons did not apply any first wound care or only applied a traditional treatment. In N'Djamena, humans are often exposed to canine rabies but do not use the full-course post-exposure treatment and wound care is insufficient. Most rabid dogs would be accessible to parenteral vaccination. Pilot vaccination campaigns are needed to determine the success of dog mass vaccination in N'Djamena as a way to prevent animal and human rabies.
Descriptors: epidemiology, population studies, infection, public health, allied veterinary medicine, rabies, viral disease, epidemiology, prevention and control, transmission, direct immunofluorescent antibody test, ifat, diagnostic techniques, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, vaccination.

Kayali, U., R. Mindekem, N. Yemadji, P. Vounatsou, Y. Kaninga, A.G. Ndoutamia, and J. Zinsstag (2003). Coverage of pilot parenteral vaccination campaign against canine rabies in n'djamena, chad. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 81(10): 739-744. ISSN: 0042-9686.
NAL Call Number: 449.9 W892B
Abstract: Canine rabies, and thus human exposure to rabies, can be controlled through mass vaccination of the animal reservoir if dog owners are willing to cooperate. Inaccessible, ownerless dogs, however, reduce the vaccination coverage achieved in parenteral campaigns. This study aimed to estimate the vaccination coverage in dogs in three study zones of N'Djamena, Chad, after a pilot free parenteral mass vaccination campaign against rabies. We used a capture-mark-recapture approach for population estimates, with a Bayesian, Markov chain, Monte Carlo method to estimate the total number of owned dogs, and the ratio of ownerless to owned dogs to calculate vaccination coverage. When we took into account ownerless dogs, the vaccination coverage in the dog populations was 87% (95% confidence interval (CI), 84-89%) in study zone I, 71% (95% CI, 64-76%) in zone II, and 64% (95% CI, 58-71%) in zone III. The proportions of ownerless dogs to owned dogs were 1.1% (95% CI, 0-3.1%), 7.6% (95% CI, 0.7-16.5%), and 10.6% (95% CI, 1.6-19.1%) in the three study zones, respectively. Vaccination coverage in the three populations of owned dogs was 88% (95% CI, 84-92%) in zone I, 76% (95% CI, 71-81%) in zone II, and 70% (95% CI, 66-76%) in zone III, Participation of dog owners in the free campaign was high, and the number of inaccessible ownerless dogs was low. High levels of vaccination coverage could be achieved with parenteral mass vaccination, Regular parenteral vaccination campaigns to cover all of N'Djamena should be considered as an ethical way of preventing human rabies when post-exposure treatment is of limited availability and high in cost.
Descriptors: immune system, infection, veterinary medicine, canine rabies, viral disease, pilot parenteral vaccination campaign, canine rabies immunization, coverage .

Kelly, P.J., G.N. Eoghain, and D. Raoult (2004). Antibodies reactive with bartonella henselae and ehrlichia canis in dogs from the communal lands of Zimbabwe. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 75(3): 116-120. ISSN: 1019-9128.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 So8
Abstract: The prevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Ehrlichia canis were determined in sera from 228 dogs in 5 communal lands of Zimbabwe, areas where traditional subsistence agro-pastoralism is practised. The sera were collected from apparently healthy dogs during routine rabies vaccination programmes and tested with indirect fluorescent antibody assays using B. henselae (Houston-I) and E. canis (Oklahoma) as antigens. We found reactive antibodies ( 1:80) against B. henselae in 14 % of the dogs tested. Seropositive animals were found in Bikita (41 %; 17/42), Omay (13 %; 6/48), Chinamora (5 %; 2/38) and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48). No seropositive dogs were found in Chiredzi (0 %; 0/52). Antibodies reactive with E. canis ( :1:80) were found in 34 % of the dogs tested, from Bikita (88 %; 37/42), Chiredzi (31 %; 16/52), Omay (17 %; 8/48), Chinamora (26 %; 10/38) and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48). Our survey shows dogs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe are frequently exposed to E. canis and B. henselae or closely related species. Further studies are indicated to determine the pathogenicity of the organisms infecting these dogs and their clinical significance.
Descriptors: immune system, infection, pharmacology, bartonella infection, immunology, ehrlichiosis, bacterial disease, rabies, viral disease, drug therapy, prevention and control, fluorescent antibody assay, laboratory techniques.

Kemming, G.I., J.B. Messick, G. Enders, M. Boros, B. Lorenz, S. Muenzing, H. Kisch Wedel, W. Mueller, A. Hahmann Mueller, K. Messmer, and E. Thein (2004). Mycoplasma haemocanis infection: A kennel disease? Comparative Medicine 54(4): 404-409. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77 .C65
Abstract: Mycoplasma haemocanis (formerly Haemobartonella canis) is a red blood cell parasite that causes disease mainly in immunosuppressed and splenectomized dogs. Clinical outbreak of the disease resulted in failure of a large experimental project. We aimed to identify whether M. haemocanis has increased prevalence in kennel-raised dogs. In a prospective study, we compared the prevalence of M. haemocanis in whole blood (anti-coagulated by use of EDTA) collected from pet dogs (University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Ill.; n = 60) with that in blood from dogs raised in three distinct kennels in western Europe (WE; n = 23), eastern Europe (EE; n = 20), and North America (NA, n = 20). Screening included antibody testing and microscopy of blood smears. The presence of M. haemocanis was identified using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for specific DNA of the organism. None of the pet dogs (0%) was test positive for M. haemocanis DNA. Mycoplasma haemocanis was found in dogs tested at all of the kennels. Infection rate in the three kennels was 30,35, and 87%, respectively (all P 0.001 versus control, chi2-test). Latent infection with M. haemocanis was not a single observation in kennel-raised dogs. Prevalence may be higher than that in a pet dog population. The potential exists for these latent infections to adversely affect or confound research results.
Descriptors: animal care, blood and lymphatics, transport and circulation, epidemiology, population studies, immune system, infection, molecular genetics, veterinary medicine, PCR assay, diagnostic techniques, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, dog kennel site, immunosuppressed state, infection rate, veterinary epidemiology.

Khatlani, T.S., Z. Ma, M. Okuda, H. Inokuma, and T. Onishi (2003). Autoantibodies against t-cell costimulatory molecules are produced in canine autoimmune diseases. Journal of Immunotherapy 26(1): 12-20. ISSN: 1524-9557.
Abstract: Autoantibodies to surface molecules on lymphocytes have already been described in various immune conditions, such as, autoimmune diseases, infections, and blood transfusions. Because T-cell costimulatory molecules play a central role in the immune response of T-cells, we investigated the presence of autoantibodies against T-cell costimulatory molecules in canine autoimmune diseases. In this study, we prepared recombinant proteins of CTLA-4 (CD152) and CD28 and investigated the presence of autoantibodies against them in serum samples obtained from dogs with various autoimmune diseases and from healthy dogs as controls, using the recombinant GST fusion proteins by ELISA. Anti-CTLA-4 antibodies were found in 31.8% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 20% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 12.5% of patients with pemphigus, 0% of patients with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, and 0% of healthy donors. Anti-CD28 antibodies were not found in any of the patients or healthy donors. The ELISA results were further confirmed by immunoblotting. The presence of anti CTLA-4 antibodies suggests the existence of a CTLA-4-specific immune response. The autoantibodies against CTLA-4, demonstrated here for the first time in canine autoimmune diseases, may modulate the immune response in dogs with autoimmune diseases.
Descriptors: immune system, autoimmune disease, immune system disease, immune mediated hemolytic anemia, blood and lymphatic disease, pemphigus, integumentary system disease, rheumatoid arthritis, connective tissue disease, joint disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, elisa, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, immune response.

Kikuzaki, T., K. Suzuki, and T. Ajito (1999). Abnormal behaviour in a dog with brain metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association 52(1): 23-26. ISSN: 0446-6454.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 J275
Descriptors: neoplasms, adenocarcinoma, brain, metastasis, brain diseases, histopathology, abnormal behavior.
Language of Text: Japanese, Summary in English.

Kim, J., Y. Lee, R. Tak, J.W. Kim, Y.J. Lee, and R.B. Tak (2003). Occurrence of canine brucellosis in large kennels and characterization of Brucella canis isolates by PCR-RFLP. Korean Journal of Veterinary Research 43(1): 67-75. ISSN: 1225-0198.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 T12
Abstract: A total of 260 dogs were randomly selected from two different breed kennels, the first was with a history of brucellosis (group 1, n=126 dogs) and the second was a randomly selected breed kennel (group 2, n=134 dogs), and monitored for Brucella canis by 2-mercaptoethanol rapid slide agglutination test (2ME-RSAT) and bacterial culture method. For differentiation, PCR-RFLP using omp-31, wbkA and per genes were used for 52 B. canis strains (strain I) isolated in this study and 3 B. canis strains (strain II) isolated in 1994 in Korea. 2ME-RSAT revealed that 63/126 (50.0%) and 12/134 dogs (9.0%) were positive in group I and group II, respectively. Bacterial culture revealed that 47/126 (37.3%) and 5/134 dogs (3.7%) were positive in groups I and II, respectively. As a result of PCR-RFLP, omp-31 was amplified from all Brucella sp., except B. abortus. All B. canis isolates showed unique PCR-RFLP pattern following digestion with BmeI8I. However, all Brucella sp. showed the same PCR-RFLP pattern following digestion with SalI. PCR-RFLP analysis of wbkA analysis of per revealed that B. abortus 544 and B. melitensis 63/9 showed the same pattern, but different from B. suis and B. canis following digestion with HindIII.
Descriptors: brucellosis, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, genes, polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, dogs.
Language of Text: Korean, Summary in English.

King, L.G., J.S. Wohl, A.M. Manning, S.G. Hackner, M.R. Raffe, and G. Maislin (2001). Evaluation of the survival prediction index as a model of risk stratification for clinical research in dogs admitted to intensive care units at four locations. American Journal of Veterinary Research 62(6): 948-954. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: dogs, survival, prediction, indexes, accuracy, animal hospitals, probability, calculation.

King, L. and R. Hammond (1999). Manual of Canine and Feline Emergency and Critical Care., British Small Animal Veterinary Association: Cheltenham, UK, 300 p. ISBN: 0905214404.
NAL Call Number: SF778 .B73 1999
Descriptors: veterinary emergencies, critical care, wounds and injuries, treatment, dogs, cats.

Klomp, A.E.M., B. Van De Sluis, L.W.J. Klomp, and C. Wijmenga (2003). The ubiquitously expressed murr1 protein is absent in canine copper toxicosis. Journal of Hepatology 39(5): 703-709. ISSN: 0168-8278.
NAL Call Number: RC845
Abstract: Background/Aims: Copper toxicosis (CT) in Bedlington terriers is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by massive lysosomal copper accumulation in livers of affected dogs, and a defect in the biliary excretion of this metal. We propose that MURR1, the gene defective in canine CT, has a role in the regulation of copper excretion into bile during copper overload. Methods: Polyclonal antibodies raised against full-length recombinant human MURR1 were used for immunoblot analysis and indirect immunofluorescence studies. Results: Using Western blot analysis, these antibodies abundantly detected MURR1 as a 23 kDa protein in liver extracts of mice and dogs, but MURR1 was undetectable in the livers of affected Bedlington terriers. MURR1 was also detected in different tissues and cell lines; in cell lines the protein was found both in cytosol and membrane preparations. Consistent with this observation, indirect immunofluorescence staining revealed that in some cells MURR1 was associated with a vesicular compartment diffusely localized throughout the cell. Conclusions: The genomic deletion in MURR1 results in complete absence of MURR1 protein. Based on the unanticipated subcellular localization, our results suggest a role for MURR1 in the regulation of vesicular copper sequestration during copper overload.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, metabolism, molecular genetics, toxicology, canine copper toxicosis, digestive system disease, genetic disease, metabolic disease, northern blot, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, imaging and microscopy techniques, immunologic techniques.

Komiya, T., K. Sadamasu, H. Toriniwa, K. Kato, Y. Arashima, H. Fukushi, K. Hirai, and Y. Arakawa (2003). Epidemiological survey on the route of coxiella burnetii infection in an animal hospital. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 9(2): 151-155. ISSN: 1341-321X.
Abstract: The source of Q fever infection, was investigated by serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of specimens from humans and pets in an animal hospital. Two animal health technicians showed a positive serological reaction against Coxiella burnetii at the start. One of the two positive subjects remained PCR-positive for about 1 year and the other converted to PCR-negative, but the IgG antibody titer remained at 1:128 after minocycline treatment. Among animals housed in the hospital, two dogs were PCR-positive at the start, and the infection was transmitted to three cats about 5 months later. All these animals became negative for C. burnetii DNA after minocycline treatment. Furthermore, C. burnetii was isolated from the sera of the two humans and two dogs. C. burnetii isolates from the humans and dogs were analyzed, and it was found that the sequence homology of the com1 region was high, 99.9%, and the QpH1 plasmid was detected. These results suggest that these isolates were the same type, and it was considered that the infection was derived from the dogs, though the time of infection could not be confirmed.
Descriptors: infection, pharmacology, Q fever, bacterial disease, epidemiological survey, applied and field techniques, polymerase chain reaction, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques.

Koo, K.T., G. Polimeni, J.M. Albandar, and U.M. Wikesjo (2004). Periodontal repair in dogs: analysis of histometric assessments in the supraalveolar periodontal defect model. Journal of Periodontology 75(12): 1688-1693. ISSN: 0022-3492.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the mean value from histometric assessments of several histologic sections from the same site has been, used for the histometric characterization of the site. The histometric analysis of the supraalveolar periodontal defect model uses observations from buccal and lingual sites in three step-serial sections representing the central aspect of the mesial and distal root for the third and fourth mandibular premolar teeth. The objectives of this study were to investigate the correlations and determine whether there are significant differences in the measurement values of various histometric parameters between the three step-serial sections and to test the hypothesis that, in this animal model, histometric assessments using the most central section of each root are comparable to the mathematical means of corresponding assessments of the site using the three step-serial sections. METHODS: Histometric analysis using light microscopy, an attached digital camera system, and a personal computer-based image analysis system including a custom program for the supraalveolar periodontal defect model was performed on histologic sections acquired from one jaw quadrant in each of 12 dogs. The animals had received a protocol including placement of a coral biomaterial and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes, and were evaluated following a 4-week healing interval. Twelve parameters were assessed using three central step-serial sections from each root. For each parameter, pair-wise comparisons were performed using the mixed models analysis of variance, and the correlations between measurements were assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: For all parameters assessed, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among the three sections. The differences between the central section and the means of the three step-serial sections were small and not statistically significant. Parameters that could be assessed on most or all specimens, such as defect height and area, membrane height, and bone regeneration area, showed high correlations among the three step-serial sections (intraclass coefficient [ICC] approximately 0.91 to 0.98), and between each of the three sections and the mean for the three step-serial sections (ICC > or = 0.95). The most central section had somewhat higher correlation with the mean than measurements made on the lateral sections. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that using the supraalveolar periodontal defect model representative histometric data can be obtained evaluating only the central section from each defect site.
Descriptors: periodontal defect model, histometric data, histologic sections, jaw quadrant.

Ksiazek, T.G., D. Erdman, and C.S. Goldsmith (2003). A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine 348(20): 1953-1966. ISSN: 0028-4793.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 N442
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been associated with exposures originating from a single ill health care worker from Guangdong Province, China. We conducted studies to identify the etiologic agent of this outbreak. METHODS: We received clinical specimens from patients in seven countries and tested them, using virus-isolation techniques, electron-microscopical and histologic studies, and molecular and serologic assays, in an attempt to identify a wide range of potential pathogens. RESULTS: None of the previously described respiratory pathogens were consistently identified. However, a novel coronavirus was isolated from patients who met the case definition of SARS. Cytopathological features were noted in Vero E6 cells inoculated with a throatswab specimen. Electron-microscopical examination revealed ultrastructural features characteristic of coronaviruses. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining revealed reactivity with group I coronavirus polyclonal antibodies. Consensus coronavirus primers designed to amplify a fragment of the polymerase gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to obtain a sequence that clearly identified the isolate as a unique coronavirus only distantly related to previously sequenced coronaviruses. With specific diagnostic RT-PCR primers we identified several identical nucleotide sequences in 12 patients from several locations, a finding consistent with a point-source outbreak. Indirect fluorescence antibody tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays made with the new isolate have been used to demonstrate a virus-specific serologic response. This virus may never before have circulated in the U.S. population. CONCLUSIONS: A novel coronavirus is associated with this outbreak, and the evidence indicates that this virus has an etiologic role in SARS. Because of the death of Dr. Carlo Urbani, we propose that our first isolate be named the Urbani strain of SARS-associated coronavirus.
Descriptors: infection, severe acute respiratory syndrome, etiology, immunologic techniques, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, electron microscopy, serologic assay.

Kube, S., T. Owen, and S. Hanson (2003). Severe respiratory compromise secondary to cervical disk herniation in two dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 39(6): 513-517. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Abstract: Two dogs presented with acute tetraparesis, hypoventilation, and bradycardia with a second-degree atrioventricular heart block. Neurological examination localized both lesions to the cervical spine. Diagnostic imaging revealed a ventral extradural compression at the second to third cervical (C2-C3) region in one dog and at the third to fourth cervical (C3-C4) region in the other. Following surgical correction of the extruded disk, the hypoventilation and bradycardia resolved. Cervical disk extrusions are a common cause of acute tetraparesis in the dog. This report shows that respiratory and cardiac complications may occur concurrently. The authors recommend screening dogs with cervical myelopathies for respiratory and cardiac dysfunctions and treating appropriately. Prompt surgical intervention and supportive care can improve the prognosis.
Descriptors: acute tetraparesis, hypoventilation, bradycardia, atrioventricular heart block, neurology, spine, imaging, cervical myelopathies, repiratory and cardiac dysfunctions, treatment options, surgical intervention.

Kuffer, M., K. Hartmann, and W. Kraft (1997). Canine Parvovirose: Aspekte zu Epidemiologie, Klinik, Laborbefunden, Therapie und Impfung. [Canine parvoviral infection. Observations on epidemiology, symptoms, laboratory findings, treatment and vaccination.]. Tierarztliche Praxis 25(5): 518-524.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V433
Abstract: Features of 82 cases of parvoviral infection seen at Munich during 1994 and 1995 were summarized. Ten dogs died from acute infection. Ten of the survivors required intensive care with fluid therapy and parenteral nutrition.
Descriptors: epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, intensive care, canine parvovirus.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Kukekova, A.V., W. Wang, J.K. Lowe, E.A. Ostrander, G.D. Aguirre, and G.M. Acland (2003). Exclusion of GNGT1 gene as a positional candidate for canine rcd2 disease. In: Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) - Annual Meeting Abstract Search and Program Planner, May 4-8, 2003, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, p. Abstract No. 2325.
Descriptors: rod cone dysplasia type 2 (rcd2), canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), dogs, molecular genetics, eye disease, genetic diseases, laboratory techniques.

Langova, V., A.J. Mutsaers, B. Phillips, and R. Straw (2004). Treatment of eight dogs with nasal tumours with a alternating doses of doxorubicin and carboplatin in conjunction with oral piroxicam. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(11): 676-680. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: Objective To determine the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy in the treatment of canine nasal tumours. Design Retrospective clinical study Procedure Eight dogs with histologically confirmed nasal tumours were staged by means of complete blood count, serum biochemical analysis, cytological analysis of fine needle aspirate of the regional lymph nodes, thoracic radiographs and computed tomography scan of the nasal cavity. All dogs were treated with alternating doses of doxorubicin, carboplatin and oral piroxicam. All dogs were monitored for side effects of chemotherapy and evaluated for response to treatment by computed tomography scan of the nasal cavity after the first four treatments. Results Complete remission was achieved in four dogs, partial remission occurred in two dogs and two had stable disease on the basis of computed tomography evaluation. There was resolution of clinical signs after one to two doses of chemotherapy in all dogs. Conclusions This chemotherapy protocol was efficacious and well tolerated in this series of eight cases of canine nasal tumours.
Descriptors: pharmacology, toxicology, tumor biology, nasal tumor, neoplastic disease, respiratory system disease, therapy, chemotherapy, complete blood count, diagnostic techniques, computed tomography scan, imaging and microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques, cytological analysis, serum biochemical analysis, thoracic radiography.

Larson, L.J. and R.D. Schultz (2006). Effect of vaccination with recombinant canine distemper virus vaccine immediately before exposure under shelter-like conditions. Veterinary Therapeutics: Research in Applied Veterinary Medicine 7(2): 113-118. ISSN: 1528-3593.
NAL Call Number: SF601 .V4745
Abstract: Vaccination with modified-live virus (MLV) canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine has historically been recommended for animals in high-risk environments because of the rapid onset of immunity following vaccination. Recombinant CDV (rCDV) vaccine was deemed a suitable alternative to MLV-CDV vaccination in pet dogs, but insufficient data precluded its use where CDV was a serious threat to puppies, such as in shelters, kennels, and pet stores. In this study, dogs experimentally challenged hours after a single dose of rCDV or MLV vaccine became sick but recovered, whereas unvaccinated dogs became sick and died. Dogs vaccinated with a single dose of rCDV or MLV vaccine 1 week before being experimentally challenged remained healthy and showed no clinical signs. Dogs given one dose of rCDV vaccine hours before being placed in a CDV-contaminated environment did not become sick. These findings support the hypothesis that rCDV vaccine has a similar time-to-immunity as MLV-CDV vaccines and can likewise protect dogs in high-risk environments after one dose.
Descriptors: distemper virus, canine immunology, dogs, housing, animal classification, random allocation, risk factors, time factors, vaccines.

Larsson, C.E., M. Otsuka, N.S. Michalany, P.S.M. Barros, W. Gambale, and A.M.V. Safatle (2003). Criptococose canina: relato de caso. [Canine ocular cryptococcosis: A case report.]. Arquivo Brasileiro De Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 55(5): 533-538. ISSN: 0102-0935.
NAL Call Number: SF604 .A76
Abstract: A case of cryptococcosis with ocular and cutaneous involvement is reported by the first time in Brazil in a dog. A two-year-old female German Shepherd living in a hold house with other five healthy dogs was infected through the contact with pigeon (Columba livia) feces. The illness started 90 days previously with cutaneous and bone involvement resulting in characteristic clinical signs and lesions, in addition to a initially unilateral asymptomatic chorioretinitis. The diagnosis was established based on anamnesis, physical and dermatologic examinations and complementary exams (radiographs, skin biopsy and histopathology) and the isolation of a Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans strain was accomplished. There was a complete resolution of the disease after nine months of therapy using itraconazole (9mg/kg, q24h, PO) and no side effect was observed.
Descriptors: infection, integumentary system, sense organs, sensory reception, veterinary medicine, chorioretinitis, eye disease, cryptococcosis, fungal disease, histopathology, histology and cytology techniques, laboratory techniques, radiography, diagnostic techniques, skin biopsy, diagnostic techniques.
Language of Text: Portuguese.

Laszlo, M., P. Schawalder, G. Scholtysik, C. Bernasconi, and J. Schulze (1999). Untersuchungen an Hunden uber das Verhalten von Vitamin C bei Stress und Schmerz. [Studies on the behaviour of vitamin C under stress and pain conditions in dog.]. Kleintierpraxis 44(4): 241, 262. ISSN: 0023-2076.
Abstract: Blood samples were obtained from 54 dogs of 4 breeds (German Shepherd, 10; Greyhound, 15; Labrador, 17; mongrels, 12) 2.5-9.25 years of age to determine reference values for vitamin C. From statistical analysis of the results, the dogs could be classified into 2 groups. Group A, the larger, heavier breeds German Shepherd and Labrador, had significantly higher plasma vitamin C contents (7.02 mg/litre) than lighter breeds (Greyhound and mongrel) in group B (4.91 mg/litre). Age and sex had no significant influence on plasma vitamin C. 30 dogs, 2.5 months to 14 years of age and of various breeds, with acute pain (18), sub-acute or chronic pain (9) or which had been castrated (3) were also examined. Vitamin C contents in plasma decreased in all dogs during periods dominated by pain and/or stress. After eliminating the causes of pain, vitamin C contents returned to normal several days later. Even stress had a negative effect on vitamin C. It is concluded that the hypothesis that hypertrophic osteodystrophy is due to low blood vitamin C cannot be sustained.
Descriptors: dog breeds, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Greyhound, blood chemistry, ascorbic acid, pain, stress, bone diseases, fractures, rupture, tendons, ligaments, osteodystrophy, dogs.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Leitner, M., J.E. Aurich, G. Galabova, C. Aurich, and I. Walter (2003). Lectin binding patterns in normal canine endometrium and in bitches with pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Histology and Histopathology 18(3): 787-795. ISSN: 0213-3911.
Abstract: Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and pyometra in the bitch are dioestral syndromes, supposed to be caused by hormonal disturbances and changes in endometrial steroid hormone receptor levels. Histologically, the endometria show cystic dilated glands and, if bacteria succeed in invading the uterus, pyometra may develop in the following metoestrus. In this study, lectin histochemistry was performed on paraffin sections to compare carbohydrate expression of uterine glands and surface epithelium in healthy dogs and in dogs with CEH and pyometra. Lectin binding is a useful tool to identify glycoconjugates, especially of the glycocalyx, which has essential functions in the endometrium during reproduction. Uterine tissue was obtained from 18 healthy bitches in metoestrus or anoestrus and 18 bitches with a clinical diagnosis of CEH or pyometra. Normal endometria showed cycle-dependent changes in SBA, PNA, HPA and UEA binding during metoestrus and anoestrus. LCA did not show cycle-dependent changes and WGA bound to Golgi regions in the apical parts of surface epithelial cells only in metoestrous. Endometria with inflammatory alterations lost cycle-specific lectin binding patterns and, with increasing severity of pathological changes, showed a marked decrease in binding intensity to the glandular and surface epithelial glycocalyx and secretions. In dogs with CEH, unaltered glands with generally strong lectin binding to the glycocoalyx and Golgi regions were found adjacent to altered glands. The decrease of lectin binding in pyometra cases is supposed to be a result of glandular exhaustion after cystic hyperplasia. In addition, bacterial adhesion to sugar residues on the uterine surface epithelium might impede lectin binding.
Descriptors: reproduction, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra, reproductive system disease.

Liska, W.D. and B.A. Poteet (2003). Pulmonary embolism associated with canine total hip replacement. Veterinary Surgery 32(2): 178-186. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Abstract: Objective-To determine by pulmonary perfusion scans and ultrasonography if embolemia occurs during total hip replacement (THR) surgery in dogs. Study Design-Prospective clinical study. Animals-Forty client-owned dogs that had THR surgery. Methods-Thoracic radiographs were taken immediately after THR and immediately after completion of 99mTc-MAA lung scans. Scintigraphy was performed in 28 dogs, 48 hours after THR. Intraoperative ultrasonography (intercostal or transesophageal) was performed in another 12 dogs that had THR. The right atrium and ventricle and pulmonary outflow tract were observed during and for 5 to 8 minutes after femoral component insertion into medullary canals prepared by reaming, and lavage and aspiration of debris before filling with polymethylmethacrylate in dough stage. A modified Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) classification system was used to evaluate lung scans. Results-No pulmonary radiographic abnormalities were identified. Segmental and subsegmental perfusion defects occurred in 23 (82%) dogs and were classified as severe in 9 (32%) dogs, moderate in 11, and mild in 3. There was no particular lobe predilection. Patchy mulberry-appearing defects, indicative of fat embolism, were most common. Embolemia was observed by ultrasound in 10 dogs. Variable-sized particles occurred in 8 dogs, particles and bubbles in 2 dogs, and no emboli were observed in 2 dogs. Embolemia was observed within 10 seconds after femoral stem insertion and lasted < 1 minute. Pneumoemboli remained in the right atrium for > 8 minutes before dislodgement. Conclusion-Embolemia of either air, particles, or both occurs in most dogs during THR surgery. Clinical Relevance-Most dogs seemingly spontaneously recover from pulmonary embolism that occurs during THR. The risk of clinical complications from this pulmonary embolism should be taken seriously, even though the exact morbidity and mortality rates are unknown.
Descriptors: hip relacement, pulmonary embolism, vascular disease, lung perfusion scintigraphy, pulmonary perfusion scan, radiography, right heart ultrasonography, total hip replacement, prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis classification system.

Lord, L.K. and M. Podell (1999). Owner perception of the care of long-term phenobarbital-treated epileptic dogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice 40(1): 11-15. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: A study was undertaken to evaluate owners' perception of the effect that epilepsy and long-term phenobarbital therapy had on the quality of pet and owner lifestyle. Selected owners in the Columbus (Ohio, USA) area who participated in a prospective, longitudinal clinical epilepsy study between July 1990 and July 1992 were sent a questionnaire at the end of the study. Inclusion criteria were dogs with a history of seizures without previous medical attention or therapy by any veterinarian before enrolment, subsequent determination of seizure aetiology using a standardized diagnostic protocol and treatment with phenobarbital for a minimum period of 6 months. Of the 22 questionnaires mailed, 19 were completed and returned. 10 dogs (53%) were classified with primary epileptic seizures and 9 (47%) were classified with secondary epileptic seizures. The majority of owners agreed that they would choose to treat their epileptic pet again rather than opt for other alternatives. Most owners disagreed that their pet was leading a poor quality of life after the start of phenobarbital therapy. A significant negative correlation existed between an owner's perception of the pet's quality of life and the amount of work required to care for the pet during the study period. It is concluded that many owners are willing to care for epileptic dogs on long-term phenobarbital treatment, regardless of the underlying cause.
Descriptors: phenobarbital, epileptiform attacks, drug therapy, treatment, quality of life, epilepsy.

Machon, R. (1999). The recovery period care for cats and dogs recovering from general anaesthesia. Veterinary Continuing Education 190: 211-216. ISSN: 0112-9643.
Descriptors: anesthesia, recovery, cats, dogs.

Madany, J., S. Winiarczyk, J.L. Gundach, W. opuszynski, and Z. Gradzki (2004). Podkliniczna postac leiszmaniozy psow: Obserwacje wasne. [Canine subclinical leishmaniasis: A study report .]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 60(10): 1071-1074. ISSN: 0025-8628.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M463
Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a chronic, parasitical disease occurring both in humans and animals with varying symptoms. In Europe the disease most frequently occurs in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this study was to determine the health status of 7 Polish dogs that spent 3 months in the endemic area of Turkey. After the return of the dogs to Poland clinical signs and laboratory findings revealed changes in the skin, liver and kidneys. Anomalies of the skin varied but had no connection with leishmaniasis. Subclinical signs of hepatic and kidney diseases could have originated from infection by Leishmania sp. Serological analyses assessed by IFAT and ELISA revealed the presence of Leishmania antibodies in the dogs; the level of measured antibodies was low. Diagnosis of subclinical leishmaniasis was established. Because of the lack of clinical signs, no typical treatment was applied and special care to protect the immune system was taken instead. The protection program resulted in a recovery of clinical symptoms and a receded level of antibodies after 15 months.
Descriptors: antibodies, asymptomatic infections, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, leishmaniasis, serology, zoonoses.
Language of Text: Polish, Summary in English.

Madany, J., S. Winiarczyk, J.L. Gundlach, W. Lopuszynski, and Z. Gradzki (2004). Podkliniczna postac leismaniozy psow - obserwacje wlasne. [Canine subclinical leishmaniosis - a study report]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 60(10): 1071-1074. ISSN: 0025-8628.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M463
Descriptors: Leishmanionsis, parasitic diseases, Poland, Turkey, subclinical signs, hepatic and kidney disease, serological assessments, treatment options, protection program.
Language of Text: Polish.

Maiti, S.K., S.K. Hore, and S. Roy (1999). Effect of immobilization stress on some haematobiochemical parameters in dogs. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 19(2): 111-112. ISSN: 0970-051X.
NAL Call Number: SF703.I54
Descriptors: blood chemistry, hematology, immobilization, stress, dogs.

Manuel, M.F., J.H.A. Abalos, and C.D. Solis (2002). Some acute behavioural and physiological effects observed in local Philippine dogs voluntarily fed with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the diet. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine 39(1): 50-51. ISSN: 0031-7705.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P53
Abstract: Twelve 4- to 7-month-old Philippine nondescript dogs of both sexes were fed monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the diet in quantities varying from 0, 5 and 10% of the amount of food given, using the Latin square design. Both physiological and behavioural parameters were examined in all animals an hour before and after feeding. Doses of MSG as high as 10% did not induce any noticeable change in the behaviour of the dogs. On the other hand, some temporary physiological changes such as tachycardia, vomiting and excretion of dark-coloured faeces were observed in 10 of the dogs.
Descriptors: adverse effects, monosodium glutamate, poisoning, toxicity, dogs.

Maruyama, H., T. Miura, M. Sakai, H. Koie, Y. Yamaya, H. Shibuya, T. Sato, T. Watari, A. Takeuchi, M. Tokuriki, and A. Hasegawa (2004). The incidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation in dogs with malignant tumour. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 66(5): 573-575. ISSN: 0916-7250.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Abstract: The incidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in 208 dogs with a malignant tumour was evaluated. The incidence of DIC was 9.6% in dogs with malignant tumour. In 164 dogs with a malignant solid tumour, the incidence of DIC was 12.2%. The incidence of DIC in dogs with haemangiosarcoma, mammary gland carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lungs were significantly higher than that in dogs with other malignant tumours. These results suggested that special care should be taken in DIC dogs with malignant solid tumour.
Descriptors: blood coagulation disorders, disseminated intravascular coagulation, epidemiology, mammary glands, neoplasms.

McCall, C., S. Hunter, K. Stedman, E. Weber, A. Hillier, C. Bozic, B. Rivoire, and T. Olivry (2001). Characterization and cloning of a major high molecular weight house dust mite allergen (Der f 15) for dogs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 78(3/4): 231-247. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call Number: SF757.2.V38
Abstract: Although house dust mites (HDM(s)) are important elicitors of canine allergy, the low molecular weight molecules defined as major allergens for humans do not appear to be major allergens for dogs. Western blotting of Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) extracts with sera from sensitized dogs showed that the majority of animals had IgE antibodies specific for two proteins of apparent molecular weights of 98 and 109 kDa (98/109 kDa). The N-terminal sequences of these two proteins were identical, suggesting they were very closely related, and sequencing of internal peptides showed the protein(s) to have homology with insect chitinases. A purified preparation of 98/109 kDa proteins elicited positive intradermal skin tests (IDST(s)) in a group of well-characterized atopic dogs sensitized to D. farinae, but not in normal dogs. A rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against the purified proteins was used to immunoscreen a D. farinae cDNA library. The mature coding region of the isolated chitinase cDNA predicts a protein of 63.2 kDa; sequence analysis and glycan detection blotting suggest that the molecule is extensively O-glycosylated. Monoclonal antibodies made against the purified native protein were used to localize the chitinase in sections of whole D. farinae mites. The protein displayed an intracellular distribution in the proventriculus and intestine of the mite, suggesting that it has a digestive, rather than a moulting-related, function. The high prevalence of IgE antibodies to this antigen in canine atopic dermatitis makes it a major HDM allergen for dogs, and the protein has been formally designated Der f 15.
Descriptors: Dermatophagoides farinae, allergens, characterization, cloning, IgE, chitinase, atopy, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, complementary DNA, molecular sequence data.

McEntee, K., H. Amory, C. Clercx, D. Soyeur, C. Michaux, O. Vanhaeverbeek, O. Jacqmot, and M. Henroteaux (1998). Physiologic response to dobutamine infusion during cardiac stress testing of dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 59(9): 1160-1165. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: The cardiovascular effects of increasing doses of dobutamine was investigated in 8 healthy conscious crossbred dogs, using standardized dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) twice on each dog within 24 h. Dobutamine was infused at 12.5 to 42.5 µg/kg/min, using increasing increments of 10 µg/kg/min. Doppler sphygmomanometry, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were performed. Left ventricular size, global ventricular performance, and left ventricular systolic myocardial function were measured by echocardiography. At the highest dose, dobutamine induced an increase of 20 ± 3% and 109 ± 12% in systolic blood pressure and cardiac index, respectively. Cardiac index was associated with a significant increase in heart rate and stroke index. Fractional shortening of the left ventricle, fractional thickening of the left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum, ejection fraction, and mean velocity of fibre shortening had a progressive and significant increase during dobutamine infusion. Pre-ejection period and left ventricular ejection time showed a progressive and significant decrease during the stress test. The technique used was simple, safe, and repeatable in healthy conscious dogs. Control values for these healthy dogs might be useful when comparing dogs with known or suspected cardiovascular disease.
Descriptors: heart diseases, stress, diagnostic techniques, echocardiography, cardiovascular agents, blood pressure, dogs.

McEntee, K., C. Clercx, H. Amory, C. Michaux, J.J. Dardenne, D. Soyeur, and M. Henroteaux (1999). Doppler echocardiographic study of left and right ventricular function during dobutamine stress testing in conscious healthy dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60(7): 865-871. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: dogs, stress, testing, cardiovascular agents, echocardiography, heart, heart valves, hemodynamics.

Millanta, F., F. Fratini, M. Corazza, M. Castagnaro, V. Zappulli, and A. Poli (2002). Proliferation activity in oral and cutaneous canine melanocytic tumours: correlation with histological parameters, location, and clinical behaviour. Research in Veterinary Science 73(1): 45-51. ISSN: 0034-5288.
Abstract: A total of 62 canine melanocytic tumours (10 melanocytomas and 52 primary malignant melanomas) were investigated to compare the accuracy of prognosis provided by MIB-1 proliferation index (MIB-1-PI) with classical histological criteria and location. MIB-1-PI was assessed by means of quantitative image analysis of sections immunostained with MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. Tumour location, histological cell type, stromal or lymphatic vessel invasion, maximum tumour thickness, and presence of inflammation or necrosis were recorded for each case. Thirty-eight dogs were submitted to a 1-year follow-up and the clinical outcome of the disease determined. MIB-1-PI in melanocytomas differed significantly from that detected in primary malignant melanomas (P=0.0001). A significant difference in MIB-1-PI was revealed between oral and cutaneous malignant melanomas (P=0.015), and between presence and absence of lymphatic vessel invasion (P=0.05). MIB-1-PI was not correlated with the other parameters. In univariate analysis, only tumour location (oral vs cutaneous), presence of lymphatic vessel invasion, and MIB-1-PI were associated with decreased overall survival (P=0.0001, P=0.0144, and P=0.0489, respectively). In conclusion, the results of our study confirm that the assessment of the MIB-1-PI may be of additional prognostic value for dogs with primary malignant melanomas.
Descriptors: disease course, immunohistochemistry, melanoma, neoplasms, prognosis, techniques, dogs.

Milovancev, M. and S.C. Ralphs (2004). Radius/ulna fracture repair. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice 19(3): 128-133. ISSN: 1096-2867.
NAL Call Number: SF911.S45
Descriptors: animal care, skeletal system, diaphyseal fracture, bone disease, injury, therapy, bone plate, medical equipment, external coaptation, external fixator, medical equipment.

Minors, S.L. and M.R. O' Grady (1998). Resting and dobutamine stress echocardiographic factors associated with the development of occult dilated cardiomyopathy in healthy Doberman Pinscher dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12(5): 369-380. ISSN: 0891-6640.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J65
Abstract: In 29 healthy Doberman Pinschers, echocardiographic parameters evaluating systolic and diastolic function were examined prospectively at rest and during dobutamine constant rate infusion (5 µg/kg/minute) to determine if any parameters were associated with the development of occult dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). A resting echocardiogram was repeated 1 year later to determine which dogs had met the criteria for occult DCM. Six dogs developed occult DCM during the follow-up period. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that at rest, an increased left ventricular internal dimension in systole (LVID-S) (P = .02), preejection period (PEP) (P = .03), ratio of PEP to left ventricular ejection time (P = .02), and isovolumic relaxation time (P = .02) were significantly associated with the development of occult DCM. During dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE), high LVID-S (P = .02) and systolic wall stress index (P = .04) and reduced fractional shortening (P = .02) and ratio of peak early to late diastolic mitral filling velocity (E/A) (P = .05) were associated with the development of occult DCM. Multiple logistic regression showed that LVID-S (P = .002) and E/A (P = .002) measured during dobutamine infusion also were associated with the development of occult DCM. Reclassification based on the DSE data was not significantly different than reclassification based on the resting echocardiographic data. Resting echocardiography and DSE have the potential to be clinically applicable screening tests for very early systolic and diastolic dysfunction in Doberman Pinschers, heralding the onset of occult DCM as it is currently defined.
Descriptors: cardiomyopathy, Doberman Pinscher, stress, echocardiography, follow up, screening, heart diseases, diagnosis.

Miolo, A. and C.M. Mortellaro (2003). Artrosi del cane e stress ossidativo-infiammatorio: dalla clinica al meccanismo. [Canine osteoarthritis and oxidative-inflammatory stress: from clinical aspects to pathogenetic mechanisms.]. Veterinaria Cremona 17(1): 17-33. ISSN: 0391-3151.
Descriptors: bone resorption, chondrocytes, clinical aspects, free radicals, osteoarthritis, pathogenesis, synovial fluid, dogs.
Language of Text: Italian, Summary in English.

Mobasheri, A., I. Evans, P. Martin Vasallo, and C.S. Foster (2003). Expression and cellular localization of na,k-atpase isoforms in dog prostate in health and disease. Structure, Function, and Regulatory Mechanisms 986: 708-710. ISSN: 0077-8923.
Descriptors: enzymology, reproduction, tumor biology, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urologic disease, prostatic adenocarcinoma, neoplasms, reproductive system disease, male.
Notes: Meeting Information: 10th International Conference on Na,K-ATPase and Related Cation Pumps, Elsinore, Denmark; August 8-14, 2002.

Moon, J., G. Oh, I. Park, B. Kang, C. Lee, S. Jung, Y. Park, S. Shin, J.S. Moon, G.S. Oh, I.C. Park, B.K. Kang, C.Y. Lee, S.C. Jung, Y.H. Park, and S.J. Shin (1999). Occurance of canine brucellosis in a large kennel in Chonnam area. Korean Journal of Veterinary Research 39(6): 1099-1105. ISSN: 1225-0198.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 T12
Abstract: Reproductive failures, such as abortions were observed among dogs in a large kennel in Chonnam area, Korea Republic in April 1994. There was no significant difference in sex, age and breed of affected animals. Abortions occurred in late pregnancy. After an initial positive result to Brucella canis on 5 serum samples using 2 mercapto-ethal rapid slide agglutination test (2ME-RSAT), additional specimens from all dogs in the population were tested using blood culture and 3 serological tests (2ME-RSAT, TAT and AGID). 33 of 62 dogs were seropositive. 20 blood samples were cultured, and all isolates were identified as B. canis.
Descriptors: brucellosis, abortion, pregnancy, diagnosis, outbreaks, disease prevalence, immunodiagnosis, reproductive disorders, bacterial diseases, Brucella canis, dogs.
Language of Text: Korean, Summary in English.

Moore, G.E., M.P. Ward, J. Dhariwal, C.C. Wu, N.W. Glickman, H.B. Lewis, and L.T. Glickman (2004). Use of a primary care veterinary medical database for surveillance of syndromes and diseases in dogs and cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 18(3): 386. ISSN: 0891-6640.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J65
Descriptors: veterinary medicine, heartworm, heart disease, parasitic disease, ELISA, computer software, disease surveillance, medical records, primary care veterinary medical database.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Annual American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) Forum, Minneapolis, MN, USA; June 9-12, 2004.

Morgan, M.K., D.M.2. Stout, and N.K. Wilson (2001). Feasibility study of the potential for human exposure to pet-borne diazinon residues following lawn applications. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 66(3): 295-300. ISSN: 0007-4861.
NAL Call Number: RA1270.P35A1
Descriptors: toxicity, lawn care chemicals, diazinon, human-pet transfer, health risk.

Nakamura, M., K. Nakamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Tohya, M. Mochizuki, and H. Akashi (2003). Monoclonal antibodies that distinguish antigenic variants of canine parvovirus. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 10(6): 1085-1089. ISSN: 1071-412X.
Abstract: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is classified as a member of the feline parvovirus (FPV) subgroup. CPV isolates are divided into three antigenic types: CPV type 2 (CPV-2), CPV-2a, and CPV-2b. Recently, new antigenic types of CPV were isolated from Vietnamese leopard cats and designated CPV-2c(a) or CPV-2c(b). CPV-2c viruses were distinguished from the other antigenic types of the FPV subgroup by the absence of reactivity with several monoclonal antibodies (NAbs). To characterize the antigenicity of CPV-2c, a panel of MAbs against CPV-2c was generated and epitopes recognized by these MAbs were examined by selection of escape mutants. Four MAbs were established and classified into three groups on the basis of their reactivities: MAbs which recognize CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c (MAbs 2G5 and 20G4); an MAb which reacts with only CPV-2b and CPV-2c(b) (MAb 21C3); and an MAb which recognizes all types of the FPV subgroup viruses (MAb 19D7). The reactivity of MAb 20G4 with CPV-2c was higher than its reactivities with CPV-2a and CPV-2b. These types of specificities of MAbs have not been reported previously. A mapping study by analysis of neutralization-resistant mutants showed that epitopes recognized by MAbs 21C3 and 19D7 belonged to antigenic site A. Substitution of the residues in site B and the other antigenic site influenced the epitope recognized by MAb 2G5. It was suggested that the epitope recognized by MAb 20G4 was related to antigenic site B. These MAbs are expected to be useful for the detection and classification of FPV subgroup isolates.
Descriptors: canine parvovirus (CPV), infection, mapping study, MAbs, detection of feline parvovirus isolates.

Nap, R.C. (1999). Voeding van hond en kat in intensive care. [Feeding of dogs and cats kept in intensive care.]. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 68(5): 246-248. ISSN: 0303-9021.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V84
Descriptors: intensive care, animal feeding, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Nemeth, E., A. Sterczer, A. Mathe, K. Voros, V. Sztojkov, and I. Biksi (2003). Botulismus klinikai megallapitasa harom kutyaban. [Botulism in three dogs.]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 125(10): 608-616. ISSN: 0025-004X.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V644
Abstract: Botulismus is an intoxication caused by the neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum. Clinical signs are characterized by progressive, symmetric, generalized LMN (lower motor neuron) dysfunction. The severity of the illness depends on the amount of neurotoxin in the circulation and on the susceptibility of the animal. The incubation period may vary from a few hours to 6 days, and the course may last about 14-24 days. In case of recovery, muscle weakness dissolves in a descending way, starting from the muscle of the head, through the front legs, and the trunk to the hind legs. The diagnosis of botulismus can be based on the detection of the toxin in serum, faeces, vomitus or contaminated feed. The most widespread method is the toxin isolation and neutralization test performed in mice. In their 3 patients, ataxia beginning with the weakness of the hind legs occurred one day before hospitalization. The three foxterriers came from the same household, thus all the circumstances: nutrition, environment were the same. Flaccid tetraplegia developed within five hours after admission, following an ascending route, including the paralysis of the neck and head muscles, as well as the eyelids. Anamnesis and the results of the clinical examination arose the suspect of botulism, whilst no characteristic alterations of the blood count, blood chemistry and acid-base analysis were found. Toxin isolation from the serum using mice inoculation toxin-neutralization test confirmed the diagnosis, and revealed Type C toxin. List of differentials included polyradiculoneuritis, tick paralysis, monensin toxicosis, and traumatic spinal cord lesions. No antitoxin preparation was available to provide adequate serum therapy. Supportive treatment consisted of parenteral nutrition and parenteral amoxicilline-clavulanic acid therapy to reduce any potential intestinal population of C. botulinum. Besides placing a permanent urinary catheter to ensure urination, soft bedding was provided, and the animals were turned regularly to prevent haemostasis in the lungs. One dog died on the 4th and an other on the 8th hospitalization day, but the third one left the hospital in improving status due to intensive therapy on day 18th.
Descriptors: infection, toxicology, veterinary medicine, botulism, bacterial disease, toxicity, diagnosis, pathology, histopathology, symptom, therapy, clinical examination, diagnostic techniques, mice inoculation toxin neutralization test, bioassay techniques, laboratory techniques, parenteral nutrition, muscle weakness.
Language of Text: Hungarian.

Neumann, S. (2005). Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory diagnostic findings in dogs with hepatopathies [Epidemiologische, klinische und labordiagnostische Befunde bei Hunden mit Hepatopathien. Kleintierpraxis 50(11): 695-707. ISSN: 0023-2076.
Abstract: The knowledge about the epidemiology of an illness is important for the diagnostic procedure, the course and the prognosis of the disease. Studies about the epidemiology of liver diseases in dogs are rare in veterinary literature. The goal of our investigation was to obtain epidemiological data and compared it with veterinary and human literature. 100 dogs in Germany with hepatopathy were investigated in this study [date not given]. The hepatopathies were diagnosed histologically. In our study, liver degeneration appeared most frequently, followed by liver tumours and hepatitis. A vascular liver disease was found only in one case. We could not find any breed predisposition. The patients with degenerative liver disease, neoplasia and hepatitis were older than 9-10 years. Only the patient with the vascular liver disease, a portosystemic shunt, was younger (3 years). We also could not find any sex predisposition. Predominant symptoms of our patients included a disturbed general state of health and inappetence, diarrhoea, vomiting and polyuria/polydipsia. Abdominal distension and pain we observed more in cases of neoplasia and hepatitis. Icterus, pruritus and haemorrhage were rare symptoms of hepatopathy in our study. The statistical analysis of our laboratory parameters showed significant increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in dogs with hepatitis. Dogs with liver degeneration have significant increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) was higher in dogs with hepatitis. Bile acids were significant increased, while albumin was significant decreased in dogs with neoplasia. Most of our cases had a moderate to poor prognosis. Dogs with liver degeneration died frequently based on the primary disease. The patient with a portosystemic shunt recovered after operation. Our data were predominantly comparable to those in the veterinary literature..
Descriptors: etiology, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, blood chemistry, clinical aspects, degeneration, diagnosis, disease prevalence, enzyme activity, epidemiology, glutamate dehydrogenase, hepatitis , laboratory diagnosis, liver, liver diseases, neoplasms, prognosis, serum albumin, dogs.

Nicholas, B.L., F.R. Brennan, W.D.O. Hamilton, and D. Wakelin (2003). Effect of priming/booster immunisation protocols on immune response to canine parvovirus peptide induced by vaccination with a chimaeric plant virus construct. Vaccine 21(19-20): 2441-2447. ISSN: 0264-410X.
NAL Call Number: QR189.V32
Abstract: Expression of a 17-mer peptide sequence from canine parvovirus expressed on cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) to form chimaeric virus particles (CVPs) creates vaccine antigens that elicit strong anti-peptide immune responses in mice. Systemic (subcutaneous, s.c.) immunisation and boosting with such CVP constructs produces IgG2a serum antibody responses, while mucosal (intranasal, i.n.) immunisation and boosting elicits intestinal IgA responses. Combinations of systemic and mucosal routes for priming and boosting immunisations were used to examine their influence on the level, type and location of immune response generated to one of these constructs (CVP-1). In all cases, s.c. administration, whether for immunisation or boosting, generated a Th1-biased response, reflected in a predominantly IgG2a serum antibody isotype and secretion of IFN-gamma from in vitro-stimulated lymphocytes. Serum antibody responses were greatest in animals primed and boosted subcutaneously, and least in mucosally vaccinated mice. The i.n. exposure also led to IFN-gamma release from in vitro-stimulated cells, but serum IgG2a was significantly elevated only in mice primed intranasally and boosted subcutaneously. Peptide-and wild-type CPMV-specific IgA responses in gut lavage fluid were greatest in animals exposed mucosally and least in those primed and boosted subcutaneously or primed subcutaneously and boosted orally. Lymphocytes from immunised mice proliferated in response to in vitro stimulation with CPMV but not with peptide. The predominant secretion of IFN-gamma from all immunising/boosting combinations indicates that the route of vaccination and challenge does not alter the Th1 bias of the response to CVP constructs. However, optimal serum and intestinal antibody responses were achieved by combining s.c. and i.n. administration.
Descriptors: immune system, priming, booster immunization protocols, immune challenge, immune response, mucosal immunity, serum antibody responses.

Nobling, A., A.C. Rodrigues, and R. de Menezes (2002). Prevalencia de Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977 (Apicomplexa: Cistoisosporinae) em caes provenientes de canis do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. [Prevalence of the Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977 (Apicomplexa: Cystoisosporinae) in dogs proceeding from kennels in the State of Rio de Janeiro.]. Revista Brasileira De Medicina Veterinaria 24(1): 43-44. ISSN: 0100-2430.
NAL Call Number: QP251.R48
Abstract: The incidence of Cystoisospora in dog breeding kennels of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was studied. Faecal samples were collected from dogs of different breeds, ages, and sexes. The presence of Cystoisospora was confirmed. Other enteric parasites were not associated with coccidiosis. The parasite principally affected pups and bitches with litters aged between 14-40 days.
Descriptors: bitches, disease prevalence, kennels, puppies, dogs, Isospora.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Noli, C. (1998). Specific aspects of house dust mite allergy in dogs. Pratique Medicale and Chirurgicale De L'Animal De Compagnie 33(Suppl. 3): 305-314. ISSN: 1157-6960.
Descriptors: house dust mites, atopy, hypersensitivity, allergens, arthropod allergies, literature reviews, Dermatopahgoides spp.
Language of Text: English, Summary in French.

O'reilly, A., C. Beck, J.G. Mouatt, and V.J. Stenner (2002). Exophthalmos due to a wooden foreign body in a dog. Australian Veterinary Journal 80(5): 268-271. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: An 8-year-old Golden Retriever dog was presented with a 10-month history of right-sided exophthalmos. Radiographs and CT demonstrated a linear density, suggestive of a foreign body, in the region of the ramus of the right mandible. A 7 cm stick, located medial to the right zygomatic arch, was removed during exploratory surgery. The dog recovered with the aid of antibiotics, however was left with a residual facial nerve paralysis.
Descriptors: dental and oral system, ingestion and assimilation, infection, neural coordination, pharmacology, sense organs, sensory reception, skeletal system, bacterial infection, bacterial disease, infectious disease, diagnosis, drug therapy, therapy, facial nerve paralysis, nervous system disease, retrobulbar mass, eye disease, right sided exophthalmos, therapy, computed tomography, diagnostic techniques, laboratory techniques, differential diagnosis, exploratory surgery, ophthalmic examination, radiography, ultrasound, imaging and microscopy techniques.

Ogeer Gyles, J., K.A. Mathews, W. Sears, J.F. Prescott, J.S. Weese, and P. Boerlin (2006). Development of antimicrobial drug resistance in rectal Escherichia coli isolates from dogs hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 229(5): 694-699. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether duration of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a veterinary teaching hospital was associated with prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among rectal Escherichia coli isolates from dogs, whether antimicrobial treatment was associated with prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, and whether there were associations among antimicrobial drugs to which isolates were resistant. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. ANIMALS: 116 dogs hospitalized in an ICU for >or= 3 days. PROCEDURES: Rectal swab specimens were obtained every 3 days and submitted for bacterial culture for E coli. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents by means of disk diffusion. RESULTS: For each additional day that a dog was hospitalized in the ICU, the odds of being colonized with an E coli isolate resistant to 1 or more of the 12 antimicrobials tested increased by a factor of 1.5, independent of antimicrobial treatment. Dogs that were treated with enrofloxacin were 25.6 times as likely to be colonized by a quinolone-resistant E coli strain as were dogs that did not receive any antimicrobials. Significant correlations were found for resistance to agents in the extended-spectrum cephalosporin group and the quinolone group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that the proportion of rectal E coli isolates obtained from dogs housed for >or= 3 days in a veterinary teaching hospital ICU that were resistant to antimicrobial agents increased as the duration of hospitalization in the ICU increased. Thus, ICU hospitalization time should be as short as possible to prevent development of antimicrobial resistance among rectal E coli isolates.
Descriptors: bacteria, anti bacterial agents, therapeutic use, cross infection, drug therapy, drug resistance, drug effects, escherichia coli infections, colony count, microbiology, multiple bacterial infections, hospitalization, microbial sensitivity tests, rectum microbiology.

Orzechowski, A. (1997). Postepowanie dietetyczne u psow i kotow po urazach i zabiegach chirurgicznych. Czesc I. Zapotrzebowanie pokarmowe. [Dietary treatment in the postoperative care in cats and dogs. Part I. Nutrient requirements.]. Nowa Weterynaria 2(1): 3-8.
Descriptors: nutrition, nutrients, stress, diets, arginine, glutamine, fatty acids, electrolytes, fluids, nutrient requirements, postoperative care, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: Polish.

Orzechowski, A. (1997). Postepowanie dietetyczne u psow i kotw po urazach i zabiegach chirurgicznych. Part II. Metody karmienia. [Diets in the postoperative care for dogs and cats. Part II. Methods of feeding.]. Nowa Weterynaria 2(2): 2-11.
Descriptors: catheterization, fluid therapy, nutrient requirements, postoperative care, diets, feeding, cats, dogs.
Language of Text: Polish.

Otranto, D., P. Milillo, P. Mesto, D. De Caprariis, S. Perrucci, and G. Capelli (2004). Otodectes cynotis (Acari: Psoroptidae): Examination of survival off-the-host under natural and laboratory conditions. Experimental and Applied Acarology 32(3): 171-179. ISSN: 0168-8162.
NAL Call Number: SB940 .E9
Abstract: The biological and environmental factors affecting survival off-the-host of Otodectes cynotis (Acari: Psoroptidae) ear mites were investigated under natural and laboratory conditions. From November 2000 to November 2002 mites were collected monthly from cats and divided into four groups according to sex and stage. In laboratory conditions, the mites were placed in an incubator with a steady 95% relative humidity (r.h.), a 10 degrees C. All the plates were examined by stereomicroscopy every 24 h until all the mites had died. The data were analysed statistically by multiple linear regression and survival analysis. At 10 degrees C, the maximum survival time of mites was between 15 and 17 days, while at 34 degrees C, it was between 5 and 6 days. The maximum survival time of adult females was significantly longer than that of other stages. No differences were observed in maximum survival times of mites that had been offered food and those that had not, or in the time (in days) to reach 50% mortality (LT50). When exposed to environmental conditions, the maximum survival time (12 days) was observed at temperatures ranging from 12.3 to 14.2 degrees C and r.h.s between 57.6 and 82.9%. Multiple regression analysis showed that temperature alone influenced the maximum survival time and LT50 of mites, and that the rate of survival declined linearly with increasing mean temperature. This basic understanding of off-host survival suggests that, places which have been inhabited by infected animals may need to be disinfected or remain vacated for at least 12 days before occupancy by clean cats or dogs.
Descriptors: cats, dogs, Otodectes cynotis, ear mites, off-host survival factors, temperature, humidity.

Overgaauw, P.A.M. and J.H. Boersema (1998). Nematode infections in dog breeding kennels in the Netherlands, with special reference to Toxocara. Veterinary Quarterly 20(1): 12-15. ISSN: 0165-2176.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V46
Abstract: Faecal samples from 286 adult dogs and 159 pups from 32 dog breeding kennels in the Netherlands, recruited at a national conference of dog breeders, were examined for nematode eggs between January 1994 and August 1995, as were soil samples from outdoor runs at the kennels and dust samples from kennels and breeders' houses. 18% of dogs shed nematode eggs; such dogs were found in 41% of the kennels. The prevalence of nematode infection in adult dogs in infected kennels was 33%. The prevalences of individual nematode species were 21% (adults) and 48% (pups) for Toxocara canis, 29% and 0% for Trichuris vulpis, and 20% and 0% for Toxascaris leonina. Kennels with more than 2 litters per year and with regular import of new animals had a significantly higher prevalence of T. canis (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). T. vulpis infections in adult dogs occurred significantly more often in kennels that used deworming products other than benzimidazoles (P<0.05). Embryonated T. canis ova were recovered from 20% of the house and kennel dust samples and from 50% (11 of 22) of the soil samples. Three soil samples also had T. vulpis eggs. This survey shows that the nematode infection rate in dog breeding kennels is high. Better deworming strategies should be used to improve the health status of the dogs and to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection in humans.
Descriptors: nematode infections, animal breeding, kennels, feces, soil, house dust, helminth ova, epidemiology, disease prevalence, zoonoses, toxocariasis, trichuriasis, benzimidazoles, anthelmintics, parasites, helminths, dogs, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Toxascaris leonina.

Papini, R., G. Gorini, A. Spaziani, and G. Cardini (2005). Survey on giardiosis in shelter dog populations. Veterinary Parasitology 128(3-4): 333-339. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Abstract: Faecal samples from 183 dogs living in three different shelters in the Rome metropolitan area were randomly collected and examined for the prevalence of giardiosis. Giardia infections were detected by a commercially available ELISA test (ProspecT Giardia Microplate Assay). Overall prevalence was 55.2%. Prevalence rates in single shelters were 74.3, 35.5, and 20.9%, respectively. Using multivariate analysis, no association was found between Giardia -positivity and shelter or sex, breed, or diarrhoea. Giardia-positive dogs were more likely to be younger than 5-year-old (odds ratio [OR] = 2.87; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07-7.77; p = 0.038), living together (OR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.12-5.93; p = 0.026), and fed commercial wet food, both alone and combined with dry food (OR = 5.67; 95% CI: 1.59-20.24; p = 0.008). Correlation between Giardia infection and type of food has not been previously reported in dogs. Possible use of the ELISA test for detection of Giardia infection in dogs and zoonotic implications are discussed.
Descriptors: parasitology, giardia, giardiasis, antigens, helminth analysis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, feces, multivariate analysis, Rome.

Payne Johnson, M., T.P. Maitland, J. Sherington, D.J. Shanks, P.J.M. Clements, M.G. Murphy, A. McLoughlin, A.D. Jernigan, and T.G. Rowan (2000). Efficacy of selamectin administered topically to pregnant and lactating female dogs in the treatment and prevention of adult roundworm (Toxocara canis) infections and flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) infestations in the dams and their pups. Veterinary Parasitology 91(3/4): 347-358. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Abstract: The efficacy of selamectin in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired Toxocara canis infections and experimentally induced flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) infestations in beagle bitches and their suckling pups was evaluated by administering selamectin to the adults, approximately 40 and 10 days before parturition and 10 and 40 days afterwards. Unit doses of the commercial formulation of selamectin were administered to provide at least the minimum recommended dosage of 6 mg kg-1 (range, 6-12 mg kg-1). Dams and their pups were housed in carpeted environments able to support the flea life cycle. Flea infestations were established initially by experimental infestation before treatment and by repeated re-infestation of dams at approximately weekly intervals throughout the study, which was completed 45 days after parturition. There were no adverse reactions related to treatment with selamectin and no treatment-related mortalities. The percentage reduction in geometric mean T. canis faecal egg count for the selamectin-treated dams, compared with those receiving the negative-control treatment (vehicle only) was 99.7% at the end of the study (P=0.0001). Geometric mean faecal egg counts in pups from selamectin-treated bitches were reduced by <more or =>96% on the 24th and 34th days after birth (P=0.0001), and the number of adult worms recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of pups from selamectin-treated bitches was reduced by 98.2% (P=0.0001), compared with pups from vehicle-treated bitches. Despite additional flea control measures in the control group, the percentage reductions in geometric mean flea counts for selamectin-treated bitches and their pups, compared with controls, were <more or =>99.8% (P=0.0001) and 100% (P=0.0001), respectively, throughout the study. Thus, selamectin administered topically at a minimum unit dosage of 6 mg kg-1 to dams with naturally acquired T. canis infections and experimentally induced C. felis infestations was safe and highly effective in controlling infection in both the dams and their pups.
Descriptors: pregnancy, toxocariasis, animal parasitic nematodes, maternal transmission, experimental infections, laboratory animals, ectoparasites, anthelmintics, Beagle dogs, puppies.

Penaliggon, J., D.S. Mills, S.E. Heath, and L.J. Harrington (1997). The use of nicergoline in the reversal of behavioural changes due to ageing in dogs: A multicentre clinical field trial. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Veterinary Behavioural Medicine, April 1-2, 1997, Birmingham, UK, 37-41 p.
Descriptors: animal behavior, drug therapy, aging, dogs.

Pereira, L., M. Larsson, E.C. Soares, S.M.d. Oliveira, and S.M. de Oliveira (2000). Traqueobronquite infecciosa canina (Tosse dos Canis). [Canine infectious tracheobronchitis: "Kennel Cough".]. Veterinaria Noticias 6(1): 77-81.
NAL Call Number: SF604.V484
Abstract: Clinical data from 20 cases of canine tracheobronchitis, observed at the Cardiology Service Unit of HOVET, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, during a period of 12 months, are described. The results obtained characterized canine infectious tracheobronchitis as a seasonal disease, more prevalent during the cold months.
Descriptors: respiratory diseases, bacterial diseases, infectious diseases, Bordetella bronchiseptica.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Peters, I.R., E.L. Calvert, E.J. Hall, and M.J. Day (2004). Measurement of immunoglobulin concentrations in the feces of healthy dogs. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 11(5): 841-848. ISSN: 1071-412X.
Abstract: Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency in humans and may be associated with chronic gastrointestinal disease. This observation has led to the suggestion that the high susceptibility of German shepherd dogs (GSD) to chronic enteropathies is related to a deficiency in mucosal IgA production. Relative deficiencies of IgA has been reported in the serum, saliva, tears, and feces of GSD both with and without alimentary disease; however, the findings of different studies are not consistent. The aim of this study was to confirm whether a relative deficiency of IgA exists in the feces of GSD. Feces were collected from healthy GSD (n = 209), Labrador retrievers (n = 96), beagles (n = 19), and miniature schnauzers (it = 32). Fecal IgA, IgM, and IgG were measured by capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Fecal IgG concentrations in the four breed groups were not significantly different. IgA concentrations were significantly greater in miniature schnauzers than in GSD (P = 0.0003) and Labradors (P = 0.0004) but not significantly different from those in beagles. IgM concentrations were significantly greater in miniature schnauzers than in GSD (P < 0.0001), Labradors (P < 0.0001), and beagles (P = 0.0098). These findings do not support the hypothesis that GSD have a relative deficiency in fecal IgA. The differences in immunoglobulin concentrations measured from a single defecation, between individuals of the same breed and between breeds, as well as the lack of an internal control molecule, make the determination of a normal reference range for all dogs impossible. Therefore, the usefulness of fecal immunoglobulin quantification for the assessment of intestinal immunoglobulin secretion in dogs is limited.
Descriptors: breed, Beagle, German Shepherd,,Labrador Retriever, analytical methods, deficiency diseases, dog feces, ELISA, IgA, IgG, IgM, techniques, digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, immune system, veterinary medicine, chronic gastrointestinal disease, digestive system disease, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques.

Petruschke, G., L. Rossi, C. Genchi, and F. Pollono (2001). Sulle dirofilariosi canine nel Canton Ticino e in aree confinanti del Nord Italia. [Canine dirofilariosis in the canton of Ticino and in neighbouring areas in northern Italy.]. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 143(3): 141-147. ISSN: 0036-7281.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 SCH9
Abstract: The distribution of canine dirofilariosis in Southern Ticino (Switzerland) and in the neighboring provinces of Varesa and Como (Italy) was investigated. Blood samples were collected from 308 dogs which had remained in the local area and were outdoor-housed, older than 1.5 years and had not been treated previously with preventive or microfilarical drugs. Microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens were found in 33 (10.7%) and 17 (5.5%) dogs, respectively. Ten more dogs (3.2%) tested positive for circulating antigens. Four infected dogs lived in Southern Ticino : two harboured D. immitis, one D. repens and one had a mixed infection. In addition 3887 mosquitoes were captured in five sample sites by means of dog-baited traps. Culex pipiens, Aedes geniculatus and A. vexans were the most abundant species. Infective stages of D. immitis were observed in local strains of A. geniculatus and C. pipiens, following engorgement on a microfilaraemic dog and the successive rearing in laboratory conditions.
Descriptors: dirofilariasis, disease prevalence, Aedes geniculatus, Aedes vexans, Culex pipiens, Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens.
Language of Text: Italian, Summaries in German, English and French.

Pollmeier, M., G. Pengo, P. Jeannin, and M. Soll (2002). Evaluation of the efficacy of fipronil formulations in the treatment and control of biting lice, Trichodectes canis (De Geer, 1778) on dogs. Veterinary Parasitology 107(1-2): 127-136. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Abstract: The efficacy of FRONTLINE SPRAY (0.25% (w/v) fipronil), FRONTLINE SPOT-ON FOR DOGS (10% (w/v) fipronil) and FRONTLINE PLUS FOR DOGS (10% (w/v) fipronil and 9% (S)-methoprene) against the biting louse Trichodectes canis on dogs was confirmed under laboratory conditions. A field study evaluated the efficacy of a single topical application of FRONTLINE SPRAY and FRONTLINE SPOT-ON against the parasite on dogs. A total of 48 dogs of mixed breeds, both sexes, aged 2 months-7 years and weighing 1.8-37.0kg were used. The animals were either experimentally (laboratory study) or naturally (field study) infested with lice. Dogs were housed individually in order to prevent contact between animals. In the laboratory study, animals were allocated based on pre-treatment louse counts from 38 hair coat-partings per animal. Dogs were randomly assigned to the four treatment groups: (1) untreated control; (2) FRONTLINE SPRAY, at 6ml/kg; (3) FRONTLINE SPOT-ON as per label and (4) FRONTLINE PLUS as per label. Dogs in treatment groups 2-4 were treated twice topically on Days 0 and 28. The number of live lice in the 38 hair coat-partings per animal were counted on Days 2, 7 and weekly to Day 63. In addition, a whole body comb count was performed on Day 63. No live T. canis were found on dogs treated with FRONTLINE formulations at any post-treatment examination. The difference from controls was significant (P<0.01) for each product at each examination. Based on the whole body comb count at Day 63, the efficacy of each product was determined to be 100%. In the field study, dogs were allocated in strict order of presentation. Dogs were randomly allocated to one of the three treatment groups: (1) BOLFO collar (propoxur); (2) FRONTLINE SPRAY, at 6ml/kg and (3) FRONTLINE SPOT-ON as per label. Dogs were treated once topically on Day 0. The number of live lice was determined by whole body searches on Days 0 (pre-treatment), 2, 28 and 42. Louse counts of dogs treated with either FRONTLINE SPRAY, or FRONTLINE SPOT-ON were not different than those of dogs receiving the propoxur collar. The efficacy was determined to be >98% on Day 2 and, 100% on Days 28 and 42 in all treatment groups. The results of these studies demonstrate that fipronil in topical formulations is effective for treatment and control of biting lice (T. canis) infestations on dogs.
Descriptors: antiparasitic agents, ectoparasites, laboratory testing, biting louse, Trichodectes canis, Frontline, product efficacy, fipronil, topical formulations.

Randall, A., A. Hillier, L.K. Cole, K.W. Kwochka, G. Needham, and D.L. Wassom (2003). Quantitation of house dust mites and house dust mite allergens in the microenvironment of dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 64(12): 1580-1588. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Objective: To quantitate the density of Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens (Der f 1, Der p 1, and Group 2 allergens) in the indoor microenvironment of dogs. Sample Population: 50 homes in Columbus, Ohio. Procedures: In each home, samples of dust were collected from 3 locations in which dogs spent most time. Whenever possible, the species of mites collected was identified. Mite density (mites/g of dust) was assessed, and allergen concentrations were assayed by standardized ELISAs. Relative humidity and temperature in each home were monitored during a 5-day period. Characteristics of homes and sample sources were evaluated. Results: Dust samples from all 50 homes contained *more-than-or-equal1 HDM allergen; Der f 1 and Der p 1 were detected in 100 and 74% of homes, respectively. Fifteen homes had HDMs; compared with D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae was found more commonly (14/15 homes) and at a higher density. Basements, homes without central air-conditioning and dog beds that were *more-than-or-equal1 year old had high HDM allergen concentrations. Homes with *more-than-or-equal2 microng of Der f 1 or Group 2 allergens/g of dust or *more-than-or-equal100 mites/g of dust were significantly more likely to have a maximum relative humidity *more-than-or-equal75%. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Results indicated the presence of HDMs and HDM allergens in the specific microenvironment of dogs in homes. Factors associated with high levels of exposure were identified, which may be associated with increased risk for sensitization and development of atopic diseases.
Descriptors: allergens, environment, house dust mites, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, dogs, mites.

Rawlings, N.G., E. Simko, T. Bebchuk, S.J. Caldwell, and B. Singh (2003). Localization of integrin alphavbeta3 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (kdr/flk-1) in cutaneous and oral melanomas of dog. Histology and Histopathology 18(3): 819-826. ISSN: 0213-3911.
Abstract: Melanomas are common neoplasms of dogs and arise from pigment-producing cells called melanocytes or melanoblasts. Melanomas of skin are often easily cured by surgical excision, but those of oral mucosa are aggressive, metastasize to the regional lymph nodes and lungs, and respond poorly to conventional therapy. Tumor growth is sustained by proliferation of microvessels via a process called angiogenesis. Integrin alphavbeta3 is expressed in proliferating but not in quiescent microvessels suggesting a role in angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) manifests its mitogenic and angiogenic effects mainly via VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2/Flk-1). We conducted this immunocytochemical study to investigate the expression of integrin alphavbeta3 and VEGFR-2 in archival and fresh samples from cases of canine melanomas. Results show that integrin alphavbeta3 was expressed in 72% and 88% of cutaneous and oral melanomas, respectively, and the expression was restricted to and immediately around the melanocytes and endothelial cells. VEGFR-2 staining of selected cases of melanoma revealed that its expression overlapped with the alphavbeta3 integrin. Dual immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed co-localization of integrin alphavbeta3 and VEGFR-2 in melanocytes and endothelial cells. These data demonstrate expression and co-localization of integrin alphavbeta3 and VEGFR-2 in cutaneous and oral melanomas of dogs.
Descriptors: tumor biology, cutaneous melanoma, integumentary system disease, neoplastic disease, oral melanoma, dental and oral disease, immunocytochemistry, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, immunoelectron microscopy, imaging and microscopy techniques, light microscopy.

Reading, M.J. and H.J. Field (1999). Detection of high levels of canine herpes virus-1 neutralising antibody in kennel dogs using a novel serum neutralisation test. Research in Veterinary Science 66(3): 273-275. ISSN: 0034-5288.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R312
Abstract: It is widely held that only cells of canine origin support canine herpesvirus(-1) (CHV-1) replication and, that cytopathic effect (CPE) develops relatively slowly. Here we show that mink fetal lung cells (NBL-7 cell line) are permissive for CHV-1 and can be used to produce a sensitive test for neutralising antibody by plaque reduction in the presence of complement. The test was applied to the investigation of CHV-1 virus neutralising antibody levels in three kennel populations. The results showed that 26 out of 28 dogs were neutralising antibody positive (titre greater than or equal to 2) and, 11 out of 28 had titres of greater than or equal to 1024. The serum samples were analysed by enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA); 27 out of 28 were graded as ELISA IgG positive (titre greater than or equal to 500) and 26 of 28 were graded as ELISA IgM positive (titre greater than or equal to 50).
Descriptors: dogs, canine herpesvirus, neutralizing antibodies, neutralization tests, antibody testing, cell lines, lungs, mink.

Rehbinder, C., P. Baneux, D. Forbes, H.v. Herck, W. Nicklas, Z. Rugaya, and G. Winkler (1998). FELASA recommendations for the health monitoring of breeding colonies and experimental units of cats, dogs and pigs. Report of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Working Group on Animal Health. Laboratory Animals 32(1): 1-17. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: The report is in 8 parts: Introduction; Inspection of the colony; Monitoring procedures; Health monitoring report; Cat; Dog; Pig. Samples of FELASA-approved health monitoring report forms are included.
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, cats, dogs, pigs.

Rezende, B.C.G. and M.L.Z. Dagli (2003). Retinoides na quimioprevencao e tratamento coadjuvante de neoplasias em caes: revisao. [Retinoids in chemoprevention and treatment of cancer in dogs: a review.]. Clinica Veterinaria. 8(45): 44-50. ISSN: 1413-571X.
Abstract: The development of veterinary medicine in small animal care during the last twenty years allowed a significant improvement in the quality and duration of life of dogs and cats. Parallel to the increase of longevity, there is also an increase in the number of animals with neoplasia. In face of this new situation, the veterinarian has to be able to diagnose, treat and prevent cancer in domestic animals. Retinoids are included in a group of chemical substances indicated for the chemoprevention or therapy of cancer. Some of them have already been tested in laboratory or domestic animals, showing great potential as cancer control agents in small animals. This review aims at presenting and discussing possible usage of this drug as a cancer chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for dogs.
Descriptors: chemoprophylaxis, disease prevention, drug therapy, neoplasms, retinoids, reviews, dogs.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Rich, J.E. (2002). Dog chew toy containing edible pet toothpaste for dental care. Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents 1257(1) ISSN: 0098-1133.
NAL Call Number: T223 .A21
Descriptors: edible pet toothpaste, dog chew toy, patent.

Ronsse, V., J. Verstegen, K. Onclin, F. Farnir, and H. Poulet (2004). Risk factors and reproductive disorders associated with canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1). Theriogenology 61(4): 619-636. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) is presumed to be enzootic in the dog population and is associated with fertility disorders and neonatal mortality. In this study we screened for risk factors affecting CHV-1 antibody titers and investigated the association between antibody titers and reproductive disorders. Therefore, serum from 545 dogs used for reproduction was analysed with an ELISA. Using a forward stepwise procedure and retaining significant risk factors (P<0.05), best fitting multifactorial generalized linear model (glm) procedures were built for males and females. The effect of antibody titers on reproductive disorders was analysed with logistic regression analysis. The association between reproductive disorders and seroprevalence was analysed in chi-square analyses using contingency tables. In both sexes, kennel cough and breeding management were found to have an impact on the CHV-1 antibody titer. Also, the influence of kennel cough on the antibody titer was correlated to the hygienic status of the kennel. In females, age, kennel size and cycle stage had an effect on CHV-1 antibody titers. Furthermore, kennel size and hygiene were found to be correlated. In males, mating experience had an impact on CHV-1 antibody titers. An association was observed between serological status and a history of abortion in bitches. In conclusion, this study suggests CHV-1 antibody titers may be affected by many factors, both on an environmental and host level. Therefore, interpretation of the serological status requires precaution. Furthermore, oronasal and venereal transmission seem to play a role in the spreading of infection.
Descriptors: animal care, female, canine herpesvirus 1 infection, viral disease transmission, kennel cough, breeding management, fertility, hygiene, kennel housing, mortality, venereal transmission.

Rubel, D., G. Zunino, G. Santillan, and C. Wisnivesky (2003). Epidemiology of toxocara canis in the dog population from two areas of different socioeconomic status, greater buenos aires, argentina. Veterinary Parasitology 115(3): 275-286. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Abstract: Toxocara canis infection in dogs is a public health problem in most countries, although it has been poorly documented in many of them. The main objective of the present work was to investigate the epidemiology of infection in the canine populations from two areas of Buenos Aires of different socioeconomic status and urban conditions: a middle-income neighbourhood (MIN) and a low-income neighbourhood (LIN). This study evaluated the prevalence of infection in dogs by parasitological and serological techniques in both areas, and described the relationship between the infection and different epidemiological variables for each neighbourhood. A cross-sectional study was carried out after a house-to-house census was completed. During August 1999, a sample of households was selected at random (nMIN=53 and nPA=52). In each house, one dog was randomly chosen for the collection of fresh faeces and blood. The dog owners were interviewed utilising a questionnaire about dogs on sex, recent anthelmintic treatment, degree of confinement, control by the dog's owner (whether the dog goes out of the house accompanied or not, leashed or unleashed), defecation site, defecation substratum and number of dogs in the house. The diagnostic techniques were concentration-sedimentation foxmalin/ether method and ELISA test. The parasitological prevalences in dogs were 9% (5/53) in MIN and 19% (10/52) in LIN, and serological prevalences were 22% (2/9) in MIN and 40% (15/37) in LIN. In MIN, the patent infection of males was significantly higher than that of females. In LIN, puppies less than 1 year old were the most prevalent age class. Our serological results showed that the positivity of adult dogs was more frequent in LIN than in MIN. The density of puppies with patent infection was seven times higher in LIN than in MIN, when combining coprological analysis and the estimated age structure obtained by the census.
Descriptors: epidemiology, population studies, infection, parasitology, veterinary medicine, parasitic infection, infectious disease, parasitic disease, epidemiology, elisa, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, infection prevalence, neighborhood income level, public health, socioeconomic status, urban populations.

Rypula, K., P. Chorbinski, and K. Ploneczka (2004). The canine parvovirus wild-type strains infections in dogs epidemiological and diagnostic aspects. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences 7(3): 193-197. ISSN: 1505-1773.
NAL Call Number: SF604.P65
Abstract: Biological material was taken from dogs with diarrhea. Faecal samples were taken from live animals white intestinal tract fragments (i.e. small intestine, and stomach) were taken from dead animals. In total, 18 specimens were investigated from dogs housed alone or in large groups. The samples were examined for presence of viral infections and concurrent bacterial and parasitic infestations. To test for the presence of the viral infection, latex (On Site Biotech, Sweden) and direct immunofluorescence tests were performed. At the same time to the presence of CPV infection, was conducted by the PCR method with primers complementary to a conservative region of VP1/VP2. In order to identify the bacterial strain, the material was inoculated onto appropriate media and identified with API tests, whilst parasitological examinations were performed with Fulleborn's method. CPV infection was accompanied by CCV and CAV infections, as well as bacterial ones, caused mostly by Escherichia coli.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, infection, veterinary medicine, diarrhea, digestive system disease, parvovirus infection, viral disease, diagnosis, fulleborn's method, laboratory techniques, polymerase chain reaction, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, direct immunofluorescence, immunologic techniques.

Rzezutka, A., J. Osek, and B. Mizak (2003). Canine parvovirus and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli causing the death of a puppy in a kennel. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 47(2): 287-291. ISSN: 0042-4870.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 P962
Abstract: A dead puppy was delivered to the laboratory for anatomo-pathological, virological and bacteriological examinations. The presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) was demonstrated by PCR in internal organs of the puppy. Bacteriological examinations proved that Escherichia coli in pure culture was isolated from the small intestine of the dog. The isolate possessed the estI gene encoding heat-stable enterotoxin I (STI) as determined by the presence of the 166 bp PCR amplicon. The E. coli bacteria analysed were negative for all other virulence marker genes as well as for fimbrial antigens tested in the study. To our knowledge, this is the first report in Poland describing the death of a puppy due to mixed infection with canine parvovirus and enterotoxigenic STI-positive E. coli bacteria, with the characteristics of its virulence marker genes.
Descriptors: case reports, diagnosis, mixed infections, polymerase chain reaction, postmortem examinations, puppies, virulence, canine parvovirus, dogs, Escherichia coli.

Sauerland, D., J. Monrad, and A. Spohr (2001). Fund af Trichuris vulpis (piskeorm) og Capillaria aerophila (harorm) blandt danske kennelhunde. [Incidence of Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila in Danish kennel dogs.]. Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift 84(16): 6-9. ISSN: 0106-6854.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 D23
Abstract: Fecal samples were collected from 162 dogs housed in 19 kennels on the island of Zealand, Denmark, during the spring 2000. Of 162 dogs, 33 were puppies < 6 month of age, 26 were young dogs between 1/2-2 years of age and 103 were adult dogs older than 2 years. All faecal samples were analysed using NaCl/glucose flotation method. Trichuris vulpis was detected in 15.8% of the kennels and 11.7% of the dogs. Capillaria aerophila was detected in 5.3% of the kennels and 6.2% of the dogs were infected. Trichuris vulpis was detected only in dogs older than 6 month.
Descriptors: diagnosis, disease prevalence, Capillaria aerophila, Trichuris vulpis.
Language of Text: Danish, Summary in English.

Scanziani, E., F. Origgi, A.M. Giusti, G. Iacchia, A. Vasino, G. Pirovano, P. Scarpa, and S. Tagliabue (2002). Serological survey of leptospiral infection in kennelled dogs in italy. Journal of Small Animal Practice 43(4): 154-157. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: Two hundred and forty-five dogs were examined serologically for the presence of antibodies against different serovars of Leptospira interrogans. The dogs belonged to five different groups: group 1 was composed of clinically healthy pet dogs referred for a regular veterinary check-up visit or for vaccination; group 2 was composed of stray dogs; and groups 3, 4 and 5 were composed of dogs maintained in three different kennels which had varying standards of hygiene. Seventy-two out of the 245 dogs examined were seropositive for leptospirosis. In group 1, there were 3-4 per cent seropositive dogs; in group 2, 30.3 per cent; in group 3, 13.8 per cent; in group 4, 38.6 per cent; and in group 5, 49.2 per cent. This study demonstrates that leptospiral infection is common in dogs housed in kennels, despite most of them being vaccinated, and that crowding of animals into unsanitary quarters is associated with a high prevalence of infection. The most common infecting serovars found were bratislava and grippotyphosa, confirming recent observations that demonstrate a significant change in the epidemiology of canine leptospirosis.
Descriptors: epidemiology, population studies, infection, sanitation, serology, allied veterinary medicine, leptospirosis, bacterial disease, diagnosis, serodiagnosis, diagnostic techniques, serological survey, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, hygiene standards, kennel housing, sanitation.

Schettini, D.A., A.P. Costa Val, L.F. Souza, C. Demicheli, O.G.F. Rocha, M.N. Melo, M.S.M. Michalick, and F. Frezard (2003). Distribution of liposome-encapsulated antimony in dogs. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 36(2): 269-272. ISSN: 0100-879X.
NAL Call Number: R850.A1B72
Abstract: The achievement of complete cure in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis is currently a great challenge, since dogs are the main reservoir for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis to humans and they respond poorly to conventional treatment with pentavalent antimonials. In order to improve the efficacy of treatment, we developed a novel formulation for meglumine antimoniate based on the encapsulation of this drug in freeze-dried liposomes (LMA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biodistribution of antimony (Sb) in dogs following a single intravenous bolus injection of LMA. Four healthy male mongrel dogs received LMA at 3.8 mg Sb/kg body weight and were sacrificed 3, 48 and 96 h and 7 days later. Antimony was determined in the blood, liver, spleen and bone marrow. In the bone marrow, the highest Sb concentration was observed at 3 h (2.8 mug/g wet weight) whereas in the liver and spleen it was demonstrated at 48 h (43.6 and 102.4 mug/g, respectively). In these organs, Sb concentrations decreased gradually and reached levels of 19.1 mug/g (liver), 28.1 mug/g (spleen) and 0.2 mug/g (bone marrow) after 7 days. Our data suggest that the critical organ for the treatment with LMA could be the bone marrow, since it has low Sb levels and, presumably, high rates of Sb elimination. A multiple dose treatment with LMA seems to be necessary for complete elimination of parasites from bone marrow in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.
Descriptors: parasitology, pharmacology, visceral leishhumaniasis, parasitic disease.

Schubach, T., A. Schubach, and T. Okamoto (2006). Canine sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis and therapeutic response in 44 cases (1998-2003). Medical Mycology 44(1): 87-92. ISSN: 1369-3786.
NAL Call Number: RC117.A1J68
Descriptors: skin lesions, epidemiology, histopathology, respiratory symptoms, sporotrichosis, treatment, Sporothrix schenckii, Brazil.

Schultz, R.D. (2006). Canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in the "shelter environment". In: Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference: Small Animal and Exotics, January 7-11, 2006, Orlando, Florida, Gainesville, USA, Vol. 20, p. 1355-1356.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: animal housing, control programmes, disease control, disease resistance, immunization, shelter, vaccination, viral diseases, Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine adenovirus, canine parainfluenza virus, Canine parvovirus, dogs, rabies virus.

Shahar, R., L. Banks Sills, and R. Eliasy (2003). Stress and strain distribution in the intact canine femur: finite element analysis. Medical Engineering and Physics 25(5): 387-395. ISSN: 1350-4533.
Abstract: Information regarding the stresses and strains in the canine femur during various activities is important for veterinary orthopaedic surgeons, engineers designing implants for dogs, and researchers of human orthopaedics who use dogs as models. Nevertheless, such information is currently unavailable. The objective of this study is to determine the stress and strain distribution in the canine femur during mid-stance, for two loading scenarios. Three-dimensional finite element models of the canine femur were created. Two loading cases were considered: the hip joint reaction force alone, and the hip joint reaction force with all muscle forces acting on the femur. Force directions and magnitudes were obtained from the literature. Analyses were performed with NASTRAN for Windows(R) software. When all muscle forces were considered, stresses and strains were significantly reduced, peak compressive stresses were found to occur in the medial diaphysis, and peak tensile stresses occurred in the lateral diaphysis. While the canine femur seems to be loaded primarily in bending when only the hip joint reaction force is considered, the bending moment is significantly decreased when all muscle forces are considered as well. Further in vivo and in vitro experiments are needed to validate the results of the calculations described in this paper. It is expected that future studies will be carried out, in which the stress and strain distributions in femora with different types of implants and stems will be compared to those in the normal femur.
Descriptors: radiation biology, skeletal system, computed tomography, diagnostic techniques, imaging and microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques, finite element analysis.

Shanks, D.J., T.G. Rowan, R.L. Jones, P. Watson, M.G. Murphy, D.G. Smith, and A.D. Jernigan (2000). Efficacy of selamectin in the treatment and prevention of flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) infestations on dogs and cats housed in simulated home environments. Veterinary Parasitology 91(3/4): 213-222. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Abstract: The efficacy of selamectin in protecting dogs and cats against experimentally induced environmental flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) infestations was evaluated in a series of controlled and masked studies. Purpose-bred shorthaired cats and Beagles were randomly allocated to treatment with either selamectin at a minimum dosage of 6 mg kg-1 in the commercial formulation or the negative control treatment (vehicle only), and housed in controlled simulated home environments capable of supporting the flea life cycle. Day 0 was defined as the first day of treatment. Treatments were administered topically in a single spot on the skin at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. In environmental challenge studies, designed to evaluate the efficacy of selamectin in the treatment and control of established flea infestations, dogs and cats were each infested with 100 fleas on days -28 and -21 and placed in carpeted rooms in order to establish high levels of active flea infestation prior to day 0. Treatments were administered monthly for 3 months from day 0. Flea comb counts were performed on days 14, 29, 44, 59, 74, and 90. Reductions in geometric mean flea comb counts for selamectin, compared with vehicle, were >99% from day 14 onwards for dogs, and >92% on day 29 and >99% on days 44, 59, 74, and 90 for cats (P=0.0001). In studies of the prevention of environmental infestation, dogs and cats were placed in environments capable of supporting flea infestations and given monthly treatments for 2 months, commencing on day 0. Animals were infested with 100 fleas on days 1 and 7, and flea comb counts were performed on days 29, 44, and 60. Reductions in geometric mean flea comb counts for selamectin, compared with vehicle, were >99% on days 29, 44, and 60 (P=0.0001) for dogs and cats. In conclusion, monthly administration of selamectin to dogs and cats housed in environments highly suited to completion of the flea life cycle was highly effective in the treatment and prevention of flea infestations, without the need for supplementary environmental control measures.
Descriptors: chemical control of fleas, selamectin, pets, experimental infections, insecticides, ectoparasiticides, ectoparasites, Beagle dogs, cats.

Shaw, S.E., M.J. Kenny, S. Tasker, and R.J. Birtles (2004). Pathogen carriage by the cat flea ctenocephalides felis (bouche) in the united kingdom. Veterinary Microbiology 102(3-4): 183-188. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V44
Descriptors: animal care, infection, vector biology, cat scratch disease, bacterial disease, transmission, hemolytic anemia, blood and lymphatic disease, murine typhus.

Shaw, S.E., A.I. Lerga, S. Williams, F. Beugnet, R.J. Birtles, M.J. Day, and M.J. Kenny (2003). Review of exotic infectious diseases in small animals entering the United Kingdom from abroad diagnosed by PCR. Veterinary Record 152(6): 176-177. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: In order to confirm both the presence and identity of exotic pathogens in dogs and cats entering the UK, diagnostic data from sick animals which travelled under the Pet travel Scheme (PETS) between April 2001 and July 2002 were collated and examined. Data from animals in quarantine during that period were also reviewed. EDTA blood samples were submitted as part of a diagnostic service for exotic pathogens offered at the University of Bristol veterinary school. Blood samples were tested using PCR assays for Ehrlichia, Leishmania, and Babesia species. Blood samples from 67 dogs and 3 cats were submitted for PCR testing. None of the acts was positive by PCR for the 3 pathogens, or had any other supporting diagnostic criteria for these infections. Of the dogs, 17 that entered under PETS and 7 that entered through quarantine, were positive by PCR for one or more of the target pathogens. Babesiosis was the most frequently diagnosed illness. In dogs entering under PETS, 12 had babesiosis, one had monocytic ehrlichiosis, and 5 were infected with Leishmania species. Of the quarantined dogs, 3 had babesiosis, 5 had monocytic ehrlichiosis, and one had Leishmania infection. Moreover, coinfections were observed in some animals. These data confirm the presence of exotic infectious diseases in non-quarantined small animals that have travelled into UK from abroad.
Descriptors: babesiosis, diagnostic techniques, importation, exotic pathogens, leishmaniasis, quarantine, Babesia canis, cats, dogs, Ehrlichia canis.

Shepherd, K. (1999). Behavioural changes following limb amputation in dogs. Veterinary Record 144(7): 185-186. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Anecdotal evidence for behavioural changes after limb amputation in dogs is presented and the reasons for the changes are discussed.
Descriptors: surgery, animal behavior, amputation, limbs, dogs.

Sherding, R.G. (1999). Canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough complex). In: R.G. Sherding and S.J. Birchard (Editors), Saunders Manual of Small Animal Practice, 2nd edition, W.B. Saunders : Philadelphia, PA, p. 103-105. ISBN: 0721670784.
Descriptors: respiratory diseases, diagnosis, treatment, drug therapy, Bordetella bronchiseptica, dogs, canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus, canine herpesvirus, reovirus, mycoplasma, ureaplasma.

Shida, M., M. Kadoya, S.J. Park, K. Nishifuji, Y. Momoi, and T. Iwasaki (2004). Allergen-specific immunotherapy induces th1 shift in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 102(1-2): 19-31. ISSN: 0165-2427.
NAL Call Number: SF757.2.V38
Descriptors: immune system, integumentary system, population genetics, population studies, veterinary medicine, atopic dermatitis, genetic disease, immune system disease, integumentary system disease, therapy, allergen specific immunotherapy, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, genetic techniques, immunologic mechanism.

Simpson, A.M. (2004). Fractures of the humerus. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice 19(3): 120-127. ISSN: 1096-2867.
NAL Call Number: SF911.S45
Descriptors: animal care, skeletal system, humeral fracture, bone disease, injury, therapy, humeral fracture management.

Simpson, A.M., L.L. Ludwig, S.J. Newman, P.J. Bergman, H.A. Hottinger, and A.K. Patnaik (2004). Evaluation of surgical margins required for complete excision of cutaneous mast cell tumors in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 224(2): 236-240. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Objective-To determine whether neoplastic mast cells extended into tissue 1, 2, or 3 cm laterally or deeper than 1 fascial plane from the visible edge of cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in dogs. Design-Prospective study. Animals-21 client-owned dogs with gtoreq 1 cutaneous MCT. Procedures-After preparation for surgery, each dog's skin was marked 1, 2, and 3 cm from the tumor edge at 0degree, 90degree, 180degree, and 270degree. At each 3-cm mark, deep fascia was exposed and sutured to the skin; the tumor was excised in routine fashion and fixed in formalin. Tumors were graded; margins were examined histologically for neoplastic mast cells. Results-23 cutaneous MCTs in 21 dogs were included in this study. Fifteen (65%) tumors were located on the trunk, 5 (22%) on the hind limbs, and 3 (13%) on the head and neck. There were 3 (13%) grade-I and 20 (87%) grade-II tumors. All grade-I tumors were completely excised at all margins. Seventy-five percent of the graded-II tumors were completely excised at the 1-cm margin, and 100% were completely excised at the 2-cm margin. Two grade-II MCTs located on the hind limbs of dogs were excised with a complete but close (within 1 mm) deep margin. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggest that a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane appear to be adequate for complete excision of grade-I and -II MCTs in dogs.
Descriptors: immune system, integumentary system, surgery, tumor biology, veterinary medicine, cutaneous mast cell tumor, immune system disease, integumentary system disease, neoplastic disease, histology, histology and cytology techniques, laboratory techniques, surgical tumor excision, surgical margins.

Smarick, S.D., S.C. Haskins, J. Aldrich, J.E. Foley, P.H. Kass, M. Fudge, and G.V. Ling (2004). Incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection among dogs in a small animal intensive care unit. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 224(12): 1936-1940. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Objective-To determine incidence of and possible risk factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) among dogs hospitalized in an intensive care unit and compare results of bacterial culture of urine samples with results of bacterial culture of catheter tips. Design-Prospective study. Animals-39 dogs. Procedure-A standard protocol for aseptic catheter placement and maintenance was used. Urine samples were obtained daily and submitted for bacterial culture. When possible, the urinary catheter tip was collected aseptically at the time of catheter removal and submitted for bacterial culture. Bacteria that were obtained were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results-4 of the 39 (10.3%) dogs developed a UTI. The probability of remaining free from UTI after 1 day in the intensive care unit was 94.9%, and the probability of remaining free from UTI after 4 days was 63.3%. Bacteria isolates were generally common urinary tract pathogens and were susceptible to most antimicrobials. Specific risk factors for catheter-associated UTI, beyond a lack of antimicrobial administration, were not identified. Positive predictive value of bacterial culture of urinary catheter tips was only 25%. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggest that placement of an indwelling urinary catheter in dogs is associated with a low risk of catheter-associated UTI during the first 3 days after catheter placement, provided that adequate precautions are taken for aseptic catheter placement and maintenance. Results of bacterial culture of urinary catheter tips should not be used to predict whether dogs developed catheter-associated UTI.
Descriptors: infection, urinary system, veterinary medicine, urinary tract infection, bacterial disease, urologic disease, bacterial culture, culturing techniques, laboratory techniques, catheter tip, medical equipment, catheterization, small animal intensive care unit.

Smith, J.A. and N.S. Matthews (1998). Preanesthetic laboratory testing - a survey of client compliance rate and incidence of abnormal test results: preliminary results. Veterinary Surgery 27(2): 169. ISSN: 0161-3499.
NAL Call Number: SF911.V43
Descriptors: anesthesia, preoperative care, laboratory diagnosis, surgery, dogs, cats.

Sokolow, S.H., C. Rand, S.L. Marks, N.L. Drazenovich, E.J. Kather, and J.E. Foley (2005). Epidemiologic evaluation of diarrhea in dogs in an animal shelter. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66(6): 1018-1024. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine associations among infectious pathogens and diarrheal disease in dogs in an animal shelter and demonstrate the use of geographic information systems (GISs) for tracking spatial distributions of diarrheal disease within shelters. SAMPLE POPULATION: Feces from 120 dogs. PROCEDURE: Fresh fecal specimens were screened for bacteria and bacterial toxins via bacteriologic culture and ELISA, parvovirus via ELISA, canine coronavirus via nested polymerase chain reaction assay, protozoal cysts and oocysts via a direct fluorescent antibody technique, and parasite ova and larvae via microscopic examination of direct wet mounts and zinc sulfate centrifugation flotation. RESULTS: Salmonella enterica and Brachyspira spp were not common, whereas other pathogens such as canine coronavirus and Helicobacter spp were common among the dogs that were surveyed. Only intestinal parasites and Campylobacterjejuni infection were significant risk factors for diarrhea by univariate odds ratio analysis. Giardia lamblia was significantly underestimated by fecal flotation, compared with a direct fluorescent antibody technique. Spatial analysis of case specimens by use of GIS indicated that diarrhea was widespread throughout the entire shelter, and spatial statistical analysis revealed no evidence of spatial clustering of case specimens. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study provided an epidemiologic overview of diarrhea and interacting diarrhea-associated pathogens in a densely housed, highly predisposed shelter population of dogs. Several of the approaches used in this study, such as use of a spatial representation of case specimens and considering multiple etiologies simultaneously, were novel and illustrate an integrated approach to epidemiologic investigations in shelter populations.
Descriptors: diarrhea, housing, California, complementary genetics, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, feces, animal shelter, dogs, geographic information systems, polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Sozmen, M., P.J. Brown, and T.J. Whitbread (2000). Idiopathic salivary gland enlargement (sialadenosis) in dogs: a microscopic study. Journal of Small Animal Practice 41(6): 243-247. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: A histological, histochemical and morphometric study was performed on submandibular salivary glands from 13 dogs which presented with a submandibular mass or swelling that proved to be a portion of non-inflammatory and non-neoplastic submandibular salivary gland. There were no consistent changes in lectin-binding histochemistry or immunohistochemical expression of various cell markers, and, in most cases, there was no measurable difference in acinar size in the affected gland. The possible explanation for the clinical salivary gland enlargement is therefore unclear.
Descriptors: salivary glands, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, histology, diagnosis, salivary gland diseases, microscopy, dogs.

Steger, H., L. Gaschen, and D. Spreng (1997). Septische Peritonitis nach rupturiertem ATOPA-Tumor: Intensivbehandlung mittels Technik der offenen Peritoneallavage beim Hund. [Septic peritonitis caused by a ruptured ATOPA-tumour: intensive care and treatment by open peritoneal lavage in a dog.]. Kleintierpraxis 42(1): 53-61. ISSN: 0023-2076.
Descriptors: castration, fluid therapy, postoperative complications, septic peritonitis, sepsis, dogs.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Swinnen, C. and M. Vroom (2004). The clinical effect of environmental control of house dust mites in 60 house dust mite-sensitive dogs. Veterinary Dermatology 15(1): 31-36. ISSN: 0959-4493.
NAL Call Number: SF901.V47
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of benzyl benzoate, an acaricide for the control of house dust mites, in 60 house dust mite-sensitive dogs. All dogs showed positive reactions on intradermal skin testing for house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) alone, or house dust mites with storage mites (Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Glycophagus domesticus). House dust samples from the owners' houses were collected and sent to the clinic, where the authors performed a test (Acarex(R) test) to semiquantify the amount of guanine, a house dust mite product. Treatment with benzyl benzoate was repeated until the house dust samples were negative for house dust mite guanine. After treatment, 29 out of 60 house dust mite-sensitive dogs (48%) showed no skin lesions or pruritus. Moderate results were achieved in 22 dogs (36%), with reduced pruritus and minimal skin lesions, but still requiring medication. In 13 dogs, this involved regular treatment (3-4 times a year) with antibiotics and antiyeast medication, and in eight dogs, immunotherapy was used. One dog was controlled with essential fatty acids as monotherapy and one dog was controlled with immunotherapy and essential fatty acids. In the remaining nine dogs (15%), the pruritus remained the same, and these dogs were controlled with oral corticosteroids. These results indicate that house dust mite elimination is a useful tool in the management of house dust mite-sensitive dogs.
Descriptors: antibiotics, benzyl benzoate, control, corticoids, disease control, drug therapy, essential fatty acids, house dust mites, immunotherapy, mite control, pruritus, skin lesions, Acarus siro, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, dogs, mites, Tyrophagus putrescentiae.
Language of Text: English, Summaries in German, Spanish and French.

Tams, T.R. (2001). Intensive care management for dogs with severe viral enteritis. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 15: 59-61.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: dogs, enteritis, viral diseases, canine parvovirus, fluid therapy, drug therapy, blood transfusion, anthelmintics, esophagitis, pain, parvovirus enteritis.
Notes: In the volume: Veterinary technicians and practice managers. Part of a three volume set. Meeting held January 13-17, 2001 in Orlando, Florida.

Tegzes, J.H. and B. Puschner (2002). Amanita mushroom poisoning: Efficacy of aggressive treatment of two dogs. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 44(2): 96-99. ISSN: 0145-6296.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A47
Abstract: Amatoxins, the primary toxins found in mushrooms of the genus Amanita, are very toxic to dogs. Acute fulminant liver failure and death can occur within a few days of ingestion. By their curious nature, dogs, especially young dogs, are prone to ingest mushrooms. Early identification of suspect mushrooms, and prompt emergency measures aimed at decreasing absorption of the toxins can improve the chance of survival. Knowing the major clinical syndromes associated with Amanita mushroom toxicosis can help direct the treatment and supportive care of affected animals and improve survival rates. We describe 2 cases in dogs with confirmed ingestion of Amanita phalloides and Amanita ocreata resulting in fulminant liver failure. Death occurred in 1 dog despite aggressive treatment measures including hemoperfusion, while aggressive measures resulted in a favorable outcome in the other dog.
Descriptors: amtoxins, mushrooms, Ahumanita, toxicity, treatment, supportive care, liver failure, death.

Tsukui, T., S. Maeda, K. Ohmori, K. Masuda, K. Ohno, M. Sakaguchi, H. Tsujimoto, and S. Iwabuchi (2004). Expression analysis of macrophage-derived chemokine (mdc/ccl22) gene in canine atopic dermatitis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 113(2 Suppl.): S55. ISSN: 0091-6749.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 J8236
Descriptors: atopic dermatitis, genetic disease, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
Notes: Meeting Information: 60th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), San Francisco, CA, USA; March 19-23, 2004.

Unamuno, A., L.I. Barberis, M.C. Pajaro, and A.D. Espinosa (1999). Causas organicas de cambios de comportamiento en perros: diagnostico, pronostico y tratamiento. [Use of bacteriocins as epidemiological markers of a focus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a dog breeding kennel in Rio Cuarto, Cordoba, Argentina.]. Revista De Medicina Veterinaria Buenos Aires 80(3): 208-212. ISSN: 0325-6391.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 B86
Abstract: A total of 15 strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated and their antibiotic sensitivity determined by the agar disc diffusion test. The 15 strains had the same biotype, sensitivity to antibiotics and the same sensitivity to a panel of 10 bacteriocin-producing strains of P. aeruginosa. It is concluded that the bacteriocin test confirmed that there was a single focus of infection in the kennel.
Descriptors: epidemiology, characterization, bacteriocins, antibiotics, bacterial diseases, dogs, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Language of Text: Spanish, Summary in English.

Urban, J.E. and A. Broce (1998). Flies and their bacterial loads in greyhound dog kennels in Kansas. Current Microbiology 36(3): 164-170. ISSN: 0343-8651.
NAL Call Number: QR1.C78
Abstract: Breeders of Greyhound dogs traditionally feed racing animals and nursing bitches raw meat, and that meat generally is obtained frozen from commercial renderers. Previous studies have shown that the rendered meat is frequently contaminated with enteric bacteria, including Salmonella spp., and that during thawing the rendered meat is exposed to filth flies common in dog kennels. Nursing Greyhound pups tend to experience a high morbidity and mortality from intestinal infections, and the authors attempted to determine whether enterics could be spread to pups through contaminated flies. At intervals during 1995 and 1996, flies were trapped or were net-collected from 10 dog breeding kennels in the region around Abilene, Kansas, USA. Trapped flies were identified and counted to determine population numbers, and netted flies were cultured in tetrathionate broth and streaked to medium selecting for Salmonella sp. and other lactose-negative Gram-negative bacteria. The relative numbers of different fly species varied with the sampling method, but traps and sweep nets produced similar proportions of the different fly species. Blowflies (Cochliomyia macellaria, Phormia regina, Phaenicia sericata [Lucilia sericata] and P. cuprina [L. cuprina]) were twice as likely to be contaminated with enteric bacteria as any other fly (flesh flies [Sarcophagidae], house flies [Musca domestica], stable flies [Stomoxys calcitrans] and others). The most common enteric bacteria found were Proteus spp., followed by Providencia spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Salmonella spp. The incidence of Salmonella and Proteus spp. seemed to correlate more with accessibility of flies to dog excrement than to rendered meat. The apparent high incidence of enteric contamination of filth flies clearly implicates them as vectors of enteric diseases in kennels.
Descriptors: Greyhound dogs, kennels, dog feces, disease vectors, puppies, dog foods, bacteria, enteric diseases, Salmonella, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Cochliomyia macellaria, Phormia regina, Lucilia sericata, Lucilia cuprina, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Calliphoridae.

van Gucht, S., H. Nauwynck, and M. Pensaert (2001). Prevalentie van het caniene herpesvirus in kennels en het mogelijk verband met vruchtbaarheidsproblemen en neonatale sterfte. [Prevalence of canine herpesvirus in kennels and the possible association with fertility problems and neonatal death]. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 70(3): 204-211. ISSN: 0303-9021.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V84
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of canine herpesvirus 1 (CHV1) in breeding bitches in Belgian kennels and to relate this to fertility problems and/or neonatal death. By using a seroneutralization test with complement to detect anti-CHV1 antibodies, a prevalence of 49.5% was found in a population of 97 breeding bitches in 18 kennels. In nine kennels, all examined breeding bitches were negative. In the other nine kennels 2/3 to all of the examined breeding bitches were positive. In seven kennels with positive breeding bitches serious problems were observed concerning neonatal death and/or infertility, whereas only one kennel with negative breeding bitches had problems with infertility, which indicates that there is a relation between the presence of positive breeding bitches and neonatal death and/or infertility in the kennel. This relationship was also observed at the animal level. 76% of the bitches that had recently lost a litter before the age of 3 weeks and 57% of the bitches with fertility problems were positive. In contrast, only 33% of the "problem-free" bitches were positive. It was concluded that CHV1 is kennel-related and that kennels, where the virus is enzootically present, experience neonatal death and infertility more frequently.
Descriptors: bitches, female infertility, kennels, reproductive disorders, seroprevalence, canine herpesvirus, dogs.
Language of Text: Dutch, Summary in English.

van Vonderen, I.K.v., H.S. Kooistra, and A. Rijnberk (1998). Influence of veterinary care on the urinary corticoid:creatinine ratio in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12(6): 431-435. ISSN: 0891-6640.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J65
Abstract: The influence of a visit to a veterinary practice for vaccination, a visit to a referral clinic for orthopaedic examination, or hospitalization in a referral clinic for 1.5 days on the urinary corticoid:creatinine (C:C) ratio in pet dogs was investigated. In experiment 1, owners collected voided urine samples from 19 healthy pet dogs at specified times before and after taking the dogs to a veterinary practice for yearly vaccination. In experiment 2, 12 pet dogs were evaluated in a similar way before and after an orthopaedic examination at a referral clinic. In experiment 3, 9 healthy pet dogs were hospitalized for 1.5 days and urine samples were collected before, during and after this stay. Basal urinary C:C ratios in all experiments ranged from 0.8 to 8.3 X 10-6. In experiment 1, the urinary C:C ratio after the visit to the veterinary practice ranged from 0.9 to 22.0 X 10-6. Six dogs had a significantly increased urinary C:C ratio (responders), but in 5 of these dogs the ratio was _10 X 10-6. In experiment 2, 8 of 12 dogs responded significantly with urinary C:C ratios ranging from 3.1 to 27.0 X 10-6. In experiment 3, 8 of 9 dogs had significantly increased urinary C:C ratios, ranging from 2.4 to 24.0 X 10-6, in some or all urine samples collected during hospitalization. In 4 dogs urinary C:C ratios 12 h after hospitalization were still significantly higher than the initial values. It is concluded that a visit to a veterinary practice, an orthopaedic examination in a referral clinic and hospitalization are stressful conditions for dogs. A large variation occurs in response, and in individual dogs the increases in urinary C:C ratios can exceed the cutoff level for the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism. Therefore, urine samples for measurement of the C:C ratio in the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism should be collected in the dog's home environment, to avoid the influence of stress on glucocorticoid secretion.
Descriptors: glucocorticoids, hydrocortisone, stress, clinical examination, diagnostic techniques, urine, adrenal gland diseases, urine, creatinine, cushing's syndrome, adrenal cortex hormones, ratios, age differences, sampling, veterinary practice, animal hospitals.

Vexenat, J.A., P.L. Olliaro, J.A.F. de Castro, R. Cavalcante, J.H.F. Campos, J.P. Tavares, and M.A. Miles (1998). Clinical recovery and limited cure in canine visceral leishmaniasis treated with aminosidine (paromomycin). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 58(4): 448-453. ISSN: 0002-9637.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 Am326
Abstract: A study was carried out in Teresina, Piaui State, Brazil, to investigate clinical recovery, relapse and cure in symptomatic canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treated with aminosidine sulfate [paromomycin]. A total of 21 dogs divided into 3 groups (3, 6 and 12 dogs) with parasitologically proven clinical VL (Leishmania chagasi [L. infantum chagasi] infection) were treated with aminosidine i.m. at doses of 20 mg/kg/day for 15 days; 80 mg/kg/day for 20 days; and 40 mg/kg/day for 30 days, respectively. Follow-up was by parasitological examination of bone marrow and skin, serology using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and clinical examination for signs of visceral leishmaniasis or adverse effects of treatment. In the animals treated with 20 mg/kg/day for 15 days, there was dramatic clinical improvement with disappearance of conjunctivitis, increase in appetite, weight gain, and recovery of normal skin condition and a healthy coat, but parasitological relapse occurred between 50 and 100 days after initiation of treatment. Adverse effects were observed in dogs treated with 80 mg/kg/day for 20 days; 3 dogs died during or just after treatment, 2 showed temporary recovery, and one showed total clinical and parasitological cure that was maintained for 4 years. Although adverse effects and relapses were seen in some dogs treated with 40 mg/kg/day for 30 days, 3 of 12 dogs showed complete parasitological and clinical cure that was sustained for at least 4 years. It is concluded that aminosidine treatment cannot be recommended as an alternative to the humane destruction of dogs for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis because ineffective treatment may prolong carrier status or encourage development of drug resistance.
Descriptors: paromomycin, visceral leishhumaniasis, antiprotozoal agents, animal diseases, clinical aspects, relapse, adverse effects, parasites, protozoal infections.

Vianna, M.L. and D.J.J. Krahwinkel (2004). Double aortic arch in a dog. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 225(8): 1222-1224. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Double aortic arch is a rare congenital heart defect resulting from improper development of the embryonic arches. Naturally occurring double aortic arches have been rarely reported, and animals with double aortic arches generally have a poor prognosis for survival. Most dogs and cats that undergo surgical correction of double aortic arches die during or a few hours after surgery.
Descriptors: cardiovascular system, transport and circulation, veterinary medicine, double aortic arch, congenital disease, heart disease, diagnosis, pathology, surgery, symptom, therapy, esophagraphy, diagnostic techniques, imaging and microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques, heart surgery, radiography.

Villeneuve, V., F. Beugnet, and G. Bourdoiseau (2000). Efficacy of oxfendazole for the treatment of giardiosis in dogs. Experiments in dog breeding kennels. Parasite 7(3): 221-226. ISSN: 1252-607X.
NAL Call Number: QL757.P3737
Abstract: Giardiosis is one of the most frequent parasites of dogs and cats. Since several years, the treatment is based on the use of metronidazole. A coproscopic study in four dog kennels was conducted to demonstrate, at a significant level, the efficacy of oxfendazole (Dolthene(R), Merial). At the posology of 11.3 mg/kg each day during three days (D1, D2 and D3), no dogs eliminated Giardia cysts and all dogs are clinically cured. The importance of hygienic measures is underlined. In kennels 1 and 2 where hygienic conditions were poor, dogs reexcreted cysts again after treatment. In kennels where the boxes were disinfected, no dogs, treated with 22.6 or 11.3 mg/kg, reexcreted Giardia cysts.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, parasitology, pharmacology, giardiosis, digestive system disease, parasitic disease.

Wang, Z.X., Y. Hu, J.L. Shen, K.C. Wang, H.Y. Wang, B.L. Jiang, P. Zhao, Z.C. Wang, W. Ding, F. Wang, and X.F. Xia (2003). Longitudinal investigation and experimental studies on thelaziasis and the intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda in Guanghua county of Hubei province. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 24(7): 588-590. ISSN: 0254-6450.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To verify houseflies Musca spp. as the intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda and reveal epidemiological situation of thelaziasis in Hubei province. METHODS: Dogs eyes infected with T. callipaeda, 400 houseflies Musca and 259 fruitflies Amiota okadai in the city of Laohekou city (previously named as Guanghua county) of Hubei province had been investigated since September 2000. The newborn larvae of T. callipaeda from Laohekou suburbs were fed to houseflies Musca and A. okadai. Larvae used for the study were isolated from female T. callipaeda in laboratory and the susceptibility to houseflies Musca and A. okadai was observed. RESULTS: Twenty-one dogs from Laohekou, the original epidemic areas of thelaziasis were examined and 7 positive dogs in 21 (33.3%) and 11 T. callipaeda (9 females and 2 males) were identified. From 1975 to 2000, no thelaziasis cases were found through retrospective surveys. These 200 houseflies Musca and 135 A. okadai were dissected for examination but showed all negative with the infection. However, newborn larvae of T. callipaeda were used to experimentally infect 112 houseflies Musca and 84 A. okadai and all infected flies were examined on the 20th day after inoculation. As a consequence, houseflies Musca failed to be infected but 9 in 84 (10.7%) A. okadai were positive. 26 infective larvae of T. callipaeda were obtained and 21 of them were inoculated into right eye of one rabbit. The female worm began to produce newborn larvae in 37 days after infection and 3 adult T. callipaeda (two females and one male) were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Fruitflies A. okadai from Hubei province were susceptible to T. callipaeda, which was similar to the result of experimental studies in Anhui province. This survey further confirmed that A. okadai was the intermediate host of T. callipaeda but not houseflies Musca. Infective resources (adult dogs, for instance) had been under controlled thus intermediate host of Thelazia callipaedahad been eradicated in this rural area.
Descriptors: houseflies, intermediate host, Thelazia callipaeda, experimentally infected dogs, epidemiology.

Weber, E., S. Hunter, K. Stedman, S. Dreitz, T. Olivry, A. Hillier, and C. Mccall (2003). Identification, characterization, and cloning of a complementary dna encoding a 60-kd house dust mite allergen (der f 18) for human beings and dogs. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112(1): 79-86. ISSN: 0091-6749.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 J8236
Abstract: Background: House dust mites of the Dermatophagoides genus are the most important cause of perennial allergic disease in both humans and companion animals. Although the major mite allergens for humans are proteins of relatively low molecular weight, this is not the case for dogs. Western blotting shows that canine anti-mite IgE responses are directed primarily toward proteins in the molecular weight range of 50 to 120 kd. Objective: The objectives of this study were to characterize a D farinae allergen with a molecular weight of approximately 60 kd and to isolate the cDNA coding for this allergen. Methods: A protein of apparent molecular weight of 60 kd was identified by Western blotting by using canine serum IgE from house dust mite-sensitized atopic dogs. The protein was purified from homogenized D farinae mite bodies by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by gel filtration and cation exchange HPLC. The presence of IgE directed to the 60-kd protein in sera from humans and dogs with dust mite allergy was measured by FcepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA. A cDNA encoding a full-length 60-kd protein was isolated from a D farinae cDNA library by a combination of both PCR amplification and hybridization screening. A panel of mAbs specific for the 60-kd protein was generated and used to localize the protein in whole body sections of D farinae mites. Results: ELISA showed that the purified protein bound IgE in 54% of the sera from patients with D farinae allergy. In addition, the 60-kd protein was able to bind IgE in 57% to 77% of D farinae-sensitized dogs. A cDNA was isolated that encoded a protein of 462 amino acids, consisting of a 25 amino acid signal sequence and a 437 amino acid mature protein. The calculated molecular weight of the mature protein is 50 kd, and the amino acid sequence contains a single N-glycosylation site. A protein database search showed homology with multiple chitinases. A mAb specific for the 60-kd chitinase recognized the allergen in the mite digestive system, but fecal pellets did not stain positively for this allergen. Conclusions: A 60-kd D farinae protein (Der f 18), with homology to chitinase, is a major allergen for humans and dogs sensitive to house dust mites.
Descriptors: house dust mites, Dermatophagoides spp., allergens, companion animals, western blotting, canine anti-mite IgE response, chitinase, sensitivity.

Weinstein, J. and S.C. Ralphs (2004). External coaptation. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice 19(3): 98-104. ISSN: 1096-2867.
NAL Call Number: SF911.S45
Descriptors: animal care, skeletal system, fracture, injury, therapy, luxation, injury, therapy, bandage, medical supplies, cast, medical supplies, external coaptation, sling, medical supplies, splint, medical equipment, postoperative swelling.

Wergin, M.C. and B. Kaser Hotz (2004). Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) measured in seventy dogs with spontaneously occurring tumours. In Vivo (Attiki) 18(1): 15-20. ISSN: 0258-851X.
NAL Call Number: R850.A1I58
Abstract: Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) acts specifically on endothelial cells mediating tumour neovascularisation and initiating tumour growth and metastasis. In humans, high VEGF levels are correlated with poorer prognosis but in dogs minimal information on plasma VEGF is available. Therefore, we analysed plasma VEGF in a variety of spontaneous canine tumours. Materials and Methods: Plasma from seventy dogs with various spontaneous tumours was taken prior to radiation therapy. A human VEGF ELISA was used for analysis. Results: Mean plasma VEGF was 7.2+-7.8 pg/ml. Mean plasma VEGF level varied among different tumour types with the highest level in oral melanomas (12.4 pg/ml). In patients with sarcomas of soft tissue or bone origin, plasma VEGF levels increased significantly with decreasing haemoglobin concentration (p=0.013). Conclusion: Canine plasma VEGF levels depend on tumour histology, with higher levels found in more aggressive tumours. The negative correlation between plasma VEGF and haemoglobin (hb) is most probably due to tissue hypoxia seen in anaemic animals.
Descriptors: tumor biology, carcinoma, neoplastic disease, fibrosarcoma, connective tissue disease, neoplastic disease, malignant histiocytosis, blood and lymphatic disease, melanoma, osteosarcoma, bone disease, sarcoma, connective tissue disease, elisa, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques.

White, S.D., R.A.W. Rosychuk, and K.V. Fieseler (2001). Clinicopathologic findings, sensitivity to house dust mites and efficacy of milbemycin oxime treatment of dogs with Cheyletiella sp. infestation. Veterinary Dermatology 12(1): 13-18. ISSN: 0959-4493.
NAL Call Number: SF901.V47
Abstract: Twenty-three dogs with positive skin scrapings for Cheyletiella sp. were treated with milbemycin oxime using a protocol approximating 2 mg/kg orally once weekly for three weeks. Nineteen of these dogs belonged to a household of 41 dogs and two dogs were in households with one other dog. All in-contact dogs were treated. Pre-treatment intradermal skin tests showed positive reactions to Dermatophagoides farinae in 13 dogs and to D. pteronyssinus in 12 dogs; these became negative post-treatment in four and seven dogs, respectively. All dogs showed a dramatic reduction in clinical signs one week after the third treatment. Eighteen dogs no longer had mites on skin scrapings, three had dead mites and two had deformed eggs. Recurrence of clinical signs necessitated two additional courses of the protocol in the multiple dog household and for a dog receiving immunosuppressive treatment for pemphigus foliaceus. Possible adverse reactions to the milbemycin (vomiting, lethargy) were noted once in two dogs.
Descriptors: pathology, clinical aspects, skin tests, relapse, adverse effects, efficacy, milbemycins, ectoparasitoses, skin diseases, adverse effects, treatment, acaricides, Cheyletiella, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.
Language of Text: English, Summaries in German, Spanish and French.

Wiedmeyer, C.E., P.J. Johnson, L.A. Cohn, and R.L. Meadows (2003). Evaluation of a continuous glucose monitoring system for use in dogs, cats, and horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(7): 987-992. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 AM3
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for use in dogs, cats, and horses. Design: Prospective clinical study. Animals: 7 horses, 3 cats, and 4 dogs that were clinically normal and 1 horse, 2 cats, and 3 dogs with diabetes mellitus. Procedure: Interstitial glucose concentrations were monitored and recorded every 5 minutes by use of a CGMS. Interstitial glucose concentrations were compared with whole blood glucose concentrations as determined by a point-of-care glucose meter. Interstitial glucose concentrations were also monitored in 2 clinically normal horses after oral and IV administration of glucose. Results: There was a positive correlation between interstitial and whole blood glucose concentrations for clinically normal dogs, cats, and horses and those with diabetes mellitus. Events such as feeding, glucose or insulin administration, restraint, and transport to the clinic were recorded by the owner or clinician and could be identified on the graph and associated with time of occurrence. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Our data indicate that use of CGMS is valid for dogs, cats, and horses. This system alleviated the need for multiple blood samples and the stress associated with obtaining those samples. Because hospitalization was not required, information obtained from the CGMS provided a more accurate assessment of the animal's glucose concentrations for an extended period, compared with measurement of blood glucose concentrations. Use of the CGMS will promote the diagnostic and research potential of serial glucose monitoring.
Descriptors: blood chemistry, blood sugar, diabetes mellitus, techniques, cats, dogs, horses, blood collection, continuous glucose monitoring system, stress.

Willem, C., S. Latour, and A. Lacheretz (2001). Control of canine parvovirus infection in breeding kennels : study of the efficacy of a high titer attenuated canine parvovirus vaccine. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 152(5): 373-378. ISSN: 0035-1555.
NAL Call Number: SF604.R48
Abstract: The aim of this study, which was conducted in two infected breeding kennels, is to assess the efficacy of a high titre attenuated canine parvovirus vaccine in 4- to 8-week-old pups and, in parallel, to determine the extent of the reduction in the critical period that this vaccine enables us to obtain. At the start of the intervention, the 126 pups in the two breeding kennels constituted a sensitive study population -- 108 (85.71 %) had non-immunizing HI antibody titers (_ 64). A fortnight after a single injection with the vaccine, the rate of immunity was 91.27 % : 115 presented HI antibody titers _ 128. The overall postvaccination seroconversion rate was 81.48 % for the 108 pups which had prevaccination titers of _ 64. The referential seroconversion rates of 95 %, 50 % and 0 % corresponded to HI antibody titers of < 32, 64 and _ 128 respectively. With reference to traditional vaccines, these results enable the critical period to be reduced from 30 to 10 days, at a seroconversion rate of 95 %, and from 20 to 0 day(s), at a seroconversion rate of 50 %. The age groups to be vaccinated (4 to 8 weeks) correspond to the age groups most affected by a previous epizootic (6 to 8 weeks), with an anticipation period of 15 days (4 and 5 weeks). The pups, aged from 4 to 5 weeks old, which had HI antibody titers of _ 64 responded well to vaccination (vaccine efficacy 100 %).
Descriptors: dog diseases, kennels, live vaccines, vaccination, canine parvovirus, dogs.
Language of Text: English, Summary in French.

Wise, J.K., B.L. Heathcott, and A.J. Shepherd (2003). Results of the 2002 AVMA survey of us pet-owning households regarding use of veterinary services and expenditures. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222(11): 1524-1525. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal care, veterinary medicine, American Veterinary Medical Association(AVMA), pet owning households, veterinary services, expenditures, household utilization.

Wiseman, M.L., A.M. Nolan, J. Reid, and E.M. Scott (2001). Preliminary study on owner-reported behaviour changes associated with chronic pain in dogs. Veterinary Record 149(14): 423-424. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: This article presents and discusses the results of a study conducted on owners of 13 dogs diagnosed with chronic degenerative diseases. The owners were asked to assess and report changes in the dog's behaviour, attitude and demeanor. The reports of the owners were compared with the assessment of 6 veterinary surgeons regarding chronic pain. The data provided by the owners suggest that dog owners maybe valuable source of information about behavioural disturbances.
Descriptors: behavior, behavioral changes, pain, chronic, degenerative diseases.

Yamamoto, S., T. Kuribayashi, K. Kawato, K. Ohnaka, K. Furuhata, and M. Fukuyama (2003). C-reactive protein and immune responses in dogs inoculated with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Inflammation Research 52(Suppl. 2): S 139. ISSN: 1023-3830.
NAL Call Number: RS122.A3
Descriptors: pneumonia, bacterial disease, respiratory system disease, indirect fluorescence antibody test, antibody responses, Bordetella bronchiseptica.
Notes: Meeting Information: 6th World Congress on Inflammation, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; August 2-6, 2003.

Yamashita, K., C. Fujiwara, R. Azuma, T. Sawazaki, Y. Nakao, and A. Hasegawa (2002). Determination of antigenic proteins of housedust mites in 90 dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 64(8): 673-676. ISSN: 0916-7250.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Abstract: House dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae are the important causative agents of allergic diseases in humans and animals. Using 165 dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody against 25 kinds of allergens, including house dust mites, were determined. On the basis of IMMUNODOT assay, house dust mites were found to be the most frequent allergen against which 90 of the 165 allergic dogs (54.5%) suffer. Further analysis using immunoblot assay in the 90 dogs sensitized with house dust mites, the antigenic proteins of house dust mites recognized by IgE antibodies were found to have molecular masses of 15, 76, 90, 98, and 170 kD. Among them, the 15-kD protein that might be identical to Group 2 antigens (Der f2, Der p2) was prominently observed (52/90). This study indicates that about half of dogs with AD are sensitized to house dust mites, suggesting that Group 2 antigens of house dust mites may be a major allergen in canine AD.
Descriptors: allergens, antibody testing, antigens, atopic dermatitis, disease prevalence, house dust mites, IgE, immunoblotting, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, dogs.

Yin, S.A. and I. Nolte (2004). Praxisleitfaden Hund Und Katze. [Canine and Feline Practice Guide], Schlutersche Verlagsgesellschaft : Hannover, Germany, 747 p.
Abstract: A German translation (by E. Switzer) of the book originally entitled The Small Animal Veterinary Nerdbook (2nd edition, published 1998). Include German or European information on drugs and dosages, as well as the relevant legislation.
Descriptors: anesthesia, bacteriology, cardiology, clinical pathology, cytology, dentistry, dermatology, emergency care, endocrinology, gastrointestinal, infectious disease, neurology, nutrition, oncology, ophthamology, orthopedics, parasitology, pulmonary, reproduction, toxicology, cats, dogs, urinary.
Language of Text: German.

Yin, S.A. (1998). The Small Animal Veterinary Nerdbook, 2nd edition, CattleDog Pub.: Davis, CA, 456 p. ISBN: 0964151812.
NAL Call Number: SF748.Y56 1998
Descriptors: anesthesia, bacteriology, cardiology, clinical pathology, cytology, dentistry, dermatology, emergency care, endocrinology, gastrointestinal, infectious disease, neurology, nutrition, oncology, ophthamology, orthopedics, parasitology, pulmonary, reproduction, toxicology, cats, dogs, urinary.

Zatloukal, J., A. Necas, and M. Dvorak (2000). Measuring craniocaudal instability in stifle joints of dogs using stress radiographs. Acta Veterinaria Brno 69(4): 311-317. ISSN: 0001-7213.
NAL Call Number: SF604.B7
Abstract: Craniocaudal stifle joint laxity in dogs affected by various stifle disorders was determined using mediolateral X-ray projections of the stifle joint in neutral and tibial compression stress position. In all, 129 stifle joints of 80 dogs were included in the study. Patients were classified into following groups characterised by: 1) total cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture, 2) total CCL rupture and medial meniscus lesion, 3) partial CCL rupture, 4) partial CCL rupture and medial meniscus lesion, 5) clinically evident CCL rupture only, 6) normal stifle joints, 7) normal stifle joint on the contralateral joint to the one affected by the CCL rupture, 8) radiographically abnormal and clinically stable stifle contralateral to the joint affected by the CCL rupture, and 9) other stifle disorders. Index of laxity (IL) of the stifle joint giving the extent of cranial tibial displacement relative to the femur in the stress tibial compression projection expressed as percents of the femur width was computed. Stifle joints with IL values over 25 can be supposed to be affected by CCL rupture, whereas joints with the IL value less than 15 can be considered to have an intact cranial cruciate ligament. There were significantly higher IL values in stifle joints with clinically or by arthrotomy diagnosed CCL rupture as compared to the group of healthy joints (Wilcoxon's test; p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively in these ones with partial CCL rupture and medial meniscus damage). Contrary to published data, we found considerably higher IL values in stifle joints with total CCL rupture as compared to those ones with partial rupture (p < 0.01). Significant differences in the index of laxity value were not found in stifles with other disorder than the CCL rupture as compared to the group of healthy joints. Measurement of the index of laxity is an undemanding and non-invasive technique supplementing the clinical examination and could serve as an early diagnostic method for the CCL injury.
Descriptors: radiology, veterinary medicine, skeletal system, craniocaudal instability, bone disease, joint disease, stress radiography, analytical method, measurement method.



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