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Reproductive

Angella, P.A., K.A. Margit, J.A. Csaba, and H. Gyula (2004). Reproduction, genital malfunctions and endocrine disorders of domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). 3. Options and limitations in suppression of ovarian activity. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 126(7): 419-423. ISSN: 0025-004X.
Descriptors: Mustela putorius furo, domestic ferrets, genital malfunctions, reproduction, endocrine disorders, spaying, ovarian activity, literature review.
Language of Text: Hungarian.

Angella, P.R.A., K.A. Margit, and H. Gyula (2004). A vadaszgoreny (Mustela putorius furo) nemi mukodese, valamint gyakoribb ivarszervi es hormonalis megbetegedesei -irodalmi attekintes 4. Endokrin eredetu bokelvaltozasok, hormonalis megbetegedesek. [Reproduction, genital malfunctions and endocrine disorders of domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo): Literature review. 4. Endocrine skin lesions, hormonal diseases]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 126(9): 553-560. ISSN: 0025-004X.
Descriptors: endocrine system, tumor biology, endocrine disease, pathology, metabolic disease, adrenal, metabolic disease, epidemiology, neoplastic disease.
Language of Text: Hungarian.

Castillo, a.B., L.N. Metz, and R.B. Martin (2003). The effects of ovariectomy on intracortical remodeling in the female ferret (Mustela furo): A pilot study. Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions 3(4): 418-420. ISSN: 1108-7161.
Descriptors: female ferret, ovariectomy, intracortical remodeling, meeting, pilot study, endocrine system.
Notes: Thirty-third International Sun Valley Hard Tissue Workshop, Sun Valley, ID, USA; August 03-07, 2003.

Howard, J., P. Marinari, and D. Wildt (2002). Integration of assisted reproductive technology in the recovery of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceedings 2002: 55-60.
Descriptors: Mustela nigripes, wildlife conservation, assistive reproductive technology, reintroduction programs, black-footed ferrets.

Howard, J., P.E. Marinari, and D.E. Wildt (2003). Black-footed ferret: Model for assisted reproductive technologies contributing to in situ conservation. Conservation Biology Series 8: 249-266.
Descriptors: Mustela nigripes, black footed ferrets, breeding and reintroduction program, USA, reproductive technology, in situ conservation.

Kelliher, K.R. and M.J. Baum (2002). Effect of sex steroids and coital experience on ferrets' preference for the smell, sight and sound of conspecifics. Physiology & Behavior 76(1): 1-7. ISSN: 0031-9384.
Descriptors: ferrets, sex steroids, coital experience, smell, sight, behavior, sound.

Li, Z., Q. Jiang, M. Rezaei Sabet, Y. Zhang, T.C. Ritchie, and J.F. Engelhardt (2002). Conditions for in vitro maturation and artificial activation of ferret oocytes. Biology of Reproduction 66(5): 1380-1386. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Abstract: The ferret represents an attractive species for animal modeling of lung diseases because of the similarity between ferret and human lung biology and its relatively small size and short gestation time. In an effort to establish experimental protocols necessary for cloning ferrets, optimized conditions for in vitro maturation and artificial activation of ferret oocytes were examined. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were harvested from ovaries of superovulated ferrets, and in vitro maturation was evaluated in three different culture media: medium 1 (TCM-199 + 10% FBS), medium 2 (TCM-199 + 10% FBS with eCG [10 IU/ml] and hCG [5 IU/ml]), or medium 3 (TCM-199 + 10% FBS with eCG, hCG, and 17beta-estradiol [2 microg/ml]). After 24 h of maturation in vitro, the maturation rate of oocytes cultured in medium 2 (70%, n = 79) was significantly greater (P < 0.01) than those of oocytes cultured in the other two media (27%-36%, n = 67-73). At 48 h, similar maturation rates (56%-69%, n = 76-87) were observed for all three types of media. For activation experiments, oocytes cultured in medium 2 were stimulated with electrical and chemical stimuli either individually or in combination. Treatment with cycloheximide and 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) following electrical stimulation resulted in 43% (n = 58) of the oocytes developing to the blastocyst stage. Such an activation rate represented a significant improvement over those obtainable under other tested conditions, including individual treatment with electrical pulses (10%, n = 41), cycloheximide (3%, n = 58), or 6-DMAP (5%, n = 59). Blastocysts derived from in vitro activation appeared to be normal morphologically and were composed of an appropriate number of both inner cell mass (mean +/- SEM, 10.3 +/- 1.1; n = 11) and trophectoderm (60.8 +/- 2.9, n = 11) cells. These results have begun to elucidate parameters important for animal modeling and cloning with ferrets.
Descriptors: ferrets, oocytes, animal model, lung diseases, cycloheximide, electric stimulation, embryonic and fetal development, fertilization in vitro, parthenogenesis, protein synthesis inhibitors, superovulation, ferret lung, human lung, cloning.

Li, Z., X. Sun, J. Chen, G.H. Leno, and J.F. Engelhardt (2006). Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Theriogenology 66(2): 183-190. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous or primiparous females. Developing fetuses were collected from recipient animals 21 days post-copulation and examined. The percentage of fetal formation was different (P < 0.05) for unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes (71%) in nulliparous females with bilateral transfer (56%) in primiparous recipients. The percentage (90%) of fetal formation in nulliparous recipients following unilateral transfer of blastocysts was higher (P < 0.05) than that observed in primiparous recipients with bilateral ET (73%). Notably, the percentage of fetal formation was higher (P < 0.05) when blastocyts were transferred as compared to zygotes (90% versus 71%). Transuterine migration of embryos occurred following all unilateral transfers and also in approximately 50% of bilateral transfers with different number of embryos in each uterine horn. These data will help to facilitate the development of assisted reproductive strategies in the ferret and could lead to the use of this species for modeling human disease and for conservation of the endangered Mustelidae species such as black-footed ferret and European mink.
Descriptors: ferret, embryo transfer, factors, efficiency, reproductive technologies, animal model.

Li, Z., X. Sun, J. Chen, X. Liu, S.M. Wisely, Q. Zhou, J.P. Renard, G.H. Leno, and J.F. Engelhardt (2006). Cloned ferrets produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Developmental Biology 293(2): 439-448. ISSN: 0012-1606.
NAL Call Number: 442.8 D49
Abstract: Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) offers great potential for developing better animal models of human disease. The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an ideal animal model for influenza infections and potentially other human respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis, where mouse models have failed to reproduce the human disease phenotype. Here, we report the successful production of live cloned, reproductively competent, ferrets using species-specific SCNT methodologies. Critical to developing a successful SCNT protocol for the ferret was the finding that hormonal treatment, normally used for superovulation, adversely affected the developmental potential of recipient oocytes. The onset of Oct4 expression was delayed and incomplete in parthenogenetically activated oocytes collected from hormone-treated females relative to oocytes collected from females naturally mated with vasectomized males. Stimulation induced by mating and in vitro oocyte maturation produced the optimal oocyte recipient for SCNT. Although nuclear injection and cell fusion produced mid-term fetuses at equivalent rates (approximately 3-4%), only cell fusion gave rise to healthy surviving clones. Single cell fusion rates and the efficiency of SCNT were also enhanced by placing two somatic cells into the perivitelline space. These species-specific modifications facilitated the birth of live, healthy, and fertile cloned ferrets. The development of microsatellite genotyping for domestic ferrets confirmed that ferret clones were genetically derived from their respective somatic cells and unrelated to their surrogate mother. With this technology, it is now feasible to begin generating genetically defined ferrets for studying transmissible and inherited human lung diseases. Cloning of the domestic ferret may also aid in recovery and conservation of the endangered black-footed ferret and European mink.
Descriptors: ferrets, cell nucleus transplantation, cloning, genetics, cell fusion, embryo transfer, fetal development, microinjections, oocytes.

Li, Z.Y., Q.S. Jiang, M.R. Sabet, Y.L. Zhang, T.C. Ritchie, and J.F. Engelhardt (2002). Conditions for in vitro maturation and artificial activation of ferret oocytes. Biology of Reproduction 66(5): 1380-1386. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Descriptors: ferrets, oocytes, in vitro maturation, artificial activation, cloning, conditions, animal modelling, lung diseases.

Li, Z., Q. Jiang, M.R. Sabet, Y. Zhang, T.C. Ritchie, and J.F. Engelhardt (2002). Parthenogenetic development of ferret oocytes matured in vitro following electrical and chemical stimulation. Biology of Reproduction 66(Supplement 1): 169. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Descriptors: ferret, oocytes, parthenogenetic development, electrical stimulation, matured in vitro, reproduction, meeting abstract.
Notes: 35th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; July 28-31, 2002.

Li, Z., M.R. Sabet, Q. Zhou, X. Liu, W. Ding, Y. Zhang, J.P. Renard, and J.F. Engelhardt (2003). Developmental capacity of ferret embryos by nuclear transfer using g0/g1-phase fetal fibroblasts. Biology of Reproduction 68(6): 2297-2303. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Descriptors: ferret embryos, nuclear transfer, developmental capacity, g0-gl phase fetal fibroblasts, cloning, experimental protocols.

Li, Z., X. Sun, J. Chen, and J.F. Engelhardt (2004). Electrofusion of mouse and ferret oocytes with cultured ferret fetal fibroblast cells and cumulus cells. Biology of Reproduction(Sp. Iss. SI): 235. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Descriptors: ferret, mouse, oocytes, electrofusion, fetal fibroblast cells, cultured cumulus cells.
Notes: 37th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-the-Study-of-Reproduction, Vancouver, Canada; August 01 -04, 2004.

Lindeberg, H. (2003). Embryo technology in the farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius). Dissertation, University of Kuopio: Kuopio, Finland. 110 p.
Descriptors: assisted reproductive technology in endangered mammals, Finland, polecats, animal models, cryopreservation, embryo transfer techniques.
Notes: Thesis.

Lindeberg, H., J. Aalto, S. Amstislavsky, K. Piltti, M. Jarvinen, and M. Valtonen (2003). Surgical recovery and successful surgical transfer of conventionally frozen-thawed embryos in the farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius). Theriogenology 60(8): 1515-1525. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Surgical transfer of in vivo produced conventionally frozen-thawed embryos of farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) was investigated as a part of an ex-situ preservation program which has the long-term aim of developing a genome resource bank for the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola). Eighteen oestrous yearling European polecat donors were mated once daily on two consecutive days using 13 fertile males. The donors were surgically flushed for embryos 8-9 days after the first mating. The embryo recovery rate was 60% (116 embryos/193 corpora lutea). The embryos were cryopreserved with 1.5 M ethylene glycol in a programmable freezer using a conventional slow freezing protocol. The thawed embryos were surgically transferred either after dilution with 0.5 M sucrose or directly without removal of ethylene glycol. To induce ovulation, eight recipient females were mated once daily on two consecutive days with vasectomized males starting 7 or 8 days before embryo transfer. The recipients received 7-11 embryos each and three recipients delivered a total of nine pups after a gestation length of 44-46 days. The embryo survival rate was 10% (9 pups/93 frozen embryos). This report describes the first successful cryopreservation of embryos in the Mustelidae family resulting in viable offspring. The low embryo survival rate, however, indicates that the freezing-thawing protocol needs to be improved.
Descriptors: ferrets, embryo transfer, tissue and organ harvesting, breeding, cryopreservation, ethylene glycol, gestational age, litter size, ovulation induction, uterus surgery.

Lindeberg, H., S. Amstislavsky, M. Jarvinen, J. Aalto, and M. Valtonen (2002). Surgical transfer of in vivo produced farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) embryos. Theriogenology 57(9): 2167-2177. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Surgical embryo transfer of farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) was investigated as part of an ex situ preservation project. The long-term objective of the project is to develop effective technology for ex situ conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola), which is a highly endangered aboriginal European species. Twenty European polecat females, which served as a model species for the European mink, were humanely killed 4-9 days after first mating and embryos were recovered from oviducts and uteri. Donor-recipient pairs (n = 16) were generated by mating the donors (n = 20) once a day for 2 consecutive days with fertile males and by mating the corresponding recipients (n = 16) on the same days with vasectomized males. An embryo recovery rate of 70% (200 recovered embryos/284 corpora lutea) was achieved from 20 donors. Morulae and blastocysts were recovered between Days 5 and 9 after first mating and were regarded as the best developmental stages for uterine embryo transfer. A total of 172 embryos were transferred surgically under general anaesthesia into the ovarian third of the left uterine horn of 16 recipients with a thin glass capillary. Eleven recipients (69%) produced 72 pups equivalent to an average success rate of 42% (72 pups/172 transferred embryos). The average litter size was 4.5 (range 0-9). These results with this model species, farmed European polecat, demonstrate the potential of embryo transfer as an effective method for the preservation of the endangered European mink (M. lutreola). These species are closely related and have a similar reproductive physiology. However, success of applying embryo transfer in conserving European mink is. still dependent on further studies both into its reproductive physiology and developing of improved flushing techniques for anaesthetized donors and the successful transfer of frozen-thawed embryos.
Descriptors: Mustela, embryo transfer, surgery, endangered species, wildlife management, animal models, morula, blastocyst, embryogenesis, ovulation.

Lindeberg, H. and M. Jarvinen (2003). Early embryonic development and in vitro culture of in vivo produced embryos in the farmed european polecat (Mustela putorius). Theriogenology 60(5): 965-975. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Descriptors: European polecat, farmed, early embryonic development, in vitro culture, in vivo produced embryos, mink, technique.

Lisovschi Chelesanu, C., A. Damian, and C. Berghes (2002). Morphostructural features of the ferret ovary. Buletinul Universitatii De Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara Cluj Napoca Seria Medicina Veterinara 58: 674-683.
Descriptors: Mustela putorius, anatomy and histology of ovaries, ferrets.
Language of Text: Romanian.

Nakai, M., J.K. Van Cleeff, and J.M. Bahr (2004). Stages and duration of spermatogenesis in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Tissue and Cell 36(6): 439-446. ISSN: 0040-8166.
Abstract: Classification of seminiferous tubules is the basis for understanding normal and abnormal spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine spermatogenic stages and the duration of the cycle in the domestic ferret using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a tracer. Eleven adult male ferrets that were maintained in a breeding condition were used. Testicular sections were stained with the periodic acid-Schiff reaction for light microscopy. To determine the cycle duration, six ferrets were injected intraperitoneally with BrdU, and testes were collected 3h later and 10 days and 3h later. BrdU was detected by immunohistochemistry. Seminiferous tubules were classified into eight stages, and frequencies of stages I-VIII were 10.6, 2.2, 7.9, 13.1, 22.3, 21.9, 14.0 and 8.0%, respectively. The most advanced BrdU-labeled cells at 3h post-injection were leptotene spermatocytes in stage VI and those at 10 days and 3h were pachytene spermatocytes in stage V. From differences in stage frequency and BrdU staining frequency between two time points, the duration of one cycle was estimated to be 13.0 days. The present observations indicate that stages and the cycle duration of the ferret spermatogenesis are similar to those reported in other carnivores.
Descriptors: ferrets physiology, seminiferous tubules cytology, spermatocytes cytology, spermatogenesis physiology, bromodeoxyuridine metabolism, stages, duration.

Piltti, K., J. Aalto, M. Jarvinen, H. Korhonen, V. Kuronen, H. Lindeberg, S. Amstislavsky, Y. Ternovskaya, M. Valtonen, and M. Halmekyto (2003). Nuclear maturation of european polecat (Mustela putorius) in vivo oocytes and success in using mustelid hybrids as recipients for embryo transfer. Theriogenology 59(1): 403. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Descriptors: European polecat, nuclear maturation, in vivo oocytes, mustelid hybrids, recipients, reproduction, embryo transfer.
Notes: Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society, Auckland, New Zealand; January 11-15, 2003.

Prohaczik, A., K. Fodor, M. Kulcsar, and G. Huszenicza (2004). A vadaszgoreny (Mustela putorius furo) nemi mukodese, valamint gyakoribb ivarszervi es hormonalis megbetegedesei. Irodalmi attekintes. 1. A faj bemutatasa, taplalasa es ivari mukodesenek elettana. [Reproduction, genital malfunctions and endocrine disorders of domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Literature review. 1. Biology, zootaxonomy, nutrition and physiology of reproduction]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 126(6): 353-363. ISSN: 0025-004X.
Descriptors: ferret, biology, endocrine diseases, female genital diseases, nutrition, reproduction, reviews, taxonomy.
Language of Text: Hungarian; Summary in English.

Prohaczik, A., M. Kulcsar, and G. Huszenicza (2004). A vadaszgoreny (Mustela putorius furo) nemi mukodese, valamint gyakoribb ivarszervi es hormonalis megbetegedesei: irodalmi attekintes. 4. Endokrin eredetu borelvaltozasok, hormonalis megbetegedesek. [Reproduction, genital malfunctions and endocrine disorders of domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo): Literature review. 4. Endocrine skin lesions, hormonal diseases]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 126(9): 553-560. ISSN: 0025-004X.
Descriptors: ferrets, female genital diseases, male genital diseases, endocrine diseases, hormonal diseases, reviews.
Language of Text: Hungarian; Summary in English.
Notes: English titles for journal articles are on p. 513 in the contents.

Prohaczik, A., M. Kulcsar, and G. Huszenicza (2004). A vadaszgoreny (Mustela putorius furo) nemi mukodese, valamint gyakoribb ivarszervi es hormonalis megbetegedesei. Irodalmi attekintes. 2. Ivarszervi mukodeszavarok, megbetegedesek. [Reproduction, genital malfunctions and endocrine disorders of domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Literature review. 2. Pathology of reproduction]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 126(6): 364-369. ISSN: 0025-004X.
Descriptors: ferret, genital diseases, endocrine disorders, genital malfunctions, pregnancy, pyometra, reproductive disorders, reviews, pathology.
Language of Text: Hungarian; Summary in English.

Prohaczik, A., M. Kulcsar, and G. Huszenicza (2004). A vadaszgoreny (Mustela putorius furo) ivari mukodesenek jellemzoi es befolyasolasanak lehetosegei. [Endocrine treatment procedures used to suppress the cyclic ovarian function in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)]. Animal Breeding and Feeding 53(2): 190-191. ISSN: 0230-1814.
Descriptors: ferrets, endocrine treatments, suppress cyclic ovarian function, reproduction.
Language of Text: Hungarian; Summary in English.
Notes: Proceedings of the 10th Meeting of the Hungarian Society for Animal Reproduction 'From Gametes until Birth', Kiskunmajsa, Hungary, 14-15 November 2003.

Prohaczik, A., M. Kulcsar, C. Juhasz, and G. Huszenicza (2004). A vadaszgoreny (Mustela putorius furo) nemi mukodese, valamint gyakoribb ivarszervi es hormonalis megbetegedesei. Irodalmi attekintes. 3. A nem kivant ivarzas megelozesenek lehetosegei es korlatai. [Reproduction, genital malfunctions and endocrine disorders of domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Literature review. 3. Options and limitations in suppression of ovarian activity]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 126(7): 419-423. ISSN: 0025-004X.
Descriptors: ferrets, genital malfunctions, endocrine diseases, female genital diseases, suppression of ovarian activity, reproductive disorders, reviews.
Language of Text: Hungarian; Summary in English.

Prohaczik, a., M. Kulcsar, T. Trigg, and G. Huszenicza (2003). Treatments suppressing ovarian activity in ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Reproduction in Domestic Animals 38(4): 331. ISSN: 0936-6768.
Descriptors: ferret, reproductive system, reproduction, ovarian activity, treatments suppressing, endocrine disease, spaying, clinical techniques, estrus cycle, ovulation, meeting abstract.
Notes: 7th Annual Conference of the European Society for Domestic Animal Reproduction, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland; September 04-06, 2003.

Prohaczik, A., M. Kulcsar, T. Trigg, and G. Huszenicza (2003). Endocrine treatment procedures used to suppress the cyclic ovarian function in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin(5): 407-408.
Descriptors: ferrets, cyclic ovarian function, suppress, endocrine treatment procedures.
Notes: Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere, Rome, Italy, 28 May - 1 June, 2003.

Santymire, R.M., P.E. Marinari, J.S. Kreeger, D.E. Wildt, and J. Howard (2006). Sperm viability in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is influenced by seminal and medium osmolality. Cryobiology 53(1): 37-50. ISSN: 0011-2240.
Abstract: Fundamental knowledge of spermatozoa cryobiology can assist with optimizing cryopreservation protocols needed for genetic management of the endangered black-footed ferret. Objectives were to characterize semen osmolality and assess the influence of two media at various osmolalities on sperm viability. We examined the influence of Ham's F10 +Hepes medium (H) at 270, 400, 500 or 700 mOsm (adjusted with sucrose, a nonpermeating cryoprotectant) and TEST Yolk Buffer (TYB) with 0% (300 mOsm) versus 4% (900 mOsm) glycerol (a permeating cryoprotectant). Electroejaculates (n=16) were assessed for osmolality using a vapor pressure osmometer. For media comparison, semen (n=5) was collected in TYB 0%, split into six aliquots, and diluted in H270, H400, H500, H700, and TYB 0% or TYB 4%. Each sample was centrifuged (300 g, 8 min), resuspended in respective medium, and maintained at 37 degrees C for 3h. Sperm motility and forward progression were monitored every 30 min for 3h post-washing. Acrosomal integrity was monitored at 0 and 60 min post-washing. Results demonstrated that black-footed ferret semen has a comparatively high osmolality (mean+/-SEM, 513.1+/-32.6 mOsm; range, 366-791 mOsm). Ferret spermatozoa were sensitive to hyperosmotic stress. Specifically, sperm motility was more susceptible (P<0.01) to hyperosmotic conditions than acrosomal integrity, and neither were influenced (P>0.05) by hypotonic solutions. Exposure to TYB 4% glycerol retained more (P<0.01) sperm motility than a hyperosmotic Ham's (700 mOsm). These findings will guide the eventual development of assisted breeding with cryopreserved sperm contributing to genetic management of this rare species.
Descriptors: ferrets, cell survival, drug effects, physiology, semen, preservation methods, spermatozoa physiology, glucose, pharmacology, osmolar concentration, sperm motility, drug effects, spermatozoa cytology.

Santymire, R.M., P.E. Marinari, J.S. Kreeger, D.E. Wildt, and J.G. Howard (2004). Determining semen osmolality and effect of medium osmolality on sperm viability in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Journal of Andrology(Suppl. S): 91. ISSN: 0196-3635.
Descriptors: black-footed ferret, reproduction, semen osmolality, medium osmolality, sperm viability, meeting abstract.
Notes: 29th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Andrology, Baltimore, MD, USA; April 17-20, 2004.

Schulz, L.C. and J.M. Bahr (2003). Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase is necessary for embryo implantation in the domestic ferret. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(14): 8561-8566. ISSN: 0027-8424.
Abstract: The mechanism of implantation in carnivores is poorly understood. However, a previously unidentified 60-kDa protein has been shown to be necessary for embryo implantation in ferrets. Here we identify this protein as glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI). GPI is expressed by the corpus luteum on days 6-9 of pregnancy, the time at which implantation-promoting activity has been found in corpora lutea. Passive immunization against GPI reduced the number of implantation sites in pregnant ferrets in a dose-dependent manner. GPI is a multifunctional protein. Although first identified for its role in glycolysis, GPI has since been implicated in neural growth, lymphocyte maturation, and metastasis. This study demonstrates a previously uncharacterized function of this protein that may represent the natural motility-stimulating activity that has been co-opted by tumor cells.
Descriptors: ferrets, corpus luteum, embryo implantation, glucose 6 phosphate isomerase physiology, amino acid sequence, base sequence, cell movement, chickens, embryo transfer, glucose 6 phosphate isomerase genetics, immunology, immunization, ovariectomy, pseudopregnancy.

Sirivaidyapong, S. and T. Swangchan uthai (2003). The estrous cycle and estrogen toxicity during estrus in female ferret. In: Proceedings of 41st Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Subject: Animals and Veterinary Medicine, February 3, 2003-February 7, 2003, Kasetsart University: Bangkok, Thailand, p. 554-562. ISBN: 9745372412.
Descriptors: ferrets, oestrous cycle, oestrus, reproductive disorders, oestrus toxicity, treatment, reproductive cycle, photoperiod.
Language of Text: Thai; Summary in English.

Sun, X., Z. Li, J. Chen, W. Ding, and J.F. Engelhardt (2004). Relationship among chromatin configuration, oocyte size, and cumulus morphology in ferret cumulus-oocyte complexes. Biology of Reproduction(Sp. Iss. SI): 256. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Descriptors: ferrets, reproductive system, oocyte size, chromatin configuration, cumulus morphology, reproduction.
Notes: 37th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-the-Study-of-Reproduction, Vancouver, Canada; August 01 -04, 2004.

Van Cleeff, J.K. and J.M. Bahr (2004). Embryonic implantation in the domestic ferret requires a threshold prolactin concentration. Biology of Reproduction(Sp. Iss. SI): 152-153. ISSN: 0006-3363.
Descriptors: ferret, embryonic implantation, prolactin concentration, reproduction in domestic ferrets.
Notes: 37th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-the-Study-of-Reproduction, Vancouver, Canada; August 01 -04, 2004.

Woodley, S.K. and M.J. Baum (2003). Effects of sex hormones and gender on attraction thresholds for volatile anal scent gland odors in ferrets. Hormones and Behavior 44(2): 110-118. ISSN: 0018-506X.
Descriptors: ferrets, sex hormones, gender atraction, anal scent gland, odors, attraction thresholds, mate recognition.

Woodley, S.K. and M.J. Baum (2002). Estrogen increases attraction thresholds for volatile anal scent gland odors in male and female ferrets. Hormones and Behavior 41(4): 496-497. ISSN: 0018-506X.
Descriptors: ferrets, male, female, estrogen, attraction, increases, olfactory sensitivity, scent gland odor, attraction threshold, meeting abstract.
Notes: Annual Meeting of the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Amherst, MA, USA; June 26-30, 2002.

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