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Information Resources on Elephants
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Asian Elephants


Abou Madi, N., G.V. Kollias, R.P. Hackett, N.G. Ducharme, R.D. Gleed, and J.P. Moakler (2004). Umbilical herniorrhaphy in a juvenile Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(2): 221-5.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Abstract: An umbilical hernia was diagnosed in a 2-wk-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) by physical and ultrasonographic examinations. Umbilical herniorrhaphy was elected because the defect was large (approximately 7 cm long and 10 cm deep) and could potentially lead to incarceration of an intestinal loop. General anesthesia was induced with a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and diazepam and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The hernial sac was explored and contained fibrous tissue, fat, and an intestinal loop but no adhesions. The hernial sac was resected and the body wall closed using the technique of simple apposition. Following a superficial wound infection, the surgical site healed with no further complications.
Descriptors: umbilical hernia, anesthesia, zoo animals, umbilical hernia diagnosis, umbilical hernia surgery, treatment outcome, wound infection.

Agatsuma, T., R. Rajapakse, V. Kuruwita, M. Iwagami, and R. Rajapakse (2004). Molecular taxonomic position of the elephant schistosome, Bivitellobilharzia nairi, newly discovered in Sri Lanka. Parasitology International 53(1): 69-75. ISSN: 1383-5769.
NAL Call Number: QL757.P3747
Descriptors: Bivitellobilharzia nairi, molecular genetics, phylogeny, Asian elephant, parasites, hosts, Elephas maximus, Sri Lanka, adult worm, schistosome.

Agnew, D.W., L. Munson, and E.C. Ramsay (2004). Cystic endometrial hyperplasia in elephants. Veterinary Pathology 41(2): 179-83.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: Most captive female elephants are nulliparous and aged and many have endometrial disease, factors that may hinder fertility. This study characterized the pathologic features and demographic distribution of endometrial lesions from 27 captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and 13 African elephants (Loxodonta africanus), 12- to 57-years of age. The principal lesion was marked cystic and polypoid endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), present in 67% of Asian and 15% of African elephants ranging from 26 to 57 years. The lower prevalence in African elephants likely reflects their younger age range in this study. Fourteen of 15 affected elephants with breeding information were nulliparous. These results suggest that CEH and polyps are common in aged nulliparous elephants, and the severity of these lesions may impair fertility. These findings will be useful in the interpretation of ultrasonographic findings during reproductive examinations of potential breeding cows. Also, breeding programs should focus on younger animals.
Descriptors: zoo animals, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrium pathology, fertility physiology, polyps, endometrial hyperplasia pathology, histological techniques, polyps pathology, species specificity.

Agrawal, D.K. and J.L. Singh (2003). Electrocution in an Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) - a case report. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 23(1): 58. ISSN: 0970-051X.
NAL Call Number: SF703.I54
Descriptors: animal pathology, case reports, clinical aspects, death, diagnosis, electricity, electrocution, wild animals, Elephas maximus.

Ashoka Dangolla, I. Silva, and V.Y. Kuruwita (2004). Neuroleptanalgesia in wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus maximus). Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia 31(4): 276-279. ISSN: (p) 1467-2987; Online: 1467-2995.
NAL Call Number: SF914.V47
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the suitability of etorphine with acepromazine for producing prolonged neuroleptanalgesia in wild Asian elephants. ANIMALS: Ten adult wild elephants (four males, six females), free-roaming in the jungles of the north-western province of Sri Lanka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten wild elephants were tranquilized for attachment of radio transmitter collars from September to November 1997, using Large-Animal Immobilon (C-Vet Veterinary Products, Leyland, UK), which is a combination of etorphine (2.45 mg mL(-1)) and acepromazine (10 mg mL(-1)). This was injected using projectile syringes fired from a Cap-Chur gun (Palmer Chemical Co. Inc., Atlanta, USA). A volume of 3.3 (2.5-4.5) mL Immobilon (6.12-11.02 mg of etorphine and 25-45 mg acepromazine) was injected intramuscularly after body mass estimation of individual elephants. RESULTS: The body condition of all darted elephants was good, and the mean (minimum-maximum) shoulder height was 225 (180-310) cm. The average approximate distance to elephants at firing was 26 (15-50) m. The average time to recumbency after injection was 18 (15-45) minutes. Nine out of 10 elephants remained in lateral recumbency (and did not require additional dosing) for a period of 42 (28-61) minutes. The respiratory and heart rates during anaesthesia were 7 (4-10) breaths and 52 (40-60) beats minute(-1), respectively. An equal volume (8.15-14.67 mg) of diprenorphine hydrochloride (Revivon, 3.26 mg mL(-1) diprenorphine; C-Veterinary Products, Leyland, UK) was given intravenously when the procedure was completed. Recovery (return to standing position) occurred in 6 (2-12) minutes after diprenorphine injection. Immediately afterwards, all elephants slowly retreated into the jungle without complications. Continuous radio tracking of the animals involved in this study indicated no post-operative mortality for several months after restraint. CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Etorphine-acepromazine combinations can be used safely in healthy wild Asian elephants for periods of restraint lasting up to 1 hour.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, acepromazine, anesthesia, anesthetics, analgesics, diprenorphine, drug combinations, etorphine, heart rate, neuroleptics, pharmacodynamics, respiration rate, telemetry.

Ashwani, K. and S. Neetu (2004). Diseases of Indian elephants: an overview. Veterinary Practitioner 5(2): 179-183. ISSN: 0972-4036.
Descriptors: bacterial diseases, cardiovascular diseases, digestive disorders, granuloma, kidney diseases, liver diseases, nervous system diseases, parasitism, skin diseases, viral diseases, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana.

Atthi, R., P. Chuaplaivech, W. Pintawong, S. Takoonwong, P. Sunpachudayan, N. Ruksri, and W. Teerathavorawan (2003). Comparison of serum antibody responses in domestic elephants to three different haemorrhagic septicaemia oil adjuvant vaccine formulations. Journal of the Thai Veterinary Medical Association 54(3): 29-37. ISSN: 0125-0620.
Descriptors: adjuvants, antibody formation, disease control, disease prevention, disease resistance, hemorrhagic septicemia, immune response, immunity, vaccination, vaccine development, vaccines, wild animals, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana, Pasteurella multocida, ELISA.
Language of Text: Thai, with English summary.

Atthi, R., P. Chuaplaivech, W. Pintawong, S. Takoonwong, P. Sunpachudayan, N. Ruksri, and W. Teerathavorawan (2003). Comparison of serum antibody responses in domestic elephants to three different hemorrhagic septicaemia oil adjuvant vaccine formulations. Journal of the Thai Veterinary Medical Association 54(3): 29-37. ISSN: 0125-0620.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, African elephant, Loxodonta africana, adjuvants, antibody formation, disease control, disease prevention, disease resistance, hemorrhagic septicemia, immune response, immunity, vaccine development, vaccines.
Language of Text: Thai, Summary in English.

Bajpai, S.K. and V.P. Chandrapuria (2003). Experience of using melonex for sprained joint of an elephant. Intas Polivet 4(1): 109-110. ISSN: 0972-1738.
Descriptors: case reports, clinical aspects, drug therapy, joint diseases, Elephas maximus.

Ball, R.L., J.L. Brown, J. Meyer, J. St. Leger, and J.H. Olsen (2004). Treatment of anestrus due to hyperprolactinemia with cabergoline in a captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Proceedings: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association: Health and Conservation of Captive and Free-Ranging Wildlife. Joint Conference,August 28, 2004-September 3, 2004, San Diego, California, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: p. 363-365. 660 p.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, anestrus, treatment, hyperprolactinemia, Elephas maximus, cabergoline, plasma, serum prolactin levels, hormones, prolactin, ovary.

Bartlett, S.L., N. Abou Madi, M.S. Kraus, E.B. Wiedner, S.R. Starkey, and G.V. Kollias (2009). Electrocardiography of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40(3): 466-473. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are infrequently performed on Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and few studies have been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine reference ranges of ECG parameters in Asian elephants and to ascertain if age, body weight, and position of the elephant significantly affected the ECG. Electrocardiograms were obtained from 27 captive, nonsedated apparently healthy Asian elephants while they were standing (ST), in right lateral recumbency (RL), and/or in left lateral recumbency (LL). Six-lead ECGs were obtained using novel clamps and long ECG cables (71 cm). From lead I, standard waveforms and intervals were analyzed, including PR interval, QT interval, ST segment, P, QRS, T, and U waves if they were present. One animal was determined to have a previously undiagnosed conduction abnormality and was not included in the study. Most elephants had a sinus arrhythmia in at least one position. With increasing age, there was a trend toward a slower heart rate and significantly longer P waves. Increasing body weight was significantly correlated with longer QT intervals and T waves with lower amplitude. Compared with measurements in ST, LL resulted in P waves and QRS complexes with shorter amplitude, U waves with greater amplitude, PR intervals with shorter duration, and an increased heart rate. Compared with measurements in LL, RL resulted in larger QRS complexes. U waves were most commonly detected in RL and LL. Mean electrical axis calculated in the frontal plane were as follows: standing range -125 to +141 degrees , mean -5 degrees ; left lateral range -15 to +104 degrees , mean 27 degrees ; right lateral range -16 to +78 degrees , mean 9 degrees . Position-specific reference ranges should be used when interpreting ECGs, and clinicians must he aware of how age and body weight may affect the ECG. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: arrhythmia, body weight, electrocardiograms, electrocardiography, heart, heart rate, Elephas maximus.

Bhupen Sarma (2004). Corneal abrasion and iridocyclitis in an elephant. Intas Polivet 5(1): 128-129. ISSN: 0972-1738.
Descriptors: abrasion, atropine, cornea, drug therapy, eye diseases, eyes, gentamicin, healing, zoo animals, Elephas maximus.

Bojesen, A.M., K.E.P. Olsen, and M.F. Bertelsen (2006). Fatal enterocolitis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) caused by Clostridium difficile. Veterinary Microbiology 116(4): 329-335. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V44
Abstract: Two cases of fatal enteritis caused by Clostridium difficile in captive Asian elephants are reported from an outbreak affecting five females in the same zoo. Post mortem examination including histopathology demonstrated fibrinonecrotic enterocolitis. C. difficile was isolated by selective cultivation from two dead and a third severely affected elephant. Four isolates were obtained and found positive for toxin A and B by PCR. All isolates were positive in a toxigenic culture assay and toxin was demonstrated in the intestinal content from one of the fatal cases and in a surviving but severely affected elephant. PCR ribotyping demonstrated that the C. difficile isolates shared an identical profile, which was different from an epidemiologically unrelated strain, indicating that the outbreak was caused by the same C. difficile clone. It is speculated that the feeding of large quantities of broccoli, a rich source of sulforaphane, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of many intestinal microorganisms may have triggered a subsequent overgrowth by C. difficile. This is the first report of C. difficile as the main cause of fatal enterocolitis in elephants. The findings emphasize the need to regard this organism as potentially dangerous for elephants and caution is recommended concerning antibiotic treatment and feeding with diets containing antimicrobials, which may trigger an expansion of a C. difficile population in the gut. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts>
Descriptors: animal diseases, Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, enterocolitis, bacterial infections, Clostridium difficile, disease diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction, DNA profiling, pathogen identification, strains, animal nutrition, animal feeding, broccoli.

de Oliveira, C.A., G.D. West, R. Houck, and M. Leblanc (2004). Control of musth in an Asian elephant bull (Elephas maximus) using leuprolide acetate. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(1): 70-6.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Abstract: The results of long-term administration of leuprolide acetate (LA) depot in a 52-yr-old Asian elephant bull (Elephas maximus) for control of musth are presented. Twelve injections were administered for 6 yr during our interpretation of early musth or "premusth." Intervals between musth periods during the study varied from 2 to 34 mo. Blood samples, drawn weekly, were assayed for serum testosterone concentrations; mean levels were 11.78 +/- 1.97 nmol/L throughout the first 26 mo of the study, 7.28 +/- 1.28 nmol/L during the following 21 mo, and 0.45 +/- 0.035 nmol/L in the last 34 mo of this study. Early musth signs ceased within 3 days of drug administration after 10 of 12 injections. The mean serum testosterone concentrations were significantly decreased by the last 34 mo of the study. The results suggest leuprolide is a suitable alternative for controlling or preventing (or both) musth in captive Asian elephants, although permanent reproductive effects may occur. Zoos and wildlife conservation institutions could benefit from the use of LA in Asian elephants to increase the male availability in captivity, consequently ensuring genetic diversity and the perpetuation of the species.
Descriptors: drug effects behavior, physiology, gonadorelin agonists, leuprolide administration and dosage, drug effects on aggression, blood, drug effects on eliminative behavior, leuprolide pharmacology, drug effects on sex behavior, social dominance, testosterone.

de Oliveira, C.A., G.D. West, R. Houck, and M. Leblanc (2004). Control of musth in an Asian elephant bull (Elephas maximus) using leuprolide acetate. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(1): 70-76. ISSN: 1042-7260.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Descriptors: Asian elephant, bull, musth, behavior, testosterone, control, leuprolide acetate, Elephas maximus.

Dumonceaux, G., R. Isaza, D.E. Koch, and R.P. Hunter (2005). Pharmacokinetics and i.m. bioavailability of ceftiofur in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(5): 441-6.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: Captive elephants are prone to infections of the feet, lungs, and skin. Often treatment regimens are established with no pharmacokinetic data on the agents being used for treatment in these species. A pharmacokinetic study using ceftiofur (1.1 mg/kg) was conducted in four adult female captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Busch Gardens in Tampa, Florida. Elephants were given both i.v. and i.m. administrations in a complete crossover design with a 3-week washout period between treatments. Blood samples were collected prior to drug administration and at 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h postadministration. Ceftiofur analysis was performed using a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrophotometric (LC/MS) assay. Plasma concentrations for the i.m. samples were lower than expected. The mean C(max) following i.m. administration was 1.63 microg/mL with a corresponding T(max) of 0.55 h. Following i.v. administration, the median V(d(ss)) was 0.51 L/kg and a median Cl(p) of 0.069 L/kg/h. Mean i.m. bioavailability was 19%. The results indicate that ceftiofur used at 1.1 mg/kg i.m. could be useful in elephants when given two to three times a day or alternatively, 1.1 mg/kg i.v. once daily, depending upon the MIC of the pathogen.
Descriptors: cephalosporins pharmacokinetics, metabolism, area under curve, biological availability, cephalosporins administration and dosage, cephalosporins blood, intramuscular veterinary injections.

Fickel, J., D. Lieckfeldt, L.K. Richman, W.J. Streich, T.B. Hildebrandt, and C. Pitra (2003). Comparison of glycoprotein B (gB) variants of the elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) isolated from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Veterinary Microbiology 91(1): 11-21. ISSN: 0378-1135.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V44
Abstract: The recently described elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) have been associated with the deaths of numerous captive elephants. A proposed tool for the detection of EEHV infection in elephants is the PCR-based screening for EEHV-DNA in whole blood samples. Unfortunately, this detection method has only been successful in post-mortem analyses or in animals already displaying clinical signs of EEHV disease, thus rendering this method unsuitable for identification of carrier elephants. Here, we focus on glycoprotein B (gB) for serologic assay development, since gB is an envelope protein known to induce a neutralising antibody response in other herpesvirus infections. We sequenced the entire gB gene from five Asian elephants with EEHV, representing four different gB variants. Computer-aided methods were used to predict functionally important regions within EEHVgB. An extra-cytoplasmic region of 153 amino acids was predicted to be under positive selection and may potentially contain antigenic determinants that will be useful for future serologic assay development.
Descriptors: Elephas maximus, viral proteins, glycoproteins, disease transmission, detection, polymerase chain reaction, cytoplasm, amino acid sequences, molecular sequence data.

Garner, M.M., K. Helmick, J. Ochsenreiter, L.K. Richman, E. Latimer, A.G. Wise, R.K. Maes, M. Kiupel, R.W. Nordhausen, J.C. Zong, and G.S. Hayward (2009). Clinico-pathologic features of fatal disease attributed to new variants of endotheliotropic herpesviruses in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Veterinary Pathology 46(1): 97-104. ISSN: 0300-9858.
Abstract: The first herpesviruses described in association with serious elephant disease were referred to as endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) because of their ability to infect capillary endothelial cells and cause potentially fatal disease. Two related viruses, EEHV1 and EEHV2, have been described based on genetic composition. This report describes the similarities and differences in clinicopathologic features of 2 cases of fatal endotheliotropic herpesvirus infections in Asian elephants caused by a previously unrecognized virus within the betaherpesvirus subfamily. EEHV3 is markedly divergent from the 2 previously studied fatal probosciviruses, based on polymerase chain reaction sequence analysis of 2 segments of the viral genome. In addition to ascites, widespread visceral edema, petechiae, and capillary damage previously reported, important findings with EEHV3 infection were the presence of grossly visible renal medullary hemorrhage, a tropism for larger veins and arteries in various tissues, relatively high density of renal herpetic inclusions, and involvement of the retinal vessels. These findings indicate a less selective organ tropism, and this may confer a higher degree of virulence for EEHV3. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, herpesviruses, endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV), virulence.

Hildebrandt, T.B., R. Hermes, P. Ratanakorn, W. Rietschel, J. Fickel, R. Frey, G. Wibbelt, C. Reid, and F. Goritz (2005). Ultrasonographic assessment and ultrasound-guided biopsy of the retropharyngeal lymph nodes in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Veterinary Record 157(18): 544-8.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Endotheliotropic herpesvirus causes a fatal disease in young Asian elephants, but there are no methods for identifying latent carriers of the virus. During the postmortem study of one female African elephant and three male and two female Asian elephants, a lymph node located bilaterally caudoventral to the parotid gland, approximately 1.5 to 5 cm below the skin, was identified as suitable for transcutaneous ultrasound-guided biopsy. An ultrasonographic assessment and two biopsies were performed on 39 Asian elephants, and these lymph nodes were classified ultrasonographically as active, inactive or chronically active. The calculated mean (se) volume of 10 active lymph nodes was 17.4 (6.9) cm(3), and that of three chronically active lymph nodes was 10.6 (1.0) cm(3), whereas the mean volume of 17 inactive lymph nodes was 3.1 (0.6) cm(3). The presence of lymph node tissue in samples obtained by ultrasound-guided biopsy from three animals that were maintained under conditions that allowed for additional sampling was confirmed histologically. The dna extracted from the lymphoid tissue and the whole blood of all the elephants was negative for endotheliotropic herpesvirus by PCR.
Descriptors: DNA viral isolation and purification, herpesviridae isolation and purification, herpesviridae infections, lymph nodes pathology, zoo animals, fine needle biopsy methods, disease reservoirs, disease reservoirs virology, Herpesviridae pathogenicity, Herpesviridae infections epidemiology, Herpesviridae infections pathology, lymph nodes ultrasonography, lymph nodes virology, polymerase chain reaction, prevalence, virus latency.

Hildebrandt, T.B., T. Strike, E. Flach, L. Sambrook, J. Dodds, N. Lindsay, C.F. Furley, P.S. Glatzel, and M. McGowan (2003). Fetotomy in the elephant. Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere. Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, No.5,May 1, 1928-June 1, 2003, Rome, Italy, Vol. 5, p. 315-318.
NAL Call Number: SF996.I5
Descriptors: fetotomy, dystocia, fetus, surgery, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana, reproduction.

Hoyer, M.J., M.J. Kik, F.A. Vestappen, M.S. Wolters, H.H. van der Kolk, and M. Treskes (2004). Medical management of a geriatric bull elephant (Elaphus maximus) with multiple problems, a case report. In: Proceedings: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association: Health and Conservation of Captive and Free-Ranging Wildlife. Joint Conference,August 28, 2004-September 3, 2004, San Diego, California, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: p. 357-362. 660 p.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elaphus maximus, diseases, disorders, geriatric male, multiple problems, medical management, case report.

Hunter, R.P., R. Isaza, and D.E. Koch (2003). Oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic characteristics of ketoprofen enantiomers after oral and intravenous administration in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). American Journal of Veterinary Research 64(1): 109-14.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess oral bioavailability (F) and pharmacokinetic characteristics of the R- and S-enantiomers of ketoprofen administered IV and orally to captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). ANIMALS: 5 adult Asian elephants. PROCEDURE: Elephants received single treatments of racemic ketoprofen at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg, administered IV and orally, in a complete crossover design. Blood samples were collected at intervals during the 24 hours following treatment. At least 4 weeks elapsed between drug administrations. Samples were analyzed for R- and S-ketoprofen with a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopic assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by use of noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS: The enantiomers of ketoprofen were absorbed well after oral administration, with median F of 101% for R-ketoprofen and 85% for S-ketoprofen. Harmonic mean half-life ranged from 3.8 to 5.5 hours, depending on route of administration and enantiomer. The area under the concentration-time curve, mean residence time, apparent volume of distribution, plasma clearance, and maximum plasma concentration values were all significantly different between the 2 enantiomers for both routes of administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ketoprofen has a long terminal half-life and complete absorption in this species. Based on the pharmacokinetic data, a dosage of ketoprofen of 1 mg/kg every 48 hours to 2 mg/kg every 24 hours, PO or IV, is recommended for use in Asian elephants, although the safety and efficacy of ketoprofen during long-term administration in elephants have not been determined.
Descriptors: anti inflammatory agents, non steroidal pharmacokinetics, metabolism, ketoprofen pharmacokinetics, oral administration, anti inflammatory agents, non steroidal administration and dosage, anti inflammatory agents, non steroidal blood, area under curve, biological availability, cross over studies, half life, intravenous injections, ketoprofen administration and dosage, ketoprofen blood, random allocation, stereoisomerism.

Indramani Nath, S.K. Panda, Jasmeet Singh, and P.K. Roy (2009). Complication of immobilon-LA tranquilization in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 30(1): 69. ISSN: 0254-4105.
Abstract: A captive male Asian elephant, 45 years old, showed excitement and uncontrollable behaviour on 16 August 2007. The behaviour caused damages to nearby villages and properties. Forest officials guided the animal back to the sanctuary. It was immediately hobbled and tethered securely. Then, the animal became aggressive and it was decided to tranquilize it using 4 ml Immobilon-LA. After darting, the animal became more excited, broke its chain and ate two bags of wheat and turmeric from a store by breaking its door. An antidote, 8 ml M 50-50 (Diprenorphine), was administered to the ear vein. The elephant died within 45 min. Postmortem examination revealed that the larynx was blocked with pasty wheat material. The oesophagus was filled with food materials and the lungs were congested. The heart was soft and flabby with blood clots inside the ventricles. The cause of death was respiratory blockage resulting from feeding during sedation. The excitation of the bull after darting as evidenced by breaking of the chain and eating of grains in semi-sedated condition resulted to chocking and death of the elephant. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, aggression, animal behavior, case reports, mortality, neuroleptics.

Isaza, R., B.J. Behnke, J.K. Bailey, P. McDonough, N.C. Gonzalez, and D.C. Poole (2003). Arterial blood gas control in the upright versus recumbent Asian elephant. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 134(2): 169-76.
NAL Call Number: QP121.A1R4
Abstract: In the elephant, there is concern that lateral recumbency (LR) impairs respiratory muscle and lung function resulting in clinically significant arterial hypoxemia. Using healthy adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus, n=6), the hypothesis was tested that, given the O(2) binding characteristics of elephant blood, substantial reductions in arterial O(2) pressure (Pa(O(2))) in LR could be tolerated without lowering arterial O(2) content appreciably. Fifteen minutes of LR decreased Pa(O(2)) from 103+/-2 (upright, U) to 77+/-4 mmHg (P<0.05) and hemoglobin O(2) saturation (U, 97.8+/-0.1, LR, 95.3+/-0.5%, P<0.05). However, due to a recumbency-induced hemoconcentration, arterial O(2) content was unchanged (U, 18.2+/-2.4, LR, 18.3+/-2.1 ml O(2) per 100 ml). In addition, there was a mild hyperventilation in LR that reduced arterial CO(2) pressure (P(CO(2))) from 39.4+/-0.3 to 37.1+/-1.0 mmHg (P<0.05). These data indicate that the Asian elephant can endure at least short periods of LR without lowering arterial O(2) content.
Descriptors: acid base equilibrium physiology, anoxemia, blood pressure physiology, posture physiology, anoxemia blood, arteries, blood gas analysis.

Isaza, R., R.D. Davis, S.M. Moore, and D.J. Briggs (2006). Results of vaccination of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with monovalent inactivated rabies vaccine. American Journal of Veterinary Research 67(11): 1934-1936. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, zoo animals, animal diseases, rabies, Rabies virus, vaccination, inactivated vaccines, immune response, humoral immunity, temporal variation, blood chemistry, antibodies, seroconversion, booster vaccinations, neutralizing antibodies.

Isaza, R. and R.P. Hunter (2004). Drug delivery to captive Asian elephants - treating Goliath. Current Drug Delivery 1(3): 291-8.
Abstract: Captive Asian elephants have been maintained in captivity by humans for over 4000 years. Despite this association, there is little published literature on the treatment of elephant diseases or methods of drug administration to these animals. Elephants in captivity are generally healthy and require few therapeutic interventions over the course of their lifetime. However, when they become acutely ill, treatment becomes a serious issue. The successful and consistent administration of therapeutics to elephants is formidable in an animal that presents significant limitations in drug delivery options. The single most important factor in administering drugs to an elephant is the animal's cooperation in accepting the medication. Working around elephants can be very dangerous and this is magnified when working around sick or injured animals where the elephant is subject to increased stress, pain, and unusual situations associated with treatment. The large body size of the Asian elephant produces a separate set of issues. In this paper, methods of drug administration and their associated limitations will be reviewed. Considerations of medicating such large animals can serve to highlight the problems and principles of treatment that are inherent in these species.
Descriptors: zoo animal physiology, drug delivery system methods, drug administration routes, veterinary medicine methods.

Jani, R.G. (2008). Prevalence and hemato biochemical studies of gastrointestinal parasites of Indian elephants (Elephas maximus). Veterinary World 1(10): 296-298. ISSN: 0972-8988.
Abstract: Fecal samples were collected from 40 Indian elephants (Elephas maximus). The examination revealed a 62.5% prevalence of parasites in the elephants. Among the single infection with parasites, a high prevalence of Fasciola spp. (15.00%) was observed followed by mixed infections. The elephants harbouring parasites were clinically dull, depressed and lethargic. About 48% of the elephants manifested dehydration and loose feces as well as the habit of soil licking. The hematological studies of elephants harboring parasites revealed mild anaemia and eosinophilia, whereas biochemical studies revealed insignificant hypoproteinaemia. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, anemia, blood chemistry, dehydration, hypoproteinaemia, infections, parasitoses.

Kajaysri, J., S. Huayjunteuk, S. Reunpech, C. Thammakarn, N. Warrasuth, and S. Eardmusic (2003). The condition of paper thin bone layer and fracture by metabolic bone disease in an orphan elephant. Proceedings of 41st Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Subject: Animals and Veterinary Medicine,February 3, 2003-February 7, 2003, Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University, Kasetsart University: Bangkok, Thailand, p. 508-515.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, metabolic bone diseases, bone layer, fracture, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, fracture fixation, Elephas maximus.
Language of Text: Thai, with English summary.

Kanchanapangka, S., S. Supawong, K. Koedlab, J. Kaewpannarai, P. Khawnual, P. Tummaruk, and K. Sajjarengpong (2007). Body weight formulation in Asian elephant. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 37(1): 49-58. ISSN: 0125-6491.
Abstract: Accurate estimation of body weight is useful for feeding program evaluation, assessing nutritional status and general health, and for accurate dose calculation in medical treatment. However, it is impractical to weight elephants due to their enormous size and tremendous weight, and also due to the lack of a suitable weighing machine. The objective of the present study was to correlate various body measurements and actual body weight of the elephant in order to formulate a regression model to approximate the body weight of the elephant from body measurements. Seventy-eight Asian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) comprising 18 males and 60 females, from 9 months to 57 years in age were used. Body weight, girth measurements (heart, neck and flank), shoulder height, and circumference of feet and elbows were measured. All possible linear regressions of body weight were calculated. The most accurate model when using one parameter for domestic elephants is the flank girth (R2=0.939), although the body weight of domestic Asian elephants can be reliably calculated from various body measurements (R2>=0.813). For wild elephants, we suggested that shoulder height and circumference of feet are more practical (R2>=0.839). Inclusion of sex and age group (< 10 years, 10 to </ 0 years, and >=20 years) in the statistical model increased the R2. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, body measurements, body weight, estimation, heart girth, mathematical models, morphometrics.
Language of Text: Thai.

Kilgallon, C., E. Flach, W. Boardman, A. Routh, T. Strike, and B. Jackson (2008). Analysis of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(4): 527-536. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Two human enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and one radioimmunoassay (RIA) were validated and used to measure osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and the cross-linked telopeptide domain of type I collagen (ICTP), in serum from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Sera from four adult females sampled on 7 consecutive days were also analyzed to assess the existence and magnitude of intraindividual day-to-day variability of the serum concentration of these markers. Sample dilution curves were parallel with assay standard curves, which demonstrated that excellent cross reactivity existed between assay antibodies and elephants marker antigens. Statistically significant inverse correlations were found between age and concentrations of all three markers: BAP, r=-0.862 (P<0.01); OC, r=-0.788 (P<0.002); and ICTP, r=-0.848 (P<0.01). Strong positive correlations were found between BAP and OC (r=0.797, P<0.01), OC and ICTP (r=0.860, P<0.01), and between BAP and ICTP (r=0.958, P<0.01). No statistically significant intraindividual variability was found over 7 days in the four adult females for any of the markers assessed (OC: P=0.089; ICTP: P=0.642; BAP: P=0.146; n=4 in each case). The overall coefficient of variability observed in this group of animals was 10.3%, 7.4%, and 5.5% for OC, BAP, and ICTP, respectively. These results suggest a potential role for biochemical markers of bone turnover in monitoring skeletal health and bone disease in Asian elephants. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, alkaline phosphatase, antibodies, antigens, biochemical markers, blood serum, bone density, bone diseases, bones, collagen, cross reaction, enzyme immunoassay, enzymes, immunoassay, metabolism, osteocalcin, radioimmunoassay.

Kongsila, A., N. Thongtip, and N. Yatbantung (2003). Oesophageal obstruction (choke) in Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus): case report. Proceedings of 41st Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Subject: Animals and Veterinary Medicine,February 3, 2003-February 7, 2003, Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University, Kasetsart University: Bangkok, Thailand, p. 678-683.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, choke, esophageal obstruction, case report, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, Elephas maximus.
Language of Text: Thai, with English summary.

Landolfi, J.A., S.A. Schultz, S.K. Mikota, and K.A. Terio (2009). Development and validation of cytokine quantitative, real time RT-PCR assays for characterization of Asian elephant immune responses. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 131(1/2): 73-78. ISSN: 0165-2427.
Abstract: Infectious disease is an important factor in Asian elephant health and long-term species survival. In studying disease pathogenesis, it is important to consider not only the pathogen, but also the effectiveness of the host immune response. Currently, there is a paucity of information available on elephant immune function. Measurement of cytokine levels within clinical samples can provide valuable information regarding immune function during health and disease that may elucidate disease susceptibility. To develop tools for assessment of elephant immune function, Asian elephant partial mRNA sequences for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN)- gamma , tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha , transforming growth factor (TGF)- beta , glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and beta -actin were determined. Sequence information was then utilized to design elephant-specific primers and probes for quantitative, real time, RT-PCR assays for the measurement of cytokine mRNA. Greater than 300 bps of Asian elephant mRNA sequence were determined for each cytokine of interest. Consistent and reproducible, real time, RT-PCR assays with efficiencies of greater than 93% were also developed. Assay sensitivities ranged from less than 1 to 5000 DNA copies with the exception of IL-12, which had a sensitivity of 42,200 copies. Employment of molecular techniques utilizing mRNA-based detection systems, such as real time, RT-PCR, facilitate sensitive and specific cytokine detection and measurement in samples from species for which commercial reagents are not available. Future studies utilizing these techniques to compare elephant immune function during health and in the face of infection will be useful for characterizing the contribution of the elephant immune system to disease. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, characterization, cytokines, DNA, enzymes, glyceraldehyde, growth factors, health, hosts, immune response, immune system, immunology, infectious diseases, interferon, interleukin 10, interleukins, measurement, messenger RNA, necrosis, pathogenesis, polymerase chain reaction, transforming growth factor, tumor necrosis factor.

Laws, N., A. Ganswindt, M. Heistermann, M. Harris, S. Harris, and C. Sherwin (2007). A case study: fecal corticosteroid and behavior as indicators of welfare during relocation of an Asian elephant. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(4): 349-358. ISSN: 1088-8705.
Abstract: This study was a preliminary investigation of an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in a male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) by investigating changes in behavior and cortisol metabolite excretion associated with a putative stressful event. The study collected fecal samples for 10 days prior to, and 10 days after, 24-hr transport and relocation of the elephant to a new herd. The study measured cortisol metabolites using 2 enzyme immunoassays indicating a 389% and 340% increase in cortisol metabolite excretion following relocation. Maximal cortisol metabolite excretion occurred 2 days after relocation and remained elevated during establishment of the new herd. Stereotypic behavior increased approximately 400% after relocation. The relocation disturbed sleep patterns, the elephant spent less time sleeping during the night, and the elephant slept standing up. These results provide preliminary evidence that noninvasive monitoring of fecal cortisol metabolites can be used to investigate adrenal activity in Asian elephants and may be a safe, practical, and accurate welfare indicator. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, animal behavior, animal welfare, case report, corticoids, excretion, feces, glucocorticoids, hydrocortisone, immunoassay.

Lewerin, S.S., S.L. Olsson, K. Eld, B. Roken, S. Ghebremichael, T. Koivula, G. Kallenius, and G. Bolske (2005). Outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among captive Asian elephants in a Swedish zoo. Veterinary Record 156(6): 171-5.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Between 2001 and 2003, there was an outbreak of tuberculosis in a Swedish zoo which involved elephants, giraffes, rhinoceroses and buffaloes. Cultures of trunk lavages were used to detect infected elephants, tuberculin testing was used in the giraffes and buffaloes, and tracheal lavage and tuberculin testing were used in the rhinoceroses. The bacteria isolated were investigated by spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five elephants and one giraffe were found to have been infected by four different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Descriptors: disease outbreaks, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolation and purification, tuberculosis, zoo animals Mycobacterium tuberculosis classification, Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity, polymorphism, restriction fragment length, Sweden epidemiology, tuberculosis diagnosis, tuberculosis epidemiology.

Liu, C.H., C.H. Chang, S.C. Chin, P.H. Chang, Y.X. Zhuo, and C.C. Lee (2004). Fibrosarcoma with lung and lymph node metastases in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 16(5): 421-3.
NAL Call Number: SF774.J68
Abstract: A case of fibrosarcoma with lung and lymph node metastases in a 54-year-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is described. After pododermatitis of 2 years duration in the right forefoot, a mass developed in the lateral toenail. At postmortem, metastasis to the right axillary lymph node and both lungs was noted. Microscopic examination of primary and metastatic sites revealed infiltrating bundles of spindle cells, with fairly distinct cell borders, variable amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm, and elongate or oval nuclei. Tumor cells were often arranged in interwoven bundles and herringbone patterns. Mitotic figures were numerous and frequently bizarre. The diagnosis of fibrosarcoma with lung and lymph node metastases was made on the basis of histologic features and positive immunohistochemical staining for vimentin.
Descriptors: zoo animals, fibrosarcoma, secondary lung neoplasms, lung neoplasms, lymph nodes pathology, skin neoplasms, biopsy, fatal outcome, fibrosarcoma secondary, immunohistochemistry, skin neoplasms pathology.

Liumsiricharoen, M., T. Prapong, C. Thitaram, C. Somgird, C. Sarachai, W. Wongkalasin, S. Mahasawangkul, P. Kongtueng, N. Tongtip, and A. Suprasert (2005). Gross and microscopic anatomy of cranial dura mater of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences 39(3): 477-481. ISSN: 0075-5192.
Abstract: The gross and microscopic anatomy of the cranial dura mater of 2 dying, male, Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) aged 24 and 68 years was studied. The cranial dura mater consisted of 2 layers, an outer periosteal layer and an inner meningeal layer. The porous appearance formed by blood vessels was seen between the 2 layers. Some completed foramens were found in the falx cerebri sheet. Unlike most of domestic animals, there were 2 falx cerebelli running along the 2 sides of the vermis and also many small tubercles on the surface of the inner meningeal layer. By staining with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome and Weigert stains, these small tubercles were observed as collagenous mass protrusions. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, animal anatomy, blood vessels, brain, meninges.

Manna, S. (2003). Enteritis and it's treatment in an Asian elephant. Zoos' Print Journal 18(6): 1130. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, atropine, clinical aspects, diagnosis, diarrhea, drug therapy, enteritis, oxytetracycline, zoo elephant, Elephas maximus.

Manohar, B.M., J. Selvaraj, S.M. Sakthivelan, W.M. Paul, M.G. Jayathangaraj, K.S. Kumar, and Koteeswaran (2004). Pododermatitis in an elephant calf. Indian Veterinary Journal 81(1): 107-108. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: Asian elephant, calf, pododermatitis, infection.

Martelli, P., S. Herbert, and Oh Soon Hock (2004). Humeral fracture in a newborn Asian elephant calf (Elephas maximus). In: Proceedings: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association: Health and Conservation of Captive and Free-Ranging Wildlife. Joint Conference,August 28, 2004-September 3, 2004, San Diego, California, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: p. 597-600. 660 p.
Descriptors: Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, calf, treatment techniques, forelimb skeleton, injuries, humeral fracture, neonate, successful treatment, case report.

Martinez del Castillo, G. (2006). Tecnica de lavado de trompa mediante contacto protegido para diagnostico de tuberculosis en elefantes (Elephas maximus). [Trunk wash technique by protected contact for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants (Elephas maximus)]. REDVET 7(9): 1-3. ISSN: 1695-7504.
Abstract: The article discusses the development and training of elephant in captivity for trunk wash technique in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium infection. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, trunk wash, tuberculosis, diagnostic techniques, training of animals, zoo animals, Mycobacterium.
Language of Text: Spanish, Summary in English.

Maslow, J.N., S.K. Mikota, M. Zhu, R. Isaza, L.R. Peddie, F. Dunker, J. Peddie, H. Riddle, and C.A. Peloquin (2005). Population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(1): 21-7.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: We recently described the clinical presentation and treatment of 18 elephants from six herds infected with TB. Treatment protocols and methods varied between herds to include both oral and rectal dosing using multiple drug doses and formulations. In this paper we present information regarding the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isoniazid (INH) in elephants and provide suggestions regarding initial treatment regimens. Forty-one elephants received INH daily by either oral or rectal administration with different formulations. Population PK analysis was performed using Non-linear Mixed Effect Modeling (NONMEM). Results of oral administration indicated that compared with premixed INH solution, the drug exposure was highest with a suspension prepared freshly with INH powder. When INH was concomitantly given as an admixture over food, Tmax was delayed and variability in drug absorption was significantly increased. Compared with oral administration, similar drug exposures were found when INH was dosed rectally. The data generated suggest that a starting dose of 7.5 mg/kg of INH is appropriate for initial TB treatment in elephants when premixed solution is administered directly into the oropharynx or rectal vault and 4 mg/kg are when INH is administered following immediate suspension from powdered form.
Descriptors: antitubercular agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, isoniazid pharmacokinetics, oral administration, rectal administration, administration and dosage of antitubercular agents, antitubercular agents in blood, therapeutic use of antitubercular agents, area under curve, isoniazid administration and dosage, isoniazid in blood, therapeutic use of isoniazid, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis drug therapy, tuberculosis.

Maslow, J.N., S.K. Mikota, M. Zhu, H. Riddle, and C.A. Peloquin (2005). Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol (EMB) in elephants. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(3): 321-3.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Descriptors: antitubercular agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, ethambutol pharmacokinetics, oral administration, rectal administration, antitubercular agents administration and dosage, antitubercular agents in blood, area under curve, ethambutol administration and dosage, ethambutol in blood.

McAloon, F.M. (2004). Oribatid mites as intermediate hosts of Anoplocephala manubriata, cestode of the Asian elephant in India. Experimental and Applied Acarology 32(3): 181-5.
NAL Call Number: SB940 .E9
Abstract: Anoplocephala manubriata (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) is a tapeworm that parasitizes both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximas) elephants. Its life cycle has not yet been completely elucidated nor have intermediate hosts been previously reported. Soil and substrate was collected in the Kodanadu Forest Range, Ernakulum District and Guruvayur Devaswom Temple grounds, Thrissur District, in Kerala, India. Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) were collected from dung piles near captive elephants' bedding and examined for immature stages of the tapeworm. Five species of oribatids were found to contain at least one immature life stage of A. manubriata: Galumna flabellifera orientalis Hammer 1958, Scheloribates latipes (C.L. Koch 1844), S. praeincisus (Berlese 1913), Protoribates seminudus (Hammer 1971), and P. triangularis (Hammer 1971).
Descriptors: Cestoda growth and development, cestode infections, mites parasitology, cestode infections parasitology, cestode infections transmission, India, mite infestations parasitology, mite infestations.

Nath, I., V.S.C. Bose, S.K. Panda, B.C. Das, and L.K. Singh (2003). A case of multiple abscesses in a baby elephant. Zoos' Print Journal 18(11): 1270.
Descriptors: baby elephant, abscesses, multiple, disease, infection.

Nath, I., N. Sahoo, D.N. Mohanty, S.N. Mohapatra, S.K. Panda, V.S.C. Bose, and K.L. Purohit (2006). Foreign body obstruction of pharynx in an Asian elephant Elephas maximus. Zoos' Print Journal 21(10): 2441. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Abstract: This article reports on a case of transverse obstruction of the pharynx due to an intake of sugarcane by an adult free living cow elephant E. maximus in a forest near the Nandankanan Zoo in India. The highlight of the report focused on the diagnosis and treatment of the elephant. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, case reports, foreign bodies, histopathology, medical treatment, obstruction, pharynx, postmortem examinations, sugarcane.

Ollivet Courtois, F., A. Lecu, R.A. Yates, and L.H. Spelman (2003). Treatment of a sole abscess in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) using regional digital intravenous perfusion. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(3): 292-5.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Abstract: Regional digital i.v. perfusion was used to treat a severe sole abscess associated with a wire foreign body in a 19-yr-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) housed at the Paris Zoo. The cow presented with acute right forelimb lameness and swelling that persisted despite 4 days of anti-inflammatory therapy. Under anesthesia, a 10- x 0.5- x 0.5-cm wire was extracted from the sole of the right foot. There was a 2-cm-deep, 7-cm-diameter abscess pocket that was subsequently debrided. Regional digital i.v. perfusion was performed and repeated 15 days later, using cefoxitin and gentamicin on both occasions. Between treatments, the cow received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and phenylbutazone orally. Within 2 days of administering anesthesia and the first perfusion treatment, the lameness improved dramatically. When phenylbutazone was discontinued 1 wk after the first treatment, the lameness had completely resolved. At the second treatment, there was no evidence of further soft tissue infection, and the abscess pocket had resolved.
Descriptors: abscess, anti bacterial agents therapeutic use, injuries, foreign bodies, hoof and claw pathology, abscess therapy, zoo animals, cefoxitin therapeutic use, debridement, foreign bodies complications, gentamicins therapeutic use, lameness, etiology, perfusion methods, treatment outcome.

Oni, O., K. Sujit, S. Kasemsuwan, T. Sakpuaram, and D.U. Pfeiffer (2007). Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in domesticated Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in north and west Thailand in 2004. Veterinary Record 160(11): 368-371. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: Serum samples from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the Kanchanaburi, Chiang Mai and Lampang provinces of Thailand were tested using the microscopic agglutination test against 22 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. A titre of more than 1:100 was used as evidence of infection. In northern Thailand, the seroprevalence was 58 per cent and the prevalent serovars were Leptospira interrogans serovar Sejroe, Leptospira interrogans serovar Tarassovi, Leptospira interrogans serovar Ranarum and Leptospira interrogans serovar Shermani. In western Thailand, the seroprevalence was 57 per cent and the prevalent serovars were L Tarassovi, L Sejroe, L Ranarum, Leptospira interrogans serovar Bataviae and L Shermani. These results were similar to studies in domestic livestock and stray dogs in the Bangkok district. Among the elephants from Kanchanaburi there were significant associations between seropositivity and between the camp and between the prevalent serovars and the camp. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, epidemiology, leptospirosis, seroprevalence, Leptospira interrogans.

Portas, T.J., B.R. Bryant, F. Goritz, R. Hermes, T. Keeley, G. Evans, W.M.C. Maxwell, and T.B. Hildebrandt (2007). Semen collection in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) under combined physical and chemical restraint. Australian Veterinary Journal 85(10): 425-427. ISSN: 1751-0813.
Abstract: This article describes technique of manual stimulation for semen collection in a captive 50-year-old male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in New South Wales, Australia, physically restrained in a restraint chute and anesthetized with a combination of xylazine (Xylazil-100) and butorphanol (Torbugesic). This technique was effective for semen collection on the same animal for three occasions, but cannot be recommended for routine and repeated use due to the potential risk associated with anesthesia. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, anesthesia, anesthetics, butorphanol, restraint of animals, semen, techniques, xylazine, zoo animals.

Pucher, H.E., C. Stremme, and F. Schwarzenberger (2003). Priapism in a semiwild Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Vietnam. Veterinary Record 153(23): 717-718. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: Elephas maximus, penis, case studies, chronic diseases, males, adult animals, male genital diseases, necrosis, medical treatment, sulfonamides, Vietnam, priapism.

Rajakse, R.C., G.U.S.P. Mendis, C.G. Wijesinghe, J. Alahakoon, and L.N.T. De Silva (2005). Treatment and management of an elephant calf with a head injury. Zoos Print Journal 20(9): 1995-1996. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: elephant calf, head injury, treatment, management.

Rao, S.S. (2004). Recovery of an elephant calf from articular fracture. Zoos' Print Journal 19(4): 17-18. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, calf, articular fracture, clinical aspects, healing, therapy, tibia, recovery, Elephas maximus.

Ratanakorn, P. (2006). Warning: fatal viral disease in Asian elephant found in South East Asia. Tigerpaper 33(2): 25. ISSN: 1014-2789.
Abstract: This article discusses the risk of transmission of Elephant epitheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) between domestic and wild elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand, and the establishment of a reference laboratory for the diagnosis of the disease. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, Indian elephant, Elephant epitheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) , diagnosis and disease transmission, endangered species, epidemiology.

Reid, C.E., N. Marx, J. Fickel, F. Goritz, M. Hunt, N. Thy, J.M. Reynes, W. Schaftenaar, and T.B. Hildebrandt (2005). Endotheliotropic herpes in Asia: the impact on captive and wild Asian elephant populations. Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin(6): 273. ISSN: 1431-7338.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, herpes, latent infections, mortality, viral diseases.

Ren, L. and J. Hutchinson (2007). Three dimensional locomotor dynamics of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 146(4, Suppl. S): S110-S111. ISSN: 1095-6433.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, movement and support, footfall pattern, trunk rotation, locomotor dynamics, hindlimb stance, comparative study.

Salakij, J., C. Salakij, N.A. Narkkong, S. Apibal, P. Suthunmapinuntra, J. Rattanakukuprakarn, G. Nunklang, and M. Yindee (2005). Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells from Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences 39(3): 482-493. ISSN: 0075-5192.
Abstract: The blood cells from 14 adult Asian elephants were examined and cytochemically stained with Sudan Black B (SBB), peroxidase, periodic acid Schiff's reaction (PAS), anaphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) and beta -glucuronidase ( beta -glu). The complete blood counts were performed using an automated cell counter. Insignificant differences were observed in almost all the hematological values between the male and female elephants, except the leukocyte count and fibrinogen concentration which were higher and lower, respectively, in the males than in the females. The neutrophils had poorly segmented nuclei and many well-differentiated granules. The neutrophils stained strongly positive to SBB, faintly stained with PAS, focal dot stained to ANAE and beta -glu. Eosinophils contained 2-3 lobed nuclei and numerous small, round, red-refractive granules with some vacuoles. The eosinophils stained moderately positive to SBB and strongly positive to ANAE but negative to beta -glu. The basophils had variable number of intense granules which did not obscure the lobed nuclei. The basophils were negative for SBB but moderately positive to ANAE and beta -glu. Monocytes stained moderately positive to SBB and moderately to strongly positive to ANAE and beta -glu. The bilobed cells stained moderately positive to SBB and strongly positive for ANAE and beta -glu which were similar to monocytes. Ultrastructurally, they contained a large number of mitochondria similar to those of monocytes, except the shape of the nuclei. The number of bilobed cells exceeded the number of the other leukocytes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the surfaces of all blood cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed organelles within erythrocytes, platelets and all leukocytes especially bilobed cells. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, basophils, blood cells, cell ultrastructure, cytochemistry, eosinophils, erythrocytes, fibrinogen, hematology, leukocyte count, mitochondria, monocytes, neutrophils, nuclei, organelles, platelets, sex differences.

Sanchez, C.R., S. Murray, R.J. Montali, and L.H. Spelman (2004). Diagnosis and treatment of presumptive pyelonephritis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(3): 397-9.
NAL Call Number: SF601.J6
Abstract: A 37-yr-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) presented with anorexia, restlessness, and dark-colored urine. Urinalyses showed hematuria, leukocyturia, isosthenuria, proteinuria, granular casts, and no calcium oxalate crystals. Bloodwork revealed azotemia. Urine culture revealed a pure growth of Streptococcus zooepidemicus resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim but susceptible to cephalosporins. A presumptive diagnosis of pyelonephritis was made based on bloodwork, urinalysis, and urine culture. The animal was treated with intravenous ceftiofur, and intravenous and per rectum fluids were given for hydration. The elephant's attitude and appetite returned to normal, the abnormal blood parameters resolved, and urinary calcium oxalate crystals reappeared after treatment, supporting presumptive diagnosis. Follow-up ultrasonography revealed an abnormal outline of both kidneys with parenchymal hyperechogenicity and multiple uterine leiomyomas.
Descriptors: anti bacterial agents therapeutic use, cephalosporins therapeutic use, blood, urine, pyelonephritis, streptococcal infections, Streptococcus equi isolation and purification, calcium oxalate urine, differential diagnosis, fluid therapy, kidney ultrasonography, leiomyomatosis complications, leiomyomatosis diagnosis, pyelonephritis diagnosis, pyelonephritis drug therapy, streptococcal infections diagnosis, streptococcal infections drug therapy, Streptococcus equi drug effects, uterine neoplasms complications, uterine neoplasms diagnosis.

Sanchez, C.R., S.Z. Murray, R. Isaza, and M.G. Papich (2005). Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of enrofloxacin administered orally to captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). American Journal of Veterinary Research 66(11): 1948-53.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after oral administration to captive elephants. ANIMALS: 6 clinically normal adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). PROCEDURE: Each elephant received a single dose of enrofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg, PO). Three elephants received their complete diet (pellets and grain) within 2 hours after enrofloxacin administration, whereas the other 3 elephants received only hay within 6 hours after enrofloxacin administration. Serum concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were measured by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Harmonic mean half-life after oral administration was 18.4 hours for all elephants. Mean +/- SD peak serum concentration of enrofloxacin was 1.31 +/- 0.40 microg/mL at 5.0 +/- 4.2 hours after administration. Mean area under the curve was 20.72 +/- 4.25 (microg x h)/mL. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Oral administration of enrofloxacin to Asian elephants has a prolonged elimination half-life, compared with the elimination half-life for adult horses. In addition, potentially therapeutic concentrations in elephants were obtained when enrofloxacin was administered orally at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. Analysis of these results suggests that enrofloxacin administered with feed in the manner described in this study could be a potentially useful antimicrobial for use in treatment of captive Asian elephants with infections attributable to organisms, such as Bordetella spp, Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma spp, Pasteurella spp, Haemophilus spp, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus spp.
Descriptors: anti bacterial agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, fluoroquinolones pharmacokinetics, oral administration, animal feed, zoo animals, anti bacterial agents administration and dosage, anti bacterial agents in blood, area under curve, fluoroquinolones administration and dosage, fluoroquinolones blood, half life.

Saragusty, J., T.B. Hildebrandt, B. Behr, A. Knieriem, J. Kruse, and R. Hermes (2009). Successful cryopreservation of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) spermatozoa. Animal Reproduction Science 115(1-4): 255-266. ISSN: 0378-4320.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A5
Abstract: Reproduction in captive elephants is low and infant mortality is high, collectively leading to possible population extinction. Artificial insemination was developed a decade ago; however, it relies on fresh-chilled semen from just a handful of bulls with inconsistent sperm quality. Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed sperm has never been described, probably, in part, due to low semen quality after cryopreservation. The present study was designed with the aim of finding a reliable semen freezing protocol. Screening tests included freezing semen with varying concentrations of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, trehalose, dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol as cryoprotectants and assessing cushioned centrifugation, rapid chilling to suprazero temperatures, freezing extender osmolarity, egg yolk concentration, post-thaw dilution with cryoprotectant-free BC solution and the addition of 10% (v/v) of autologous seminal plasma. The resulting optimal freezing protocol uses cushioned centrifugation, two-step dilution with isothermal 285mOsm/kg Berliner Cryomedium (BC) with final glycerol concentration of 7% and 16% egg yolk, and freezing in large volume by the directional freezing technique. After thawing, samples are diluted 1:1 with BC solution. Using this protocol, post-thaw evaluations results were: motility upon thawing: 57.2pl5.4%, motility following 30min incubation at 37pC: 58.5pl6.0% and following 3h incubation: 21.7pl7.6%, intact acrosome: 57.1pl5.2%, normal morphology: 52.0pl5.8% and viability: 67.3pl6.1%. With this protocol, good quality semen can be accumulated for future use in artificial inseminations when and where needed. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, spermatozoa, cryopreservation, artificial insemination, reproduction.

Sarma, K.K. (2004). Extraction of decayed tusk in elephants. Indian Veterinary Journal 81(7): 812-814. ISSN: 0019-6479.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 IN2
Descriptors: decayed tusk, extraction, Asian elephant, injury, infection, clinical signs, treatment, anesthetic management, post operative care, outcome.

Sarma, K.K., A. Bhawal, V.K. Yadav, G. Saikia, and Jogiraj Das. (2006). Investigation of tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants of Assam vis a vis its cross infections with the handlers. Intas Polivet 7(2): 269-274. ISSN: 0972-1738.
Abstract: This study was conducted to screen selected captive elephants in Assam for tuberculosis. Cross infections with handlers were also investigated. 88 adult captive elephants from different locations in Assam were included in this study. Serum samples were subjected to indirect haemagglutination test (IHA). The animals seropositive in the IHA test were again examined by single intradermal tuberculin test using purified protein derivative and Trunk wash method. 36 elephants were serologically positive. Out of the 36 suspected animals subjected to the single intradermal tuberculin and Trunk wash tests, 7 were highly suspected. Only 2 cases could be positively diagnosed as infected with Mycobacterium based on the colony and staining characteristics. The positive animals were treated with a combination of 5 mg/kg body weight isoniazid (Solonex-DT) and 4.5 g/t body weight streptomycin (Ambistryn-S). An improvement in the general appearance of the animals was observed after one month of treatment. Mahouts and elephant keepers whose elephants were found to be seropositive were subjected to Mountex test, estimation of ESR and chest radiography. None of the mahouts suffered from the active form of tuberculosis. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, clinical aspects, cross infection, diagnostic techniques, disease control, disease prevention, drug therapy, epidemiology, isoniazid, streptomycin, tuberculosis.

Shimada, Y., N. Hama, M. Ashida, K. Ishikawa, Y. Matsuo, A. Yamada, A. Noda, K. Murata, and K. Okuno (2005). Pregnancy and stillbirth of an Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. Journal of Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums 46(2): 41-49. ISSN: 0386-7498.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.D63
Descriptors: Asian elephant, stillbirth, clinical aspects, prevalence, fetal death, pregnancy, Elephas maximus.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Shimosawa, K. and N. Misawa (2008). Assessment of Protein G in serodiagnosis of zoo animals and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Asian elephant. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association 61(1): 75-78. ISSN: 0446-6454.
Abstract: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a fast and cost-effective serodiagnosis, is a helpful screening method in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. However, it remains unclear whether ELISA is suitable for the diagnosis of zoo animals. This study examined the reactivity of Protein G, an IgG-binding protein, to sera from zoo animals. Results showed that most sera examined bound strongly to Protein G, while sera from marsupial animals, Panthera and Asian elephant showed weak reactions. These findings suggest that Protein G does not bind to IgG uniformly in zoo animals. IgG was purified from Asian elephant serum, and used to obtain antiserum by immunizing a rabbit. This made it possible to develop an ELISA system for effectively detecting IgG in an Asian elephant. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, binding proteins, ELISA, IgG, immunodiagnosis, immunological diseases, zoo animals, infectious disease diagnosis.
Language of Text: Japanese, Summary in English.

Siegal Willott, J., R. Isaza, R. Johnson, and M. Blaik (2008). Distal limb radiography, ossification, and growth plate closure in the juvenile Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(3): 320-334. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Eleven juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were evaluated radiographically to determine the relative times of growth plate closure and phalangeal ossification in the bones of the distal forelimb. Specifically, the first, second, and third phalanges of the third digit (D3) were evaluated, as well as the third phalanx of digits 1, 2, 4, and 5. All elephants were healthy at the time of examination. A retrospective evaluation of radiographs from six of the 11 juvenile elephants was also completed to augment the data set. This study reports the methods used to obtain high-quality radiographs of the distal juvenile elephant limb, ossification characteristics of the phalanges, relative times of growth plate closure within the proximal phalanges of D3, and a method for age estimation based on radiographic findings. This study will help clinicians in conducting elephant foot radiography, in evaluating foot radiographs in juvenile elephants, in recognizing normal versus pathologic change, and in estimating juvenile elephant age based on radiographic ossification characteristics and growth plate closure times. Consistent use of the proposed foot radiograph technique is recommended to facilitate foot disease recognition and as part of the annual examination of captive Asian elephants. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, bones, foot diseases, ossification, phalanges, radiography.

Thitaram, C., P. Pongsopawijit, N. Thongtip, T. Angkavanich, S. Chansittivej, W. Wongkalasin, C. Somgird, N. Suwankong, W. Prachsilpchai, and K. Suchit (2006). Dystocia following prolonged retention of a dead fetus in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Theriogenology 66(5): 1284-1291. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: A 32-year-old nulliparous female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) showed signs of parturition 8 months later than predicted from the breeding records. However, while serosanguineous fluid, necrotic tissue and pieces of amnion were expelled, second-stage labor did not progress. Since the fetus was not found during an endoscopic examination of the vestibule, it was assumed that the elephant had calved unseen and she was returned to the forest to recuperate. Twelve months later, the elephant showed clear signs of second-stage labor accompanied by a bulge in the perineum and passage of keratinized nail through the vulva. A 35 cm episiotomy incision was made in the perineum just below the anus, via which chains were attached to the forelimbs of the fetus. Traction on the forelimbs alone proved insufficient to achieve delivery because the fetal head kept rotating and impacting in the pelvis. However, traction applied via a hook inserted behind the mandibular symphysis allowed the head to be elevated and extended, and the fetus to be delivered. The episiotomy wound was sutured in two layers and although the skin did not heal during primary closure it subsequently healed uneventfully by second intention. Retrospective evaluation of the elephant's serum progestagens profile demonstrated a fall to baseline at the suspected onset of parturition, supporting the supposition that the fetus was retained in the uterus for 12 months after parturition began. It is suggested that serum progestagens concentrations should be monitored regularly in mated elephant cows to verify the establishment of pregnancy and to better estimate the expected timing, and the onset of calving. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, case studies, females, fetal death, dystocia, postoperative care, Thailand.

Thongtip, N., M. Damyang, S. Mahasawangkul, A. Kongsila, T. Angkawanich, S. Jansittiwate, C. Thitaram, and P. Phongsopawijit (2003). Frozen semen artificial insemination in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) using endoscope and ultrasound guide. Proceedings of 41st Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Subject: Animals and Veterinary Medicine,February 3, 2003-February 7, 2003, Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, p. 652-657.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, frozen semen, artificial insemination, endoscopy, cervix, thawed semen, ultrasonography, Elephas maximus.
Language of Text: Thai, with English summary.

Thongtip, N., J. Saikhun, S. Mahasawangkul, K. Kornkaewrat, P. Suthanmapinanh, and A. Pinyopummin (2008). Effect of pentoxifylline on the motility characteristics and viability of spermatozoa in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with low semen quality. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 38(3): 37-45. ISSN: 0125-6491.
Abstract: To investigate the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) to enhance the motility and fertilization capacity of semen samples with the low-motile sperm in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), 14 semen collection attempts in 9 elephant bulls in Thailand by manual stimulation were undertaken and eleven ejaculates fitted the criteria of investigation (0-30% motility). These were divided into poor-motile (0-9% motility) and low-motile (10-30% motility) sperm groups. Fresh semen samples were divided as a control group and 3 experimental groups that were supplemented with PTX at a final concentration of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/ml. The semen samples were incubated at 37 degrees C for 15 and 30 min and stained with VIADENT media for viability assessment. Sperm motility and viability were tested using computer-assisted semen analysis. PTX added to the semen did not significantly improve the percentage of the total and progressive motility, motility characteristics and viability of sperm in either the poor-or low-motile groups. However, at 30 min, in the low-motile sperm group, PTX treatment maintained the percentage of total and progressive motility, path velocity and progressive velocity at a higher level than the control group. The present study indicates that PTX added to low motility semen does not increase elephant semen quality. However, it may partially have a tendency to maintain sperm motility and sperm movement characteristics. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, male fertility, motility, pentoxifylline, semen, semen characters, spermatozoa, velocity.
Language of Text: Thai.

van der Kolk, J.H., J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen, A.J.M. van den Belt, R.H.N. van Schaik, and W. Schaftenaar (2008). Subclinical hypocalcaemia in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Veterinary Record 162(15): 475-479. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Abstract: The hypothesis that hypocalcaemia may play a role in dystocia in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) was investigated. The objectives of the study were to measure the total calcium concentration in elephant plasma; assess the changes in parameters of calcium metabolism during a feeding trial; investigate a possible relationship between calcium metabolism and dystocia; and assess bone mineralisation in captive Asian elephants in vivo. The following parameters were measured: total and ionised calcium, inorganic phosphorous and magnesium, the fractional excretions of these minerals, intact parathyroid hormone, 25-OH-D< sub>3</ sub> and 1,25-OH-D< sub>3</ sub>. Radiographs were taken from tail vertebrae for assessment of bone mineralisation. The mean (sd) heparinised plasma total calcium concentration was 2.7 (0.33) mmol/l (n=43) ranging from 0.84 to 3.08 mmol/l in 11 Asian elephants. There was no significant correlation between plasma total calcium concentration and age. Following feeding of a calcium rich ration to four captive Asian elephant cows, plasma total and ionised calcium peaked at 3.6 (0.24) mmol/l (range 3.4 to 3.9 mmol/l) and 1.25 (0.07) mmol/l (range 1.17 to 1.32 mmol/l), respectively. Plasma ionised calcium concentrations around parturition in four Asian elephant cows ranged from 0.37 to 1.1 mmol/l only. The present study indicates that captive Asian elephants might be hypocalcaemic, and that, in captive Asian elephants, the normal plasma concentration of total calcium should actually be around 3.6 mmol/l and normal plasma concentration of ionised calcium around 1.25 mmol/l. Given the fact that elephants absorb dietary calcium mainly from the intestine, it could be concluded that elephants should be fed calcium-rich diets at all times, and particularly around parturition. In addition, normal values for ionised calcium in captive Asian elephants should be reassessed. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, blood picture, blood plasma, bone mineralization, calcium, dystocia, hypocalcaemia, inorganic phosphorus, intestines, magnesium, mineral absorption, mineral metabolism, parathyrin, zoo animals.

Vodicka, R. (2008). Trunk pyoderma in a male Ceylon elephant (Elephas maximus maximus). Acta Veterinaria Brno 77(1): 127-131. ISSN: 0001-7213.
Abstract: The study describes the therapy of purulent trunk dermatitis in an aggressive male Ceylon elephant (Elephas maximus maximus). The elephant was immobilized 4 times with 1.7 ml Large Animal (LA) Immobilon i.m. within 50 days. The anesthetic action was antagonised with 1.7 ml LA Revivon+8.0 ml Naloxone i.v. and 0.5 ml LA Revivon+6.0 ml Naloxone i.m. From skin lesions the following pathogens were isolated: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Candida tropicalis. Local therapy consisted of the debridement of the affected skin, application of antibiotics and skin antiseptics. Depot penicillin, vitamins, probiotics and autogenous yeast vaccine were administered generally. In hematological indicators the biggest changes were found in the numbers of white blood cells and segmented neutrophils. Markedly low zinc concentrations were found repeatedly. Despite the non-standard steps we took (repeated anesthesia during a short time, non-compliance with the recommendations for the administration of some drugs, etc.) and difficult handling (aggressive, uncontrollable elephant, no restraint chute), it proved possible to treat such a case in this manner. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, case report, dermatitis, skin diseases, Candida tropicalis, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus.
Language of Text: Slovakian.

Vodicka, R. and J. Kral (2003). Purulent trunk dermatitis in a male Ceylon elephant (Elephas maximus maximus). In: Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere,May 1, 1928-June 1, 2003, Rome, Italy, Vol. 5, p. 151-153.
NAL Call Number: SF996.I5
Descriptors: Asian elephant, trunk, purulent dermatitis, pyoderma, skin diseases, treatment, aggressive male, anesthesia, handling, Elephas maximus.

Wanke, R., N. Herbach, and T. Haenichen (2005). Metastasising granulosa cell tumour in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin(6): 308. ISSN: 1431-7338.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, animal pathology, case report, granulosa cells, histopathology, metastasis, neoplasms, uterine diseases.

Weissenboeck, N.M., H.M. Schwammer, and T. Voracek (2007). Thermographische diagnostik bei afrikanischen (Loxodonta africana) und asiatischen (Elephas maximus) elefanten. [Thermographic diagnostic in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asiatic elephants (Elephas maximus)]. Zoologische Garten 76(5-6): 331-344. ISSN: 0044-5169.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, thermography, diagnostic techniques.
Language of Text: German.

Weissengruber, G.E., F.K. Fuss, G. Egger, G. Stanek, K.M. Hittmair, and G. Forstenpointner (2006). The elephant knee joint: morphological and biomechanical considerations. Journal of Anatomy 208(1): 59-72.
NAL Call Number: 447.8 J826
Abstract: Elephant limbs display unique morphological features which are related mainly to supporting the enormous body weight of the animal. In elephants, the knee joint plays important roles in weight bearing and locomotion, but anatomical data are sparse and lacking in functional analyses. In addition, the knee joint is affected frequently by arthrosis. Here we examined structures of the knee joint by means of standard anatomical techniques in eight African (Loxodonta africana) and three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Furthermore, we performed radiography in five African and two Asian elephants and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in one African elephant. Macerated bones of 11 individuals (four African, seven Asian elephants) were measured with a pair of callipers to give standardized measurements of the articular parts. In one Asian and three African elephants, kinematic and functional analyses were carried out using a digitizer and according to the helical axis concept. Some peculiarities of healthy and arthrotic knee joints of elephants were compared with human knees. In contrast to those of other quadruped mammals, the knee joint of elephants displays an extended resting position. The femorotibial joint of elephants shows a high grade of congruency and the menisci are extremely narrow and thin. The four-bar mechanism of the cruciate ligaments exists also in the elephant. The main motion of the knee joint is extension-flexion with a range of motion of 142 degrees . In elephants, arthrotic alterations of the knee joint can lead to injury or loss of the cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament.
Descriptors: knee joint, anatomy, morphological, biomechanical, weight bearing, locomotion, radiography, MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, arthrosis.

Wemmer, C., V. Krishnamurthy, S. Shrestha, L.A. Hayek, M. Thant, and K.A. Nanjappa (2006). Assessment of body condition in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Zoo Biology 25(3): 187-200. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, body condition, body regions, morphometry, animal age, gender differences, sexual dimorphism, body fat, subcutaneous fat, India, index of body condition, visual-assessment.

Wiedner, E.B., C. Gray, P. Rich, G.L. Jacobson, R. Isaza, D. Schmitt, and W.A. Lindsay (2008). Nonsurgical repair of an umbilical hernia in two Asian elephant calves (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(2): 248-251. ISSN: 1042-7260.
Abstract: Umbilical hernias were diagnosed in two captive-born, female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calves several weeks after birth. Daily manual reduction of the hernias for 5 wk in the first case and for 5 mo in the second resulted in complete closure of the defects. Nonsurgical repair of uncomplicated, fully reducible umbilical hernias in Asian elephants can be an alternative to surgery. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, case reports, clinical aspects, diagnosis, medical treatment, surgery, umbilical hernia, umbilicus, zoo animals.

Zhu, M., J.N. Maslow, S.K. Mikota, R. Isaza, F. Dunker, H. Riddle, and C.A. Peloquin (2005). Population pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide in elephants. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(5): 403-9.
NAL Call Number: SF915.J63
Abstract: This study was undertaken to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK), therapeutic dose, and preferred route of administration for pyrazinamide (PZA) in elephants. Twenty-three African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants infected with or in contact with others culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were dosed under treatment conditions. PZA was dosed daily at 20-30 mg/kg via oral (fasting or nonfasting state) or rectal (enema or suppository) administration. Blood samples were collected 0-24 h postdose. Population PK was estimated using nonlinear mixed effect modeling. Drug absorption was rapid with T(max) at or before 2 h regardless of the method of drug administration. C(max) at a mean dose of 25.6 (+/-4.6) mg/kg was 19.6 (+/-9.5 microg/mL) for PZA given orally under fasting conditions. Under nonfasting conditions at a mean dose of 26.1 +/- 4.2 mg/kg, C(max) was 25% (4.87 +/- 4.89 microg/mL) and area under concentration curve (AUC) was 30% of the values observed under fasting conditions. Mean rectal dose of 32.6 +/- 15.2 mg/kg yielded C(max) of 12.3 +/- 6.3 microg/mL, but comparable AUC to PZA administered orally while fasting. Both oral and rectal administration of PZA appeared to be acceptable and oral dosing is preferred because of the higher C(max) and lower inter-subject variability. A starting dose of 30 mg/kg is recommended with drug monitoring between 1 and 2 h postdose. Higher doses may be required if the achieved C(max) values are below the recommended 20-50 microg/mL range.
Descriptors: antitubercular agents pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics, pulmonary tuberculosis, oral administration, rectal administration, antitubercular agents administration and dosage, antitubercular agents therapeutic use, area under curve, Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity, pyrazinamide administration and dosage, pyrazinamide therapeutic use, tuberculosis, pulmonary blood, pulmonary drug therapy.

Zuba, J.R., M.D. Stetter, S.R. Dover, and M. Briggs (2003). Development of rigid laparoscopy techniques in elephants and rhinoceros. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference,October 4, 2003-October 10, 2003, Minneapolis, Minnesota, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: p. 223-227. 333 p.
NAL Call Number: SH171.I22
Descriptors: Rhinocerotidae, Loxodonta africana, Elephas maximus, literature review, diagnostic techniques, rigid laparoscopy techniques, development, applications, review.



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