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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Elephants   / African Elephants - Veterinary  Printer Friendly Page
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Information Resources on Elephants
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African Elephants

Veterinary

Agnew, D.W., L. Munson, and E.C. Ramsay (2004). Cystic endometrial hyperplasia in elephants. Veterinary Pathology 41(2): 179-83.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: Most captive female elephants are nulliparous and aged and many have endometrial disease, factors that may hinder fertility. This study characterized the pathologic features and demographic distribution of endometrial lesions from 27 captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and 13 African elephants (Loxodonta africanus), 12- to 57-years of age. The principal lesion was marked cystic and polypoid endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), present in 67% of Asian and 15% of African elephants ranging from 26 to 57 years. The lower prevalence in African elephants likely reflects their younger age range in this study. Fourteen of 15 affected elephants with breeding information were nulliparous. These results suggest that CEH and polyps are common in aged nulliparous elephants, and the severity of these lesions may impair fertility. These findings will be useful in the interpretation of ultrasonographic findings during reproductive examinations of potential breeding cows. Also, breeding programs should focus on younger animals.
Descriptors: zoo animals, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrium pathology, fertility physiology, polyps, endometrial hyperplasia pathology, histological techniques, polyps pathology, species specificity.

Atthi, R., P. Chuaplaivech, W. Pintawong, S. Takoonwong, P. Sunpachudayan, N. Ruksri, and W. Teerathavorawan (2003). Comparison of serum antibody responses in domestic elephants to three different haemorrhagic septicaemia oil adjuvant vaccine formulations. Journal of the Thai Veterinary Medical Association 54(3): 29-37. ISSN: 0125-0620.
Descriptors: adjuvants, antibody formation, disease control, disease prevention, disease resistance, hemorrhagic septicemia, immune response, immunity, vaccination, vaccine development, vaccines, wild animals, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana, Pasteurella multocida, ELISA.
Language of Text: Thai, with English summary.

Atthi, R., P. Chuaplaivech, W. Pintawong, S. Takoonwong, P. Sunpachudayan, N. Ruksri, and W. Teerathavorawan (2003). Comparison of serum antibody responses in domestic elephants to three different hemorrhagic septicaemia oil adjuvant vaccine formulations. Journal of the Thai Veterinary Medical Association 54(3): 29-37. ISSN: 0125-0620.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, African elephant, Loxodonta africana, adjuvants, antibody formation, disease control, disease prevention, disease resistance, hemorrhagic septicemia, immune response, immunity, vaccine development, vaccines.
Language of Text: Thai, Summary in English.

Boy, S.C. and G. Steenkamp (2004). Neural innervation of the tusk pulp of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Veterinary Record 154(12): 372-374. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: tooth pulp, Loxodonta africana, innervation, autonomic nervous system, peripheral nerves, histology, pain, animal welfare.

Chinnadurai, S.K., W.K. Suedmeyer, and W.H. Fales (2009). Microbiology of the external ear canal in six African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Veterinary Record 164(8): 238-240. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, external ear canal, microbiology, microbial flora, ears, zoo animals, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus lwoffi, alpha -haemolytic Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Aeromonas caviae.

Gakuya, F., E. Wambwa, D. Ndeereh, and T. Manyibe (2003). Physiological and haematological findings in immobilized free-ranging African elephants. Pachyderm 35: 77-81. ISSN: 1026-2881.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, physiology, blood, hematological parameters, immobilized, Kenya.
Language of Text: English, with English and French summaries.

Gandolf, A.R., A. Lifschitz, C. Stadler, B. Watson, L. Galvanek, M. Ballent, and C. Lanusse (2009). The pharmacokinetics of orally administered ivermectin in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): implications for parasite elimination. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40(1): 107-112. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2008-0082.1
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, ivermectin, parasites, parasite resistance.

Hildebrandt, T.B., T. Strike, E. Flach, L. Sambrook, J. Dodds, N. Lindsay, C.F. Furley, P.S. Glatzel, and M. McGowan (2003). Fetotomy in the elephant. Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere. Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, No.5,May 1, 1928-June 1, 2003, Rome, Italy, Vol. 5, p. 315-318.
NAL Call Number: SF996.I5
Descriptors: fetotomy, dystocia, fetus, surgery, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana, reproduction.

Janssen, D.L., J.E. Oosterhuis, J. Fuller, and K. Williams (2004). Field technique: a method for obtaining trunk wash mycobacterial cutures [cultures] in anesthetized free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana). In: Proceedings: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association: Health and Conservation of Captive and Free-Ranging Wildlife. Joint Conference,August 28, 2004-September 3, 2004, San Diego, California, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: p. 586-587. 660 p.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, diagnostic techniques, trunk wash, South Africa, tuberculosis, trunk wash method, mycobacterial cultures, anesthesia, free ranging.

Kovacs, K., I. Jaros, and E. Papp (2009). Afrikaielefant-bika (Loxodonta africana) megnyilt agyarpulpauregenek lezerkezelessel tamogatott tomese. [Laser assisted tratment and filling of an exposured pulp cavity of a four years old African elephant bull (Loxodonta africana)/ Case report.]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 131(1): 48-52. ISSN: 0025-004X.
Abstract:
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, dental infection, veterinary medicine, pulp cavity, laser assisted treatment, pain killer.
Language of Text: Hungarian, Summary in English.

Maslow, J.N., S.K. Mikota, M. Zhu, R. Isaza, L.R. Peddie, F. Dunker, J. Peddie, H. Riddle, and C.A. Peloquin (2005). Population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(1): 21-7.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: We recently described the clinical presentation and treatment of 18 elephants from six herds infected with TB. Treatment protocols and methods varied between herds to include both oral and rectal dosing using multiple drug doses and formulations. In this paper we present information regarding the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isoniazid (INH) in elephants and provide suggestions regarding initial treatment regimens. Forty-one elephants received INH daily by either oral or rectal administration with different formulations. Population PK analysis was performed using Non-linear Mixed Effect Modeling (NONMEM). Results of oral administration indicated that compared with premixed INH solution, the drug exposure was highest with a suspension prepared freshly with INH powder. When INH was concomitantly given as an admixture over food, Tmax was delayed and variability in drug absorption was significantly increased. Compared with oral administration, similar drug exposures were found when INH was dosed rectally. The data generated suggest that a starting dose of 7.5 mg/kg of INH is appropriate for initial TB treatment in elephants when premixed solution is administered directly into the oropharynx or rectal vault and 4 mg/kg are when INH is administered following immediate suspension from powdered form.
Descriptors: antitubercular agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, isoniazid pharmacokinetics, oral administration, rectal administration, administration and dosage of antitubercular agents, antitubercular agents in blood, therapeutic use of antitubercular agents, area under curve, isoniazid administration and dosage, isoniazid in blood, therapeutic use of isoniazid, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis drug therapy, tuberculosis.

Maslow, J.N., S.K. Mikota, M. Zhu, H. Riddle, and C.A. Peloquin (2005). Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol (EMB) in elephants. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(3): 321-3.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Descriptors: antitubercular agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, ethambutol pharmacokinetics, oral administration, rectal administration, antitubercular agents administration and dosage, antitubercular agents in blood, area under curve, ethambutol administration and dosage, ethambutol in blood.

McAloon, F.M. (2004). Oribatid mites as intermediate hosts of Anoplocephala manubriata, cestode of the Asian elephant in India. Experimental and Applied Acarology 32(3): 181-5.
NAL Call Number: SB940 .E9
Abstract: Anoplocephala manubriata (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) is a tapeworm that parasitizes both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximas) elephants. Its life cycle has not yet been completely elucidated nor have intermediate hosts been previously reported. Soil and substrate was collected in the Kodanadu Forest Range, Ernakulum District and Guruvayur Devaswom Temple grounds, Thrissur District, in Kerala, India. Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) were collected from dung piles near captive elephants' bedding and examined for immature stages of the tapeworm. Five species of oribatids were found to contain at least one immature life stage of A. manubriata: Galumna flabellifera orientalis Hammer 1958, Scheloribates latipes (C.L. Koch 1844), S. praeincisus (Berlese 1913), Protoribates seminudus (Hammer 1971), and P. triangularis (Hammer 1971).
Descriptors: Cestoda growth and development, cestode infections, mites parasitology, cestode infections parasitology, cestode infections transmission, India, mite infestations parasitology, mite infestations.

Mpanduji, D.G., T.B. Hildebrant, R. Fyumagwa, H. Wiik, L. Siege, R.D. Baldus, S.B. Bittegeko, R. Hermes, R. Hahn, H. Hofer, and F. Goeritz (2003). Immobilizations and evaluation of clinical parameters from free-ranging elephants in southern Tanzania. Pachyderm 35: 140-145. ISSN: 1026-2881.
Descriptors: African elephants, Loxodonta africana, blood, serum, immobilization, clinical parameters, evaluation, Tanzania, blood parameters, immobilized individuals.

Nath, I., V.S.C. Bose, S.K. Panda, B.C. Das, and L.K. Singh (2003). A case of multiple abscesses in a baby elephant. Zoos' Print Journal 18(11): 1270.
Descriptors: baby elephant, abscesses, multiple, disease, infection.

Neiffer, D.L., M. Miller, M. Weber, M. Setter, D. Fontenot, P.K. Robbins, and G.W. Pye (2005). Standing sedation in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) using detomidine-butorphanol combinations. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36(2): 250-256. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Descriptors: African elephants, Loxodonta africana, standing sedation, detomidine-butorphanol, i.m., supplemental dosage, recovery, reversal agents, side effects, dose ranges.

Pitts, N.I. and G. Mitchell (2003). In vitro succinylcholine hydrolysis in plasma of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and impala (Aepyceros melampus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology and Pharmacology 134(1): 123-9.
NAL Call Number: QP901.C6
Abstract: In elephants the time lapsed from i.m. injection of an overdose of the muscle relaxant succinylcholine (SuCh) until death, is significantly longer than in impala. To determine a difference in the rate of SuCh hydrolysis, once the drug enters the circulation, contributes to this phenomenon we have measured the rate of hydrolysis of SuCh in elephant and impala plasma, and by elephant erythrocytes. Rate of hydrolysis was determined by incubating SuCh in plasma or erythrocyte lysate at 37 degrees C and quantifying the choline produced. Plasma SuCh hydrolytic activity in elephant plasma (12.1+/-1.7 Ul(-1) mean+/-S.D.; n=9) was significantly higher than it was in impala plasma (6.6+/-0.6 Ul(-1); n=5), but were approximately 12 and 21 times lower, respectively, than in human plasma. Elephant erythrocyte lysate had no SuCh hydrolytic activity. Applying this data to previous studies, we can show that the ratio of SuCh absorption to SuCh hydrolysis is expected to be 1.25:1 and 1.41:1 for elephants and impala respectively. It will thus take at least 1.7 times longer for elephant to achieve a plasma SuCh concentration similar to that in impala. We conclude that a more rapid hydrolysis of SuCh in elephant plasma is one factor that contributes to the longer time to death compared to impala.
Descriptors: antelopes metabolism, elephants metabolism, erythrocytes metabolism, neuromuscular depolarizing agents metabolism, succinylcholine metabolism, butyrylcholinesterase metabolism, cultured cells, choline analysis, choline metabolism, erythrocytes drug effects, hydrolysis drug effects, neuromuscular depolarizing agents pharmacology, species specificity, succinylcholine pharmacology.

Rajakse, R.C., G.U.S.P. Mendis, C.G. Wijesinghe, J. Alahakoon, and L.N.T. De Silva (2005). Treatment and management of an elephant calf with a head injury. Zoos Print Journal 20(9): 1995-1996. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: elephant calf, head injury, treatment, management.

Roocroft, A. (2005). Indoors natural substrates for elephants & medical issues associated with hard surfaces. Animal Keepers' Forum 32(10): 480-492. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: Elephantidae, housing techniques, indoor natural substrates, medical issues associated with hard surfaces, treatment techniques, injuries.

Singleton, C., J. Ramer, and J. Proudfoot (2004). Use of unpasteurized honey for treatment of a deeply infected wound in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). In: Proceedings: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association: Health and Conservation of Captive and Free-Ranging Wildlife. Joint Conference,August 28, 2004-September 3, 2004, San Diego, California, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: p. 626-628. 660 p.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, treatment techniques, unpasteurised honey, treatment of deeply infected wound, case report, injuries.

Sleeman, J.M., V.L. Clyde, M.V. Finnegan, E.C. Ramsay, and M.G. Shires (2003). Mammary botryomycosis and mastectomy in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Veterinary Record 152(2): 54-5.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: mastitis, staphylococcal infections, differential diagnosis, mastectomy, mastitis diagnosis, mastitis pathology, mastitis surgery, staphylococcal infections diagnosis, staphylococcal infections pathology, staphylococcal infections surgery, staphylococcus classification, staphylococcus isolation and purification.

Steiner, M., A.R. Gould, T.J. Clark, and R. Burns (2003). Induced elephant (Loxodonta africana) tusk removal. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(1): 93-5. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Abstract: Elephant tusk removal usually requires costly surgical procedures that are time-consuming and present a significant risk to the animal when performed using general anesthesia. Such techniques require gauges, chisels, and forceps to remove the tusk. This article reports the simple removal of the tusk of an 18-yr-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana) without the use of surgical instruments and anesthesia. Rubber elastics were placed around a tusk, causing loss of alveolar bone with subsequent exfoliation of the tusk within 3 wk. The healing process was uneventful.
Descriptors: injuries, incisor surgery, pulpitis, tooth extraction, zoo animals, anti infective agents, incisor injuries, irrigation, povidone iodine administration and dosage, pulpitis etiology, pulpitis therapy, tooth extraction methods, tooth mobility, tooth socket.

Weissenboeck, N.M., H.M. Schwammer, and T. Voracek (2007). Thermographische diagnostik bei afrikanischen (Loxodonta africana) und asiatischen (Elephas maximus) elefanten. [Thermographic diagnostic in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asiatic elephants (Elephas maximus)]. Zoologische Garten 76(5-6): 331-344. ISSN: 0044-5169.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, thermography, diagnostic techniques.
Language of Text: German.

Weissengruber, G.E., M. Egerbacher, and G. Forstenpointner (2003). Mechanisms of loss and repair in traumatically injured tusks of African elephants. In: Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere,May 1, 1928-June 1, 2003, Rome, Italy, Vol. 5, p. 425.
NAL Call Number: SF996.I5
Descriptors: African elephant, tusks, injured, loss and repair, anatomy, mehanisms, teeth, trauma, trauma, Loxodonta africana.

Weissengruber, G.E., M. Egerbacher, and G. Forstenpointner (2005). Structure and innervation of the tusk pulp in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Anatomy 206(4): 387-93.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J826
Abstract: African elephants (Loxodonta africana) use their tusks for digging, carrying and behavioural display. Their healing ability following traumatic injury is enormous. Pain experience caused by dentin or pulp damage of tusks seems to be negligible in elephants. In this study we examined the pulp tissue and the nerve distribution using histology, electron microscopy and immunhistochemistry. The results demonstrate that the pulp comprises two differently structured regions. Randomly orientated collagen fibres characterize a cone-like part lying rostral to the foramen apicis dentis. Numerous nerve fibres and Ruffini endings are found within this cone. Rostral to the cone, delicate collagen fibres and large vessels are orientated longitudinally. The rostral two-thirds of the pulp are highly vascularized, whereas nerve fibres are sparse. Vessel and nerve fibre distribution and the structure of connective tissue possibly play important roles in healing and in the obviously limited pain experience after tusk injuries and pulp alteration. The presence of Ruffini endings is most likely related to the use of tusks as tools.
Descriptors: dental pulp anatomy and histology, tooth anatomy and histology, Africa, biological markers analysis, dental pulp innervation, immunohistochemistry methods, nerve fibers ultrastructure, staining and labeling.

Weissengruber, G.E., F.K. Fuss, G. Egger, G. Stanek, K.M. Hittmair, and G. Forstenpointner (2006). The elephant knee joint: morphological and biomechanical considerations. Journal of Anatomy 208(1): 59-72.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J826
Abstract: Elephant limbs display unique morphological features which are related mainly to supporting the enormous body weight of the animal. In elephants, the knee joint plays important roles in weight bearing and locomotion, but anatomical data are sparse and lacking in functional analyses. In addition, the knee joint is affected frequently by arthrosis. Here we examined structures of the knee joint by means of standard anatomical techniques in eight African (Loxodonta africana) and three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Furthermore, we performed radiography in five African and two Asian elephants and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in one African elephant. Macerated bones of 11 individuals (four African, seven Asian elephants) were measured with a pair of callipers to give standardized measurements of the articular parts. In one Asian and three African elephants, kinematic and functional analyses were carried out using a digitizer and according to the helical axis concept. Some peculiarities of healthy and arthrotic knee joints of elephants were compared with human knees. In contrast to those of other quadruped mammals, the knee joint of elephants displays an extended resting position. The femorotibial joint of elephants shows a high grade of congruency and the menisci are extremely narrow and thin. The four-bar mechanism of the cruciate ligaments exists also in the elephant. The main motion of the knee joint is extension-flexion with a range of motion of 142 degrees . In elephants, arthrotic alterations of the knee joint can lead to injury or loss of the cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament.
Descriptors: knee joint, anatomy, morphological, biomechanical, weight bearing, locomotion, radiography, MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, arthrosis.

Wilson, M.L., M.A. Bloomsmith, and T.L. Maple (2004). Stereotypic swaying and serum cortisol concentrations in three captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Animal Welfare 13(1): 39-43. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: zoo animals, stereotyped behavior, cortisol, animal welfare.

Xie, H.S. (2004). How to use acupuncture for elephants. In: Small animal and exotics. Book two: Pain management zoonosis. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference,January 17, 2004-January 21, 2004, Orlando, Florida, USA, Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, USA, Vol. 18, p. 1457-1458.
Descriptors: African elephants, acupuncture, veterinary conference, clinical aspects, lameness, pain, traditional treatment, Loxodonta africana.

Yamada, M., K. Nakamura, H. Nozaki, and H. Tanaka (2003). Hepatocellular endoplasmic reticulum storage disease in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Comparative Pathology 128(2-3): 192-4.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J82
Abstract: Large intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed in hepatocytes of a 7-year-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The inclusions were oval to polyhedral with either a homogeneous glassy or a granular appearance. They were positive for the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. Electron microscopical examination revealed that the inclusions consisted of granular material with moderate electron-density and were membrane-bounded. The findings suggested that the inclusions were derived from endoplasmic reticulum. The light and electron microscopical features were similar to those of endoplasmic reticulum storage disease of the liver in man. Such inclusions have not previously been reported in animals.
Descriptors: cytoplasm pathology, hepatocytes ultrastructure, inclusion bodies ultrastructure, liver diseases, cytoplasm metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum ultrastructure, fatal outcome, immunoenzyme techniques, inclusion bodies metabolism, liver diseases pathology, electron microscopy, periodic acid schiff reaction.

Zhu, M., J.N. Maslow, S.K. Mikota, R. Isaza, F. Dunker, H. Riddle, and C.A. Peloquin (2005). Population pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide in elephants. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(5): 403-9.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: This study was undertaken to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK), therapeutic dose, and preferred route of administration for pyrazinamide (PZA) in elephants. Twenty-three African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants infected with or in contact with others culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were dosed under treatment conditions. PZA was dosed daily at 20-30 mg/kg via oral (fasting or nonfasting state) or rectal (enema or suppository) administration. Blood samples were collected 0-24 h postdose. Population PK was estimated using nonlinear mixed effect modeling. Drug absorption was rapid with T(max) at or before 2 h regardless of the method of drug administration. C(max) at a mean dose of 25.6 (+/-4.6) mg/kg was 19.6 (+/-9.5 microg/mL) for PZA given orally under fasting conditions. Under nonfasting conditions at a mean dose of 26.1 +/- 4.2 mg/kg, C(max) was 25% (4.87 +/- 4.89 microg/mL) and area under concentration curve (AUC) was 30% of the values observed under fasting conditions. Mean rectal dose of 32.6 +/- 15.2 mg/kg yielded C(max) of 12.3 +/- 6.3 microg/mL, but comparable AUC to PZA administered orally while fasting. Both oral and rectal administration of PZA appeared to be acceptable and oral dosing is preferred because of the higher C(max) and lower inter-subject variability. A starting dose of 30 mg/kg is recommended with drug monitoring between 1 and 2 h postdose. Higher doses may be required if the achieved C(max) values are below the recommended 20-50 microg/mL range.
Descriptors: antitubercular agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics, pulmonary tuberculosis, oral administration, rectal administration, antitubercular agents administration and dosage, antitubercular agents therapeutic use, area under curve, Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity, pyrazinamide administration and dosage, pyrazinamide therapeutic use, tuberculosis, pulmonary blood, pulmonary drug therapy.

Zuba, J.R., M.D. Stetter, S.R. Dover, and M. Briggs (2003). Development of rigid laparoscopy techniques in elephants and rhinoceros. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference,October 4, 2003-October 10, 2003, Minneapolis, Minnesota, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: p. 223-227. 333 p.
NAL Call Number: SH171.I22
Descriptors: Rhinocerotidae, Loxodonta africana, Elephas maximus, literature review, diagnostic techniques, rigid laparoscopy techniques, development, applications, review.

 

 

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