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Zoonoses

Costa, C.H.N., R.B.B. Gomes, M.R.B. Silva, L.M. Garcez, P.K.S. Ramos, R.S. Santos, J.J. Shaw, J.R. David, and J.H. Maguire (2000). Competence of the human host as a reservoir for Leishmania chagasi. Journal of Infectious Diseases 182(3): 997-1000. ISSN: 0022-1899.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 J821
Abstract: The failure of control programmes for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) that depend on elimination of infected dogs suggests that other reservoir hosts may participate in the transmission cycle. To determine whether persons infected with Leishmania chagasi can infect the vector sand fly, laboratory-reared Lutzomyia longipalpis were allowed to feed on Brazilian subjects with active, cured, and asymptomatic VL and on asymptomatic residents of houses of persons with active VL. Of 3747 insects that had fed, 26 acquired infection from 11 of the 44 persons with active VL, but none acquired infection from the 137 asymptomatic persons. Among persons <4 years old with active VL, a history of diarrhoea and higher peripheral blood neutrophil counts were independent predictors of infectivity. Further experiments using larger numbers of insects are necessary to evaluate the reservoir competence of persons with asymptomatic infections, who represent a large segment of the population of several Brazilian cities.
Descriptors: disease transmission, human diseases, infection, leisumaniasis, Leishmania infantum chagasi, Lutzomyia longipalpis.

Costa CH, Stewart JM, Gomes RB, Garcez LM, Ramos PK, Bozza M, Satoskar A, Dissanayake S, Santos RS, Silva MR, Shaw JJ, David JR, and Maguire JH. (2002). Asymptomatic human carriers of leishmania chagasi. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 66(4): 334-337. ISSN: 0002-9637.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 Am326
Abstract: In Brazil, programs based on elimination of infected dogs have not curtailed the spread of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), suggesting that other reservoirs of infection exist. Persons with active VL can infect the sand fly vector, but in endemic areas, persons with asymptomatic infections, whose infectivity to sand flies is unknown, are far more numerous. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction-based assay detected kinetoplast DNA of Leishmania chagasi in the blood of eight of 108 asymptomatic persons living with patients with recently diagnosed VL. These eight persons had low or unmeasurable levels of IgG antibodies to Leishmania, demonstrating the insensitivity of serology for subclinical infection. All eight persons had positive leishmanin skin test results, as did 70% of persons living in households of persons with active VL. Even if a small proportion of such asymptomatic persons are infective to sand flies, they represent a formidable reservoir of infection in endemic areas.
Descriptors: parasitology, visceral leishhumaniasis, parasitic disease, polymerase chain reaction, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, polymerase chain reaction based assay, asymptomatic human carriers, infection reservoirs.

DiSalvo, H., D. Haiduven, N. Johnson, V.V. Reyes, C.P. Hench, R. Shaw, and D.A. Stevens (2006). Who let the dogs out? Infection control did: utility of dogs in health care settings and infection control aspects. American Journal of Infection Control 34(5): 301-307. ISSN: 0196-6553.
Abstract: Research has substantiated that animals improve human health, both psychologically and physiologically. Therefore, healthcare facilities have begun to implement programs, such as the "Furry Friends Foundation," that bring animals into the facility to improve the quality of life of patients. When implementing these programs, consideration must be given to potential adverse events such as phobias, allergies, and particularly the possibility of zoonotic disease transmission. Santa Clara Valley Medical Centre (SCVMC), a 600-bed county teaching hospital with specialized units (e.g., for burns, rehabilitation, and pediatric care), has implemented programs that incorporate animals into the healthcare setting. This facility allows three categories of dogs to interact with their patients: service dogs, therapy dogs, and pet visitation dogs by the "Furry Friends Foundation." A blurring of the roles of the three categories of dogs occurred when these programs were put into place at SCVMC. The American with Disabilities Act (ADA) states that service animals cannot be prohibited from any area. For example, a "no pet allowed" policy could not apply to these animals. Proof of a person's disability or proof of the service animal's health or training cannot be required. The purpose of this project was to maintain these programs by clarifying the policies regarding animals, specifically dogs, in the healthcare setting. This had to take place to provide a safe and enjoyable environment for the patients and the staff. A comprehensive table was developed to delineate the three categories of dogs and the corresponding policies. Therapy dogs and the visitation animals are more restricted than service dogs. Both therapy dogs and visitation dogs require identification and certification of health and are excluded from certain areas of the facility, including intensive care units and isolation rooms. By complying with the current policies and regulations, the risks from these programs can be minimized. Staff should be educated on the proper terminology and procedures to prevent a blurring of the categories and roles of these animals.
Descriptors: animals, domestic classification, disease transmission prevention and control, health facilities, infection control methods, dogs, health policy.

Feliciangeli, M.D., M.B. Mazzarri, S.S. Blas, and O. Zerpa (2003). Control trial of lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. In the island of margarita, venezuela. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8(12): 1131-1136. ISSN: 1360-2276.
NAL Call Number: RC960
Abstract: The incidence of the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the Island of Margarita, a major tourist centre in Venezuela, has been increasing between 1998 and 2001. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the recognized vector, which was found naturally infected with Leishmania spp, indistinguishable from the parasites recovered from dogs and children. In 1999-2000, we conducted a control trial in Santa Ana del Valle and Las Cabreras, which have similar epidemiological and ecological conditions. The trial was based on intradomestic residual spraying of lambda-cyhalotrin, E.C., 25 mg/m2 and spatial fogging of fenitrothion around the houses at 30 g/ha. Sandfly abundance was recorded using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) traps indoors and outdoors. We found significantly reduced sandfly populations in the target locality. Wall bioassays showed that the residual effect of the insecticide lasts for about 3 months. We believe that indoor spraying with lambda-cyhalotrin three times a year, at a dose slightly greater than 25 mg/m2, might reduce the L. longipalpis s.l. population to a level low enough for achieving a significant reduction of the indoor transmission, thus protecting small children from the disease.
Descriptors: epidemiology, population studies, parasitology, vector biology, American visceral leishhumaniasis, AVL, infectious disease, parasitic disease, wall bioassay, bioassay techniques, laboratory techniques, disease incidence.

Felix, M., P. Tallon, M. Salavert, V. Navarro, J.R. Breton, C. Perez Belles, and M. Gobernado (2003). Bacteriemia por Pasteurella spp.: una entidad infrecuente durante los ultimos 8 anos en nuestro centro. [Bacteremia due to Pasteurella spp.: a rare process in our hospital over the last 8 years.]. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 21(7): 334-339. ISSN: 0213-005X.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To review and update the epidemic and clinical knowledge concerning disseminated blood disease caused by Pasteurella species in our area. METHODS: Retrospective study of Pasteurella species bacteremia (PSB) episodes occurring in patients attended from January 1994 to December 2001 in a single tertiary hospital. RESULTS: Among the 31 clinical samples remitted to the Microbiology Laboratory in which a species of Pasteurella was identified, 5 (16%) corresponded to positive blood cultures in 5 patients. Pasteurella multocida was the predominant species, identified in 70% of all isolations and all but one positive blood culture. All the patients were adults over 50 years old and all had underlying illnesses causing comorbidity or some degree of immunocompromise, with cardiovascular and hypertensive conditions being the most frequent; only one patient had liver cirrhosis. In all cases, except one, contact or coexistence with dogs or cats was documented. The clinical presentation of PSB was non-specific and only two episodes were related with a possible focal, soft-tissue origin. There were no serious complications, such as septic shock, organ failure or invasive disease (meningitis or endocarditis). All patients cured with antimicrobial treatment, although surgical debridement of infected bite wounds was required in two cases. The betalactams and other families of antibiotics showed excellent in vitro activity against the five strains of Pasteurella isolated. CONCLUSIONS: PSB occurred in adult patients having a wide range of underlying illnesses and comorbidity factors. Most of them had contact with pets, though traumatic lesions were not present in all cases. Clinical presentation did not differ from other types of severe sepsis. Susceptibility and outcome of primary treatment with penicillins and other betalactams shows that they are still appropriate therapy. More emphasis should be placed on preventive measures related to care and hygiene among individuals with pets.
Descriptors: blood disese, sepsis, Pasteurella, human, pet ownership, immunocompromise, treatment .

Ghorbel, A., S. Zrelli, S. Haddad, A. Ghram, A. Chabchoub, F. Landoulsi, and M.B. Ayed (2000). Profils serologique et hematologique de l'ehrlichiose canine et humaine dans les chenils de Tunis et Bizerte (Tunisie). [Serological and haematological survey of canine and human ehrlichiosis in the kennels of Tunis and Bizerte (Tunisia).]. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 151(5): 429-436.
NAL Call Number: SF604.R48
Abstract: In a survey of 153 dogs and 195 dog owners in Tunisia, the seroprevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis or E. chaffeensis) was 68.62% in dogs and 4.1% in owners. In the seropositive dogs, thrombocytopenia was the most frequently observed abnormality (63.3%).
Descriptors: seroprevalence, thrombocytopenia, surveys, dogs.
Language of Text: French, Summary in English.

Guglielmone, A.A., A. Estrada Pena, A.J. Mangold, D.M. Barros Battesti, M.B. Labruna, J.R. Martins, J.M. Venzal, M. Arzua, and J.E. Keirans (2003). Amblyomma aureolatum (pallas, 1772) and amblyomma ovale koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae): hosts, distribution and 16s rdna sequences. Veterinary Parasitology 113(3-4): 273-288. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Abstract: DNA sequences of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 were obtained to determine genetic differences between these tick species. Collections of these species are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. Seven ticks collections (four from Brazil, one from Argentina, one from Uruguay and one from USA) house a total of 1272 A. aureolatum (224 males, 251 females, 223 nymphs and 574 larvae) and 1164 A. ovale (535 males, 556 females, 66 nymphs and 7 larvae). The length of the sequenced mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment for A. aureolatum was 370 bp and for A. ovale was 373 bp. The DNA sequence analysis showed a 13.1% difference between the two species. Apart from one male A. ovale found on a toad, all adult ticks were found on mammals. The majority of adult specimens of both tick species were removed from Carnivora (96.1 and 84.3% of A. aureolatum and A. ovale, respectively), especially from dogs (53.1% of A. aureolatum, and 46.4% of A. ovale). Collections on wild Canidae were higher for A. aureolatum (23.3%) than for A. ovale (7.1%). On the other hand, collections of A. ovale adults on wild Felidae were higher (18.3%) than findings of A. aureolatum (9.2%). The contribution of other mammalian orders as hosts for adults of A. aureolatum and A. ovale was irrelevant, with the exception of Perissodactyla because Tapiridae contributed with 13.0% of the total number of A. ovale adults. Adults of both tick species have been found occasionally on domestic hosts (apart of the dog) and humans. Most immature stages of A. aureolatum were found on Passeriformes birds, while rodents and carnivores were the most common hosts for nymphs and larvae of A. ovale. A. aureolatum has been found restricted to the Neotropical region, covering the eastern area of South America from Uruguay to Surinam, including northeastern Argentina, eastern Paraguay, southeastern Brazil and French Guiana. A. ovale showed a distribution that covers the Neotropical region from central-northern Argentina throughout the Neotropics into the Nearctic region of Mexico with a few records from the USA, also with collection sites in Paraguay, Bolivia, most Brazilian states, Peru, Ecuador, French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Belize, Guatemala and several states of Mexico.
Descriptors: biogeography, population studies, molecular genetics, parasitology, DNA sequence analysis, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, genetic differences, host preferences, species distribution.

Hankenson, C. (2003). The 3 R's for laboratory animal zoonoses. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(2): 66, 68, 70, 74. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: zoonotic disease, laboratory animals, occupational health and safety, biomedical research, 3Rs, emerging zoonoses, personal protective equipment, handling animals.

Islam, M.K., S.C. Basak, S. Majumder, S.A. Sarder, A.W.M.S. Islam, and M.M.H. Mondal (2003). Cystic echinococcosis in domestic ruminants in cox's bazar of bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 46(4): 251-254. ISSN: 0030-9885.
NAL Call Number: 475 P174
Abstract: This investigation was carried out to describe the local epidemiological pattern of cystic echinococcosis among the indigenous domestic ruminants in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. Home visits and family interviews revealed several socio-economic and cultural characteristics which are thought to be involved in the transmission cycle and widespread occurrence of cystic echinococcosis in the area. Fecal examination of stray and house dogs showed high infection levels (50.65%) with Echinococcus granulosus. A significantly higher (p < 0.00) prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was recorded in sheep (52.11%) than buffaloes (36.11%), cattle (30.62%) and goats (14.73%). The values of chi-square test and regression-coefficient analysis strongly indicate that age is an important risk factor of being higher infestation with cystic echinococcosis. While sex had no influence on the prevalence of the disease. Lungs of all ruminant hosts were the most common predilection site for Echinococcus cysts, liver ranked second, followed by spleen. kidneys and heart. Fertility rate of the cysts was recorded high in sheep (65.43%) than buffaloes (16.33%), goats (14.80%) and cattle (8.11%). The high level of infection with cystic echinococcosis in domestic ruminants and dogs suggests that there is an urgent need for control measure against the disease in the Cox's Bazar area.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, agriculture, epidemiology, population studies, parasitology, veterinary medicine, cystic echinococcosis, parasitic disease, epidemiology, chi square test, mathematical and computer techniques, regression coefficient analysis, mathematical and computer techniques, age differences, cultural characteristics, fertility rate, infection risk factors, socio economic characteristics, transmission cycle.

Itoh, N., N. Muraoka, M. Aoki, and T. Itagaki (2003). Prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection in household dogs. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 77(6): 430-435. ISSN: 0387-5911.
Abstract: A total of 1,505 household dogs were investigated for the prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection by fecal examination in relation to their fecal conditions, rearing environments, origins, age, sex and breed. Strongyloides spp. infection was demonstrated in 29 of 1,505 (1.93%) dogs. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected in 28 dogs, and Strongyloides planiceps was detected in one dog. The rate of Strongyloides spp. infection was higher in dogs reared indoors, originated from pet shops/breeding kennels and aged 1-6 months. The infected rate was higher in dogs excreting soft feces. No significant sex-related difference was observed in Strongyloides spp. infection. The rate was high in Pomeranians and low in mongrels. The detection of S. stercolaris in dogs reared indoors will involve a serious problem in public health, because the parasite has zoonoitic potential. It suggests that a positive sanitary instruction against a dog's owner and a worker in pet shops/breeding kennels seems necessary for prevention of transmission from dogs to humans. Furthermore, the reliable treatment for dogs infected with S. stercoralis seems to be important.
Descriptors: household dogs, Strongyloidiasis, fecal examination, isolation, purification, zoonoses .

Litonjua, A.A., D.K. Milton, J.C. Celedon, L. Ryan, S.T. Weiss, and D.R. Gold (2002). A longitudinal analysis of wheezing in young children: the independent effects of early life exposure to house dust endotoxin, allergens, and pets. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 110(5): 736-742. ISSN: 0091-6749.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 J8236
Abstract: A study was conducted to examine the longitudinal association of exposure to house dust endotoxins (HDE) in the older siblings of infants who had wheezing due to early life endotoxin exposure. 226 siblings younger than 5 years old were identified among 499 families recruited between 1994 and 1996 in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 173 had information on HDE levels in the home. Dust collection was performed on home visits and the presence of endotoxins and allergens were analysed. The presence of a cat or dog in the home was also assessed. They were followed up after 14, 22, 34 and 46 months. 190 siblings (84.1%) had information at all 5 time points. Longitudinal univariate relationships, time trends and interaction analyses, multivariate models, and logistic regression analyses were constructed. HDE concentrations ranged from 9.4 to 486.0 EU/mg. In a subset of 53 homes with 2 HDE measurements performed 8 months apart, HDE levels were found to be significantly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.55, P=0.001, interclass correlation coefficient=0.45). Homes with a dog had higher geometric mean endotoxin levels than homes without a dog (95.80 vs. 77.80 EU/mg, respectively), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.2). There was no difference in endotoxin levels between homes with and without a cat (81.28 vs. 79.00 EU/mg, respectively; P=0.8). Exposure to high levels of HDE is associated with increased risk for wheezing early in life but the risk rapidly diminishes. The analyses suggest that this exposure might protect against further episodes of wheezing as the children get older. The exposure to high levels of cat allergen and having a dog in the home are inversely associated with wheezing, independent of the effects of HDE exposure.
Descriptors: allergens, children, endotoxins, exposure, house dust, human diseases, pets, cats, dogs.

Mancianti, F. and S. Nardoni (2004). Susceptibility of microsporum canis isolated from domestic animals against a commercially available enilconazole in fumigant form. Journal De Mycologie Medicale 14(2): 73-74. ISSN: 1156-5233.
Abstract: The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the antifungal effectiveness of a commercially available enilconazole in fumigant form. The antifungal effectiveness of the disinfectant was evaluated against 140 spores (in clinical animals hair samples) and 72 mycelia samples of M. canis from infected pets. One hundred-thirty-one hair specimens Out of 140 (93.6%) and 66 out of 72 (91.7%) subcultures from mycelia were inactivated after treatment. The statistical analysis did not reveal significant differences between spore and mycelia sensitivity. Sensitivity of both arthrospores and mycelia versus enilconazole was evaluated in order to identify possible differences in the resistance of the dermatophyte in its different forms. At the best of our knowledge such a comparison has not been reported. Infected animals can be massive airborne reservoir of viable fungal particles. Enilconazole in the fumigant form is effective also when mixed with several disinfectants including quaternary ammonium compounds, formaldehyde or hydrogen peroxide, even though Such combinations can cause allergies. The use of this product together with other disinfectants could be useful in the management of infected households.
Descriptors: infection, pharmacology, public health, allied veterinary medicine, Microsporum canis infection, fungal disease, drug therapy, transmission, microsporum canis culture, culturing techniques, laboratory techniques.

Maroli, M. and C. Khoury (2004). Prevenzione e controllo dei vettori di leishmaniosi: attuali metodologie. [Prevention and control of leishmaniasis vectors: current approaches.]. Parassitologia 46(1-2): 211-215. ISSN: 0048-2951.
NAL Call Number: 436.8 P212
Abstract: Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the suspected or proven vectors of Leishmania spp. in at least 88 countries, including over 40 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and a further 30 belonging to the genus Lutzomyia in the New World. In recent years, both cutaneous (CL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) have become increasingly prevalent in urban areas, including large Latin American cities. A similar trend has been recorded in all Mediterranean areas during the last decade. Based on mathematical models, insecticidal control of sandflies appears to represent a more effective way of reducing Leishmania infantum transmission than the present strategy of culling infected dogs in Latin America as well as being more acceptable to the human population. Since man is a dead-end host of most Leishmania species, treatment of existing human cases generally does not affect transmission. Interruption of the cycle by vector control may offer a cheaper, more practical solution to treatment and improved knowledge of the alternatives available could lead to preventative measures being undertaken in more leishmaniasis foci. In this note a review of current knowledge on sandfly control is presented. Different measures to control phlebotomine sandflies, including residual spraying of dwellings and animal shelters, insecticide treated nets, application of repellents/insecticides to skin or to fabrics and impregnated dog collars are discussed. Although effective in urban areas with high concentrations of sandflies, residual spraying of insecticides is no often longer tenable in most situations. In rural areas where dwellings are more dispersed and surrounded by large, untargeted "reservoir" populations of sandflies, residual spraying of houses may be both impractical for logistic reasons and ineffective. Actually, this control measure depends on the availability of a suitable public health infrastructure, including adequate supplies of insecticide, spraying equipment and trained personnel. Ideally such personnel should be trained in insecticide application, monitoring techniques and interpretation of sampling data, as well as safety techniques. To date reports of resistance refer to one insecticide (DDT) in only three species (Phlebotomus papatasi, P. argentipes and Sergentomyia shorti) in one country (India), although there are reports of increased tolerance to this compound in several countries. Fortunately the insects remain susceptible to all the major insecticidal groups. Impregnated bednets may offer the best solution in rural areas where transmission is largely intradomiciliary. This measure has the advantage that it can be employed at the individual household level and affords collateral benefits such as privacy and control of other biting insects such as mosquitoes, fleas and bedbugs. Sandfly larvae are generally difficult to find in nature so control measures that act specifically against immatures are not feasible, although the effectiveness of a few biological and chemical agents has been demonstrated in laboratory evaluations. In ZVL foci, where dogs are the unique domestic reservoir, a reduction in Leishmania transmission would be expected if we could combine an effective mass treatment of infected dogs with a protection of both healthy and infected dogs from the sandfly bites. Laboratory and field evaluations have shown that impregnated dog collars and topical application of insecticides could protect dogs from most sandfly bites by means of both anti-feeding and killing effect of the pirethorids used.
Descriptors: Phlebotomine sandflies, vector, Leishhumania spp, zoonoses, infected dogs, insecticides.

Morgan, M.K., D.M.2. Stout, and N.K. Wilson (2001). Feasibility study of the potential for human exposure to pet-borne diazinon residues following lawn applications. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 66(3): 295-300. ISSN: 0007-4861.
NAL Call Number: RA1270.P35A1
Descriptors: toxicity, lawn care chemicals, diazinon, human-pet transfer, health risk.

Otranto, D., P. Paradies, M. Sasanelli, N. Leone, D. de Caprariis, J. Chirico, R. Spinelli, G. Capelli, and O. Brandonisio (2005). Recombinant K39 dipstick immunochromatographic test: a new tool for the serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 17(1): 32-37. ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call Number: SF774.J68
Abstract: The spread of human leishmaniasis has prompted the scientific community to study dogs as reservoirs for Leishmania infantum. Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread in the Mediterranean area with a prevalence of up to 50%. The first step toward controlling the disease is to monitor its distribution, mainly in stray dogs. The validity of a recombinant K39 (rK39) dipstick test, commercially available for the serodiagnosis of human leishmaniasis, was evaluated using sera from 165 dogs selected on the basis of positive or negative lymph node smears at parasitological examination. The results were compared with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (cutoff 1:80). Sera from a group of dogs with other diagnosed diseases but negative for leishmaniasis were also tested to evaluate any cross-reactivity. Various procedures were used for testing whole blood samples. The relative specificity of the rK39 dipstick and IFAT was 100% (97 of 97) and 98.97% (96 of 97), whereas the relative sensitivity was 97.06% (66 of 68) and 98.53% (67 of 68), respectively. The results of the dipstick and IFAT corresponded except for 2 sera (k = 0.987). This data confirm the usefulness of rK39 antigen for diagnosing CanL both in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. The rK39 dipstick proved to be a rapid, sensitive, and specific test that may be very useful in the field for large-scale screening and also in veterinary practice, requiring minimal equipment and operator expertise.
Descriptors: human leishhumaniasis, canine leishhumaniasis, stray dogs, Mediterranean area, rK39 antigen, diagnosis.

Padilla, A.M., J.D. Marco, P. Diosque, M.A. Segura, M.C. Mora, M.M. Fernandez, E.L. Malchiodi, and M.A. Basombrio (2002). Canine infection and the possible role of dogs in the transmission of american tegumentary leishmaniosis in salta, argentina. Veterinary Parasitology 110(1-2): 1-10. ISSN: 0304-4017.
NAL Call Number: SF810.V4
Abstract: Some Leishmania species affect humans in two principal forms: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL). Several studies have identified dogs as the main reservoirs of the visceral leishmaniosis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum. The purpose of this work was to carry out a survey of the canine population associated with human cases of American tegumentary leishmaniosis (ATL), in order to establish the clinical, parasitological, serological and immunological characteristics of the canine disease, in an endemic region for both ATL and Chagas' disease in the province of Salta, in northwestern Argentina. Two hundred and eight dogs from the endemic area were examined and 41 (19.7%) of them presented lesions compatible with leishmaniosis. In order to investigate the presence of antibodies against Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, sera were screened by ELISA using two complex antigens from these parasites and, because of cross-reactions between them, a specific antigen for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection. Sixty-two (29.8%) of 208 dogs were positive for the complex antigen F45 from Leishmania and 50 (24%) were positive for the complex antigen F105 from T. cruzi. Nine dogs (4.3%) were positive for the specific Ag163B6 -cruzipain suggesting that these dogs were truly infected with T. cruzi. Furthermore, three of these nine dogs presented Leishmania sp. in their skin lesions and therefore were considered as infected by both, T. cruzi and Leishmania parasites. The prevalence of Leishmania infection detected by lesions and/or positive serology was 27.4% (57/208). On the basis of previous observations regarding the clustered appearance of human ATL, the dog population was divided into two groups: zone A, dogs living within a 100 m radius from houses with human cases, and zone B, dogs living beyond this limit. The prevalence of ATL in dogs was significantly higher in zone A (34.6%) than in zone B (7.3%), suggesting a strong correlation between canine and human cases. The average time required for a parasitological diagnosis by microscopy was six times longer for dog samples than human ones, and the average number of parasites per 100 microscopic fields was 14-fold lower in canine samples. The high prevalence of Leishmania infection and the close association with human cases, demonstrated that dogs are a very susceptible host for Leishmania infection, but the scarcity of parasites in their lesions suggests that they may not be the main reservoir of the parasite in this endemic area.
Descriptors: epidemiology, population studies, parasitology, vector biology, American tegumentary leishhumaniosis, parasitic disease, transmission, Chagas' disease, Trypanosoma cruzi infection, diagnosis, elisa, diagnostic techniques, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques.

Parvaneh, S., M. Kronqvist, E. Johansson, and M. van Hage Hamsten (1999). Exposure to an abundance of cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergens in Swedish farming households. Allergy Copenhagen 54(3): 229-234. ISSN: 0105-4538.
Abstract: The amount of cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergens were measured in farm households and the relationship between exposure and sensitization to cat and dog allergens was examined. Dust samples from the homes of 403 farmers who had participated in an epidemiologic follow-up study in 1996 on respiratory symptoms were analysed for allergen content by 2-site ELISA methods. Fel d 1 was detected in 99.5% of the farmers' households ranging from 0.055 to 1455 micro g/g dust in mattresses (GM 13.2) and to 3775 micro g/g dust in living-room carpets (GM 17.1). Can f 1 was detected in 90.6% of the households from 0.2 to 116 micro g/g dust in mattresses (GM 2.0) and to 504 micro g/g dust in carpets (GM 4.3). Homes with pets present had the highest levels of the allergens (P<0.001). 8.4% and 7.4% of the farmers were sensitized to cat and dog, respectively. A significant correlation was noted between exposure to the allergens and specific IgE to cat and dog, respectively (P<0.001). Sensitization to cat (OR=4.9) and dog (OR=17.8) was significantly associated with asthma. It was concluded that in spite of the abundance of Fel d 1 and Can f 1, the farmers were only to a low degree sensitized to cats and dogs.
Descriptors: allergens, asthma, epidemiology, farmers, dwellings, immunoglobulins, IgE, house dust, surveys, respiratory diseases, human disease, carpet, cats, dogs.

Prasad, V.S., M. Duggal, A.K. Aggarwal, and R. Kumar (2001). Animal bite management practices: a survey of health care providers in a community development block of haryana. Journal of Communicable Diseases 33(4): 266-273. ISSN: 0019-5138.
NAL Call Number: RA643.7.I6
Abstract: It is seen that outcome of animal bites is influenced by various factors including the treatment procedures practised by health care providers (HCPs). A cross sectional study of health care providers was conducted during May 2000 in PHC Kurali and Naraingarh town of community development block Naraingarh in district Ambala, Haryana. A total of forty-four HCPs were interviewed at their health facility. They were asked about the qualification and number of years in practice. Health care providers were assessed for their knowledge regarding history taking, immediate management of animal bite, post bite anti-rabies treatment, follow up advice and availability of vaccines. Pre-exposure prophylaxis was known to 18.8% of HCPs. Fifty-nine per cent of HCPs were confident in managing dog bites and 93.1% knew about tissue culture vaccine. Vaccine cost was the commonest barrier (38.8%) in the management of animal bites. This study shows a gross difference between awareness and actual practice of management of animal bites.
Descriptors: epidemiology, population studies, public health, allied animal bite, injury, therapy, anti rabies treatment, pre exposure prophylaxis, animal bite management practices, community development block, health care providers, tissue culture vaccine.

Randall, A., A. Hillier, L.K. Cole, K.W. Kwochka, G. Needham, and D.L. Wassom (2003). Quantitation of house dust mites and house dust mite allergens in the microenvironment of dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 64(12): 1580-1588. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Objective: To quantitate the density of Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens (Der f 1, Der p 1, and Group 2 allergens) in the indoor microenvironment of dogs. Sample Population: 50 homes in Columbus, Ohio. Procedures: In each home, samples of dust were collected from 3 locations in which dogs spent most time. Whenever possible, the species of mites collected was identified. Mite density (mites/g of dust) was assessed, and allergen concentrations were assayed by standardized ELISAs. Relative humidity and temperature in each home were monitored during a 5-day period. Characteristics of homes and sample sources were evaluated. Results: Dust samples from all 50 homes contained *more-than-or-equal1 HDM allergen; Der f 1 and Der p 1 were detected in 100 and 74% of homes, respectively. Fifteen homes had HDMs; compared with D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae was found more commonly (14/15 homes) and at a higher density. Basements, homes without central air-conditioning and dog beds that were *more-than-or-equal1 year old had high HDM allergen concentrations. Homes with *more-than-or-equal2 microng of Der f 1 or Group 2 allergens/g of dust or *more-than-or-equal100 mites/g of dust were significantly more likely to have a maximum relative humidity *more-than-or-equal75%. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Results indicated the presence of HDMs and HDM allergens in the specific microenvironment of dogs in homes. Factors associated with high levels of exposure were identified, which may be associated with increased risk for sensitization and development of atopic diseases.
Descriptors: allergens, environment, house dust mites, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, dogs, mites.

Raunio, P., A.L. Pasanen, M. Reiman, and T. Virtanen (1998). Cat, dog, and house-dust-mite allergen levels of house dust in Finnish apartments. Allergy Copenhagen 53(2): 195-199. ISSN: 0105-4538.
Abstract: Dust samples (n=30) were collected by vacuuming a 1 m2 area from a living-room carpet in 30 Finnish apartments divided into 3 groups: homes with cats (n=10), homes with dogs (n=10), and homes without pets (n=10). The levels of major cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), and house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p 1) allergens were analysed by 2-site ELISA methods. Der p 1 levels were below the detection limit in all dust samples. In the homes with cats or dogs, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 levels ranged from 147 to 2800 µg/g (geometric mean 567 µg/g), and from 86 to 1400 µg/g (geometric mean 296 µg/g), respectively, being slightly higher than those reported elsewhere. Low allergen levels, mainly below 3 µg/g, were also detected in the homes without pets, indicating the transfer of allergens from place to place. However, in 25% of these samples, allergen levels exceeded the proposed threshold levels for cat or dog sensitization. The presence of pets was the most significant factor affecting cat and dog allergen levels in house dust, and other factors, such as the amount of dust collected, residential time, and cleaning habits, had no or only a weak effect on allergen levels.
Descriptors: house dust, house dust mites, pets, allergens, dwellings, ELISA, cleaning, cats, dogs, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

Schantz, P.M., H. Wang, J. Qiu, F.J. Liu, E. Saito, A. Emshoff, A. Ito, J.M. Roberts, and C. Delker (2003). Echinococcosis on the tibetan plateau: prevalence and risk factors for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in tibetan populations in qinghai province, china. Parasitology 127(Suppl. S): S109-S120. ISSN: 0031-1820.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 P21
Abstract: Infections by larval stages of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus (echinococcosis or hydatid disease) are zoonotic infections of major public health importance throughout much of the world. Humans become infected through accidental ingestion of eggs passed in faeces of canid definitive hosts. Tibetan populations of China have some of the highest documented levels of infections by both Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, the causes of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, respectively. In this study we measured the prevalence of cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis disease in Tibetan communities in Qinghai, Province, China, and identified putative risk factors for both infections in these communities. 3703 volunteers in three predominately Tibetan counties of Qinghai were surveyed between June 1997 and June 1998. Parasitic lesions were diagnosed by imaging of characteristic space-occupying lesions in abdominal organs (ultrasound) or the lungs (radiographs). Specific serodiagnostic assays (Dot-ELISA and Em2-ELISA) were performed on sera of positively imaged subjects to further distinguish the disease agent. All participants completed a questionnaire documenting age, sex, education level, occupation, lifestyle (nomadic or settled), slaughter practices, drinking water source, hygienic practice and association with dogs. Data were analyzed using SAS version 8. 6.6% of the volunteers had image-confirmed infection with E. granulosus (CE) and 0.8% had E. multilocularis (AE) infection. The significant univariate factors for echinococcal infection (both CE and AE) included livestock ownership, Tibetan ethnicity, female gender, low income, herding occupation, limited education, water source, age greater than 25 years old, poor hygienic practices, offal disposal practices and dog care. Multivariate analysis revealed that livestock ownership was a significant risk factor for both forms of the disease, as well as age greater than 25 years, female gender, herding occupation, and being nomadic (vs semi-nomadic or settled). No additional significant risk factors were identified among the 344 nomadic participants. Being female and being older than 25 years of age were significant factors among the 1906 semi-nomadic participants. Among the 1445 settled participants, allowing dogs to sleep indoors was statistically significant. Issues such as inadequate assessment of animal ownership, selection bias, disease misclassification, and loss of information may have led to reduction in strength of some risk factor associations and need to be addressed in future epidemiologic analysis of echinococcosis in this population.
Descriptors: echinococcosis, parasitic disease, transmission, questionnaire, serodiagnosis, ultrasound imaging, parasitic lesions, putative risk factors.

Schettini, D.A., A.P. Costa Val, L.F. Souza, C. Demicheli, O.G.F. Rocha, M.N. Melo, M.S.M. Michalick, and F. Frezard (2003). Distribution of liposome-encapsulated antimony in dogs. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 36(2): 269-272. ISSN: 0100-879X.
NAL Call Number: R850.A1B72
Abstract: The achievement of complete cure in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis is currently a great challenge, since dogs are the main reservoir for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis to humans and they respond poorly to conventional treatment with pentavalent antimonials. In order to improve the efficacy of treatment, we developed a novel formulation for meglumine antimoniate based on the encapsulation of this drug in freeze-dried liposomes (LMA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biodistribution of antimony (Sb) in dogs following a single intravenous bolus injection of LMA. Four healthy male mongrel dogs received LMA at 3.8 mg Sb/kg body weight and were sacrificed 3, 48 and 96 h and 7 days later. Antimony was determined in the blood, liver, spleen and bone marrow. In the bone marrow, the highest Sb concentration was observed at 3 h (2.8 mug/g wet weight) whereas in the liver and spleen it was demonstrated at 48 h (43.6 and 102.4 mug/g, respectively). In these organs, Sb concentrations decreased gradually and reached levels of 19.1 mug/g (liver), 28.1 mug/g (spleen) and 0.2 mug/g (bone marrow) after 7 days. Our data suggest that the critical organ for the treatment with LMA could be the bone marrow, since it has low Sb levels and, presumably, high rates of Sb elimination. A multiple dose treatment with LMA seems to be necessary for complete elimination of parasites from bone marrow in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.
Descriptors: parasitology, pharmacology, visceral leishhumaniasis, parasitic disease.

Shaw, S.E., M.J. Kenny, S. Tasker, and R.J. Birtles (2004). Pathogen carriage by the cat flea ctenocephalides felis (bouche) in the united kingdom. Veterinary Microbiology 102(3-4): 183-188. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V44
Descriptors: animal care, infection, vector biology, cat scratch disease, bacterial disease, transmission, hemolytic anemia, blood and lymphatic disease, murine typhus.

 

 

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