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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Dogs: Animal Welfare Information Center
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Physiology

Hua, X., C. Lu, and E. Zhao (2002). Effect of stress on hormone, physiological and biochemical index in plasma of dogs. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University Agricultural Science 20(4): 270-274. ISSN: 1671-9964.
Descriptors: angiotensin, blood chemistry, cold stress, corticotropin, hormonal control, dogs.
Language of Text: Chinese, Summary in English.

Kiil, F. and O.M. Sejersted (2003). Analysis of energy metabolism and mechanism of loop diuretics in the thick ascending limb of henle's loop in dog kidneys. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 178(1): 73-82. ISSN: 0001-6772.
NAL Call Number: QP1.A2
Abstract: Aim: The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) absorbs up to 40% of filtered NaCl in volume-expanded dogs. To examine if a fraction of this absorption is passive, NaHCO3 absorption and associated NaCl absorption in proximal tubules were inhibited by acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Results: Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na,K-ATPase activity, reduced the remaining NaCl absorption and renal oxygen consumption in a ratio DELTANa/DELTAO2=18, as expected for active transport. However, the responses to two loop diuretics were DELTANa/DELTAO2=24 for ethacrynic acid and DELTANa/DELTAO2=30 for bumetanide. Both loop diuretics induced potassium secretion. By superimposing ouabain potassium secretion was stopped and DELTANa/DELTAO2=18 restored. Replacement of half of the circulating NaCl with Na2SO4 gave stop-flow pattern similar to those obtained after ethacrynic acid. Conclusions: Low entry of some sodium ions thorugh the apical membrane is permitted despite low chloride supply or blockade by loop diuretics of chloride entry by the Na-K-2Cl transporter. Continued Na-K-ATPase activity causes secretion of potassium ions through the apical ion channel, ethacrynic acid being more kaliuretic and less natriuretic than bumetanide. Greater paracellular recycling of sodium ions after bumetanide maintains ionic balance. In contrast, under normal conditions excess entry of chloride by the Na-K-2Cl-transporter leads to paracellular back-diffusion of chloride rather than paracellular absorption of sodium ions, consistent with DELTANa/DELTAO2=18 after ouabain. Thus all NaCl transport along TALH is active in vivo, whereas absorption of other cations, such as lithium, probably is passive.
Descriptors: metabolism, urinary system, energy metabolism.

Legrand, A. and A. Detroyer (1997). Respiratory effect of the rib cage muscles in the dog. European Respiratory Journal 10(25): 15S. ISSN: 0904-1850.
Descriptors: rib cage, muscle, respiration, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Annual Congress of the European Respiratory Society, Berlin, Germany; September 20-24, 1997.

Maldonado, E.N., J.R. Romero, B. Ochoa, and M.I. Aveldano (2001). Lipid and fatty acid composition of canine lipoproteins. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 128(4): 719-729. ISSN: 0305-0491.
Abstract: Lipid classes and their fatty acids were studied in the major lipoprotein fractions from canine plasma, in comparison with humans . Four male Beagle dogs were housed and fed under standard laboratory conditions, and blood samples from two healthy normolipidaemic male donors were studied for comparison. In dogs, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), the main carrier of plasma phospholipid (PL), cholesterol ester (CE) and free cholesterol, was the most abundant lipoprotein, followed by low and very-low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL). Notably, LDL and VLDL contributed similarly to the total dog plasma triacylglycerol (TG). The PL composition was similar in all three lipoproteins, dominated by phosphatidylcholine (PC). Even though the content and composition of lipids within and among lipoproteins differed markedly between dog and man, the total amount of circulating lipid was similar. All canine lipoproteins were relatively richer than those from humans in long-chain (C20-C22) n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but had comparable proportions of total saturated and monoenoic fatty acids, with 18:2n-6 being the main PUFA in both mammals. The fatty acid profile of canine and human lipoproteins differed because they had distinct proportions of their major lipids. There were more n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA in canine than in human plasma, because dogs had more HDL, their HDL had more PC and CE, and both these lipids were richer in such PUFA.
Descriptors: Beagle, blood chemistry, cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, fatty acids, high density lipoprotein, lipids, monoenoic fatty acids, phosphatidylcholines, phospholipids, polyenoic fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, dogs.

Manabe, T., Y. Okada, H. Sawai, H. Funahashi, M. Yamamoto, T. Hayakawa, and T. Yoshimura (2003). Effect of galanin on plasma glucose, insulin and pancreatic glucagon in dogs. Journal of International Medical Research 31(2): 126-132. ISSN: 0300-0605.
Abstract: The effect of synthetic galanin on plasma glucose, insulin and pancreatic glucagon levels in dogs was studied. Infusion of galanin caused a rapid, reversible and dose-dependent reduction in basal insulin level. A maximal increase in blood glucose level accompanying the insulin decrease was observed when galanin was administered at a dose of 4 mug/kg per h. Pancreatic glucagon levels showed little change compared with basal secretion. These results indicate that galanin is involved in the regulation of glucose through control of insulin secretion.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation.

Mariano, P.A., G.M. Fagundes, I.P.d. Cunha, J.C. Xikota, R.M.C. Scaff, R.P.S. Heinzen, S.R.P.d. Rosario, I.P. da Cunha, and S.R.P. do Rosario (2002). Comportamento anatomico da arteria basilar no cao (Canis familiaris - Linnaeus, 1758. [Behavior anatomic of basilar artery in dog (Canis familiaris - Linnaeus, 1758).]. Veterinaria Noticias 8(2): 13-22. ISSN: 0104-3463.
NAL Call Number: SF604.V484
Descriptors: animal anatomy, arteries, blood circulation.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Mcguinness, O.P., V. Shau, E.M. Benson, M. Lewis, R.T. Snowden, J.E. Greene, D.W. Neal, and A.D. Cherrington (1997). Role of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the metabolic response to stress hormone infusion in the conscious dog. American Journal of Physiology 273(4 PART 1): E674-E681. ISSN: 0002-9513.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 Am3
Abstract: The role of epinephrine and norepinephrine in contributing to the alterations in hepatic glucose metabolism during a 70-h stress hormone infusion (SHI) was investigated in four groups of chronically catheterized (20-h-fasted) conscious dogs. SHI increased glucagon(apprx5-fold), epinephrine (apprx10-fold), norepinephrine (apprx10-fold), and cortisol (apprx6-fold) levels. Dogs received either all the hormones (SHI; n = 5), all the hormones except epinephrine (SHI - Epi; n = 6), or all the hormones except norepinephrine (SHI-NE; n = 6). In addition, six dogs received saline only (Sal). Glucose production (Ra) and gluconeogenesis were assessed after a 70-h hormone or saline infusion with the use of tracer ((3-3H)glucose and (U-14C)alanine) and arteriovenous difference techniques. SHI increased glucose levels (108 +- 2 vs. 189 +- 10 mg/dl) and Ra (2.6 +- 0.2 vs. 4.1 +- 0.3 mgcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1) compared with Sal. The absence of an increase in epinephrine markedly attenuated these changes (glucose and Ra were 140 +- 6 mg/dl and 2.7 +- 0.4 mgcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1, respectively). Only 25% of the blunted rise in Ra could be accounted for by an attenuation of the rise in net hepatic gluconeogenic precursor uptake (0.9 +- 0.1, 1.5 +- 0.1, and 1.1 +- 0.2 mgcntdotkg-1cntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 for SaI, SHI, and SHI-Epi, respectively). The absence of an increase in norepinephrine did not blunt the rise in arterial glucose levels, Ra, or net hepatic gluconeogenic precursor uptake (they rose to 195 +- 21 mg/dl, 3.7 +- 0.5 mgcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1, and 1.7 +- 0.2 mgcntdotkg-1cntdot min-1, respectively). In summary, during chronic SHI, the rise in epinephrine exerts potent stimulatory effects on glucose production principally by enhancing hepatic glycogenolysis, although the rise in circulating norepinephrine has minimal effects.
Descriptors: metabolism, physiology, gluconeogenesis, glyconeogenesis, stress hormone infusion, metabolic response.

Moore, M.C., S. Cardin, D.S. Edgerton, B. Farmer, D.W. Neal, M. Lautz, and A.D. Cherrington (2004). Unlike mice, dogs exhibit effective glucoregulation during low-dose portal and peripheral glucose infusion. American Journal of Physiology 286(2 Part 1): E226-E233. ISSN: 0002-9513.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 Am3
Abstract: Portal infusion of glucose in the mouse at a rate equivalent to basal endogenous glucose production causes hypoglycemia, whereas peripheral infusion at the same rate causes significant hyperglycemia. We used tracer and arteriovenous difference techniques in conscious 42-h-fasted dogs to determine their response to the same treatments. The studies consisted of three periods: equilibration (100 min), basal (40 min), and experimental (180 min), during which glucose was infused at 13.7 mumolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 into a peripheral vein (PE, n=5) or the hepatic portal (PO, n=5) vein. Arterial blood glucose increased apprx0.8 mmol/l in both groups. Arterial and hepatic sinusoidal insulin concentrations were not significantly different between groups. PE exhibited an increase in nonhepatic glucose uptake (non-HGU; DELTA8.6+-1.2 mumolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1) within 30 min, whereas PO showed a slight suppression (DELTA-3.7+-3.1 mumolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1). PO shifted from net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) to uptake (NHGU; 2.5+-2.8 mumolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1) within 30 min, but PE still exhibited NHGO (6.0+-1.9 mumolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1) at that time and did not initiate NHGU until after 90 min. Glucose rates of appearance and disappearance did not differ between groups. The response to the two infusion routes was markedly different. Peripheral infusion caused a rapid enhancement of non-HGU, whereas portal delivery quickly activated NHGU. As a result, both groups maintained near-euglycemia. The dog glucoregulates more rigorously than the mouse in response to both portal and peripheral glucose delivery.
Descriptors: metabolism, hyperglycemia, metabolic disease, euglycemia, glucose, hypoglycemia, mouse, dog.

Muzzi, R.A.L., R.B.d. Araujo, L.A.L. Muzzi, and J.L.B. Pena (2000). Ecocardiografia modo m em caes normais da raca Pastor Alemao (origem americana) do canil da Policia Militar do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. [M-mode echocardiography in normal German Shepherd dogs (American origin) from Minas Gerais State Police kennel, Brazil.]. Ciencia Rural 30(5): 819-824. ISSN: 0103-8478.
NAL Call Number: S192.R4
Abstract: The normal M-mode echocardiographic parameters were determined in German Shepherd dogs from Minas Gerais State Police kennel. 60 healthy dogs were submitted for echocardiographic examination. The right ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole, the left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole and end-systole, the left ventricular mass, the aortic root dimension, left atrial systolic dimension, end-diastolic interventricular septal thickness and end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness had significant correlation with body weight. The ratio of septal to left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-distole, the left atrial to aortic root ratio, the thickening fraction of the interventricular septum, the thickening fraction of the left ventricular posterior wall, and left ventricular shortening fraction showed no linear correlations with body weight, sex or age.
Descriptors: electrocardiograms, guard dogs, normal values, dogs.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summary in English.

Nagaoka, D., A. Tsukise, W. Meyer, and Y. Hirabayashi (2003). Ultracytochemical demonstration of glycoproteins in the canine knee synovium. Annals of Anatomy 185(6): 555-564. ISSN: 0940-9602.
Abstract: By various ultracytochemical methods, glycoconjugates of the synoviocytes, the intercellular matrix and the wall of the small capillaries were studied in the synovial intimal tissues of the canine knee joint. Glycoconjugates with vicinal diol groups could be visualized in certain elements of the Golgi complex, lysosomes, vacuoles, the majority of intracellular cytomembranes, the surface coat of the plasma membrane and glycogen particles in type A cells. In type B cells, less-developed Golgi complexes, and fewer lysosomes and vacuoles were present in the cytoplasm than in that of type A cells. In contrast, a large number of cytoplasmic glycogen particles and abundant vicinal diol-containing groups in the surface coat of the plasma membrane became especially obvious in the B cells. Abundant neutral and acidic glycoproteins were observed in fibrous components in the intercellular matrix. In the small capillaries, strongly positive staining intensities for neutral and acidic glycoconjugates were observed in the basement membrane and perivascular connective tissue, as well as in the surface coat of the luminal plasma membrane of the endothelial cells, although to a somewhat weaker degree. Sialic acid, particularly, was notable in the surface coat of the latter cells. In addition, glycoproteins in the type A cells were shown by lectin ultracytochemistry to contain a variety of saccharide residues such as alpha-D-mannose, alpha-D-glucose, alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine, and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, which were also found in the plasma membrane of the B cells. The properties of the glycoconjugates found are discussed in relation to the basic functions assigned to the synovial membrane of the canine knee joint.
Descriptors: skeletal system, cytochemistry, histology and cytology techniques, laboratory techniques, ultracytochemical demonstration.

Nakayama, H., C.A. Smith, J.R. Rodman, J.B. Skatrud, and J.A. Dempsey (2002). Effect of ventilatory drive on carbon dioxide sensitivity below eupnea during sleep. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 165(9): 1251-1260. ISSN: 1073-449X.
NAL Call Number: RC705 .A4
Abstract: We determined the effects of changing ventilatory stimuli on the hypocapnia-induced apneic and hypopneic thresholds in sleeping dogs. End-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PET(CO2)) was gradually reduced during non-rapid eye movement sleep by increasing tidal volume with pressure support mechanical ventilation, causing a reduction in diaphragm electromyogram amplitude until apnea/periodic breathing occurred. We used the reduction in PET(CO2) below spontaneous breathing required to produce apnea (DeltaPET(CO2)) as an index of the susceptibility to apnea. DeltaPET(CO2) was -5 mm Hg in control animals and changed in proportion to background ventilatory drive, increasing with metabolic acidosis (-6.7 mm Hg) and nonhypoxic peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation (almitrine; -5.9 mm Hg) and decreasing with metabolic alkalosis (-3.7 mm Hg). Hypoxia was the exception; DeltaPET(CO2) narrowed (-4.1 mm Hg) despite the accompanying hyperventilation. Thus, hyperventilation and hypocapnia, per se, widened the DeltaPET(CO2) thereby protecting against apnea and hypopnea, whereas reduced ventilatory drive and hypoventilation narrowed the DeltaPET(CO2) and increased the susceptibility to apnea. Hypoxia sensitized the ventilatory responsiveness to CO2 below eupnea and narrowed the DeltaPET(CO2); this effect of hypoxia was not attributable to an imbalance between peripheral and central chemoreceptor stimulation, per se. We conclude that the DeltaPET(CO2) and the ventilatory sensitivity to CO2 between eupnea and the apneic threshold are changeable in the face of variations in the magnitude, direction, and/or type of ventilatory stimulus, thereby altering the susceptibility for apnea, hypopnea, and periodic breathing in sleep.
Descriptors: animal model, apnea, hypopnea, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure, hypoventilation.

Nielsen, K.K., K.K. Buddington, K. Raun, T.K. Hansen, and R.K. Buddington (2003). Absorption and systemic availability of two synthetic growth hormone secretogogues and transport of glucose by the proximal small intestine of anestrus dogs after administering estradiol. Journal of Comparative Physiology B Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 173(1): 61-67. ISSN: 0174-1578.
NAL Call Number: 444.8 Z3
Abstract: Pharmacokinetics for one growth hormone secretogogue (NNC 26-0722), but not for another (NN703), differ between dogs in estrus or anestrus. We examined if the differences could be mimicked by administering estradiol during anestrus and if there was a relationship with rates of small intestine absorption. Pharmacokinetics for oral doses of NN703 (1.0-1.6 mg kg-1) did not differ among dogs in estrus, anestrus, or anestrus and given estradiol for 1 week (days 1, 3, and 6; 40 mug kg-1), whereas plasma concentrations of NNC 26-0722 increased from undetectable in untreated, anestrus dogs to several hundred nanograms per milliliter in dogs given estradiol, with maximal concentrations measured 5 min after oral dosage. Estradiol treatment increased small intestinal absorption of NNC 26-0722 by 100% (P<0.05), but did not increase absorption of NN703, and caused a 64% increase in carrier-mediated glucose transport at 50 mmol l-1 (P<0.05) due to increased densities of transporters. These findings indicate estrus and estradiol enhance absorptive functions of the dog proximal small intestine and can affect pharmacokinetics for some orally administered drugs.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, endocrine system, pharmacology, estrus .

Nishizawa, M., M.C. Moore, M. Shiota, S.M. Gustavson, W.L. Snead, D.W. Neal, and A.D. Cherrington (2003). Effect of intraportal glucagon-like peptide-1 on glucose metabolism in conscious dogs. American Journal of Physiology 284(5 Part 1): E1027-E1036. ISSN: 0002-9513.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 Am3
Abstract: Arteriovenous difference and tracer ((3-3H)glucose) techniques were used in 42-h-fasted conscious dogs to identify any insulin-like effects of intraportally administered glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-36)amide (GLP-1). Each study consisted of an equilibration, a basal, and three 90-min test periods (P1, P2, and P3) during which somatostatin, intraportal insulin (3-fold basal) and glucagon (basal), and peripheral glucose were infused. Saline was infused intraportally in P1. During P2 and P3, GLP-1 was infused intraportally at 0.9 and 5.1 pmolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 in eight dogs, at 10 and 20 pmolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 in seven dogs, and at 0 pmolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 in eight dogs (control group). Net hepatic glucose uptake was significantly enhanced during GLP-1 infusion at 20 pmolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 (21.8 vs. 13.4 mumolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 (control), P<0.05). Glucose utilization was significantly increased during infusion at 10 and 20 pmolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 (87.3+-8.3 and 105.3+-12.8, respectively, vs. 62.2+-5.3 and 74.7+-7.4 mumolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 (control), P<0.05). The glucose infusion rate required to maintain hyperglycemia was increased (P<0.05) during infusion of GLP-1 at 5.1, 10, and 20 pmolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 (22, 36, and 32%, respectively, greater than control). Nonhepatic glucose uptake increased significantly during delivery of GLP-1 at 5.1 and 10 pmolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 (25 and 46% greater than control) and tended (P=0.1) to increase during GLP-1 infusion at 20 pmolcntdotkg-1cntdotmin-1 (24% greater than control). Intraportal infusion of GLP-1 at high physiological and pharmacological rates increased glucose disposal primarily in nonhepatic tissues.
Descriptors: metabolism, pharmacology, hyperglycemia, metabolic disease.

Olsson, K., A. Bergstrom, H. Kindahl, and A.S. Lagerstedt (2003). Increased plasma concentrations of vasopressin, oxytocin, cortisol and the prostaglandin f2alpha metabolite during labour in the dog. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 179(3): 281-287. ISSN: 0001-6772.
NAL Call Number: QP1.A2
Abstract: Aim: This study investigated if the plasma vasopressin concentration increases during labour in the dog and whether the change in vasopressin correlates with that of oxytocin, 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha and cortisol. Methods: Five beagle dogs each delivered three to seven puppies. Blood samples were taken from a catheter inserted into the cephalic vein during labour and by venepuncture during the other periods. Results: Vasopressin concentration increased from 2 +- 0 pmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 26 +- 11 pmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy, remained high at the birth of the second puppy and then decreased. Oxytocin increased from 63 +- 5 pmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 166 +- 19 pmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy and remained elevated throughout labour. The PGF2alpha metabolite concentration increased from 0.2 +- 0.0 nmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 66 +- 17 nmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy and remained elevated 1 h after the completion of parturition. The cortisol concentration increased from 49 +- 9 nmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 242 +- 35 nmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy, remained high during the birth of the second puppy and then declined. Conclusions: The plasma level of vasopressin was strongly correlated with that of cortisol but less with that of the PGF2alpha metabolite, and not significantly with the concentration of oxytocin. This indicates that the four hormones play different roles during labour in the dog.
Descriptors: endocrine system, metabolism, reproductive system, reproduction, labor .

Picher, M., A. Decrouy, S. Proteau, and E. Rousseau (1997). Conducting and voltage-dependent behaviors of the native and purified sr ca-2+-release channels from the canine diaphragm. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 1328(2): 243-260. ISSN: 0006-3002.
NAL Call Number: 381 B522
Abstract: The ryanodine-sensitive Ca-2+-release channel of the canine diaphragm sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was characterized using biochemical assays and the planar lipid bilayer technique. Diaphragm SR membranes have a (3H)ryanodine-binding capacity (B-max) of 1.2 pmol/mg protein and a binding affinity (K-D) of 6.3 nM. The conductance of the native channel was 330 pS in 50 mM/250 mM trans/cis CsCH-3SO-3 and was reduced to 71 pS by 10 mM Ca-2+ trans. The Ca-2+-release channel was purified as a 400 kDa protein on SDS-PAGE and displayed a conductance of 715 pS in 200 mM KCl. The native and purified Ca-2+ channels were activated by micromolar Ca-2+ and ATP and inhibited by Mg-2+, ryanodine and ruthenium red. Although diaphragm muscle contraction was shown to depend on extracellular Ca-2+ like cardiac muscles, we provide evidence that the diaphragm SR Ca-2+-release channel may be classified as a skeletal ryanodine receptor isoform. First, the IC-50 for (3H)ryanodine binding was in the same range as estimated for skeletal SR, with 20 nM. Second, the channel was maximally activated by 10-30 mu-M cytoplasmic Ca-2+ and inhibited at higher concentrations. Third, ryanodine, binding to the diaphragm SR was less sensitive to Ca-2+ than cardiac SR, with EC-50 values of 50 and 1 mu-M, respectively. Finally, Ca-2+-release activity and (3H)ryanodine binding capacity of the diaphragm and skeletal SR were similarly more sensitive to Mg-2+ than cardiac SR. Together, these results suggest a predominantly skeletal-type of excitation-contraction coupling in the diaphragm.
Descriptors: membranes, cell biology, muscular system, calcium (ii) channel, diaphragm, membranes, muscular system, ryanodine receptor, skeletal muscle.

Rawlings, C.A., J.R. Coates, A. Chernosky, J.A. Barsanti, and J.E. Oliver (1999). Stress leak point pressures and urethral pressure profile tests in clinically normal female dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60(6): 676-678. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: 22 female dogs weighing from 21 to 29 kg were used to develop a stress leak point pressure (LPP) test, determine LPP for continent female dogs, and determine urethral pressure profile (UPP) values for non-anaesthetized, continent female dogs. A standard UPP test and a modification of the LPP test used in women were performed on all dogs. On 3 occasions, dogs underwent UPP testing while awake. They were then anaesthetized with propofol, and LPP was measured at bladder volumes of 75, 100, and 150 ml. For LPP tests, abdominal pressure was applied by inflating a human blood pressure cuff placed around the dog's abdomen. LPPs were recorded through a urethral catheter (bladder LPP) and a rectal balloon catheter (abdominal LPP). Mean (±s.d.) and median maximum urethral closure pressure was 110.1±20.2 and 109.0 cm water, respectively. Mean bladder LPP for the 75, 100, and 150 ml bladder volumes was 172.4 cm water. Significant differences among LPP for the 3 bladder volumes were not detected. It is concluded that stress LPP can be recorded in female dogs.
Descriptors: urethra, bladder, blood pressure, propofol, rectum, pressure, normal values, dogs.

Roberts, T.J. (2001). Muscle force and stress during running in dogs and wild turkeys. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 156(1): 283-295. ISSN: 0027-4100.
NAL Call Number: 500 H26B
Abstract: The function of the avian hind limb during running has received considerable attention, particularly as a potential analog for locomotor function in extinct bipeds. Comparisons of limb kinematics in avian runners and mammalian quadrupeds have revealed consistent differences in the pattern of joint excursions, presumably related to the constraints of bipedal support in birds. The present study asks whether these kinematic differences are paralleled by differences in muscle forces and stresses developed in hind limb locomotor muscles in birds and quadrupedal mammals. High-speed video and force-plate analyses along with anatomical measurements were used to estimate muscle forces and stresses in the locomotor muscles of small dogs and wild turkeys during running. Turkeys and dogs developed remarkably similar patterns of force in hind limb muscles, despite large differences in the magnitude of ground reaction force moments. It was expected that differences in absolute muscle force in hind limb muscles would be matched by differences in cross-sectional area of muscle available to produce force, to maintain similar muscle stress. Instead, muscle stresses varied widely between homologous joints in dogs and turkeys, and between joints within species. The distribution of muscle stress between joints may reflect differences in the design of the avian and mammalian limb for high-power locomotor activities.
Descriptors: muscular system, force plate analysis, analytical method, high speed video, recording method, bipedal support, ground reaction force moments, kinematics, locomotor function, running.

Sato, S., Y. Yonetani, M. Fujimoto, T. Kita, K. Kubo, and T. Nakashima (1998). Effects of an endothelin et a-receptor antagonist, s-0139, on cerebral vasospasm and behavioral changes in dogs intracisternally administered endothelin-1. Life Sciences 62(13): PL191-PL197. ISSN: 0024-3205.
Abstract: The effects of an endothelin ETA-receptor selective antagonist, S-0139, were examined using dogs given endothelin-1 (ET-1) into the subarachnoid space. ET-1 at 40 pmol apparently constricted the basilar artery in anesthetized dogs and caused various grades of ataxia, facial clonus, nystagmus and other features in conscious dogs, partially mimicking those which have been reported for conscious rats. S-0139 could completely inhibit both the vasoconstriction and behavioral changes. It could also alleviate the behavioral changes caused by ET-1 in conscious dogs when given after the severe ataxia. We concluded that ET-1 in the subarachnoid space produces behavioral changes via endothelin ETA-receptor mediation similar to its cerebral vasoconstricting action, at least, in dogs.
Descriptors: cardiovascular system, transport and circulation, nervous system, neural coordination, ataxia, behavioral changes, cerebral vasoconstriction, facial clonus, nystagmus, vasoconstriction.

Snow, H.M., F. Markos, D. O'regan, and K. Pollock (2001). Characteristics of arterial wall shear stress which cause endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the anaesthetized dog. Journal of Physiology 531(3): 843-848. ISSN: 0022-3751.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J82
Descriptors: atheroma, mean blood flow, iliac artery, anesthetized dog, wall shear stress, stroke volume.

Stohrer, M., B. Hammer, R. Hammer, B. Brincker, and M. Stangassinger (2002). Oxidativer Stress infolge extremer physischer Belastung. Teil 1: Genese, klinische Relevanz sowie Untersuchungen an Vitamin-E-supplementierten Schlittenhunden. [Oxidative stress following extreme physical stress. Part 1: Genesis, clinical relevance and studies on vitamin E-supplemented sled dogs.]. Tierarztliche Praxis 30(4): 266-270. ISSN: 1434-1239.
NAL Call Number: SF603.V433
Abstract: An experimental study was performed in order to investigate oxidative stress in sled dogs after short races, which can be ameliorated by supplementation of the antioxidant vitamin E. Potentially occurring organ damages should be recorded in order to assess the clinical relevance. Therefore in blood samples, drawn before and after the race, the antioxidative status (TEAC, vitamin C, vitamin E), a radical marker (HNE-modified proteins) and resulting organ damages (organspecific enzymes) were measured. The consumption of antioxidants (decrease of TEAC, vitamin C and E) indicates a significant oxygen radical production of the dogs during the race, confirmed by an increase of the radical marker HNE-mod. proteins. The rise of CK- and AST activity proves the damage of skeletal muscles. The less pronounced rise of CK- and AST activity in the vitamin E-supplemented dogs supports the hypothesis, that during extreme physical stress a significant amount of oxygen radicals is liberated and especially damages in skeletal muscles can be ameliorated by the antioxidant vitamin E.
Descriptors: oxidative stress, working dogs, racing dogs, antioxidants, ascorbic acid, creatine kinase, damage, enzyme activity, glutamate dehydrogenase, hematocrit, lactic acid, organs, oxidation, proteins, skeletal muscle, stress, vitamin E.
Language of Text: German, Summary in English.

Tonkovic Capin, V., A.G. Stucke, E.A. Stuth, M. Tonkovic Capin, F.A. Hopp, D.R. Mccrimmon, and E.J. Zuperku (2003). Differential processing of excitation by gabaergic gain modulation in canine caudal ventral respiratory group neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 89(2): 862-870. ISSN: 0022-3077.
Abstract: The discharge frequency (Fn) patterns of medullary respiratory premotor neurons are subject to potent tonic GABAergic gain modulation. Studies in other neuron types suggest that the synaptic input for tonic inhibition is located on the soma where it can affect total neuronal output. However, our preliminary data suggested that excitatory responses elicited by highly local application of glutamate receptor agonists are not gain modulated. In addition, modulation of the amplitude of spike after-hyperpolarizations can gain modulate neuronal output, and this mechanism is located near the spike initiation zone and/or soma. The purpose of this study was to determine if these two gain-modulating mechanisms have different functional locations on the somatodendritic membrane of bulbospinal inspiratory and expiratory neurons. Four-barrel micropipettes were used for extracellular single-neuron recording and pressure ejection of drugs in decerebrate, paralyzed, ventilated dogs. The net increases in Fn due to repeated short-duration picoejections of the glutamate receptor agonist, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA), was quantified before and during locally induced antagonism of GABAA receptors by bicuculline or small-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels by apamin. The AMPA-induced net increases in Fn were not significantly altered by BIC, although it produced large increases in the respiratory-related activity. However, the AMPA-induced net responses were amplified in accordance with the gain increase of the respiratory-related activity by apamin. These findings suggest that GABAergic gain modulation may be functionally isolated from the soma/spike initiation zone, e.g., located on a dendritic shaft. This could allow other behavioral signals requiring strong neuronal activation (e.g., coughing, sneezing, vomiting) to utilize the same neuron without being attenuated by the GABAergic modulation.
Descriptors: action potentials, dendrites, GABA antagonists, nervous system, neural coordination, respiratory system, respiration.

Trinh, L., R. Hubmayr, and A.M. Boriek (2004). Increased muscle shortening and maintenance of curvature of the midcostal muscle of the diaphragm during large tidal breathing in supine dogs. FASEB Journal 18(4-5): Abstract 704.23. ISSN: 0892-6638.
Online: http://www.fasebj.org/
NAL Call Number: QH301.F3
Descriptors: diaphragm curvature,inspiratory capacity, large tidal breathing, muscle shortening, supine position, total lung capacity, supine dogs.
Notes: Meeting Information: FASEB Meeting on Experimental Biology: Translating the Genome, Washington, District of Columbia, USA; April 17-21, 2004.

Uzunova, K., R. Dimitrov, D. Vladova, and P. Todorova (2004). Some anatomical features of the dog locomotory system and the anomalies related to them. Zhivotnov"Dni Nauki 41(2): 71-74. ISSN: 0514-7441.
Descriptors: animal care, neural coordination, anatomical features.
Language of Text: Bulgarian.

Ward, S.M., S.A. Baker, A. De Faoite, and K.M. Sanders (2003). Propagation of slow waves requires ip3 receptors and mitochondrial ca2+ uptake in canine colonic muscles. Journal of Physiology 549(1): 207-218. ISSN: 0022-3751.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J82
Abstract: In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract electrical slow waves yield oscillations in membrane potential that periodically increase the open probability of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and facilitate phasic contractions. Slow waves are generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and these events actively propagate through ICC networks within the walls of GI organs. The mechanism that entrains spontaneously active pacemaker sites throughout ICC networks to produce regenerative propagation of slow waves is unresolved. Agents that block inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake were tested on the generation of slow waves in the canine colon. A partitioned chamber apparatus was used to test the effects of blocking slow-wave generation on propagation. We found that active propagation occurred along strips of colonic muscle, but when the pacemaker mechanism was blocked in a portion of the tissue, slow waves decayed exponentially from the point where the pacemaker mechanism was inhibited. An IP3 receptor inhibitor, mitochondrial inhibitors, low external Ca2+, and divalent cations (Mn2+ and Ni2+) caused exponential decay of the slow waves in regions of muscle exposed to these agents. These data demonstrate that the mechanism that initiates slow waves is reactivated from cell-to-cell during the propagation of slow waves. Voltage-dependent conductances present in smooth muscle cells are incapable of slow-wave regeneration. The data predict that partial loss of or disruptions to ICC networks observed in human motility disorders could lead to incomplete penetration of slow waves through GI organs and, thus, to defects in myogenic regulation.
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, metabolism, muscular system, movement and support.

Wolschrijn, C.F. and W.A. Weijs (2004). Development of the trabecular structure within the ulnar medial coronoid process of young dogs. Anatomical Record 278A(2): 514-519. ISSN: 0003-276X.
NAL Call Number: QL801 .A53
Descriptors: skeletal system, microcomputed tomography, diagnostic techniques, imaging and microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques, anisotropic structure, bone volume fraction, compression forces, high bone volume fraction, histomorphometric parameters, humeroulnar articular surface, mature like structure, mean trabecular separation, proximodistal axis, steady locomotion, well defined trabecular alignment.

Xu, X., L. Qian, and J.D.Z. Chen (2004). Anti-dysrhythmic effects of long-pulse gastric electrical stimulation in dogs. Digestion 69(2): 63-70. ISSN: 0012-2823.
NAL Call Number: QP141.A1D5
Descriptors: digestive system, ingestion and assimilation, gastric dysrhythmia, digestive system disease, long pulse gastric electrical stimulation, anti dysrhythmic stimulation effects, gastric motility, gastric myoelectrical activity, gastric pacing, gastric slow wave coupling.

Yan, C.J., C.H. Lin, Y.H. Lien, L.H. Lu, and H.P. Huang (2004). Study of blood pressure in the geriatric canine population in taiwan. Taiwan Veterinary Journal 30(3): 222-229. ISSN: 1682-6485.
NAL Call Number: SF604 .C54
Abstract: This survey aimed to establish blood pressure (BP) references of clinically healthy geriatric dogs using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector, and to investigate the effects of age, breed, sex, body weight, and body condition on blood pressures. Two hundreds and seven clinically healthy dogs were studied. One hundred and thirty-six healthy geriatric dogs and seventy-one healthy adult dogs were measured. The mean BP of geriatric dogs was 157.9 +/- 24.4 mmHg. The mean BP of healthy adult dogs was 150.8 +/- 22.3 mmHg. Systolic BP measurements were significantly higher in the geriatrics compared to the adult dogs (P = 0.04). Systolic BP measurements higher than 206.7 mmHg were defined as hypertension, and those less than 109.1 mmHg were defined as hypotension. Blood pressure measurements were found to be waved with age. Shih-Tzu presented higher BP than other breeds in both geriatric and adult dogs, however it was not statisitically significant. Sex, body weight, and body condition did not affect BP distributions.
Descriptors: aging, animal care, blood and lymphatics, transport and circulation, hypertension, vascular disease, diagnosis, doppler myocardial imaging, microscopy techniques, laboratory techniques.
Language of Text: Chinese.

Yan, X., D.J. Bellotto, D.J. Foster, R.L.J. Johnson, H.K. Hagler, A.S. Estrera, and C.C.W. Hsia (2004). Retinoic acid induces nonuniform alveolar septal growth after right pneumonectomy. Journal of Applied Physiology 96(3): 1080-1089. ISSN: 8750-7587.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J825
Abstract: To determine whether all-trans retinoic acid (RA) enhances compensatory lung growth in fully mature animals, adult male dogs (n=4) received 2 mgcntdotkg-1cntdotday-1 po RA 4 days/wk beginning the day after right pneumonectomy (R-PNX, 55-58% resection). Litter-matched male R-PNX controls (n=4) received placebo. After 4 mo, the remaining lung was fixed by tracheal instillation of fixatives at a constant airway pressure for detailed morphometric analysis. After RA treatment compared with placebo, lung volume was slightly but not significantly lower. Volume density of septum to lung was 37% higher because of a 50 and 25% higher volume density of capillary and septal tissue, respectively. Mean septal thickness was 27% higher. Absolute volumes of endothelial cells and capillary blood were 31-37% higher, whereas epithelial and interstitial volumes were not different between groups. Absolute alveolar-capillary surface areas did not differ between groups, and alveolar septal surface-to-volume ratio was 20% lower in RA-treated animals. RA treatment exaggerated interlobar differences in morphometric indexes and caused alveolar capillary morphology to revert to a more immature state. Thus RA treatment during early post-R-PNX adaptation preferentially enhanced alveolar capillary and endothelial cell volumes consistent with formation of new capillaries, but the associated septal distortion precluded a corresponding increase in gas-exchange surface or morphometric estimates of lung diffusing capacity.
Descriptors: pharmacology, respiratory system, respiration, right pneumonectomy, experimental surgical techniques, laboratory techniques, airway pressure, lung diffusing capacity, lung volume, mean septal thickness, nonuniform alveolar septal growth, volume density.

Yan, X., J.J. Polo Carbayo, E.R. Weibel, and C.C.W. Hsia (2003). Variation of lung volume after fixation when measured by immersion or cavalieri method. American Journal of Physiology 284(1 Part 1): L242-L245. ISSN: 0002-9513.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 Am3
Abstract: Organ volume is a critical parameter in morphometric analysis. The special problems of the lung as a nonsolid organ are overcome by tracheal instillation of fixatives at a constant airway pressure (Paw). Lung volume can change significantly after fixation as Paw change. To determine the variation of lung volume after fixation, we measured the volume of intact fixed lungs by serial immersion in saline (Vimm) at selected time points, compared with measurements obtained by point counting (Cavalieri Principle (Vcav)) after tissue sectioning to release Paw. Vimm was systematically higher than Vcav by 25% in dog lungs and 13% in guinea pig lungs (P=0.0003 between species). This size-dependent variability reflects residual elastic recoil, refolding and/or crumpling of alveolar septa after fixation. Vimm remained 14% higher than Vcav in dog lungs even after pressure release. Vcav/Vimm was systematically lower in the upper than the lower strata of the same lung. We conclude that Vcav measured on lung slices after relaxation of Paw more precisely represents the state of the tissue to be used for subsequent morphometric analysis, particularly for large lungs.
Descriptors: respiratory system, respiration, cavalieri method, laboratory techniques, scherle method, fixation, morphometry, applied and field techniques, point counting, saline immersion, tracheal instillation.

Yang, X.C., P. Zhou, and C.L. Li (2004). Electrical heterogeneity of canine right ventricular transient outward potassium currents. Chinese Medical Journal (English Edition) 117(4): 528-531. ISSN: 0366-6999.
Abstract: Background Some studies have confirmed that the right ventricular walls of most rodents, such as canines and humans, have evident transient outward potassium current (Ito1) heterogeneity, and this heterogeneity is closely related to J point elevation, J wave formation, and some ventricular tachycardias such as ventricular fibrillations caused by Brugada syndrome. This study is designed to investigate transmural electrical heterogeneity of the canine right ventricle during repolarization (phase 1) from the viewpoint of 4-aminopyridine sensitive and calcium-independent Ito1. Methods Adult canine single right ventricular epicardial (Epi) cells, mid-myocardial (M) cells, and endocardial (Endo) cells were enzymatically dissociated. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings were made to compare the It., values of the three cell types. Results At 37degreeC and using 0.2 Hz and + 70 mV depolarizing test potentials, the average peak Ito1 values of Epi cells and M cells averaged (4070 +/- 1720) pA and (3540 +/- 1840) pA, respectively. The activated and inactivated Epi and M cells kinetic processes were in accordance with the Boltzmann distribution. Compared with Ito1 in Epi cells and M cells, the average peak Ito1 in Endo cells was very low, averaged (470 +/- 130) pA. Conclusions These results suggest that there are evident differences and potent gradients in Ito1 between the three cardiac cell types, especially between Epi and Endo cells. These differences are among the prominent manifestations of right ventricular electrical heterogeneity, and may form an important ionic basis and prerequisite for some malignant arrhythmias in the right ventricle, including those arising from Brugada syndrome and other diseases.
Descriptors: cardiovascular system, transport and circulation, Brugada syndrome, genetic disease, heart disease, right ventricular malignant arrhythmias, heart disease, pathology, ventricular fibrillation, heart disease, pathology, ventricular tachycardia, electrophysiology, whole cell voltage clamp recording, histology and cytology techniques, laboratory techniques, boltzhumann distribution, j point elevation, j wave formation, depolarizing test potentials, repolarization, right ventricular transient outward potassium currents, electrical heterogeneity.

 

 

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