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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Elephants   / Asian Elephants - Blood / Circulation / Cardiac / Hematology  Printer Friendly Page
Information Resources on Elephants
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Asian Elephants

Blood / Circulation / Cardiac / Hematology

Duggan, N., B. Beaumont, L. Calder, and M. Merrilees (2004). Structural adaptations to naturally occurring high blood pressure: a study of collagen, elastin and versican in the aorta and coronary arteries of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Anatomical Science International 79(August): 293. ISSN: 1447-6959.
Descriptors: blood, circulation, electron microscopy, imaging, light microscopy, high blood pressure, collagen, elastin, aorta, coronary arteries.

Endo, H., T. Sakai, T. Itou, H. Koie, and J. Kimura (2005). Macroscopic observation and CT examination of the heart ventricular walls in the Asian elephant. Mammal Study 30(2): 125-130. ISSN: 1343-4152.
Descriptors: heart, ventricular walls, cardiovascular system, circulation, CT scanning, microscopy, imaging, examination, Asian elephant, structure.

Hama, N., A. Yamada, A. Noda, K. Murata, Y. Shimada, M. Ashida, K.M.Y. Ishikawa, and K. Okuno (2003). Serum hormonal changes in a female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) with stillbirth. Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 8(2): 109-113. ISSN: 1342-6133.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, female, hormonal changes, seasonal, stillbirth, serum, progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, radioimmunoassay, RIA.
Language of Text: Japanese, with English summary.

Isaza, R., B.J. Behnke, J.K. Bailey, P. McDonough, N.C. Gonzalez, and D.C. Poole (2003). Arterial blood gas control in the upright versus recumbent Asian elephant. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 134(2): 169-76.
NAL Call Number: QP121.A1R4
Abstract: In the elephant, there is concern that lateral recumbency (LR) impairs respiratory muscle and lung function resulting in clinically significant arterial hypoxemia. Using healthy adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus, n=6), the hypothesis was tested that, given the O(2) binding characteristics of elephant blood, substantial reductions in arterial O(2) pressure (Pa(O(2))) in LR could be tolerated without lowering arterial O(2) content appreciably. Fifteen minutes of LR decreased Pa(O(2)) from 103+/-2 (upright, U) to 77+/-4 mmHg (P<0.05) and hemoglobin O(2) saturation (U, 97.8+/-0.1, LR, 95.3+/-0.5%, P<0.05). However, due to a recumbency-induced hemoconcentration, arterial O(2) content was unchanged (U, 18.2+/-2.4, LR, 18.3+/-2.1 ml O(2) per 100 ml). In addition, there was a mild hyperventilation in LR that reduced arterial CO(2) pressure (P(CO(2))) from 39.4+/-0.3 to 37.1+/-1.0 mmHg (P<0.05). These data indicate that the Asian elephant can endure at least short periods of LR without lowering arterial O(2) content.
Descriptors: acid base equilibrium physiology, anoxemia, blood pressure physiology, posture physiology, anoxemia blood, arteries, blood gas analysis.

Rezaian, M. and S. Yamashiro (2005). Comparison between elephant and bovine platelet ultra structure. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 75(3): 267-270. ISSN: 0367-8318.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN22
Descriptors: Asian elephant, bovine platelet, ultra structure, elephant platelets, comparison, discoid shape.

Sabapara, R., D. Bhayani, and R. Jani (2004). Morphometric study of blood cells of Indian elephants (Elephas maximus). Zoos' Print Journal 19(1): 1330.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, size, blood cell diameter, blood cells described, morphometrics.

Salakij, J., C. Salakij, N.A. Narkkong, S. Apibal, P. Suthunmapinuntra, J. Rattanakukuprakarn, G. Nunklang, and M. Yindee (2005). Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells from Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences 39(3): 482-493. ISSN: 0075-5192.
Abstract: The blood cells from 14 adult Asian elephants were examined and cytochemically stained with Sudan Black B (SBB), peroxidase, periodic acid Schiff's reaction (PAS), anaphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) and beta -glucuronidase ( beta -glu). The complete blood counts were performed using an automated cell counter. Insignificant differences were observed in almost all the hematological values between the male and female elephants, except the leukocyte count and fibrinogen concentration which were higher and lower, respectively, in the males than in the females. The neutrophils had poorly segmented nuclei and many well-differentiated granules. The neutrophils stained strongly positive to SBB, faintly stained with PAS, focal dot stained to ANAE and beta -glu. Eosinophils contained 2-3 lobed nuclei and numerous small, round, red-refractive granules with some vacuoles. The eosinophils stained moderately positive to SBB and strongly positive to ANAE but negative to beta -glu. The basophils had variable number of intense granules which did not obscure the lobed nuclei. The basophils were negative for SBB but moderately positive to ANAE and beta -glu. Monocytes stained moderately positive to SBB and moderately to strongly positive to ANAE and beta -glu. The bilobed cells stained moderately positive to SBB and strongly positive for ANAE and beta -glu which were similar to monocytes. Ultrastructurally, they contained a large number of mitochondria similar to those of monocytes, except the shape of the nuclei. The number of bilobed cells exceeded the number of the other leukocytes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the surfaces of all blood cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed organelles within erythrocytes, platelets and all leukocytes especially bilobed cells. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, basophils, blood cells, cell ultrastructure, cytochemistry, eosinophils, erythrocytes, fibrinogen, hematology, leukocyte count, mitochondria, monocytes, neutrophils, nuclei, organelles, platelets, sex differences.



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