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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Elephants   / Asian Elephants - Anatomy / Histology / Physiology  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Elephants
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Asian Elephants

Anatomy / Histology / Physiology

Clauss, M., H. Steinmetz, U. Eulenberger, P. Ossent, R. Zingg, J. Hummel, and J.M. Hatt (2007). Observations on the length of the intestinal tract of African Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach 1797) and Asian elephants Elephas maximus (Linne 1735). European Journal of Wildlife Research 53(1): 68-72. ISSN: 1612-4642; (E) 1439-0574.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, intestinal tract length, digestive system, species differences, comparative study.

Endo, H., E. Narushima, T. Komiya, and M. Sasaki (2004). Ligament of head of femur in the acetabulum of the Asian elephant. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 9(1): 45-49. ISSN: 1342-6133.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, anatomy, femur, acetabulum, histology, ligament head, morphology, wild animals, Elephas maximus.
Language of Text: English, with Japanese summary.

Endo, H., T. Sakai, T. Itou, H. Koie, and J. Kimura (2005). Macroscopic observation and CT examination of the heart ventricular walls in the Asian elephant. Mammal Study 30(2): 125-130. ISSN: 1343-4152.
Descriptors: heart, ventricular walls, cardiovascular system, circulation, CT scanning, microscopy, imaging, examination, Asian elephant, structure.

Hoffmann, J.N., A.G. Montag, and N.J. Dominy (2004). Meissner corpuscles and somatosensory acuity: the prehensile appendages of primates and elephants. Anatomical Record. Part A, Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 281(1): 1138-47.
NAL Call Number: QL801.A53
Descriptors: adaptation, physiological physiology, elephant anatomy and histology, mechanoreceptors physiology, primate anatomy and histology, skin innervation, touch physiology, elephant physiology, evolution, feeding behavior physiology, hand innervation, hand physiology, hand strength physiology, motor skills physiology, phylogeny, primate physiology, sensory thresholds physiology, species specificity.

Hutchinson, J.R., D. Famini, R. Lair, and R. Kram (2003). Biomechanics: Are fast-moving elephants really running? Nature 422(6931): 493-494.
NAL Call Number: 472 N21
Descriptors: elephant physiology, gait physiology, running physiology, walking physiology, biomechanics, kinetics, Thailand, time factors, video recording.

Liumsiricharoen, M., T. Prapong, C. Thitaram, C. Somgird, C. Sarachai, W. Wongkalasin, S. Mahasawangkul, P. Kongtueng, N. Tongtip, and A. Suprasert (2005). Gross and microscopic anatomy of cranial dura mater of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences 39(3): 477-481. ISSN: 0075-5192.
Abstract: The gross and microscopic anatomy of the cranial dura mater of 2 dying, male, Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) aged 24 and 68 years was studied. The cranial dura mater consisted of 2 layers, an outer periosteal layer and an inner meningeal layer. The porous appearance formed by blood vessels was seen between the 2 layers. Some completed foramens were found in the falx cerebri sheet. Unlike most of domestic animals, there were 2 falx cerebelli running along the 2 sides of the vermis and also many small tubercles on the surface of the inner meningeal layer. By staining with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome and Weigert stains, these small tubercles were observed as collagenous mass protrusions. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, animal anatomy, blood vessels, brain, meninges.

Pothiwong, W., P. Kamonrat, P. Uthaichotiwan, P. Prachammuang, and S. Kanchanapangka (2003). A morphological study and diagnotic ultrasonography of Asian elephant kidney. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 33(4): 79-88. ISSN: 0125-6491.
NAL Call Number: SF604.T43
Descriptors: Asian elephant, kidney anatomy, arteries, histology, morphology, ultrasonography, Elephas maximus, study.
Language of Text: Thai, with English summary.

Rajaram and V. Krishnamurthy (2003). Elephant temporal gland ultrastructure and androgen secretion during musth. Current Science (Bangalore) 85(10): 1467-1471. ISSN: 0011-3891.
NAL Call Number: 475 SCI23
Descriptors: musth, temporal gland, androgen secretion, ultrastructure, Asian male elephant, mitochondria, testosterone.

Ren, L. and J. Hutchinson (2007). Three dimensional locomotor dynamics of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 146(4, Suppl. S): S110-S111. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, movement and support, footfall pattern, trunk rotation, locomotor dynamics, hindlimb stance, comparative study.

Sacks, O. (2003). Early work on elephant gait not to be forgotten. Nature 423(6937): 221.
NAL Call Number: 472 N21
Descriptors: physiology, gait physiology, photography history, biomechanics, 19th century history.

Sajjarengpong, K., A. Adirekthaworn, and P. Uthaichotiwan (2005). The anatomy and radiography of the lungs of a stillborn Asian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus). Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 35(1): 67-72. ISSN: 0125-6491.
NAL Call Number: SF604.T43
Descriptors: Asian elephant, stillborn, anatomy, radiography, lungs, Elephas maximus, trachiobronchial, lobes.
Language of Text: Thai, with English summary.

Sarma, M., S.N. Kalita, J.P. Das, and K.K. Sarma (2006). Anatomical study of the mandible of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy 18(2): 19-23. ISSN: 0971-1937.
Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the anatomical features of the mandibles of two adult and two young Asian elephants from Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India. It was observed that the mandibles were composed of rostral body and two caudal rami. Each ramus was comprised of a horizontal and a vertical part. The body of the mandible of the adult Asian elephant was thick and rounded rostrocaudally and showed a median rostral process with a median groove which indicated the line of fusion of the body. The lingual surface of the body was smooth and concave transversely, while the lateral surface was smooth and convex dorsoventrally. Three mental foramina were present on the lateral surface of the body. The horizontal part of each ramus was thick and rounded, and laterally smooth and convex, while the medial surface was smooth and convex. The mandibular space between the two rami was narrow at the middle and gradually expanded rostrally and caudally. The alveolar border presented a single alveolus to accommodate the large cheek tooth on each side. The ventral border was concave and convex rostrocaudally. The vertical part of each ramus was wide and consisted of a condylar process and coronoid process. The condylar processes were convex rostrocaudally and articulated with the squamous part of the temporal bone. The coronoid process was not well developed. A wide concave mandibular notch was observed between the two processes. The lateral surface of the vertical part of the ramus presented a wide masseteric fossa for the masseter muscle. The medial surface presented a large pterygoid fovea and caudal to it was a large mandibular foremen. Rostral border of the vertical ramus was thin when compared with the caudal border and it had a coronoid process dorsally. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, age differences, animal anatomy, mandible, morphology, morphometrics.

Sarma, M., M. Talukdar, K.B.D. Choudhury, and K.K. Sharma (2004). Macromorphology of the tongue of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Zoos' Print Journal 19(10): 1653.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, tongue, macromorphology, anatomy.

Siegal Willott, J., R. Isaza, R. Johnson, and M. Blaik (2008). Distal limb radiography, ossification, and growth plate closure in the juvenile Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(3): 320-334. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Eleven juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were evaluated radiographically to determine the relative times of growth plate closure and phalangeal ossification in the bones of the distal forelimb. Specifically, the first, second, and third phalanges of the third digit (D3) were evaluated, as well as the third phalanx of digits 1, 2, 4, and 5. All elephants were healthy at the time of examination. A retrospective evaluation of radiographs from six of the 11 juvenile elephants was also completed to augment the data set. This study reports the methods used to obtain high-quality radiographs of the distal juvenile elephant limb, ossification characteristics of the phalanges, relative times of growth plate closure within the proximal phalanges of D3, and a method for age estimation based on radiographic findings. This study will help clinicians in conducting elephant foot radiography, in evaluating foot radiographs in juvenile elephants, in recognizing normal versus pathologic change, and in estimating juvenile elephant age based on radiographic ossification characteristics and growth plate closure times. Consistent use of the proposed foot radiograph technique is recommended to facilitate foot disease recognition and as part of the annual examination of captive Asian elephants. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, bones, foot diseases, ossification, phalanges, radiography.

Uthaichotiwan, P., A. Adirekthaworn, and K. Sajjarengpong (2005). The cerebral arterial circle of a newborn Asian elephant brain (Elephas maximus). Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 35(3): 67-73. ISSN: 0125-6491.
NAL Call Number: SF604.T43
Descriptors: Asian elephant, newborn, anatomy, arteries, brain, morphology, cerebral arterial circle, Elephas maximus.
Language of Text: Thai, with English summary.

Weissengruber, G.E., F.K. Fuss, G. Egger, G. Stanek, K.M. Hittmair, and G. Forstenpointner (2006). The elephant knee joint: morphological and biomechanical considerations. Journal of Anatomy 208(1): 59-72.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J826
Abstract: Elephant limbs display unique morphological features which are related mainly to supporting the enormous body weight of the animal. In elephants, the knee joint plays important roles in weight bearing and locomotion, but anatomical data are sparse and lacking in functional analyses. In addition, the knee joint is affected frequently by arthrosis. Here we examined structures of the knee joint by means of standard anatomical techniques in eight African (Loxodonta africana) and three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Furthermore, we performed radiography in five African and two Asian elephants and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in one African elephant. Macerated bones of 11 individuals (four African, seven Asian elephants) were measured with a pair of callipers to give standardized measurements of the articular parts. In one Asian and three African elephants, kinematic and functional analyses were carried out using a digitizer and according to the helical axis concept. Some peculiarities of healthy and arthrotic knee joints of elephants were compared with human knees. In contrast to those of other quadruped mammals, the knee joint of elephants displays an extended resting position. The femorotibial joint of elephants shows a high grade of congruency and the menisci are extremely narrow and thin. The four-bar mechanism of the cruciate ligaments exists also in the elephant. The main motion of the knee joint is extension-flexion with a range of motion of 142 degrees . In elephants, arthrotic alterations of the knee joint can lead to injury or loss of the cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament.
Descriptors: knee joint, anatomy, morphological, biomechanical, weight bearing, locomotion, radiography, MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, arthrosis.

West, J.B., Z. Fu, A.P. Gaeth, and R.V. Short (2003). Fetal lung development in the elephant reflects the adaptations required for snorkeling in adult life. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 138(2-3): 325-33.
NAL Call Number: QP121.A1R4
Abstract: The adult elephant is unique among mammals in that the pleural membranes are thickened and the pleural cavity is obliterated by connective tissue. It has been suggested that this peculiar anatomy developed because the animal can snorkel at depth, and this behavior subjects the microvessels in the parietal pleura to a very large transmural pressure. To investigate the development of the parietal pleura, the thickness of the endothoracic fascia (ET) was measured in four fetal African elephants of approximate gestational age 111-130 days, and the appearances were compared with those in human, rabbit, rat and mouse fetuses of approximately the same stage of lung organogenesis. The mean thicknesses of ET in the elephant, human, rabbit, rat and mouse were 403, 53, 29, 27 and 37 microm, respectively. This very early development of a thick parietal pleura in the elephant fetus is consistent with the hypothesis of a long history of snorkeling in the elephant's putative aquatic ancestors.
Descriptors: adaptation, biological physiology, embryonic and fetal development, lung embryology, pleura embryology, fetus, gestational age, intercostal muscles, lung anatomy and histology, mice, pleura anatomy and histology, rabbits, rats, species specificity.

Wimon Pothiwon, Phiwipha Kamonra, Pawana Uthaichotiwa, Pakorn Prachammuan, and Sumolya Kanchanapangk (2003). Laksana thang maha kai wiphak chunla kai wiphak lae phap ultrasound khong tai chang Asia. [Morphological study and diagnotic ultrasonography of Asian elephant kidney]. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 33(4): 79-88. ISSN: 0125-6491.
NAL Call Number: SF604.T43
Descriptors: Indian elephant, kidneys, morphology, ultrastructure, ultrasonics, body parts, radiation, sound, urinary tract, urogenital system.
Language of Text: Thai.



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