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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Dogs: Animal Welfare Information Center
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Housing

Anderson, D. (2004). Revision of Council of Europe Convention ETS 123 guidelines for the accommodation and care of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. ATLA, Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 32(Suppl. 1A): 183-185. ISSN: 0261-1929.
NAL Call Number: Z7994.L3A5
Abstract: Within the 43 Member States of the Council of Europe, Appendix A of Convention ETS 123 provides guidance on the standards of accommodation and care to be provided for animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. At a meeting of the Parties to the Convention in 1997, a resolution providing additional guidance on accommodation and care was adopted. At the same meeting, it was agreed that, as scientific knowledge and experience had progressed since adoption of ETS 123 in 1986, a Working Party should be convened to consider the revision of Appendix A. The Working Party first met in January 1999, and since then, there have been a number of Working Party meetings, and a number of meetings of Expert Groups, who are tasked with producing guidelines incorporating species-specific needs. The Expert Groups have drafted proposals for the accommodation and care of rodents, rabbits, dogs, cats, ferrets, farm animals, birds, amphibia, reptiles and fish. These proposals will complement the general principles of accommodation and care included in the general section of Appendix A. This comprehensive review has provided an opportunity to incorporate new ideas on housing and care based on scientific data and on best contemporary practises. It is expected that these revisions will be used throughout the scientific community to inform accommodation and care practises for animals used for scientific purposes.
Descriptors: animal housing, animal testing alternatives, animal welfare, guidelines, reviews.

Eisele, P.H. (2001). A practical dog bed for environmental enrichment for geriatric beagles, with applications for puppies and other small dogs. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 40(3): 36-38. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: A group of 30 older beagle dogs was acquired for aging studies. The dogs were initially housed in kennel runs equipped with elevated benches, but it became apparent that some of the oldest animals had difficulties jumping down from them. To improve animal safety and comfort, practical dog beds were made out of the ends of clean high-density polyethylene barrels. Synthetic fleece bed liners were used for dogs that did not chew them or remove them from the beds. Nine of the beagles regularly were observed to use the beds. We also have found that this easily fashioned dog bed is a useful kennel resting place option for puppies and other small dogs.
Descriptors: aging, animal behavior, animal models, Beagle, litter, puppies, age factors, housing, kennel design, comfort, fleece beds, resting place.

Hubert, I. (2004). Enrichment bei Laborhunden: Orientierungsstudie zur Benutzung von Beschäftigungsobjekten und Liegeplätzen. [Enrichment of laboratory dogs: Study of the Use of Toys and Bedding]. Dissertation, LMU München, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine: 193 p.
Online: http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/2689/
Descriptors: preference tests, enrichment, bedding preferences, dogs, behavior, toys, fleece-blankets, dog beds, rawhide bones, chew toys.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Hubrecht, R.C. and V. Reinhardt (2002). Comfortable quarters for dogs in research institutions . In: V. Reinhardt and A. Reinhardt (Editors), Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals, 9th edition, Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, DC, p. 56-64.
Online: http://labanimals.awionline.org/pubs/cq/dogs.htm
NAL Call Number: SF406.3 .C66 2002
Descriptors: laboratory housing, design, space allowance, socialization requirements, exercise, enrichment devices, handling, stress.

Lowery, T., S. Dinterman, K. Weigand, B. Brown, and L. Walker (2001). A cart cage for transferring macaques, capuchins, and small dogs. Lab Animal 30(1): 45-46. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: monkeys, transport of animals, cage design, wheels, Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, dogs, cage size, animal welfare, safety at work, animal use refinement.

Mack, P.A., R.M. Bell, B.L. Tubo, J.A. Ashline, and K.L. Smiler (2003). Validation study of social housing of canines in toxicology studies. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(2): 29-30. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: Optimal housing conditions for canines have evolved in light of changing research findings and animal welfare initiatives. Social housing of canines in toxicology studies was not considered standard housing in our facility. When the decision was made to explore social housing for toxicology studies in our facility, we noted a lack of published information. This study was performed to develop and validate social housing as an option for canines in toxicology studies. The potential impact to data gathered through toxicology studies in which the canines are socially housed is discussed.
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, philosophy and ethics, toxicology, animal welfare, research, research toxicology, social housing.

Ottesen, J.L., A. Weber, H. Gurtler, and L.F. Mikkelsen (2004). New housing conditions: Improving the welfare of experimental animals. ATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 32(Suppl. 1B): 397-404. ISSN: 0261-1929.
NAL Call Number: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: animal care, mice, rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, dogs, animal testing, animal welfare, refinement, drug development, housing, worker health.

Piorkowska, M., A. Zon, and P. Bielanski (2002). Effect of cage density on raccoon dog welfare. Annals of Animal Science 2(Suppl. 1): 203-205. ISSN: 1642-3402.
NAL Call Number: SF1 .A66
Descriptors: cage density, fur quality, growth, stocking density, raccoon dogs.

Piorkowska, M., A. Zon, P. Bielanski, and J. Zajac (2000). Wplyw dodatkowego wyposazenia klatek na jakosc pozyskanych skor jenotow. [Effect of additional cage equipment on the quality of raccoon dog skins.]. Annals of Animal Science Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 27(3): 195-202. ISSN: 0137-1657.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to improve the conditions and requirements of the breeding environment by using additional equipment relieving the monotony of the cage and to determine if this additional equipment preferred by the animals will ensure normal growth and somatic development, while improving the living conditions and as a result the size and quality of skins. The experiment was carried out with young raccoon dogs kept in pairs, two animals in each cage 1.3 m2 in area and 75 cm in height. The cages varied according to the additional equipment they had: group I (control) -- cages with no additional equipment; group II -- cages with platforms and ladders; group III -- cages with boxes. Organoleptic analysis showed that there were 7, 3.8 and 26.8% of skins having hairless areas due to biting and felting in groups I, II and III, respectively. Those raccoon dogs whose cages were equipped with platforms were characterized by the greatest size of rough and dressed skins, with the lowest weight of 1 dm2 and greatest length. The skins of raccoon dogs from group III were the shortest and those of raccoon dogs from group I the heaviest. It was observed that additional equipment of the cages, such as boxes, can also increase the number of skins having no breeding value, as shown by a very high proportion of such skins (26.8%).
Descriptors: furbearing animals, breeding, animal welfare, housing, fur quality, raccoon dogs.
Language of Text: Polish, Summaries in German, English and Russian.

Prescott, M.J. (2004). Refining dog husbandry and care. Eighth report of BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement. Laboratory Animals 38(Suppl.. 1): 1-94. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: An estimated 140 000 dogs are used worldwide in research and testing every year. Although there is a growing trend of providing more complex environments for laboratory dogs, worldwide much dog husbandry and care fails to incorporate what is known about their natural behaviour and their behavioural and welfare needs. With this in mind, the BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW joint Working Group on Refinement set out to identify and document ways in which dog husbandry and care can be refined to make significant reductions in suffering and improvements in animal welfare. The Working Group's report contains recommendations on housing and on physical environment, food and feeding, environmental enrichment and exercise, health and hygiene, identification and record keeping, breeding, balancing supply and demand, grouping, transport, handling and restraint, procedures, long-term use, rehoming, staff training, and areas for future research for refining dog husbandry and care. Advice is also given on interpreting dog signals, preventing and managing aggression, and controlling noise in dog facilities. Particular emphasis is placed on providing an enriched environment for dogs which permits them to express a wide range of normal behaviour and to exercise a degree of choice, and on combining this with a socialization, habituation and training programme. Together these measures should significantly reduce and/or eliminate fear-elated behavioural responses and stereotypic behaviours. They will also have a positive effect on the behavioural development of the dogs, helping to ensure that calm, confident, and well-adjusted individuals are issued to the end-use areas. This in turn will assist in the collection of reliable and accurate experimental data from dog studies and will avoid unnecessary wastage of life. The report represents a valuable resource for staff training. It should be read and thought about, and the recommendations acted upon, by all those involved with the management, care and use of dogs bred and used for research and testing. Where standards fall below those detailed here, a programme of improvement should be put in place. This should aim to achieve a proper balance between conspecific and human social interaction for dogs, and provide pens and other environments developed with an understanding of the natural behaviours of the dog, and empathetic personnel trained and competent to care for them. Employing a canine behaviour specialist can help to achieve these aims. It may be necessary for managers of facilities to rethink the way that dog husbandry and care has been practised in the past in order to allocate the time, staffing and funding required to implement the programme. Only through sincere commitment, adequate resources and sufficient will to change can significant reductions in suffering and improvements in animal welfare be guaranteed.
Descriptors: history, behavior, housing, husbandry, legislation, research, pen construction, pen design, stocking density, single housing, outdoor runs, lighting, temperature, humidity, noise.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (2001). Legal space requirement stipulations for animals in the laboratory: are they adequate? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 4(2): 143-149. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: animal experiments, Beagle, cage size, floor space, laboratory animals, space requirements.

Sales, G., R. Hubrecht, A. Peyvandi, S. Milligan, and B. Shield (1997). Noise in dog kennelling: is barking a welfare problem for dogs? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52(3-4): 321-329. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Noise levels (sound pressure levels, SPLs) were monitored over 24 and 48 h in a number of different types of kennels including shelters, training establishments and research laboratories. Two measures of SPL were used, Lpeak and Leq, over both low (1 Hz-20 kHz) and high (12.5-70 kHz) frequency ranges and using a linear weighting. At most sites the noise levels followed a diurnal pattern; levels were generally low and relatively constant overnight, increased gradually in the early morning and then fluctuated during the working day. Levels decreased in the evening at different times depending on the local regimes. In one facility near railway lines the diurnal pattern was less obvious. During the day Lpeak values regularly exceeded 100 dB and often reached 125 dB; Leq values were between 65 and 100 dB. The high noise levels were caused mainly by barking, but husbandry procedures such as cleaning also contributed to them. The noise levels recorded here may have welfare implications. There is currently a lack of adequate guide lines for noise levels in dog kennels.
Descriptors: noise, kennels, housing, husbandry, animal welfare, dogs.

Spangenberg, E.M.F., L. Bjorklund, and K. Dahlborn (2006). Outdoor housing of laboratory dogs: effects on activity, behaviour and physiology. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 98(3/4): 260-276. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Laboratory dogs are mainly housed indoors and outdoor housing is often considered to be an insecure and uncontrollable alternative. This study aimed to assess the effects of outdoor housing of laboratory dogs on their general physiology, activity and activity-related behaviours. Eight male Beagles dogs were randomised into two groups and housed pair wise in indoor housing (IH, 11 m2), with or without access to an outdoor kennel (OH, 11 m2) during daytime. Activity (steps per hour), behaviour, and usage of outdoor facilities were recorded during 6 weeks in a cross-over design. In addition, the dogs were weighed once weekly and blood samples were taken three times a week to monitor physiological parameters for kidney, liver, pancreas and immune system functions. Four of the dogs were housed with access to outdoor kennel prior to the study and the other four had only been housed indoors. The effect of housing type and previous housing was analysed. OH resulted in a significantly higher activity level, a higher frequency of moving and a lower frequency of passive behaviour. Alanine amino transferase, white blood cell count, granulocytes and neutrophils were significantly higher in IH, while cholesterol was lower, compared to OH, although all physiological parameters were kept within normal ranges. The dogs spent on average 162+or-11 out of 500 possible min/day outside and the average frequency of entering the outdoor kennel was 102+or-7 times per day. The duration of time spent outdoors was significantly longer during the second and third weeks of OH, compared to the first week. In conclusion, laboratory dogs can be housed with access to an outdoor kennel without altering their general physiology. Further, it clearly increased the voluntary activity and activity-related behaviours of the dogs and should therefore be beneficial for their welfare..
Descriptors: activity, alanine aminotransferase, behavior, animal experiments, physiology, Beagle, kidneys, laboratory animals, liver, neutrophils, pancreas.

Spangenberg, E. (2007). Housing Laboratory Dogs and Rats: Implications of Physical and Social Activity. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae 103: 57. ISSN: 1652-6880.
Descriptors: laboratory animals, housing conditions, physical activity, natural behaviors, animal welfare, dogs, rats, exercise test.

Stephen, J.M. and R.A. Ledger (2004). Temperament and stress in kennelled dogs. Animal Welfare 13(Suppl.): S256. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: animal care, behavior, philosophy and ethics, kennelling, applied and field techniques, battersea dogs' home, RSPCA, fear, rescue kennel, stress, temperament.
Notes: Meeting Information: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Symposium on Science in the Service of Animal Welfare, Edinburgh, UK; April 2-4, 2003.

Wells, D. and P.G. Hepper (2000). The influence of environmental change on the behaviour of sheltered dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 68(2): 151-162. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(00)00100-3
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: shelters, animal welfare, temperament, cages, consumer preferences, environment, enrichment, animal behavior, behavior change.

Wells, D.L. and P.G. Hepper (1998). A note on the influence of visual conspecific contact on the behaviour of sheltered dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 60(1): 83-88. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00146-4
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: kennel design, housing, single housing, rescue shelter, behavior, visual contact, animal welfare, animal shelters.

White, J., E.A. McBride, and E. Redhead Comparison of tethering and group-pen housing for sled dogs. In: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Conference 2006,September 13, 2006, London, UK,
Online: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/55343/
Descriptors: dog, sled dog, tethering, housing, group pens, behavior, exercise, Siberian huskies.

Wickens, S., R. Hubrecht, T. Buckwell, D. Gregory, D. Robb, M. Wilsson, and I. Rochlitz (2001). Report of the 2000 UFAW/RSPCA Carnivore Welfare Group meeting. Animal Technology 52(1): 43-47. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: QL55.I5
Descriptors: social behavior, aggression, housing, animal welfare, cages, laboratory animals, metabolism cages, carnivores, cats, dogs.

Yamada, M. and M. Tokuriki (2000). Spontaneous activities measured continuously by an accelerometer in Beagle dogs housed in a cage. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62(4): 443-447. ISSN: 0021-5295.
NAL Call Number: SF604.J342
Abstract: Spontaneous physical activity for investigating behavioural drug toxicity was recorded continuously in 10 Beagle dogs housed in individual cages for 2 h using an accelerometer and a video camera. Gross differentiation of quantitative behavioural parameters was possible with the accelerometer alone when threshold and acceleration volume values were set at 0.10 G and _251. At these settings, the accelerometer revealed only movements of whole-body, whereas at threshold value of 0.02 G movements of individual body parts could be identified.
Descriptors: animal behavior, abnormal behavior, drug toxicity, instruments, dogs.

 

 

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