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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Information Resources on Elephants   / Asian Elephants - Diseases / Conditions  Printer Friendly Page
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Information Resources on Elephants
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Asian Elephants

Diseases / Conditions

Abou Madi, N., G.V. Kollias, R.P. Hackett, N.G. Ducharme, R.D. Gleed, and J.P. Moakler (2004). Umbilical herniorrhaphy in a juvenile Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(2): 221-5.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Abstract: An umbilical hernia was diagnosed in a 2-wk-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) by physical and ultrasonographic examinations. Umbilical herniorrhaphy was elected because the defect was large (approximately 7 cm long and 10 cm deep) and could potentially lead to incarceration of an intestinal loop. General anesthesia was induced with a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and diazepam and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The hernial sac was explored and contained fibrous tissue, fat, and an intestinal loop but no adhesions. The hernial sac was resected and the body wall closed using the technique of simple apposition. Following a superficial wound infection, the surgical site healed with no further complications.
Descriptors: umbilical hernia, anesthesia, zoo animals, umbilical hernia diagnosis, umbilical hernia surgery, treatment outcome, wound infection.

Aravind, B., M. Anilkumar, S. Raju, and M.R. Saseendranath (2006). A case of rabies in an Indian elephant Elephas maximus. Zoos' Print Journal 21(2): 2172. ISSN: 0973-25350973-2551.
Descriptors: infection, epidemiology, rabies, viral disease, polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent antibody test.

Ashwani, K. and S. Neetu (2004). Diseases of Indian elephants: an overview. Veterinary Practitioner 5(2): 179-183. ISSN: 0972-4036.
Descriptors: bacterial diseases, cardiovascular diseases, digestive disorders, granuloma, kidney diseases, liver diseases, nervous system diseases, parasitism, skin diseases, viral diseases, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana.

Aupperle, H., A. Reischauer, F. Bach, T. Hildebrandt, F. Goritz, K. Jager, R. Scheller, H.J. Klaue, and H.A. Schoon (2008). Chronic endometritis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(1): 107-110. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: A 48-yr-old female Asian elephant with a history of pododermatitis developed recurrent hematuria beginning in 2002. Transrectal ultrasonography and endoscopic examination in 2004 identified the uterus as the source of hematuria and excluded hemorrhagic cystitis. Treatment with Desloreline implants, antibiotics, and homeopathic drugs led to an improved general condition of the elephant. In July 2005, the elephant was suddenly found dead. During necropsy, the severely enlarged uterus contained about 250 L of purulent fluid, and histopathology revealed ulcerative suppurative endometritis with high numbers of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus and Escherichia coli identified on aerobic culture. Additional findings at necropsy included: multifocal severe pododermatitis, uterine leiomyoma, and numerous large calcified areas of abdominal fat necrosis. Microbiologic culture of the pododermatitis lesion revealed the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus equi ssp/ zooepidemicus/ Staphylococcus sp., Corynebacterium sp., and Enterococcus sp. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, case report, chronic infections, endometritis, pododermatitis lesion, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus.

Bojesen, A.M.O.K.E.P.B.M.F. (2006). Fatal enterocolitis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) caused by Clostridium difficile. Veterinary Microbiology 116(4): 329-335. ISSN: 0378-1135.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.04.025
NAL Call Number: SF601.V44
Abstract: Two cases of fatal enteritis caused by Clostridium difficile in captive Asian elephants are reported from an outbreak affecting five females in the same zoo. Post mortem examination including histopathology demonstrated fibrinonecrotic enterocolitis. C. difficile was isolated by selective cultivation from two dead and a third severely affected elephant. Four isolates were obtained and found positive for toxin A and B by PCR. All isolates were positive in a toxigenic culture assay and toxin was demonstrated in the intestinal content from one of the fatal cases and in a surviving but severely affected elephant. PCR ribotyping demonstrated that the C. difficile isolates shared an identical profile, which was different from an epidemiologically unrelated strain, indicating that the outbreak was caused by the same C. difficile clone. It is speculated that the feeding of large quantities of broccoli, a rich source of sulforaphane, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of many intestinal microorganisms may have triggered a subsequent overgrowth by C. difficile. This is the first report of C. difficile as the main cause of fatal enterocolitis in elephants. The findings emphasize the need to regard this organism as potentially dangerous for elephants and caution is recommended concerning antibiotic treatment and feeding with diets containing antimicrobials, which may trigger an expansion of a C. difficile population in the gut. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts>
Descriptors: animal diseases, Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, enterocolitis, bacterial infections, Clostridium difficile, disease diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction, DNA profiling, pathogen identification, strains, animal nutrition, animal feeding, broccoli.

Dumonceaux, G., R. Isaza, D.E. Koch, and R.P. Hunter (2005). Pharmacokinetics and i.m. bioavailability of ceftiofur in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(5): 441-6.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: Captive elephants are prone to infections of the feet, lungs, and skin. Often treatment regimens are established with no pharmacokinetic data on the agents being used for treatment in these species. A pharmacokinetic study using ceftiofur (1.1 mg/kg) was conducted in four adult female captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Busch Gardens in Tampa, Florida. Elephants were given both i.v. and i.m. administrations in a complete crossover design with a 3-week washout period between treatments. Blood samples were collected prior to drug administration and at 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h postadministration. Ceftiofur analysis was performed using a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrophotometric (LC/MS) assay. Plasma concentrations for the i.m. samples were lower than expected. The mean C(max) following i.m. administration was 1.63 microg/mL with a corresponding T(max) of 0.55 h. Following i.v. administration, the median V(d(ss)) was 0.51 L/kg and a median Cl(p) of 0.069 L/kg/h. Mean i.m. bioavailability was 19%. The results indicate that ceftiofur used at 1.1 mg/kg i.m. could be useful in elephants when given two to three times a day or alternatively, 1.1 mg/kg i.v. once daily, depending upon the MIC of the pathogen.
Descriptors: cephalosporins pharmacokinetics, metabolism, area under curve, biological availability, cephalosporins administration and dosage, cephalosporins blood, intramuscular veterinary injections.

Fickel, J., D. Lieckfeldt, L.K. Richman, W.J. Streich, T.B. Hildebrandt, and C. Pitra (2003). Comparison of glycoprotein B (gB) variants of the elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) isolated from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Veterinary Microbiology 91(1): 11-21. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V44
Abstract: The recently described elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) have been associated with the deaths of numerous captive elephants. A proposed tool for the detection of EEHV infection in elephants is the PCR-based screening for EEHV-DNA in whole blood samples. Unfortunately, this detection method has only been successful in post-mortem analyses or in animals already displaying clinical signs of EEHV disease, thus rendering this method unsuitable for identification of carrier elephants. Here, we focus on glycoprotein B (gB) for serologic assay development, since gB is an envelope protein known to induce a neutralising antibody response in other herpesvirus infections. We sequenced the entire gB gene from five Asian elephants with EEHV, representing four different gB variants. Computer-aided methods were used to predict functionally important regions within EEHVgB. An extra-cytoplasmic region of 153 amino acids was predicted to be under positive selection and may potentially contain antigenic determinants that will be useful for future serologic assay development.
Descriptors: Elephas maximus, viral proteins, glycoproteins, disease transmission, detection, polymerase chain reaction, cytoplasm, amino acid sequences, molecular sequence data.

Garner, M.M., K. Helmick, J. Ochsenreiter, L.K. Richman, E. Latimer, A.G. Wise, R.K. Maes, M. Kiupel, R.W. Nordhausen, J.C. Zong, and G.S. Hayward (2009). Clinico-pathologic features of fatal disease attributed to new variants of endotheliotropic herpesviruses in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Veterinary Pathology 46(1): 97-104. ISSN: 0300-9858.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1354/vp.46-1-97
Abstract: The first herpesviruses described in association with serious elephant disease were referred to as endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) because of their ability to infect capillary endothelial cells and cause potentially fatal disease. Two related viruses, EEHV1 and EEHV2, have been described based on genetic composition. This report describes the similarities and differences in clinicopathologic features of 2 cases of fatal endotheliotropic herpesvirus infections in Asian elephants caused by a previously unrecognized virus within the betaherpesvirus subfamily. EEHV3 is markedly divergent from the 2 previously studied fatal probosciviruses, based on polymerase chain reaction sequence analysis of 2 segments of the viral genome. In addition to ascites, widespread visceral edema, petechiae, and capillary damage previously reported, important findings with EEHV3 infection were the presence of grossly visible renal medullary hemorrhage, a tropism for larger veins and arteries in various tissues, relatively high density of renal herpetic inclusions, and involvement of the retinal vessels. These findings indicate a less selective organ tropism, and this may confer a higher degree of virulence for EEHV3. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, herpesviruses, endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV), virulence.

Hildebrandt, T.B., R. Hermes, P. Ratanakorn, W. Rietschel, J. Fickel, R. Frey, G. Wibbelt, C. Reid, and F. Goritz (2005). Ultrasonographic assessment and ultrasound-guided biopsy of the retropharyngeal lymph nodes in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Veterinary Record 157(18): 544-8.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Endotheliotropic herpesvirus causes a fatal disease in young Asian elephants, but there are no methods for identifying latent carriers of the virus. During the postmortem study of one female African elephant and three male and two female Asian elephants, a lymph node located bilaterally caudoventral to the parotid gland, approximately 1.5 to 5 cm below the skin, was identified as suitable for transcutaneous ultrasound-guided biopsy. An ultrasonographic assessment and two biopsies were performed on 39 Asian elephants, and these lymph nodes were classified ultrasonographically as active, inactive or chronically active. The calculated mean (se) volume of 10 active lymph nodes was 17.4 (6.9) cm(3), and that of three chronically active lymph nodes was 10.6 (1.0) cm(3), whereas the mean volume of 17 inactive lymph nodes was 3.1 (0.6) cm(3). The presence of lymph node tissue in samples obtained by ultrasound-guided biopsy from three animals that were maintained under conditions that allowed for additional sampling was confirmed histologically. The dna extracted from the lymphoid tissue and the whole blood of all the elephants was negative for endotheliotropic herpesvirus by PCR.
Descriptors: DNA viral isolation and purification, herpesviridae isolation and purification, herpesviridae infections, lymph nodes pathology, zoo animals, fine needle biopsy methods, disease reservoirs, disease reservoirs virology, Herpesviridae pathogenicity, Herpesviridae infections epidemiology, Herpesviridae infections pathology, lymph nodes ultrasonography, lymph nodes virology, polymerase chain reaction, prevalence, virus latency.

Kajaysri, J., S. Huayjunteuk, S. Reunpech, C. Thammakarn, N. Warrasuth, and S. Eardmusic (2003). The condition of paper thin bone layer and fracture by metabolic bone disease in an orphan elephant. Proceedings of 41st Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Subject: Animals and Veterinary Medicine,February 3, 2003-February 7, 2003, Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University, Kasetsart University: Bangkok, Thailand, p. 508-515.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, metabolic bone diseases, bone layer, fracture, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, fracture fixation, Elephas maximus.
Language of Text: Thai, with English summary.

Kongsila, A., N. Thongtip, and N. Yatbantung (2003). Oesophageal obstruction (choke) in Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus): case report. Proceedings of 41st Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Subject: Animals and Veterinary Medicine,February 3, 2003-February 7, 2003, Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University, Kasetsart University: Bangkok, Thailand, p. 678-683.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, choke, esophageal obstruction, case report, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, Elephas maximus.
Language of Text: Thai, with English summary.

Lewerin, S.S., S.L. Olsson, K. Eld, B. Roken, S. Ghebremichael, T. Koivula, G. Kallenius, and G. Bolske (2005). Outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among captive Asian elephants in a Swedish zoo. Veterinary Record 156(6): 171-5.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Between 2001 and 2003, there was an outbreak of tuberculosis in a Swedish zoo which involved elephants, giraffes, rhinoceroses and buffaloes. Cultures of trunk lavages were used to detect infected elephants, tuberculin testing was used in the giraffes and buffaloes, and tracheal lavage and tuberculin testing were used in the rhinoceroses. The bacteria isolated were investigated by spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five elephants and one giraffe were found to have been infected by four different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Descriptors: disease outbreaks, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolation and purification, tuberculosis, zoo animals Mycobacterium tuberculosis classification, Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity, polymorphism, restriction fragment length, Sweden epidemiology, tuberculosis diagnosis, tuberculosis epidemiology.

Liu, C.H., C.H. Chang, S.C. Chin, P.H. Chang, Y.X. Zhuo, and C.C. Lee (2004). Fibrosarcoma with lung and lymph node metastases in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 16(5): 421-3.
NAL Call Number: SF774.J68
Abstract: A case of fibrosarcoma with lung and lymph node metastases in a 54-year-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is described. After pododermatitis of 2 years duration in the right forefoot, a mass developed in the lateral toenail. At postmortem, metastasis to the right axillary lymph node and both lungs was noted. Microscopic examination of primary and metastatic sites revealed infiltrating bundles of spindle cells, with fairly distinct cell borders, variable amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm, and elongate or oval nuclei. Tumor cells were often arranged in interwoven bundles and herringbone patterns. Mitotic figures were numerous and frequently bizarre. The diagnosis of fibrosarcoma with lung and lymph node metastases was made on the basis of histologic features and positive immunohistochemical staining for vimentin.
Descriptors: zoo animals, fibrosarcoma, secondary lung neoplasms, lung neoplasms, lymph nodes pathology, skin neoplasms, biopsy, fatal outcome, fibrosarcoma secondary, immunohistochemistry, skin neoplasms pathology.

Manna, S. (2003). Enteritis and it's treatment in an Asian elephant. Zoos' Print Journal 18(6): 1130. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, atropine, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diarrhea, drug therapy, enteritis, oxytetracycline, zoo elephant, Elephas maximus.

Manohar, B.M., J. Selvaraj, S.M. Sakthivelan, W.M. Paul, M.G. Jayathangaraj, K.S. Kumar, and Koteeswaran (2004). Pododermatitis in an elephant calf. Indian Veterinary Journal 81(1): 107-108. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: Asian elephant, calf, pododermatitis, infection.

Maslow, J.N., S.K. Mikota, M. Zhu, R. Isaza, L.R. Peddie, F. Dunker, J. Peddie, H. Riddle, and C.A. Peloquin (2005). Population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(1): 21-7.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: We recently described the clinical presentation and treatment of 18 elephants from six herds infected with TB. Treatment protocols and methods varied between herds to include both oral and rectal dosing using multiple drug doses and formulations. In this paper we present information regarding the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isoniazid (INH) in elephants and provide suggestions regarding initial treatment regimens. Forty-one elephants received INH daily by either oral or rectal administration with different formulations. Population PK analysis was performed using Non-linear Mixed Effect Modeling (NONMEM). Results of oral administration indicated that compared with premixed INH solution, the drug exposure was highest with a suspension prepared freshly with INH powder. When INH was concomitantly given as an admixture over food, Tmax was delayed and variability in drug absorption was significantly increased. Compared with oral administration, similar drug exposures were found when INH was dosed rectally. The data generated suggest that a starting dose of 7.5 mg/kg of INH is appropriate for initial TB treatment in elephants when premixed solution is administered directly into the oropharynx or rectal vault and 4 mg/kg are when INH is administered following immediate suspension from powdered form.
Descriptors: antitubercular agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, isoniazid pharmacokinetics, oral administration, rectal administration, administration and dosage of antitubercular agents, antitubercular agents in blood, therapeutic use of antitubercular agents, area under curve, isoniazid administration and dosage, isoniazid in blood, therapeutic use of isoniazid, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis drug therapy, tuberculosis.

Nath, I., V.S.C. Bose, S.K. Panda, B.C. Das, and L.K. Singh (2003). A case of multiple abscesses in a baby elephant. Zoos' Print Journal 18(11): 1270.
Descriptors: baby elephant, abscesses, multiple, disease, infection.

Nath, I., N. Sahoo, D.N. Mohanty, S.N. Mohapatra, S.K. Panda, V.S.C. Bose, and K.L. Purohit (2006). Foreign body obstruction of pharynx in an Asian elephant Elephas maximus. Zoos' Print Journal 21(10): 2441. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Abstract: This article reports on a case of transverse obstruction of the pharynx due to an intake of sugarcane by an adult free living cow elephant E. maximus in a forest near the Nandankanan Zoo in India. The highlight of the report focused on the diagnosis and treatment of the elephant. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, case reports, foreign bodies, histopathology, medical treatment, obstruction, pharynx, postmortem examinations, sugarcane.

Oni, O., K. Sujit, S. Kasemsuwan, T. Sakpuaram, and D.U. Pfeiffer (2007). Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in domesticated Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in north and west Thailand in 2004. Veterinary Record 160(11): 368-371. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: Serum samples from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the Kanchanaburi, Chiang Mai and Lampang provinces of Thailand were tested using the microscopic agglutination test against 22 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. A titre of more than 1:100 was used as evidence of infection. In northern Thailand, the seroprevalence was 58 per cent and the prevalent serovars were Leptospira interrogans serovar Sejroe, Leptospira interrogans serovar Tarassovi, Leptospira interrogans serovar Ranarum and Leptospira interrogans serovar Shermani. In western Thailand, the seroprevalence was 57 per cent and the prevalent serovars were L Tarassovi, L Sejroe, L Ranarum, Leptospira interrogans serovar Bataviae and L Shermani. These results were similar to studies in domestic livestock and stray dogs in the Bangkok district. Among the elephants from Kanchanaburi there were significant associations between seropositivity and between the camp and between the prevalent serovars and the camp. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, epidemiology, leptospirosis, seroprevalence, Leptospira interrogans.

Oni, O., W. Wajjwalku, O. Boodde, and W. Chumsing (2006). Canine distemper virus antibodies in the Asian elephant (Elaphas maximus). Veterinary Record Journal of the British Veterinary Association 159(13): 420-421. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, Canine distemper virus, seroprevalence, Thailand.

Pucher, H.E., C. Stremme, and F. Schwarzenberger (2003). Priapism in a semiwild Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Vietnam. Veterinary Record 153(23): 717-718. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: Elephas maximus, penis, case studies, chronic diseases, males, adult animals, male genital diseases, necrosis, medical treatment, sulfonamides, Vietnam, priapism.

Ratanakorn, P. (2006). Warning: fatal viral disease in Asian elephant found in South East Asia. Tigerpaper 33(2): 25. ISSN: 1014-2789.
Abstract: This article discusses the risk of transmission of Elephant epitheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) between domestic and wild elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand, and the establishment of a reference laboratory for the diagnosis of the disease. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, Indian elephant, Elephant epitheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) , diagnosis and disease transmission, endangered species, epidemiology.

Reid, C.E., N. Marx, J. Fickel, F. Goritz, M. Hunt, N. Thy, J.M. Reynes, W. Schaftenaar, and T.B. Hildebrandt (2005). Endotheliotropic herpes in Asia: the impact on captive and wild Asian elephant populations. Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin(6): 273. ISSN: 1431-7338.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, herpes, latent infections, mortality, viral diseases.

Sarma, K.K., A. Bhawal, V.K. Yadav, G. Saikia, and Jogiraj Das. (2006). Investigation of tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants of Assam vis a vis its cross infections with the handlers. Intas Polivet 7(2): 269-274. ISSN: 0972-1738.
Abstract: This study was conducted to screen selected captive elephants in Assam for tuberculosis. Cross infections with handlers were also investigated. 88 adult captive elephants from different locations in Assam were included in this study. Serum samples were subjected to indirect haemagglutination test (IHA). The animals seropositive in the IHA test were again examined by single intradermal tuberculin test using purified protein derivative and Trunk wash method. 36 elephants were serologically positive. Out of the 36 suspected animals subjected to the single intradermal tuberculin and Trunk wash tests, 7 were highly suspected. Only 2 cases could be positively diagnosed as infected with Mycobacterium based on the colony and staining characteristics. The positive animals were treated with a combination of 5 mg/kg body weight isoniazid (Solonex-DT) and 4.5 g/t body weight streptomycin (Ambistryn-S). An improvement in the general appearance of the animals was observed after one month of treatment. Mahouts and elephant keepers whose elephants were found to be seropositive were subjected to Mountex test, estimation of ESR and chest radiography. None of the mahouts suffered from the active form of tuberculosis. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, clinical aspects, cross infection, diagnostic techniques, disease control, disease prevention, drug therapy, epidemiology, isoniazid, streptomycin, tuberculosis.

Shimada, Y., N. Hama, M. Ashida, K. Ishikawa, Y. Matsuo, A. Yamada, A. Noda, K. Murata, and K. Okuno (2005). Pregnancy and stillbirth of an Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. Journal of Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums 46(2): 41-49. ISSN: 0386-7498.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.D63
Descriptors: Asian elephant, stillbirth, clinical aspects, prevalence, fetal death, pregnancy, Elephas maximus.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Thitaram, C., P. Pongsopawijit, N. Thongtip, T. Angkavanich, S. Chansittivej, W. Wongkalasin, C. Somgird, N. Suwankong, W. Prachsilpchai, and K. Suchit (2006). Dystocia following prolonged retention of a dead fetus in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Theriogenology 66(5): 1284-1291. ISSN: 0093-691X.
Online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.04.020
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: A 32-year-old nulliparous female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) showed signs of parturition 8 months later than predicted from the breeding records. However, while serosanguineous fluid, necrotic tissue and pieces of amnion were expelled, second-stage labor did not progress. Since the fetus was not found during an endoscopic examination of the vestibule, it was assumed that the elephant had calved unseen and she was returned to the forest to recuperate. Twelve months later, the elephant showed clear signs of second-stage labor accompanied by a bulge in the perineum and passage of keratinized nail through the vulva. A 35 cm episiotomy incision was made in the perineum just below the anus, via which chains were attached to the forelimbs of the fetus. Traction on the forelimbs alone proved insufficient to achieve delivery because the fetal head kept rotating and impacting in the pelvis. However, traction applied via a hook inserted behind the mandibular symphysis allowed the head to be elevated and extended, and the fetus to be delivered. The episiotomy wound was sutured in two layers and although the skin did not heal during primary closure it subsequently healed uneventfully by second intention. Retrospective evaluation of the elephant's serum progestagens profile demonstrated a fall to baseline at the suspected onset of parturition, supporting the supposition that the fetus was retained in the uterus for 12 months after parturition began. It is suggested that serum progestagens concentrations should be monitored regularly in mated elephant cows to verify the establishment of pregnancy and to better estimate the expected timing, and the onset of calving. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, case studies, females, fetal death, dystocia, postoperative care, Thailand.

Vodicka, R. (2008). Trunk pyoderma in a male Ceylon elephant (Elephas maximus maximus). Acta Veterinaria Brno 77(1): 127-131. ISSN: 0001-7213.
Abstract: The study describes the therapy of purulent trunk dermatitis in an aggressive male Ceylon elephant (Elephas maximus maximus). The elephant was immobilized 4 times with 1.7 ml Large Animal (LA) Immobilon i.m. within 50 days. The anesthetic action was antagonised with 1.7 ml LA Revivon+8.0 ml Naloxone i.v. and 0.5 ml LA Revivon+6.0 ml Naloxone i.m. From skin lesions the following pathogens were isolated: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Candida tropicalis. Local therapy consisted of the debridement of the affected skin, application of antibiotics and skin antiseptics. Depot penicillin, vitamins, probiotics and autogenous yeast vaccine were administered generally. In hematological indicators the biggest changes were found in the numbers of white blood cells and segmented neutrophils. Markedly low zinc concentrations were found repeatedly. Despite the non-standard steps we took (repeated anesthesia during a short time, non-compliance with the recommendations for the administration of some drugs, etc.) and difficult handling (aggressive, uncontrollable elephant, no restraint chute), it proved possible to treat such a case in this manner. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, case report, dermatitis, skin diseases, Candida tropicalis, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus.
Language of Text: Slovakian.

Vodicka, R. and J. Kral (2003). Purulent trunk dermatitis in a male Ceylon elephant (Elephas maximus maximus). In: Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere,May 1, 1928-June 1, 2003, Rome, Italy, Vol. 5, p. 151-153.
NAL Call Number: SF996.I5
Descriptors: Asian elephant, trunk, purulent dermatitis, pyoderma, skin diseases, treatment, aggressive male, anesthesia, handling, Elephas maximus.

Wanke, R., N. Herbach, and T. Haenichen (2005). Metastasising granulosa cell tumour in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin(6): 308. ISSN: 1431-7338.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, animal pathology, case report, granulosa cells, histopathology, metastasis, neoplasms, uterine diseases.

Zhu, M., J.N. Maslow, S.K. Mikota, R. Isaza, F. Dunker, H. Riddle, and C.A. Peloquin (2005). Population pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide in elephants. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(5): 403-9.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: This study was undertaken to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK), therapeutic dose, and preferred route of administration for pyrazinamide (PZA) in elephants. Twenty-three African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants infected with or in contact with others culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were dosed under treatment conditions. PZA was dosed daily at 20-30 mg/kg via oral (fasting or nonfasting state) or rectal (enema or suppository) administration. Blood samples were collected 0-24 h postdose. Population PK was estimated using nonlinear mixed effect modeling. Drug absorption was rapid with T(max) at or before 2 h regardless of the method of drug administration. C(max) at a mean dose of 25.6 (+/-4.6) mg/kg was 19.6 (+/-9.5 microg/mL) for PZA given orally under fasting conditions. Under nonfasting conditions at a mean dose of 26.1 +/- 4.2 mg/kg, C(max) was 25% (4.87 +/- 4.89 microg/mL) and area under concentration curve (AUC) was 30% of the values observed under fasting conditions. Mean rectal dose of 32.6 +/- 15.2 mg/kg yielded C(max) of 12.3 +/- 6.3 microg/mL, but comparable AUC to PZA administered orally while fasting. Both oral and rectal administration of PZA appeared to be acceptable and oral dosing is preferred because of the higher C(max) and lower inter-subject variability. A starting dose of 30 mg/kg is recommended with drug monitoring between 1 and 2 h postdose. Higher doses may be required if the achieved C(max) values are below the recommended 20-50 microg/mL range.
Descriptors: antitubercular agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics, pulmonary tuberculosis, oral administration, rectal administration, antitubercular agents administration and dosage, antitubercular agents therapeutic use, area under curve, Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity, pyrazinamide administration and dosage, pyrazinamide therapeutic use, tuberculosis, pulmonary blood, pulmonary drug therapy.

 

 

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