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Information Resources on Elephants
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Baxter, P.W.J. and W.M. Getz (2005). A model-framed evaluation of elephant effects on tree and fire dynamics in African savannas. Ecological Applications 15(4): 1331-1341. ISSN: 1051-0761.
NAL Call Number: QH540.E23
Descriptors: savannas, Loxodonta africana, population density, herbivores, browsing, trees, woody plants, grasses, plant ecology, community ecology, wildfires, fire ecology, simulation models, Southern Africa.

Bhima, R., J. Howard, and S. Nyanyale (2003). The status of elephants in Kasungu National Park, Malawi, in 2003. Pachyderm 35: 31-36. ISSN: 1026-2881.
Descriptors: Loxodonta africana africana, trade in animals, extent of illegal poaching, conservation measures, need for increased law enforcement activities, population censuses, population density, population size, site comparisons, Malawi, Kasungu National Park, abundance, level of poaching and need for better law enforcement.
Language of Text: English, with English and French summaries.

Blake, S. and S. Hedges (2004). Sinking the flagship: the case of forest elephants in Asia and Africa. Conservation Biology 18(5): 1191-1202. ISSN: 0888-8892.
NAL Call Number: QH75.A2C5
Descriptors: forests, wild animals, wildlife conservation, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana, management implications.

Blanc, J.J., R.F.W. Barnes, G.C. Craig, H.T. Dublin, C.R. Thouless, I. Douglas Hamilton and J.A. Hart (2007). African Elephant Status Report 2007: an Update From the African Elephant Database, Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN): Gland, Switzerland, 276 p. ISBN: 978-2-8317-0970-3.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, databases, geographical distribution, population dynamics, wildlife conservation, wildlife management.

Blanc, J., C. Thouless, J. Hart, H. Dublin, I. Douglas Hamilton, C. Craig, and R. Barnes (2003). African elephant status report 2002. An update from the African elephant database. Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 29: i-vi, 1-301. ISSN: 1026-4965.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, conservation, population dynamics, Africa, distribution, database.

Boafo, Y., U.F. Dubuire, E.K. Danquah, M. Manford, A. Nandjui, E.M. Hema, R.F.W. Barnes, and B. Bailey (2004). Long term management of crop raiding by elephants around Kakum Conservation Area in southern Ghana. Pachyderm 37: 68-72. ISSN: 1026-2881.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, damage to crops, longterm management recommendations, Ghana, Kakum conservation area, crop raiding.
Language of Text: English, Summaries in English and French.

Borah, J., K. Thakuria, K. Baruah, N. Sarma, and K. Deka (2005). Man-elephant conflict problem: a case study. Zoos' Print Journal 20(7): 22-24. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, human-animal conflict, resolution.

Bradshaw, G.A., A.N. Schore, J.L. Brown, J.H. Poole, and C.J. Moss (2005). Elephant breakdown. Nature 433(7028): 807.
NAL Call Number: 472 N21
Descriptors: aggression physiology, animal behavior physiology, elephant physiology, stress physiopathology, violence, animal disease models, fathers, maternal deprivation, mothers, social behavior, post traumatic stress disorders physiopathology.

Bulte, E., R. Damania, G. Lindsey, and K. Lindsay (2004). Ecology and conservation. Space--the final frontier for economists and elephants. Science 306(5695): 420-421.
NAL Call Number: 470 SCI2
Descriptors: commerce, conservation of natural resources economics, ecosystem, ecology, environment, models, economic, population dynamics, population growth.

Choudhury, A. (2004). Human-elephant conflicts in northeast India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9(4): 261-270. ISSN: 1087-1209.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, man, habitat management, India, human conflict, conservation issues, habitat loss, conflicts.

Clubb, R. and G. Mason (2003). The welfare of zoo elephants in Europe: mortality, morbidity and reproduction. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Zoo Research, Marwell Zoological Park, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland, London,July 7, 2003-July 8, 2003, p. 67-76. 342 p.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, African elephant, Loxodonta africana, zoos, wildlife parks, philosophy, ethics, care, reproduction, breeding, longevity, mortality, Europe, welfare.

Dublin, H.T. and R.E. Hoare (2004). Searching for solutions: the evolution of an integrated approach to understanding and mitigating human-elephant conflict in Africa. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9(4): 271-278. ISSN: 1087-1209.
Descriptors: African elephants, Loxodonta africana, man, research, Africa, human conflict, management, solutions, mitigating.

Dudley, J.P. (2004). Elephant evolution, ecology, and conservation biology. Quarterly Review of Biology 79(2): 188-94.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 Q2
Descriptors: book review, Asian elephants, African elephants, evolutionary ecology, behavior, conservation.

Dunham, K.M. (2008). Detection of anthropogenic mortality in elephant Loxodonta africana populations: a long-term case study from the Sebungwe region of Zimbabwe. Oryx 42(1): 36-48. ISSN: (p) 0030-6053; (E) 1365-3008.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, causes of death, mortality of wild animals, wildlife management.

Eggert, L.S., J.A. Eggert, and D.S. Woodruff (2003). Estimating population sizes for elusive animals: the forest elephants of Kakum National Park, Ghana. Molecular Ecology 12(6): 1389-402.
NAL Call Number: QH540.M64
Abstract: African forest elephants are difficult to observe in the dense vegetation, and previous studies have relied upon indirect methods to estimate population sizes. Using multilocus genotyping of noninvasively collected samples, we performed a genetic survey of the forest elephant population at Kakum National Park, Ghana. We estimated population size, sex ratio and genetic variability from our data, then combined this information with field observations to divide the population into age groups. Our population size estimate was very close to that obtained using dung counts, the most commonly used indirect method of estimating the population sizes of forest elephant populations. As their habitat is fragmented by expanding human populations, management will be increasingly important to the persistence of forest elephant populations. The data that can be obtained from noninvasively collected samples will help managers plan for the conservation of this keystone species.
Descriptors: genetics, physiology, trees, variation genetics, DNA primers, feces chemistry, gene frequency, Ghana, microsatellite repeats, population density, sex ratio, specimen handling.

Endres, J., A. Haufellner, B. Haufellner, J. Schilfarth and M. Schilfarth (2003). Elephants in Zoos and Safari Parks: Comprehensive Data on Elephant Husbandry With an Analysis of the Oxford Study. Documentation 2002., European Elephant Group: Gruenwald, 211 p.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, African elephant, Loxodonta africana, captive stock lists, care in captivity, husbandry, reproduction, breeding, Europe.

Garai, M. (2005). Large herbivores: the elephant. In: J.d.P. Bothma and N. van Rooyen (Editors), Intensive Wildlife Production in Southern Africa, Van Schaik, Pretoria, p. 2-24. ISBN: 0627025498.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, care in captivity, reproductive techniques, parasites, diseases and disorders, Africa, biological characteristics.

Glickman, S.E., R.V. Short, and M.B. Renfree (2005). Sexual differentiation in three unconventional mammals: spotted hyenas, elephants and tammar wallabies. Hormones and Behavior 48(4): 403-17.
NAL Call Number: QP801.H7H64
Abstract: The present review explores sexual differentiation in three non-conventional species: the spotted hyena, the elephant and the tammar wallaby, selected because of the natural challenges they present for contemporary understanding of sexual differentiation. According to the prevailing view of mammalian sexual differentiation, originally proposed by Alfred Jost, secretion of androgen and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) by the fetal testes during critical stages of development accounts for the full range of sexually dimorphic urogenital traits observed at birth. Jost's concept was subsequently expanded to encompass sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Although the central focus of this review involves urogenital development, we assume that the novel mechanisms described in this article have potentially significant implications for sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, a transposition with precedent in the history of this field. Contrary to the "specific" requirements of Jost's formulation, female spotted hyenas and elephants initially develop male-type external genitalia prior to gonadal differentiation. In addition, the administration of anti-androgens to pregnant female spotted hyenas does not prevent the formation of a scrotum, pseudoscrotum, penis or penile clitoris in the offspring of treated females, although it is not yet clear whether the creation of masculine genitalia involves other steroids or whether there is a genetic mechanism bypassing a hormonal mediator. Wallabies, where sexual differentiation occurs in the pouch after birth, provide the most conclusive evidence for direct genetic control of sexual dimorphism, with the scrotum developing only in males and the pouch and mammary glands only in females, before differentiation of the gonads. The development of the pouch and mammary gland in females and the scrotum in males is controlled by genes on the X chromosome. In keeping with the "expanded" version of Jost's formulation, secretion of androgens by the fetal testes provides the best current account of a broad array of sex differences in reproductive morphology and endocrinology of the spotted hyena, and androgens are essential for development of the prostate and penis of the wallaby. But the essential circulating androgen in the male wallaby is 5alpha androstanediol, locally converted in target tissues to DHT, while in the pregnant female hyena, androstenedione, secreted by the maternal ovary, is converted by the placenta to testosterone (and estradiol) and transferred to the developing fetus. Testicular testosterone certainly seems to be responsible for the behavioral phenomenon of musth in male elephants. Both spotted hyenas and elephants display matrilineal social organization, and, in both species, female genital morphology requires feminine cooperation for successful copulation. We conclude that not all aspects of sexual differentiation have been delegated to testicular hormones in these mammals. In addition, we suggest that research on urogenital development in these non-traditional species directs attention to processes that may well be operating during the sexual differentiation of morphology and behavior in more common laboratory mammals, albeit in less dramatic fashion.
Descriptors: androgens physiology, elephant physiology, hyaenidae physiology, macropodidae physiology, sex differentiation physiology, urogenital system physiology, elephant anatomy and histology, elephant embryology, gene expression regulation, developmental physiology, genomic imprinting physiology, hyaenidae anatomy and histology, hyaenidae embryology, macropodidae anatomy and histology, macropodidae embryology, neurosecretory systems physiology, organogenesis physiology, sex characteristics, urogenital system anatomy and histology, urogenital system embryology, urogenital system growth and development.

Graham, M.D. and T. Ochieng (2008). Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, Kenya. Oryx 42(1): 76-82. ISSN: (p) 0030-6053; (E) 1365-3008.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, crop raiding, vertebrate pests, human-elephant conflict, elephant deterrents.

Hambler, C., P.A. Henderson, and M.R. Speight (2005). Elephants, ecology, and nonequilibrium? Science 307(5710): 673-674; Author Reply 673-674.
NAL Call Number: 470 SCI2
Descriptors: conservation of natural resources, ecosystem, Africa, Australia, ecology, environment, insects, population density.

Harris, G.M., G.J. Russell, R.I.v. Aarde, and S.L. Pimm (2008). Rules of habitat use by elephants Loxodonta africana in southern Africa: insights for regional management. Oryx 42(1): 66-75. ISSN: (p) 0030-6053; (E) 1365-3008.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, culling, habitat selection, population control, wildlife management.

Jackson, T.P., S. Mosojane, S.M. Ferreira, and R.J.v. Aarde (2008). Solutions for elephant Loxodonta africana crop raiding in northern Botswana: moving away from symptomatic approaches. Oryx 42(1): 83-91. ISSN: (p) 0030-6053; (E) 1365-3008.
Descriptors: African elephants, Loxodonta africana, crop damage, economic analysis, crop raiding.

Jackson, W.A. (2003). Elephants' milk. Pharmaceutical Historian 33(4): 64-5.
Descriptors: milk history, therapeutics history, Great Britain, history, 19th century.

Nissani, M. (2004). Theory of mind and insight in chimpanzees, elephants and other animals? In: L.J. Rogers and G. Kaplan (Editors), Comparative Vertebrate Cognition: Are Primates Superior to Non-Primates? Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, Boston, p. 227-261. ISBN: 0306477270.
NAL Call Number: QL785.C537 2004
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, chimpanzees, Elephas maximus, Aisan elephant, intelligence, cognition, overview and insight ability.

Nyhus, P. and R. Tilson (2004). Agroforestry, elephants, and tigers: balancing conservation theory and practice in human-dominated landscapes of Southeast Asia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 104(1): 87-97. ISSN: 0167-8809.
NAL Call Number: S601.A34
Descriptors: agroforestry, Elephantidae, Panthera tigris, wildlife management, conservation buffers, human wildlife relations, land use, South East Asia, Indonesia.

Omondi, P., E. Bitok, and J. Kagiri (2004). Managing human-elephant conflicts: the Kenyan experience. Pachyderm 36: 80-86. ISSN: 1026-2881.
Descriptors: African elephants, Loxodonta africana, animals, man, conflicts with man, interactions, conservation measures, Kenya, strategies, management.
Language of Text: English, with English and French summaries.

Palombo, M., M. Mussi, P. Gioia, and G. Cavarretta (2005). Studying Proboscideans: knowledge, problems, and perspectives. Selected papers from "The World of Elephants" congress, Rome. Quaternary International 126-128: i-vi, 1-287. ISSN: 1040-6182.
Descriptors: Proboscidea, Italy, meeting papers, problems, knowledge, perspectives.

Payne, K. (2003). Sources of social complexity in the three elephant species. In: F.B.M. de Waal and P.L. Tyack (Editors), Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture, and Individualized Societies, Harvard University Press: Cambridge & London, p. 57-85. ISBN: 0674009290.
NAL Call Number: QL739.3.A56 2003
Descriptors: Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana, Loxodonta cyclotis, literature review, social behavior, social complexity, review.

Pradhan, N.M.B. (2007). An ecological study of a re-colonizing population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in lowland Nepal. Dissertation, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management: 31 + 26 + 20 + 27 pp. + 1 paper p.
Abstract: This thesis includes four papers studying the population size and composition, habitat use at different spatial scales, seasonal diets and impact on forest habitats of a recently recolonizing population of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in the south-western part of the Bardia National Park, Nepal. Elephants strongly preferred floodplain communities both during the cool and the hot dry season, and there was a significant shift from forest to grass-dominated subtypes between these two seasons. Along fresh elephant tracks in the sal-dominated forest, there were more trees with previous elephant impact and a higher density of important food trees, especially Mallotus philippensis, than at random points. Elephant impact on trees was higher in the floodplain complex than in sal-dominated forest. At the time of study, the density of the colonizing population was low. However, the population is increasing and with immigrating sub-adult males, genetic diversity may be enhanced. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, diet, floodplains, genetic diversity, genetic variation, habitat selection, habitats, national parks, population dynamics, population structure, seasonal variation, Mallotus philippensis, Shorea robusta.

Pradhan, N.M.B. and P. Wegge (2007). Dry season habitat selection by a recolonizing population of Asian elephants Elephas maximus in lowland Nepal. Acta Theriologica 52(2): 205-214. ISSN: 0001-7051.
Abstract: Owing to landclearing and human expansion, Asian elephant Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 is declining throughout its range. In lowland Nepal, the species now only occurs in small remnant populations, shared with India. In order to develop guidelines for conserving the species in the country, we studied the habitat use of a small and recently re-established population in Bardia National Park. We used the distribution of dung in fixed width transects to estimate seasonal habitat selection at a general scale of the Park. We also analysed a specific habitat selection by elephants within the sal-dominated forest, by comparing the composition of trees and frequency of previous elephant impact on them along fresh tracks with those at random points. Elephants strongly preferred floodplain communities both during the cool and the hot season, but there was a marked shift from forest to grass-dominated subtypes between these seasons. Within the sal-dominated forest, there were more trees with previous elephant impact and a higher density of important food trees, especially Mallotus philippensis along fresh tracks than in random points. We found little if any effect of human activity or location of available water on the spatial distribution of elephant dung. The density of the colonizing population was low (ca 0.2 animals/km2), but numbers are expected to increase in the future. With the preferred floodplain habitat being quite small (ca 60 km2), animals are then expected to spread outside the national park. A large tract of government forest adjacent to the park may then, for some time, provide needed space for the expanding population. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, dry season, feces, floodplains, habitat selection, population decrease, seasonal behavior, spatial distribution, wildlife conservation.

Pradhan, N.M.B., P. Wegge, and S.R. Moe (2007). How does a recolonizing population of Asian elephants affect the forest habitat. Journal of Zoology 273(2): 183-191. ISSN: 0952-8369; Online: 1469-7998.
NAL Call Number: QL1.J68
Abstract: The Asian elephant Elephas maximus is currently re-colonizing the Bardia National Park in lowland Nepal. We studied their impact on woody vegetation in the nutrient-rich floodplain and in the relatively nutrient-poor sal forest. The types and extent of tree impact were recorded along fixed-width transects (335 km). Species composition, density and size classes >=8 cm diameter breast height (dbh) were recorded in 15-m radius random plots (n=95). Impact was higher in the floodplain complex than in the sal-dominated forest. Our hypothesis that elephants were more selective on species in the nutrient-poor sal forest was only partly supported; the niche breadth of impacted trees was slightly higher in the floodplain complex. Pushed-over trees accounted for the highest proportion of impact (55%), followed by killed trees (39%). Of the pushed trees, 10% were not used for food. Among food trees, elephants selectively impacted size class 12-16 cm dbh, whereas non-food trees were impacted independently of size. A large proportion of the freshly browsed trees had been felled previously, indicating that most felled trees survived, enabling elephants to feed on them again. This may reflect an evolutionary adaptation among long-lived species with high site fidelity. Owing to preferential use but low abundance, two species in sal forest, Grewia spp. and Desmodium oojeinense, were found to be particularly vulnerable to local extinction due to elephants. Although the elephants had impacted a large number of species (62, 73% of all), 56.4% of the impacted trees consisted of Mallotus phillippinensis. A recently observed increase in the density of M. phillippinensis and the concurrent reduction of the hardly utilized Shorea robusta indicates that the rapidly growing elephant population may modify the composition of the forest by increasing its preferred food species. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, Asia, Nepal, alluvial-floodplain, Mallotus phillippinensis, megaherbivores, sal forest, tree impact.

Sitati, N.W., M.J. Walpole, and N. Leader Williams (2005). Factors affecting susceptibility of farms to crop raiding by African elephants: using a predictive model to mitigate conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology 42(6): 1175-1182. ISSN: 0021-8901.
NAL Call Number: 410 J828
Descriptors: Loxodonta africana, crop damage, prediction, pest control, Kenya.

Skarpe, C., P.A. Aarrestad, H.P. Andreassen, S.S. Dhillion, T. Dimakatso, J.T. du Toit, Duncan, J. Halley, H. Hytteborn, S. Makhabu, M. Mari, W. Marokane, G. Masunga, M. Ditshoswane, S.R. Moe, R. Mojaphoko, D. Mosugelo, S. Motsumi, G. Neo Mahupeleng, M. Ramotadima, L. Rutina, L. Sechele, T.B. Sejoe, S. Stokke, J.E. Swenson, C. Taolo, M. Vandewalle, and P. Wegge (2004). The return of the giants: ecological effects of an increasing elephant population. Ambio 33(6): 276-82.
NAL Call Number: QH540.A52
Abstract: Northern Botswana and adjacent areas, have the world's largest population of African elephant (Loxodonta africana). However, a 100 years ago elephants were rare following excessive hunting. Simultaneously, ungulate populations were severely reduced by decease. The ecological effects of the reduction in large herbivores must have been substantial, but are little known. Today, however, ecosystem changes following the increase in elephant numbers cause considerable concern in Botswana. This was the background for the "BONIC" project, investigating the interactions between the increasing elephant population and other ecosystem components and processes. Results confirm that the ecosystem is changing following the increase in elephant and ungulate populations, and, presumably, developing towards a situation resembling that before the reduction of large herbivores. We see no ecological reasons to artificially change elephant numbers. There are, however, economic and social reasons to control elephants, and their range in northern Botswana may have to be artificially restricted.
Descriptors: conservation of natural resources, ecosystem, antelopes, Botswana, plants growth and development, population dynamics.

Stephenson, P.J. (2004). The future for elephants in Africa. In : N. Burgess, J. D'Amico Hales, E. Underwood, E. Dinerstein, D. Olson, I. Itoua, J. Schipper, T. Ricketts and K. Newman Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: a Conservation Assessment, Island Press: Washington, DC, Covelo & London, p. 133-136. ISBN: 1559633646.
NAL Call Number: QH77.A35T47 2004
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, conservation threats, past, present, future, conservation measures, review, Africa.

Sukumar, R. (2003). The Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation., Oxford University Press: New York, 478 p. ISBN: 0195107780.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P98S956 2003
Descriptors: Asian elephant, African elephant, wildlife conservation.

Surendra Varma (2006). Conserving a compact evergreen elephant habitat: a survey of the population status and conservation of Asian elephant in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Southern India. Tigerpaper 33(4): 12-19. ISSN: 1014-2789.
Abstract: A study was conducted to document the elephant distribution pattern, human-elephant conflicts and other conservation issues of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Kalakadu-Mundanthuri Tiger Reserve, southern India. The vegetation type is dominated by evergreen forest and it is the last remaining compact evergreen forest elephant habitat in southern India. The survey carried out during 1991 estimated 107 elephants and 138 in 1997. The increase could be attributed to the actual increase in the number of elephants or movement of elephants across the reserves. Combining the information of both direct sightings and indirect evidence, it is indicated that the elephants used the reserve throughout the year. It was also observed that elephant conservation problems such as human-elephant conflicts and elephant deaths due to poaching are not great. However, the habitat-related problems are severe and need to be addressed immediately. Forest exploitation for irrigation and power projects, severe cattle grazing pressure, frequent fires, timber extraction, non-wood forest products collection, road construction and uncontrolled encroachments along the foothills have caused severe damage to the reserve. Some of the conservation goals are presented. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, broadleaved evergreen forests, conflict, deforestation, ecological disturbance, forest fires, forest management, forests, grazing, habitat destruction, habitat selection, habitats, logging, mortality, nature reserves, road construction, spatial distribution, wildlife conservation.

Surendra Varma (2008). Spatial distribution of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and its habitat usage pattern in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, southern India. Current Science 94(4): 501-506. ISSN: 0011-3891.
Abstract: The study demonstrates the value of short term, but rapid surveys in understanding the spatial pattern of distribution of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and its habitat usage pattern in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, southern India. Results indicated that the elephants use the habitat uniformly throughout the reserve, since encounter rates of elephant dung piles were found to be similar for most of the routes surveyed. However, data on fresh dung piles, indicative of presence of elephants at any given point of time and space, pointed to a clumped distribution. With respect to habitat use, 60% of elephant signs were recorded in the evergreen forests, 13% in grasslands and 12% in evergreen and reed belts. However, a comparison of dung density indicates a significant difference (P<0.0000) across the habitats and the elephant densities appear to be more in the grasslands. The elevation of the reserve ranged from 40 to 1867 m; however, presence of elephants was limited to altitudes ranging from 300 to 1300 m, out of which 90% was restricted to altitudes ranging between 600 and 1200 m. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, animal behavior, feces, forests, grasslands, habitat selection, habitats, nature reserves, population density, spatial distribution, wildlife conservation.

Surendra Varma, Nguyen Xuan Dang, Tran Van Thanh, and R. Sukumar (2008). The Asian elephants Elephas maximus of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam: status and conservation of a vanishing population. Oryx 42(1): 92-99. ISSN: 0030-6053.
Abstract: This study updates the status and conservation of the Endangered Asian elephant Elephas maximus in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. Line transect indirect surveys, block surveys for elephant signs, village surveys of elephant-human conflict incidents, guard-post surveys for records of sightings, and surveys of elephant food plants were undertaken during the dry and wet seasons of 2001. A minimum of 11 elephants and a maximum of 15-17 elephants was estimated for c. 500 km2 of the Park and its vicinity. The elephants are largely confined to the southern boundary of the Park and make extensive use of the adjoining La Nga State Forest Enterprises. During the dry season the elephants depend on at least 26 species of wild and cultivated plants, chiefly the fruits of cashew. Most of the villages surveyed reported some elephant-human conflict. Two adult male elephants seem to cover a large area to raid crops, whereas the family groups restrict themselves to a few villages; overall, the conflict is not serious. Since 2001 there have been no reports of any deaths or births of elephants in the Park. We make recommendations for habitat protection and management, increasing the viability of the small population, reducing elephant-human conflicts, and improving the chances of survival of the declining elephants of this Park. The Government has now approved an Action Plan for Urgent Conservation Areas in Vietnam that calls for the establishment of three elephant conservation areas in the country, including Cat Tien National Park. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, conservation areas, endangered species, food supply, habitats, national parks, population decrease, seasonal behavior, survival, wildlife management.

Swain, D. (2004). Asian Elephants: Past, Present & Future., International Book Distributors: Dehra Dun, 226 p. ISBN: 8170893100.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, conflicts with man, domestication, conservation measures, food plants, behavior, ecology, Asia, distribution, biology, threats, relationships with man, comprehensive review.

Van Der Merwe, N.J. and F.J. Kruger (2003). Source location of African elephant ivory and rhinoceros horn by stable isotope ratio analysis. Forensic Science International 136(Suppl. 1): 383. ISSN: 0379-0738.
Descriptors: ivory, African elephant, rhinoceros horn, analysis, stable isotope ratio, source location, illegal trade.

van Kooten, G.C. (2008). Protecting the African elephant: A dynamic bioeconomic model of ivory trade. Biological Conservation 141(8): 2012-2022. ISSN: 0006-3207.
NAL Call Number: S900.B5
Abstract: A dynamic bioeconomic model of ivory trade is used to investigate the efficacy of conservation payments, tourism benefits, quota regimes and a trade ban on the protection of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The model consists of four ivory exporting regions and one demand region. Results indicate that a trade ban might not be successful in maintaining elephants, even if it increases the costs of marketing ivory and leads to a stigma effect that reduces demand. Indeed, trade in elephant products may offer some hope for the elephant, but only if there exist effective institutions that translate in situ protection into economic values.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, ivory trade, bioeconomic, protecting, trade ban, protection.

Wiese, R.J. and K. Willis (2004). Calculation of longevity and life expectancy in captive elephants. Zoo Biology 23(4): 365-373. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: captive elephants, longevity, life expectancy, calculation.

Wittemyer, G., I. Douglas Hamilton, and W.M. Getz (2005). The socioecology of elephants: analysis of the processes creating multitiered social structures. Animal Behaviour 69: 1357-71.
NAL Call Number: Film S-1802
Descriptors: social structures, processes, sociobiology, multitiered.

Wood, J.D., C.E. O'Connell Rodwell, and S.L. Klemperer (2005). Using seismic sensors to detect elephants and other large mammals: a potential census technique. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 587-94.
NAL Call Number: 410 J828
Descriptors: census technique, seismic sensors, detect, large mammals.

Woolley, L.A., R.L. Mackey, B.R. Page, and R. Slotow (2008). Modelling the effect of age specific mortality on elephant Loxodonta africana populations: can natural mortality provide regulation? Oryx 42(1): 49-57. ISSN: (p) 0030-6053; (E) 1365-3008.
Descriptors: African elephant, Loxodonta africana, causes of death, drought, mortality, population dynamics, predation, wildlife management.

Yokoyama, S., N. Takenaka, D.W. Agnew, and J. Shoshani (2005). Elephants and human color-blind deuteranopes have identical sets of visual pigments. Genetics 170(1): 335-44.
NAL Call Number: QH431.A1G432
Abstract: Being the largest land mammals, elephants have very few natural enemies and are active during both day and night. Compared with those of diurnal and nocturnal animals, the eyes of elephants and other arrhythmic species, such as many ungulates and large carnivores, must function in both the bright light of day and dim light of night. Despite their fundamental importance, the roles of photosensitive molecules, visual pigments, in arrhythmic vision are not well understood. Here we report that elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) use RH1, SWS1, and LWS pigments, which are maximally sensitive to 496, 419, and 552 nm, respectively. These light sensitivities are virtually identical to those of certain "color-blind" people who lack MWS pigments, which are maximally sensitive to 530 nm. During the day, therefore, elephants seem to have the dichromatic color vision of deuteranopes. During the night, however, they are likely to use RH1 and SWS1 pigments and detect light at 420-490 nm.
Descriptors: visual pigments, color blind deuteranopes, human, dichromatic, day, night, pigments, photosensitive molecules.

Zhang Li, Ma LiChao, and Feng LiMin (2006). New challenges facing traditional nature reserves: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) conservation in China. Integrative Zoology 1(4): 179-187. ISSN: 1749-4869.
Abstract: Traditional conservation strategies can effectively preserve biodiversity within nature reserves, but may fail to mitigate the conflicts between rural development and wildlife conservation. This paper discusses the magnitude of the conflict and its development over time, focusing on elephant conservation and land resource management within and around nature reserves. We suggest that regulations alone can satisfy neither the demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services nor the demands to achieve human welfare. More innovative tools such as informed land-use planning and integrated conservation development projects are called for to reduce the agricultural interface with elephant range, and therefore to alleviate the damage caused by the conflict. Reproduced with Permission from CAB Abstracts.
Descriptors: Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, biodiversity, conservation, ecosystems, land resources, land use planning, nature reserves, regulations, resource management.



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