Anesthesia / Analgesia / Sedation / Capture
Ashoka Dangolla, I. Silva, and V.Y. Kuruwita (2004). Neuroleptanalgesia in wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus maximus). Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia 31(4): 276-279. ISSN: (p) 1467-2987; Online: 1467-2995.
NAL Call Number: SF914.V47
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the suitability of etorphine with acepromazine for producing prolonged neuroleptanalgesia in wild Asian elephants. ANIMALS: Ten adult wild elephants (four males, six females), free-roaming in the jungles of the north-western province of Sri Lanka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten wild elephants were tranquilized for attachment of radio transmitter collars from September to November 1997, using Large-Animal Immobilon (C-Vet Veterinary Products, Leyland, UK), which is a combination of etorphine (2.45 mg mL(-1)) and acepromazine (10 mg mL(-1)). This was injected using projectile syringes fired from a Cap-Chur gun (Palmer Chemical Co. Inc., Atlanta, USA). A volume of 3.3 (2.5-4.5) mL Immobilon (6.12-11.02 mg of etorphine and 25-45 mg acepromazine) was injected intramuscularly after body mass estimation of individual elephants. RESULTS: The body condition of all darted elephants was good, and the mean (minimum-maximum) shoulder height was 225 (180-310) cm. The average approximate distance to elephants at firing was 26 (15-50) m. The average time to recumbency after injection was 18 (15-45) minutes. Nine out of 10 elephants remained in lateral recumbency (and did not require additional dosing) for a period of 42 (28-61) minutes. The respiratory and heart rates during anaesthesia were 7 (4-10) breaths and 52 (40-60) beats minute(-1), respectively. An equal volume (8.15-14.67 mg) of diprenorphine hydrochloride (Revivon, 3.26 mg mL(-1) diprenorphine; C-Veterinary Products, Leyland, UK) was given intravenously when the procedure was completed. Recovery (return to standing position) occurred in 6 (2-12) minutes after diprenorphine injection. Immediately afterwards, all elephants slowly retreated into the jungle without complications. Continuous radio tracking of the animals involved in this study indicated no post-operative mortality for several months after restraint. CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Etorphine-acepromazine combinations can be used safely in healthy wild Asian elephants for periods of restraint lasting up to 1 hour.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, acepromazine, anesthesia, anesthetics, analgesics, diprenorphine, drug combinations, etorphine, heart rate, neuroleptics, pharmacodynamics, respiration rate, telemetry.
Bechert, U., J.M. Christensen, C. Nguyen, R. Neelkant, and E. Bendas (2008). Pharmacokinetics of orally administered phenylbutazone in African and Asian elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(2): 188-200. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, phenylbutazone, dosage effects, oral administration, species differences.
Indramani Nath, S.K. Panda, Jasmeet Singh, and P.K. Roy (2009). Complication of immobilon-LA tranquilization in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 30(1): 69. ISSN: 0254-4105.
Abstract: A captive male Asian elephant, 45 years old, showed excitement and uncontrollable behaviour on 16 August 2007. The behaviour caused damages to nearby villages and properties. Forest officials guided the animal back to the sanctuary. It was immediately hobbled and tethered securely. Then, the animal became aggressive and it was decided to tranquilize it using 4 ml Immobilon-LA. After darting, the animal became more excited, broke its chain and ate two bags of wheat and turmeric from a store by breaking its door. An antidote, 8 ml M 50-50 (Diprenorphine), was administered to the ear vein. The elephant died within 45 min. Postmortem examination revealed that the larynx was blocked with pasty wheat material. The oesophagus was filled with food materials and the lungs were congested. The heart was soft and flabby with blood clots inside the ventricles. The cause of death was respiratory blockage resulting from feeding during sedation. The excitation of the bull after darting as evidenced by breaking of the chain and eating of grains in semi-sedated condition resulted to chocking and death of the elephant. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, aggression, animal behavior, case reports, mortality, neuroleptics.
Sarma, K.K., M. Sarma, and D.K. Sarma (2004). Safety of repeated xylazine hydrochloride administrations in elephants. Indian Veterinary Journal 81(8): 886-889. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: anesthesia, xylazine hydrochloride, repeated administration, elephants, safety, veterinary care.