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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Elephants   / African Elephants - Diseases / Conditions  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Elephants
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African Elephants

Diseases / Conditions

Janssen, D.L., J.E. Oosterhuis, J. Fuller, and K. Williams (2004). Field technique: a method for obtaining trunk wash mycobacterial cutures [cultures] in anesthetized free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana). In: Proceedings: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association: Health and Conservation of Captive and Free-Ranging Wildlife. Joint Conference,August 28, 2004-September 3, 2004, San Diego, California, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: p. 586-587. 660 p.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, diagnostic techniques, trunk wash, South Africa, tuberculosis, trunk wash method, mycobacterial cultures, anesthesia, free ranging.

Kaim, U., V. Paltian, C. Krudewig, A. Nieder, and P. Wohlsein (2009). Pulmonary aspergillosis in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). DTW (Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift) 116(4): 148-151. ISSN: 0341-6593.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, infection, veterinary medicine, purulent pododermatitis, recurrent abdominal pain, severe weight loss, pyogranulomatous, fungal disease, necrotizing pneumonia, Aspergillus spp.

Lacasse, C., K. Terio, M.J. Kinsel, L.L. Farina, D.A. Travis, R. Greenwald, K.P. Lyashchenko, M. Miller, and K.C. Gamble (2007). Two cases of atypical mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium szulgai associated with mortality in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 38(1): 101-107. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, case report, disease transmission, lameness, mortality, osteomyelitis, zoo animals, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium szulgai .

Maslow, J.N., S.K. Mikota, M. Zhu, R. Isaza, L.R. Peddie, F. Dunker, J. Peddie, H. Riddle, and C.A. Peloquin (2005). Population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(1): 21-7.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: We recently described the clinical presentation and treatment of 18 elephants from six herds infected with TB. Treatment protocols and methods varied between herds to include both oral and rectal dosing using multiple drug doses and formulations. In this paper we present information regarding the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isoniazid (INH) in elephants and provide suggestions regarding initial treatment regimens. Forty-one elephants received INH daily by either oral or rectal administration with different formulations. Population PK analysis was performed using Non-linear Mixed Effect Modeling (NONMEM). Results of oral administration indicated that compared with premixed INH solution, the drug exposure was highest with a suspension prepared freshly with INH powder. When INH was concomitantly given as an admixture over food, Tmax was delayed and variability in drug absorption was significantly increased. Compared with oral administration, similar drug exposures were found when INH was dosed rectally. The data generated suggest that a starting dose of 7.5 mg/kg of INH is appropriate for initial TB treatment in elephants when premixed solution is administered directly into the oropharynx or rectal vault and 4 mg/kg are when INH is administered following immediate suspension from powdered form.
Descriptors: antitubercular agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, isoniazid pharmacokinetics, oral administration, rectal administration, administration and dosage of antitubercular agents, antitubercular agents in blood, therapeutic use of antitubercular agents, area under curve, isoniazid administration and dosage, isoniazid in blood, therapeutic use of isoniazid, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis drug therapy, tuberculosis.

Nath, I., V.S.C. Bose, S.K. Panda, B.C. Das, and L.K. Singh (2003). A case of multiple abscesses in a baby elephant. Zoos' Print Journal 18(11): 1270.
Descriptors: baby elephant, abscesses, multiple, disease, infection.

Sleeman, J.M., V.L. Clyde, M.V. Finnegan, E.C. Ramsay, and M.G. Shires (2003). Mammary botryomycosis and mastectomy in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Veterinary Record 152(2): 54-5.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: mastitis, staphylococcal infections, differential diagnosis, mastectomy, mastitis diagnosis, mastitis pathology, mastitis surgery, staphylococcal infections diagnosis, staphylococcal infections pathology, staphylococcal infections surgery, staphylococcus classification, staphylococcus isolation and purification.

Steenkamp, G., W.H. Ferguson, S.C. Boy, S.M. Ferreira, and M.N. Bester (2008). Estimating exposed pulp lengths of tusks in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 79(1): 25-30. ISSN: 0038-2809.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, tusks, estimating exposed pulp lengths, tusk fractures.

Yamada, M., K. Nakamura, H. Nozaki, and H. Tanaka (2003). Hepatocellular endoplasmic reticulum storage disease in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Comparative Pathology 128(2-3): 192-4.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J82
Abstract: Large intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed in hepatocytes of a 7-year-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The inclusions were oval to polyhedral with either a homogeneous glassy or a granular appearance. They were positive for the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. Electron microscopical examination revealed that the inclusions consisted of granular material with moderate electron-density and were membrane-bounded. The findings suggested that the inclusions were derived from endoplasmic reticulum. The light and electron microscopical features were similar to those of endoplasmic reticulum storage disease of the liver in man. Such inclusions have not previously been reported in animals.
Descriptors: cytoplasm pathology, hepatocytes ultrastructure, inclusion bodies ultrastructure, liver diseases, cytoplasm metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum ultrastructure, fatal outcome, immunoenzyme techniques, inclusion bodies metabolism, liver diseases pathology, electron microscopy, periodic acid schiff reaction.

Zhu, M., J.N. Maslow, S.K. Mikota, R. Isaza, F. Dunker, H. Riddle, and C.A. Peloquin (2005). Population pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide in elephants. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(5): 403-9.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: This study was undertaken to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK), therapeutic dose, and preferred route of administration for pyrazinamide (PZA) in elephants. Twenty-three African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants infected with or in contact with others culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were dosed under treatment conditions. PZA was dosed daily at 20-30 mg/kg via oral (fasting or nonfasting state) or rectal (enema or suppository) administration. Blood samples were collected 0-24 h postdose. Population PK was estimated using nonlinear mixed effect modeling. Drug absorption was rapid with T(max) at or before 2 h regardless of the method of drug administration. C(max) at a mean dose of 25.6 (+/-4.6) mg/kg was 19.6 (+/-9.5 microg/mL) for PZA given orally under fasting conditions. Under nonfasting conditions at a mean dose of 26.1 +/- 4.2 mg/kg, C(max) was 25% (4.87 +/- 4.89 microg/mL) and area under concentration curve (AUC) was 30% of the values observed under fasting conditions. Mean rectal dose of 32.6 +/- 15.2 mg/kg yielded C(max) of 12.3 +/- 6.3 microg/mL, but comparable AUC to PZA administered orally while fasting. Both oral and rectal administration of PZA appeared to be acceptable and oral dosing is preferred because of the higher C(max) and lower inter-subject variability. A starting dose of 30 mg/kg is recommended with drug monitoring between 1 and 2 h postdose. Higher doses may be required if the achieved C(max) values are below the recommended 20-50 microg/mL range.
Descriptors: antitubercular agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics, pulmonary tuberculosis, oral administration, rectal administration, antitubercular agents administration and dosage, antitubercular agents therapeutic use, area under curve, Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity, pyrazinamide administration and dosage, pyrazinamide therapeutic use, tuberculosis, pulmonary blood, pulmonary drug therapy.



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