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Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Ferrets

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Antinoff, N. and K. Hahn (2004). Ferret oncology: Diseases, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 7(3): 579-625, Vi. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Many standard diagnostic and chemotherapeutic protocols can be adapted for use in ferrets. Unique anatomic and clinical features dictate modification of protocols, but should not prohibit diagnosis or treatment. Ferrets may be the easiest of nontraditional species to treat with chemotherapeutics. We can provide more options for our patients, with improved quality of life and longer survival times than ever before. Although clients are never happy to hear the diagnosis of "cancer," it is no longer a word that condemns their beloved pet.
Descriptors: ferrets, neoplasms, diagnosis, diseases, oncology, chemotherapeutics.

Ball, R.S. (2002). Husbandry and management of the domestic ferret. Lab Animal 31(5): 37-42. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: ferrets, laboratory mammals, animal husbandry, animal welfare, odors, animal feeding, estrous cycle, estrus, ovulation, helicobacter, gastroenteritis, Aleutian disease, dirofilaria immitis, urinary calculi, urine pH, veterinary products, animal handling, induced ovulators.

Berzins, R., R. Helder, and T.H. Lode (2002). The influence of odour familiarity on female polecat (Mustela putorius) mate choice. Ethology 37: 23. ISSN: 0931-4202.
Descriptors: reproduction, behavior , mate choice, communication , housing, olfactory cues, female polecat, odor familiarity.
Notes: 4th International Symposium on Physiology and Behaviour of Wild and Zoo Animals, Berlin, Germany; September 29-October 02, 2002.

Bixler, H. and C. Ellis (2004). Ferret care and husbandry. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 7(2): 227-255, V. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Convivial and playful, the ferret has cohabited with humans for hundreds of years. Maintenance of this mustelid's health and quality of life is paramount for the endurance of the human-animal bond. This review article for veterinary care givers, veterinarians, and staff, encompasses discussions on: husbandry, clinical techniques, prevalent diseases, history taking, physical examination, vaccination, and pain recognition. This article also enables the veterinary community to contribute to the care and welfare of ferret patients by offering facts to distinguish these animals from dogs and cats.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, ferrets, care, welfare, clinical techniques, diseases, physical examination, vaccination, pain recognition.

Caley, P. and J. Hone (2005). Assessing the host disease status of wildlife and the implications for disease control: Mycobacterium bovis infection in feral ferrets. Journal of Applied Ecology 42(4): 708-719. ISSN: 0021-8901.
NAL Call Number: 410 J828
Descriptors: feral ferrets, disease status, disease control, assessing, implications, Mycobacterium bovis.

Carroll, E.E., R.R. Dubielzig, and R.D. Schultz (2002). Cats differ from mink and ferrets in their response to commercial vaccines: A histologic comparison of early vaccine reactions. Veterinary Pathology 39(2): 216-227. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: Early histologic changes in lesions at vaccine sites were compared in cats, mink, and ferrets. Twenty-four 4-month-old cats, 20 4-month-old mink, and 20 12-month-old ferrets were vaccinated with three rabies virus vaccines, two feline leukemia virus vaccines, alum adjuvant, and saline. Injection sites were excised at selected time points up to 21 days postvaccination. Histologic examination of the tissue revealed significant differences among the cats, mink, and ferrets in the local response to the commercial vaccines. When compared with ferrets and mink, cats had more lymphocytes in response to all three rabies vaccines. Production of fibroblasts, collagen, and macrophages differed among the three killed aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines in cats but did not differ significantly in mink or ferrets. Cats produced fewer binucleate cells than did mink or ferrets in response to the two adjuvanted leukemia virus vaccines. Differences seen in early tissue response of cats to commercial vaccines may be related to the increased predisposition of cats to vaccine-associated sarcomas.
Descriptors: cats, ferrets, leukemia virus, mink, rabies vaccines, viral vaccines, skin immunology, vaccine sites, lesions.

Castillo, a.B., L.N. Metz, and R.B. Martin (2003). The effects of ovariectomy on intracortical remodeling in the female ferret (Mustela furo): A pilot study. Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions 3(4): 418-420. ISSN: 1108-7161.
Descriptors: female ferret, ovariectomy, intracortical remodeling, meeting, pilot study, endocrine system.
Notes: Thirty-third International Sun Valley Hard Tissue Workshop, Sun Valley, ID, USA; August 03-07, 2003.

Chitty, J.R. (2004). Export/import of ferrets under the Pet Travel Scheme. Veterinary Record 155(6): 183. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: ferrets, quarantine, travel, Great Britain, quarantine standards, vaccination, export, import.

Christensson, M. and M. Garwicz (2005). Time course of postnatal motor development in ferrets: Ontogenetic and comparative perspectives. Behavioural Brain Research 158(2): 231-242. ISSN: 0166-4328.
Descriptors: ferrets, postnatal motor development, motor behavior, rats, experimental animals, comparative study.

Cloe, A., S. Woodley, P. Waters, H. Zhou, and M. Baum (2004). Contribution of anal scent gland and urinary odorants to mate recognition in the ferret. Physiology & Behavior 82(5): 871-875. ISSN: 0031-9384.
Descriptors: Mustela putorius furo, olfactory signals, ferrets, anal scent glands, mating partner preference, urinary odorants, estradiol benzoate, testosterone proprionate, scent gland odorants, sex discrimination.

Cooper, J.E. (2002). The ferret, and other small mammals--a European veterinarian's perspective. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 16: 9-10.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: ferrets, small mammals, rodents, rabbits, veterinary services, Europe.
Notes: In the volume: Veterinary technicians & practice managers. Part of a three volume set. Meeting held January 12-16, 2002 in Orlando, Florida.

Crawford, R.L., J. D'Anna and T. Allen (Animal Welfare Information Center (U.S.).) (2002). Information Resources on Ferrets: September 1991-July 2002., The Dept.: Beltsville, Md.,
Online: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/ferrets/ferrets.htm
NAL Call Number: aQL737.C25 C73 2003
Descriptors: ferrets as laboratory animals, bibliography, animal pathogens, animal well-being, animal welfare, animal behavior, circulatory system, animal physiology, digestive system, anatomy, biology, nutrition, reproduction.
Notes: Updates Ferrets as Laboratory Animals: a bibliography, September 1991.

Czub, M., H. Weingartl, S. Czub, R. He, and J. Cao (2005). Evaluation of modified vaccinia virus Ankara based recombinant SARS vaccine in ferrets. Vaccine 23(17-18): 2273-2279. ISSN: 0264-410X.
NAL Call Number: QR189.V32
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a newly identified coronavirus (SARS-CoV) remains a threat to cause epidemics as evidenced by recent sporadic cases in China. In this communication, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of two SARS vaccine candidates based on the recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing SARS-CoV spike or nucleocapsid proteins in ferrets. No clinical signs were observed in all the ferrets challenged with SARS-CoV. On the other hand, vaccination did not prevent SARS-CoV infection in ferrets. In contrast, immunized ferrets (particularly those immunized with rMVA-spike) exhibited significantly stronger inflammatory responses and focal necrosis in liver tissue after SARS-CoV challenge than control animals. Thus, our data suggest that enhanced hepatitis is linked to vaccination with rMVA expressing SARS-CoV antigens.
Descriptors: ferrets, sars virus, viral vaccines, viral antigens, hepatitis, immunology, RNA, viral analysis, severe acute respiratory syndrome.

de Lisle, G.W., G.F. Yates, P. Caley, and R.J. Corboy (2005). Surveillance of wildlife for Mycobacterium bovis infection using culture of pooled tissue samples from ferrets (Mustela furo). New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53(1): 14-18. ISSN: 0048-0169.
Abstract: AIM: To compare culture results of homogenates of pooled lymph nodes from individual ferrets with and without macroscopic lesions of bovine tuberculosis for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis, and to determine whether homogenates from 10-30 ferrets could be combined and cultured without loss of sensitivity as a possible method for improving cost-effectiveness of surveillance for M. bovis infection in wildlife populations. METHODS: Numbers of colony forming units (cfu) of M. bovis present in cultures of homogenates of pooled lymph nodes from individual ferrets known to be infected and having no visible lesions (NVL) or macroscopic lesions consistent with bovine tuberculosis were determined. Prevalences of M. bovis infection in populations of ferrets in the Marlborough region of the South Island of New Zealand were determined by culturing homogenates of pooled lymph nodes from individual animals. Samples from homogenates from North Canterbury were combined to form pools representing 10, 20 and 30 animals and also cultured for M. bovis. RESULTS: Fewer M. bovis cfu were isolated from ferrets with NVL (mean=0.77 log10) compared with ferrets with macroscopic lesions (mean=3.22 log10; p<0.05). The mean prevalence of infection in eight different surveys involving 427 ferrets from the Marlborough region was 18% (range 8-44%), which included a small number of animals with macroscopic lesions of tuberculosis. Pooling of samples from up to 30 different ferrets with NVL did not reduce the sensitivity of detecting M. bovis infected populations. CONCLUSION: Culturing of pools of lymph node samples detected a significant proportion of M. bovis-infected ferrets that would otherwise have gone unnoticed based on samples that had only macroscopic lesions. Culturing of samples pooled from up to 30 different ferrets could provide significant cost savings in surveys of wildlife for the presence of M. bovis infection without any apparent loss of sensitivity.
Descriptors: bacteriological techniques, ferrets, Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosis, wild animals, New Zealand, population surveillance, predictive value of tests.

Dunayer, E. (2004). Ibuprofen toxicosis in dogs, cats, and ferrets. Exotic DVM 99(7): 580 582, 584, 586. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, dogs, cats, ibuprofen, toxicosis.

Fan, J., X. Liang, M.S. Horton, H.C. Perry, M.P. Citron, G.J. Heidecker, T.M. Fu, J. Joyce, C.T. Przysiecki, P.M. Keller, V.M. Garsky, R. Ionescu, Y. Rippeon, L. Shi, M.A. Chastain, J.H. Condra, M.E. Davies, J. Liao, E.A. Emini, and J.W. Shiver (2004). Preclinical study of influenza virus A M2 peptide conjugate vaccines in mice, ferrets, and rhesus monkeys. Vaccine 22(23-24): 2993-3003. ISSN: 0264-410X.
NAL Call Number: QR189.V32
Abstract: A universal influenza virus vaccine that does not require frequent updates and/or annual immunizations will offer significant advantages over current seasonal flu vaccines. The highly conserved influenza virus A M2 membrane protein has been previously suggested as a potential antigen target for such a vaccine. Here, we report systematic evaluation of M2 peptide conjugate vaccines (synthetic peptides of M2 extracellular domain conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein complex (OMPC)) in mice, ferrets, and rhesus monkeys. The conjugate vaccines were highly immunogenic in all species tested and were able to confer both protection against lethal challenge of either H1N1 or H3N1 virus in mice and reduce viral shedding in the lower respiratory tracts of mice and ferrets. The protection against lethal challenge in mice could also be achieved by passive transfer of monkey sera containing high M2 antibody titers. In addition, we showed that M2 antisera were cross reactive with M2 peptides derived from a wide range of human influenza A strains, but they failed to react with M2 peptides of the pathogenic H5N1 virus (A/Hong Kong/97). The data presented here will permit better understanding of the potential of an M2-based vaccine approach.
Descriptors: ferrets, mice, rhesus, influenza A virus, influenza vaccines, orthomyxoviridae infections, antibodies, lung virology, Macaca mulatta, inbred Balb C mice, nasal mucosa virology, neisseria meningitidis, conjugate vaccines, virus replication.

Garipis, N. and K.P. Hoffmann (2003). Visual field defects in albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Vision Research 43(7): 793-800. ISSN: 0042-6989.
Abstract: The extent of the horizontal visual field was determined behaviourally in 4 pigmented and 5 albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo, Carnivora, Mammalia) using perimetry. During binocular vision, all pigmented and three albino ferrets responded equally well to stimuli presented anywhere along the horizontal perimeter in the central 180 degrees of the visual field. The remaining two albinos had a visual field defect in the right hemifield (>30 degrees eccentricity). During monocular vision, a significant difference between the visual fields of pigmented and albino ferrets became apparent. In pigmented ferrets, the visual field of each eye included the ipsilateral (temporal) and a substantial portion of the contralateral (nasal) hemifield. In albinos, the visual field of each eye was limited to the ipsilateral hemifield and reactions to visual stimuli abruptly declined directly beyond the vertical meridian.
Descriptors: ferrets, albinism, vision disorders, perimetry methods, albino ferrets, visual field.

Greenacre, C.B. (2003). Incidence of adverse events in ferrets vaccinated with distemper or rabies vaccine: 143 cases (1995-2001). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(5): 663-665. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of adverse events in ferrets vaccinated with a modified-live avian cell culture canine distemper virus vaccine licensed for use in ferrets, an inactivated rabies vaccine licensed for use in ferrets, or both. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 143 ferrets. PROCEDURE: Medical records were reviewed to identify ferrets that had an adverse event after vaccination. RESULTS: Adverse events developed within 25 minutes after vaccination in 13 ferrets. One ferret developed an adverse event after receiving a distemper and a rabies vaccine simultaneously and developed a second adverse event the following year after receiving the rabies vaccine alone. Therefore, a total of 14 adverse events were identified. All adverse events were an anaphylactic reaction characterized by generalized hyperemia, hypersalivation, and vomiting. Ten of the 14 anaphylactic reactions occurred after ferrets received both vaccines, 3 occurred after ferrets received the distemper vaccine alone, and 1 occurred after a ferret received the rabies vaccine alone. Incidences of adverse events after administration of both vaccines, the distemper vaccine alone, and the rabies vaccine alone were 5.6, 5.9, and 5.6%, respectively. Ferrets that had an anaphylactic reaction were significantly older at the time of vaccination than were ferrets that did not. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that there may be a high incidence of anaphylactic reactions after vaccination of domestic ferrets. Ferrets should be observed for at least 25 minutes after vaccination, and veterinarians who vaccinate ferrets should be prepared to treat anaphylactic reactions.
Descriptors: ferrets, distemper virus, canine immunology, rabies vaccines, adverse effects of viral vaccines, age factors, anaphylaxis, incidence of rabies virus, retrospective studies, risk factors.
Notes: Comments: Comment In: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Oct 15;223(8):1112; author reply 1112.

He, T., H. Friede, and S. Kiliaridis (2002). Dental eruption and exfoliation chronology in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Archives of Oral Biology 47(8): 619-623. ISSN: 0003-9969.
NAL Call Number: RK1.A6989
Abstract: Substituting ferrets for rats and dogs as animal models for craniofacial research is favourable because of the similarity of many of the ferret's anatomical, metabolic and physiological features to those of man. Other advantages are cost-effectiveness and possibly less ethical controversy. However, information on the dental chronology of ferrets needs to be supplemented if this animal is to be promoted as an alternative model. Dental development was here examined in 16 ferrets (eight males, eight females) from three litters at between 12 and 90 days of age. Dental eruption and exfoliation were assessed and recorded every second day. The sequence of eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth was determined and data were analysed statistically. Also, any sex-related differences in eruption and exfoliation ages were defined. No deciduous incisors were observed to erupt in this group of animals. Other deciduous teeth erupted between the 19th and 31st postnatal days, and exfoliated between days 51 and 76. The time of eruption of the permanent teeth ranged from 42 to 77 days, in accordance with the stage of the mixed dentition. The female ferrets were generally ahead of the males in the exfoliation age of their deciduous teeth and the eruption age of their permanent teeth, but this, a sex difference did not apply to the eruption age of the deciduous teeth. These extended basic data might facilitate the introduction of this alternative experimental animal into craniofacial research.
Descriptors: ferrets physiology, animal models, tooth eruption physiology, tooth exfoliation, deciduous teeth, aging physiology, sex factors.

Hoefer, H.L. (2004). The biology and husbandry of the pet ferret. In: Small animal and exotics Book two: Pain management zoonosis Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference., January 17, 2004-January 21, 2004, Orlando, Florida, USA., Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, USA, Vol. 18, p. 1383-1384.
Descriptors: ferrets, behavior, housing, husbandry, nutrition, clinical examination, diet, Mustela.

Hoffmann, K.P., N. Garipis, and C. Distler (2004). Optokinetic deficits in albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo): A behavioral and electrophysiological study. Journal of Neuroscience 24(16): 4061-4069. ISSN: 1529-2401.
Abstract: We compared the horizontal optokinetic reaction (OKR) and response properties of retinal slip neurons in the nucleus of the optic tract and dorsal terminal nucleus (NOT-DTN) of albino and wild-type ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). In contrast to pigmented ferrets, we were unable to observe OKR in albino ferrets during binocular and monocular viewing using random dot full field stimulation and electro-oculography (EOG). Observations during early postnatal life indicate that regular OKR is present in pigmented pups 3 d after eye opening but is absent at any stage during development in albino ferrets. Unilateral muscimol injections to inactivate all neurons in the NOT-DTN containing GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors caused spontaneous horizontal nystagmus with slow phases away from the injected hemisphere in albino as well as in pigmented animals. Retinal slip neurons in the NOT-DTN of albino ferrets identified by antidromic activation from the inferior olive and orthodromic activation from the optic chiasm were well responding to intermittent bright light stimuli, but many showed a profound reduction of responsiveness to moving stimuli. The movement-sensitive neurons exhibited no clear direction selectivity for ipsiversive stimulus movement, a characteristic property of these neurons in pigmented ferrets and other mammals. Thus, the defect rendering albino ferrets optokinetically nonresponsive is located in the visual pathway subserving the OKR, namely in or before the NOT-DTN, and not in oculomotor centers.
Descriptors: ferrets, albinism, physiopathology, eye movements, motion perception, visual pathways, behavior, electrooculography, electrophysiology, nystagmus, olivary nucleus, optic chiasm, photic stimulation.

Huber, V.C. and J.A. McCullers (2006). Live attenuated influenza vaccine is safe and immunogenic in immunocompromised ferrets. Journal of Infectious Diseases 193(5): 677-684. ISSN: 0022-1899.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 J821
Abstract: Patients undergoing chemotherapy for cancer are highly susceptible to influenza virus infection. Prevention of influenza virus infection is complicated in the immunocompromised host because of suboptimal responses to the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). A new, live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV; FluMist) may offer a more effective alternative to TIV, but the safety of this LAIV in immunocompromised patients must first be established. In the present study, FluMist was administered to ferrets immunocompromised by treatment with dexamethasone and cytarabine. Ferrets exhibited no signs or symptoms attributable to FluMist, and nasal clearance of LAIV strains from immunocompromised ferrets was similar to that from control ferrets. Serum antibody responses against the vaccinating strains were analyzed as a measure of vaccine efficacy. Antibody titers to all 3 vaccine strains in immunocompromised ferrets were similar to those seen in mock-treated control ferrets, as assessed by microneutralization assay. These findings support the potential use of this vaccine in immunocompromised humans.
Descriptors: ferrets, blood antibodies, immunocompromised host, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, influenza vaccines, cytarabine, dexamethasone, immunosuppressive agents.

Johnson Delaney, C.A. (2005). Ferret cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 14(2): 135-142. ISSN: 1055-937X.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1536
Descriptors: ferrets, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, therapy, heart diseases, reviews, techniques, cardiac massage, cardiac arrest.

Kona Boun, J.J., B. Mercier, E. Troncy, J. Pare, and I. Langlois (2004). Le furet domestique. [The domestic ferret]. Medecin Veterinaire Du Quebec 34(3): 220-227.
Descriptors: ferrets, anesthetic techniques, handling, venous access, catheterization, intubation, analgesics, anesthetics, fluid administration.
Language of Text: French.

Kottwitz, J. (2004). Horizontal beam radiography in ferrets. Exotic DVM 6(1): 37-41. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, horizontal beam radiography, diagnostic techniques, restraint.

Land, B. (2003). The Simple Guide to Ferrets., T.F.H. Publications: Neptune City, NJ, 201 p. ISBN: 0793821169.
NAL Call Number: SF459.F47 L36 2003
Descriptors: ferrets, pet animals.

Lewington, J.H. (2005). Ferret fanatic. Australian Veterinary Journal 83(1-2): 29. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Descriptors: animal husbandry, ferrets, welfare.

Lorigan, R.D. (2002). The use of deer, pigs, and ferrets as indicator species for detecting TB. Proceedings - Vertebrate Pest Conference 20: 249-252. ISSN: 0507-6773.
Descriptors: Cervidae, Sus scrofa, Mustela furo, bacterial diseases, feral populations as indicators for pathogen detection, transmission of bacteria, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, New Zealand.

Moore, G.E., N.W. Glickman, M.P. Ward, K.S. Engler, H.B. Lewis, and L.T. Glickman (2005). Incidence of and risk factors for adverse events associated with distemper and rabies vaccine administration in ferrets. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 226(6): 909-912. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of and risk factors for adverse events associated with distemper and rabies vaccine administration in ferrets. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS: 3,587 ferrets that received a rabies or distemper vaccine between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003. PROCEDURES: Electronic medical records were searched for possible vaccine-associated adverse events. Adverse events were classified by attending veterinarians as nonspecific vaccine reactions, allergic reactions, or anaphylaxis. Patient information that was collected included age, weight, sex, cumulative number of distemper and rabies vaccinations received, clinical signs, and treatment. The association between potential risk factors and occurrence of an adverse event was estimated with logistic regression. RESULTS: 30 adverse events were recorded. The adverse event incidence rates for administration of rabies vaccine alone, distemper vaccine alone, and rabies and distemper vaccines together were 0.51%, 1.00%, and 0.85%, respectively. These rates were not significantly different. All adverse events occurred immediately following vaccine administration and most commonly consisted of vomiting and diarrhea (52%) or vomiting alone (31%). Age, sex, and body weight were not significantly associated with occurrence of adverse events, but adverse event incidence rate increased as the cumulative number of distemper or rabies vaccinations received increased. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the cumulative number of distemper vaccinations received was significantly associated with the occurrence of an adverse event. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that in ferrets, the risk of vaccine-associated adverse events was primarily associated with an increase in the number of distemper vaccinations.
Descriptors: diarrhea, ferrets, rabies vaccines, adverse effects of viral vaccines, distemper virus, canine immunology, logistic models, rabies virus, vomiting.

Nugent, J.S., B. Whisman, and L.L. Hagan (2003). Ferret allergy: Identification of serum specific ige to albumin with crossreactivity to cat. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 111(2 Abstract Supplement): S324. ISSN: 0091-6749.
Descriptors: ferret, allergy, immune system disease, seum specific ige, albumin, electrophoretic techniques, cats.
Notes: AAAAI 60th Anniversary Meeting, Denver, CO, USA; March 7-12, 2003.

Oglesbee, B.L. (2006). The 5-Minute Veterinary Consult: Ferret and Rabbit., 1st edition, Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa, 422 p. ISBN: 0781793998.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.F47 O35 2006
Descriptors: ferrets, rabbits, diseases, handbooks, veterinary medicine.

Philipp, R., C. Distler, and K.P. Hoffmann (2006). A motion-sensitive area in ferret extrastriate visual cortex: An analysis in pigmented and albino animals. Cerebral Cortex 16(6): 779-790. ISSN: 1047-3211.
Abstract: In search of the neuronal substrate for motion analysis in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo), we extracellularly recorded from extrastriate visual cortex in five pigmented and two albino ferrets under general anaesthesia and paralysis. Visual stimulation consisted of large area random dot patterns moving either on a circular path in the frontoparallel plane or expanding and contracting radially. Strongly direction-selective neurons were recorded in a circumscribed area in and just posterior to the suprasylvian sulcus, thus named by us the posterior suprasylvian area (area PSS). Altogether, we recorded 210 (90%) and 95 (72%) PSS neurons in pigmented and albino ferrets, respectively, that were direction selective. In these neurons responses during random dot pattern stimulation in the preferred direction were at least twice as strong than stimulation in the non-preferred direction. Response strength in preferred direction and tuning sharpness of PSS neurons in albinos were significantly reduced when compared to pigmented animals (median values: 34.1 versus 14.8 spikes/s and 142 versus 165 degrees for pigmented and albino ferrets, respectively). Inter-spike-intervals during visual stimulation were significantly shorter in pigmented (median 9 ms) than in albino PSS neurons (median 14 ms). Our data indicate that area PSS may play a crucial role in motion perception in the ferret.
Descriptors: ferrets, albinism, ocular physiopathology, motion perception, nerve net, visual cortex, evoked potentials, photic stimulation, pigmentation.

Platt, S.R., P.M. Dennis, and L.J. McSherry (2004). Composition of cerebrospinal fluid in clinically normal adult ferrets. American Journal of Veterinary Research: 758-760. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: Objective--To determine the protein and cellular composition of CSF in healthy adult ferrets. Animals--42 clinically normal adult ferrets. Procedure--CSF samples were collected from the cerebellomedullary cistern of anesthetized ferrets by use of disposable 25-gauge, 1.6-cm-long hypodermic needles. Samples were processed within 20 minutes after collection. The number of WBCs and RBCs per microliter of CSF was counted by use of a hemacytometer. The total protein concentration was determined by use of an automated chemistry analyzer. Results--Total WBC counts (range, 0 to 8 cells/mL; mean, 1.59 cells/mL) in CSF of ferrets were similar to reference range values obtained for CSF from other species. Twenty-seven CSF samples had < 100 RBCs/mL (mean, 20.3 RBCs/mL). A small but significant effect of blood contamination on WBC counts was found between the 27 CSF samples with < 100 RBCs/mL and the remaining samples. Protein concentrations in CSF of ferrets (range, 28.0 to 68.0 mg/dL; mean, 31.4 mg/dL) were higher than has been reported for the CSF of dogs and cats. A significant effect of blood contamination on the CSF protein concentration was not found. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance--We have established reference range values for WBC counts and protein concentrations in CSF from healthy adult ferrets that may be useful in the clinical investigation of CNS disease. Results of our study indicate that the WBC count is significantly affected by blood contamination of the CSF sample. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Descriptors: normal ferrets, adult, cerebral spinal fluid, anesthesia, white blood cell counts.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (2006). Database on Refinement of Housing and Handling Conditions and Environmental Enrichment for Animals Kept in Laboratories: Rodents, Rabbits, Cats, Dogs, Ferrets, Farm Animals, Horses, Birds Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles., [Online Database]
Online: http://labanimals.awionline.org/SearchResultsSite/refine.aspx
NAL Call Number: SF406.3
Descriptors: laboratory animals housing databases, laboratory animals environmental enrichment databases, databases, enrichment, housing.

Schoemaker, N.J. (2002). Ferrets. In: A. Meredith and S. Redrobe (Editors), BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets, 4th edition, British Small Animal Veterinary Association: Quedgeley, UK, p. 93-101. ISBN: 0905214471.
Descriptors: ferrets, anesthesia, analgesics, housing, biology, diseases, diagnostic techniques, diet, drug therapy, euthanasia, handling, parasites, surgery.

Spurr, E., J. Ragg, C. O'Connor, W. Hamilton, H. Moller, A. Woolhouse, C. Morse, G. Morriss, G. Arnold, and B. Clapperton (2004). Effect of concentration of anal gland scent lures on the capture rate of ferrets (Mustela furo) in winter and spring. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 31(3): 227-232. ISSN: 0301-4223.
NAL Call Number: QL1.A1N4
Descriptors: Mustela furo, scent lures, anal gland secretions, capture rate evaluation, attractants for feral ferrets, seasonal variations, South Island of New Zealand.

Willard, T.R. (2002). Ferrets. Exotic DVM 4(4): 36-37. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, anatomy, physiology, diets, feed formulation, nutrient requirements.

Wise, A.G., M. Kiupel, C. Isenhour, and R. Maes (2003). Development and evaluation of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of Epizootic Catarrhal Enteritis infection of ferrets. In: Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere. [Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, No.5], May 28, 2003-June 1, 2003, Rome, Italy, 427-431 p.
Descriptors: ferrets, epizootic catarrhal enteritis, coronavirus, etiology, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, development, feces, RNA, saliva, viral diseases.

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