Animal Welfare Information Center
United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library  

Animal Welfare Information Center logo

Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Ferrets

Return to Contents


Anon. (2004). Rely on clinical skills to diagnose ferret adrenal disease. DVM 35(6): 16s-19s. ISSN: 0012-7337.
Online: http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/dvm/Medicine/Rely-on-clinical-skills-to-diagnose-ferret-adrenal/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/126823?contextCategoryId=44832
Descriptors: ferret, adrenal disease, diagnosis, clinical skills.

Antinoff, N. and K. Hahn (2004). Ferret oncology: Diseases, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 7(3): 579-625, Vi. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Many standard diagnostic and chemotherapeutic protocols can be adapted for use in ferrets. Unique anatomic and clinical features dictate modification of protocols, but should not prohibit diagnosis or treatment. Ferrets may be the easiest of nontraditional species to treat with chemotherapeutics. We can provide more options for our patients, with improved quality of life and longer survival times than ever before. Although clients are never happy to hear the diagnosis of "cancer," it is no longer a word that condemns their beloved pet.
Descriptors: ferrets, neoplasms, diagnosis, diseases, oncology, chemotherapeutics.

Bennett, R.A. (2002). Ferret abdominal surgical procedures. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 16: 957-960.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: ferrets, abdomen, surgical operations.
Notes: In the volume: Small animal and exotics. Part of a three volume set. Meeting held January 12-16, 2002, Orlando, Florida.

Bennett, R.A. (2004). Ferret soft tissue surgery. In: Small Animal and Exotics Book Two: Pain Management Zoonosis - Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference., Vol. 18, Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, USA, p. 1363-1366.
Descriptors: ferret, soft tissue, surgery, adrenal glands, digestive tract, gastrointestinal diseases, neoplasms, prostate, spleen.
Notes: North American Veterinary Conference, Volume 18, Orlando, Florida, USA, 17-21 January 2004.

Bixler, H. and C. Ellis (2004). Ferret care and husbandry. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 7(2): 227-255, V. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Convivial and playful, the ferret has cohabited with humans for hundreds of years. Maintenance of this mustelid's health and quality of life is paramount for the endurance of the human-animal bond. This review article for veterinary care givers, veterinarians, and staff, encompasses discussions on: husbandry, clinical techniques, prevalent diseases, history taking, physical examination, vaccination, and pain recognition. This article also enables the veterinary community to contribute to the care and welfare of ferret patients by offering facts to distinguish these animals from dogs and cats.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, ferrets, care, welfare, clinical techniques, diseases, physical examination, vaccination, pain recognition.

Burgess, M. and M. Garner (2002). Clinical aspects of inflammatory bowel disease in ferrets. Exotic DVM 4(2): 29-34. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, inflammatory bowel disease, diagnostic techniques, digestive diseases.

Burns, R., E.S. Williams, D. O'Toole, and J.P. Dubey (2003). Toxoplasma gondii infections in captive black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), 1992-1998: Clinical signs, serology, pathology, and prevention. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(4): 787-797. ISSN: 0090-3558.
NAL Call Number: 41.9 W648
Abstract: An epizootic of toxoplasmosis occurred among 22 adult and 30 kit black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) maintained under quarantine conditions at the Louisville Zoological Garden (Louisville, Kentucky, USA) in June, 1992. Black-footed ferrets appear to be highly susceptible to acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. Clinical signs were observed in 19 adults and six kits and included anorexia, lethargy, corneal edema, and ataxia. Two adults and six kits died with acute disease. High antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii were detected by latex agglutination and modified agglutination assay in 10 black-footed ferrets. One adult and six kits that died with acute clinical signs were necropsied and T. gondii-like organisms were found microscopically in multiple organs. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-T. gondii antibodies and by ultrastructural examination. Although the source of T. gondii for black-footed ferrets was not identified, frozen uncooked rabbit was the most likely source. Chronic toxoplasmosis resulted in the death of at additional 13 black-footed ferrets that were adults during the epizootic. Affected animals developed chronic progressive posterior weakness and posterior ataxia 6-69 mo after the epizootic began. Meningoencephalitis or meningoencephalomyelitis associated with chronic toxoplasmosis were identified at necropsy in all 13 ferrets. Precautions to prevent introduction of pathogens into the colony were insufficient to exclude T. gondii. Although toxoplasmosis may cause significant mortality in mustelids, the high mortality of black-footed ferrets in this epizootic was of concern due to their endangered status. This is the first detailed report of toxoplasmosis in black-footed ferrets.
Descriptors: ferrets, antibodies, blood protozoan, toxoplasmosis, agglutination tests, immunohistochemistry, Kentucky, latex fixation tests, liver parasitology.

Carmel, B. (2006). Eosinophilic gastroenteritis in three ferrets. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 707-712. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rarely reported condition of ferrets. This article reviews three cases of suspected EGE in ferrets, summarizes the presenting signs, differential diagnoses, and treatment options, and discusses some question raised by this disease in ferrets. Immune suppression by means of prednisolone therapy is currently the treatment of choice.
Descriptors: Ferrets, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, signs, diagnosis, treatment.

Carpenter, J.W. and K.E. Quesenberry (Editors) (2004). Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery: Includes Sugar Gliders and Hedgehogs, 2nd edition, Saunders: Philadelphia, PA, 461 p. ISBN: 0721693776.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.F47 F47 2004
Descriptors: ferret diseases, rabbit diseases, rodent diseases, ferrets, rabbits, rodents, surgery.

Carroll, E.E., R.R. Dubielzig, and R.D. Schultz (2002). Cats differ from mink and ferrets in their response to commercial vaccines: A histologic comparison of early vaccine reactions. Veterinary Pathology 39(2): 216-227. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: Early histologic changes in lesions at vaccine sites were compared in cats, mink, and ferrets. Twenty-four 4-month-old cats, 20 4-month-old mink, and 20 12-month-old ferrets were vaccinated with three rabies virus vaccines, two feline leukemia virus vaccines, alum adjuvant, and saline. Injection sites were excised at selected time points up to 21 days postvaccination. Histologic examination of the tissue revealed significant differences among the cats, mink, and ferrets in the local response to the commercial vaccines. When compared with ferrets and mink, cats had more lymphocytes in response to all three rabies vaccines. Production of fibroblasts, collagen, and macrophages differed among the three killed aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines in cats but did not differ significantly in mink or ferrets. Cats produced fewer binucleate cells than did mink or ferrets in response to the two adjuvanted leukemia virus vaccines. Differences seen in early tissue response of cats to commercial vaccines may be related to the increased predisposition of cats to vaccine-associated sarcomas.
Descriptors: cats, ferrets, leukemia virus, mink, rabies vaccines, viral vaccines, skin immunology, vaccine sites, lesions.

Castanheira de Matos, R.E. and J.K. Morrisey (2006). Common procedures in the pet ferret. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(2): 347-365, Vii. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: The domestic ferret is an increasingly popular pet in North America and Europe and may easily be incorporated into the structure and workings of most small animal hospitals. Not only does treatment of ferrets provide case diversity and intellectual challenges to the veterinarian but it may increase revenue, because most ferret owners have several ferrets. The diagnostic and supportive care procedures used commonly in ferrets are similar to those used in dogs and cats. This article presents the common diagnostic and supportive care procedures used in ferrets, with special emphasis on some of the unique aspects that make these procedures easier to learn and perform.
Descriptors: ferrets, diseases, diagnosis, therapy, nutrition, differential, physical examination, instrumentation, prodedures, supportive care.

Chiaravaccini, L., C. D' Agostino, and S. Perrucci (2003). Aspetti parassitologici e clinici della coccidiosi e dell'otocariasi del furetto (Mustela putorius furo). [Parasitological and clinical aspects of coccidiosis and auricolar mange of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo)]. Veterinaria 17(3): 73-76. ISSN: 0391-3151.
Descriptors: ferret, coccidiosis, auricolar mange, parasites, clinical aspects, examination, diagnosis, Otodectes cynotis, polecats, Eimeria furonis, Isospora laidlawii.
Language of Text: Italian; Summary in English.

Conn, M. (2004). Resolution of chronic conjunctivitis in a ferret with a nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Exotic DVM 6(1): 16-18. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferret, clinical aspects, conjunctivitis, diagnosis, drug therapy, case reports, nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

Cooper, J.E. (2002). The ferret, and other small mammals--a European veterinarian's perspective. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 16: 9-10.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: ferrets, small mammals, rodents, rabbits, veterinary services, Europe.
Notes: In the volume: Veterinary technicians & practice managers. Part of a three volume set. Meeting held January 12-16, 2002 in Orlando, Florida.

Cottrell, D.K. (2004). Use of moxidectin (ProHeartReg. 6*) as a heartworm adulticide in 4 ferrets. Exotic DVM 6(5): 9-12. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, heartworms, clinical aspects, diagnosis, drug therapy, Dirofilaria immitis, moxidectin.

Dalrymple, E.F. (2004). Pregnancy toxemia in a ferret. Canadian Veterinary Journal 45(2): 150-152. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: A late-gestation jill was presented for depression, anorexia, and weakness. The working diagnosis became pregnancy toxemia. Supportive care was initiated and an emergency cesarian section performed. Twelve live kits were delivered; however, all soon perished despite home care. Surgery and recovery are discussed, including information regarding pregnancy toxemia in general.
Descriptors: ferrets, cesarean section, pre eclampsia, nutrition, newborn, diagnosis, differential, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, surgery, pregnancy outcome.

Darby, C. and V. Ntavlourou (2006). Hepatic hemangiosarcoma in two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 689-694. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Two ferrets were presented to the authors' clinic. Hemoperitoneum was diagnosed in one ferret, and an abdominal mass was palpated in the other. One ferret was euthanized and necropsied, and one ferret underwent exploratory laparotomy and liver lobectomy. In both cases, the histopathologic diagnosis was hepatic hemangiosarcoma.
Descriptors: ferrets, hemangiosarcoma, hepatic, abdominal mass, laparotomy, diagnosis, liver lobectomy.

De Voe, R.S., L. Pack, and C.B. Greenacre (2002). Radiographic and CT imaging of a skull associated osteoma in a ferret. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 43(4): 346-348. ISSN: 1058-8183.
NAL Call Number: SF757.8.A4
Descriptors: ferrets, case reports, skull, radiography, computed tomography, diagnostic value, biopsy, neoplasms, mandible.

Dunayer, E. (2004). Ibuprofen toxicosis in dogs, cats, and ferrets. Exotic DVM 99(7): 580 582, 584, 586. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, dogs, cats, ibuprofen, toxicosis.

Eatwell, K. (2004). Two unusual tumours in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Journal of Small Animal Practice 45(9): 454-459. ISSN: 0022-4510.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J8292
Abstract: This case report describes the clinical history, diagnosis and treatment of a ferret with a tumour of the right adrenal gland and insulinomas of the pancreas. Histopathology of both lesions confirmed the diagnoses. Clinical signs of the adrenal gland tumour were a swollen vulva, overgrooming, sexual activity and pruritus. The clinical signs suggesting insulinomas were collapse of the ferret, disorientation and ptyalism. A low blood glucose level assisted the diagnosis of insulinomas. This is believed to be the first reported case of concurrent insulinomas and adrenal gland tumour in a ferret in the United Kingdom.
Descriptors: ferrets, adenoma, adrenal gland neoplasms, insulinoma, pancreatic neoplasms, treatment outcome, surgery.

Fehr, M., A. Thiele, A. Gerdwilker, C. Rapsch, and A. Klawitter (2006). Speichelzyste der Glandula zygomatica bei einem Frettchen (Mustela putorius furo L.). [Salivary mucocele (Zygomatic gland) in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo L.)]. Kleintier-Praxis 51(4): 210-215. ISSN: 0023-2076.
Online: http://www.schaper-verlag.de
NAL Call Number: 41.8 K67
Descriptors: ferret, salivary mucocele, clinical aspects, corneal ulcer, diagnosis, exopthalmos, salivary gland diseases, surgery, therapy.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Funk, A. J, T. Rogers D, R. Dobbins M, and K. Boyd (2006). Exophthalmos and corneal edema in a young ferret. Diagnosis: Glaucoma. Lab Animal 35(9): 19, 20-21. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: ferret, corneal edema, exophthalmos, glaucoma, diagnosis.

Garcia, A., S.E. Erdman, S. Xu, Y. Feng, A.B. Rogers, M.D. Schrenzel, J.C. Murphy, and J.G. Fox (2002). Hepatobiliary inflammation, neoplasia, and argyrophilic bacteria in a ferret colony. Veterinary Pathology 39(2): 173-179. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: Hepatobiliary disease was diagnosed in eight of 34 genetically unrelated cohabitating pet ferrets (Mustela putorios furo) during a 7-year period. The eight ferrets ranged in age from 5 to 8 years and exhibited chronic cholangiohepatitis coupled with cellular proliferation ranging from hyperplasia to frank neoplasia. Spiral-shaped argyrophilic bacteria were demonstrated in livers of three ferrets, including two with carcinoma. Sequence analysis of a 400-base pair polymerase chain reaction product amplified from DNA derived from fecal bacteria from one ferret demonstrated 98% and 97% similarity to Helicobacter cholecystus and Helicobacter sp. strain 266-1 , respectively. The clustering of severe hepatic disease in these cohabitating ferroes suggests a possible infectious etiology. The role of Helicobacter species and other bacteria in hepatitis and/or neoplasia in ferrets requires further study.
Descriptors: ferrets, helicobacter infections, Helicobacter pylori, liver diseases, bile duct neoplasms, biliary tract diseases, cholangiocarcinoma, cystadenoma, bacterial DNA, hepatitis, hyperplasia, immunohistochemistry, liver microbiology.

Garipis, N. and K.P. Hoffmann (2003). Visual field defects in albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Vision Research 43(7): 793-800. ISSN: 0042-6989.
Abstract: The extent of the horizontal visual field was determined behaviourally in 4 pigmented and 5 albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo, Carnivora, Mammalia) using perimetry. During binocular vision, all pigmented and three albino ferrets responded equally well to stimuli presented anywhere along the horizontal perimeter in the central 180 degrees of the visual field. The remaining two albinos had a visual field defect in the right hemifield (>30 degrees eccentricity). During monocular vision, a significant difference between the visual fields of pigmented and albino ferrets became apparent. In pigmented ferrets, the visual field of each eye included the ipsilateral (temporal) and a substantial portion of the contralateral (nasal) hemifield. In albinos, the visual field of each eye was limited to the ipsilateral hemifield and reactions to visual stimuli abruptly declined directly beyond the vertical meridian.
Descriptors: ferrets, albinism, vision disorders, perimetry methods, albino ferrets, visual field.

Garner, M.M. (2003). Focus on diseases of ferrets. Exotic DVM 5(3): 75-80. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, diseases, clinical aspects, glomerulonephritis, lymphatic diseases, mycobacterial diseases, neoplasms, otitis externa, infections.
Notes: International conference on exotics (ICE2003), Palm Beach, Florida, USA, 2003.

Good, K.L. (2002). Ocular disorders of pet ferrets. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 5(2): 325-339. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Ocular disorders in pet ferrets are becoming more widely recognized as the popularity of these animals as companions increases. Knowledge of the anatomy of ferrets and a thorough examination are critical to accurately diagnosing ocular disease. If recognized early, some conditions can be managed successfully. Veterinarians should continue to report ocular conditions that are encountered in this species to help increase knowledge about these disorders.
Descriptors: ferrets, eye anatomy, eye diseases, ferrets anatomy, conjunctivitis, glaucoma diagnosis, ophthalmology.

Graham, J., J. Fidel, and M. Mison (2006). Rostral maxillectomy and radiation therapy to manage squamous cell carcinoma in a ferret. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 701-706. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: A 4-year-old, male, neutered ferret presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the right maxillary region associated with the tissues surrounding the upper canine tooth. A rostral maxillectomy was performed to excise the mass. Histopathologic examination showed questionable margins of tumor removal. Approximately 2 months after surgery, the ferret received a course of radiation therapy and is currently being monitored for tumor regrowth.
Descriptors: ferret, squamos cell carcinoma, radiation therapy, rostral maxillevtomy.

Greenacre, C.B. (2003). Fungal diseases of ferrets. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 6(2): 435-448, Viii. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Although fungal disease in ferrets is uncommon, a few cases have been documented, demonstrating that it should be on the clinician's rule out list, especially if the patient has a long-term illness that is not responding appropriately to antibiotics, as was the clinical presentation in many of these documented cases.
Descriptors: ferrets, mycoses, diagnosis, drug therapy, prognosis, fungal diseases.

Greenacre, C.B. (2003). Incidence of adverse events in ferrets vaccinated with distemper or rabies vaccine: 143 cases (1995-2001). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(5): 663-665. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of adverse events in ferrets vaccinated with a modified-live avian cell culture canine distemper virus vaccine licensed for use in ferrets, an inactivated rabies vaccine licensed for use in ferrets, or both. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 143 ferrets. PROCEDURE: Medical records were reviewed to identify ferrets that had an adverse event after vaccination. RESULTS: Adverse events developed within 25 minutes after vaccination in 13 ferrets. One ferret developed an adverse event after receiving a distemper and a rabies vaccine simultaneously and developed a second adverse event the following year after receiving the rabies vaccine alone. Therefore, a total of 14 adverse events were identified. All adverse events were an anaphylactic reaction characterized by generalized hyperemia, hypersalivation, and vomiting. Ten of the 14 anaphylactic reactions occurred after ferrets received both vaccines, 3 occurred after ferrets received the distemper vaccine alone, and 1 occurred after a ferret received the rabies vaccine alone. Incidences of adverse events after administration of both vaccines, the distemper vaccine alone, and the rabies vaccine alone were 5.6, 5.9, and 5.6%, respectively. Ferrets that had an anaphylactic reaction were significantly older at the time of vaccination than were ferrets that did not. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that there may be a high incidence of anaphylactic reactions after vaccination of domestic ferrets. Ferrets should be observed for at least 25 minutes after vaccination, and veterinarians who vaccinate ferrets should be prepared to treat anaphylactic reactions.
Descriptors: ferrets, distemper virus, canine immunology, rabies vaccines, adverse effects of viral vaccines, age factors, anaphylaxis, incidence of rabies virus, retrospective studies, risk factors.
Notes: Comments: Comment In: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Oct 15;223(8):1112; author reply 1112.

Hanley, C. S, P. MacWilliams, S. Giles, and J. Pare (2006). Diagnosis and successful treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii in a domestic ferret. Canadian Veterinary Journal 47(10): 1015-1017. ISSN: 0008-5286.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R3224
Abstract: A domestic ferret was presented for episodic regurgitation. Cytologic examination and culture of an enlarged submandibular lymph node revealed Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii (serotype A). The ferret was successfully treated with itraconazole. This is the first documented case of Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii in a ferret in the United States.
Descriptors: ferret, Cryptococcus neoformans, diagnosis, treatment.

Harms, C.A., K.K. Sladky, W.A. Horne, and M.K. Stoskopf (2002). Epidural analgesia in ferrets. Exotic DVM 4(3): 40-42. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, anesthesia, epidural, analgesia, morphine, pharmacodynamics.
Notes: 4th Annual international conference on exotics (ICE2002), Key West, Florida, USA, 2002.

Hermann, B. A, K. Plensdorf L, and D. Degner A (2006). Medical and surgical management of traumatic elbow luxation in a juvenile ferret. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 651-655. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Elbow luxation is a common orthopedic injury in the ferret. The injury is usually caused by trauma but can also occur spontaneously. The most successful treatment involves a combination of surgical and medical intervention. Surgical treatment includes open reduction of the elbow joint and stabilization with orthopedic implants. Medical treatment includes external coaptation, analgesia, and prevention of infection. Owner compliance also plays an important role in return to full function of the luxated ferret elbow joint.
Descriptors: ferret, elbow luxation, traumatic, management, medical, surgical, orthopedic implants.

Hess, L. (2006). Clinical techniques in ferrets. In: Small animal and exotics: Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. January 7, 2006-January 11, 2006, Orlando, Florida, USA., The North American Veterinary Conference: Gainesville, USA, Vol. 20, p. 1722-1723.
Online: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: ferrets, blood sampling, clinical techniques, restraint techniques, handling, treatment.

Hoefer, H. (2006). Practice tips in ferrets. In: Small animal and exotics: Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference., January 7, 2006-January 11, 2006, Orlando, Florida, USA., The North American Veterinary Conference: Gainesville, USA, Vol. 20, p. 1731.
Online: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: ferrets, handling, blood sampling, catheterization, restraint, methods.

Hoefer, H.L. (2004). Clinical techniques in ferrets. In: Small animal and exotics Book two: Pain management zoonosis Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference., January 17, 2004-January 21, 2004, Orlando, Florida, USA., Eastern States Veterinary Association: Gainesville, USA, Vol. 18, p. 1385-1387.
Descriptors: ferrets, blood chemistry, blood sampling, transfusion, treatment, clinical examination, drug therapy, fluid therapy, hematology, restraint.

Huber, V.C. and J.A. McCullers (2006). Live attenuated influenza vaccine is safe and immunogenic in immunocompromised ferrets. Journal of Infectious Diseases 193(5): 677-684. ISSN: 0022-1899.
NAL Call Number: 448.8 J821
Abstract: Patients undergoing chemotherapy for cancer are highly susceptible to influenza virus infection. Prevention of influenza virus infection is complicated in the immunocompromised host because of suboptimal responses to the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). A new, live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV; FluMist) may offer a more effective alternative to TIV, but the safety of this LAIV in immunocompromised patients must first be established. In the present study, FluMist was administered to ferrets immunocompromised by treatment with dexamethasone and cytarabine. Ferrets exhibited no signs or symptoms attributable to FluMist, and nasal clearance of LAIV strains from immunocompromised ferrets was similar to that from control ferrets. Serum antibody responses against the vaccinating strains were analyzed as a measure of vaccine efficacy. Antibody titers to all 3 vaccine strains in immunocompromised ferrets were similar to those seen in mock-treated control ferrets, as assessed by microneutralization assay. These findings support the potential use of this vaccine in immunocompromised humans.
Descriptors: ferrets, blood antibodies, immunocompromised host, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, influenza vaccines, cytarabine, dexamethasone, immunosuppressive agents.

Iwata, K., Y. Kuwahara, and N. Kuwahara (2002). Two cases of hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association 55(3): 163-165. ISSN: 0446-6454.
Abstract: Because of high serum levels of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, two ferrets with bilateral symmetrical alopecia of the trunk were tentatively diagnosed as having hyperadrenocorticism. Abdominal computed tomography revealed no obvious adrenal enlargement in either animal. In case 1, treatment with danazol followed by cyproterone acetate produced no fur recovery. Histopathological examinations revealed adrenocortical carcinoma in both animals. In about a month and a half after tumid left adrenal resection, both ferrets' fur had completely recovered. The animals continue in good condition at the present. In case 1, serum 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone has dropped to the normal range.
Descriptors: ferrets, adrenal glands, endocrine diseases, animal glands, endocrine glands, Mustelidae.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Jekl, V., K. Hauptman, E. Jeklova, G. Dorrestein M, and Z. Knotek (2006). Hydrometra in a ferret-case report. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 695-700. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: A desexed female ferret was presented with bilateral alopecic changes. Clinical examination revealed generalized alopecia and abdominal distension. A polycystic mass was found behind the right kidney, and the whole abdomen was filled with a large turgid mass. Radiography and ultrasonography confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of a hydrometra. Hematology and serum biochemistry showed regenerative anemia with light azotemia. Laparotomy showed the presence of a neoplastic mass at the location of the right ovary, a massive enlargement of the uterus filled with a clear fluid, and a subcapsular cyst on the left kidney. After surgery, histopathologic examination of the tissues diagnosed a leiomyoma of the right ovary with hyperplasia of the uterine wall.
Descriptors: ferret, hydrometria, case report, alopecic changes, polycyctic mass, kidney, diagnosis, surgery.

Johnson, D. (2002). Clinical use of cryosurgery for ferret adrenal gland removal. Exotic DVM 4(3): 71-73. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferret, adrenal gland diseases, cryosurgery, adrenalectomy, neoplasms, surgical operations.
Notes: 4th Annual international conference on exotics (ICE2002), Key West, Florida, USA, 2002.

Johnson Delaney, C.A. (2005). The ferret gastrointestinal tract and Helicobacter mustelae infection. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 8(2): 197-212. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Descriptors: ferrets, microbiology, gastrointestinal tract, helicobacter infections, Helicobacter mustelae pathogenicity, biliary tract, disease models, pancreas, exocrine physiology.

Johnson Delaney, C.A. (2005). Ferret cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 14(2): 135-142. ISSN: 1055-937X.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1536
Descriptors: ferrets, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, therapy, heart diseases, reviews, techniques, cardiac massage, cardiac arrest.

Johnson Delaney, C.A. (2005). Presurgical and surgical support of ferrets. Exotic DVM 6(6): 25-28. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, support, surgical, presurgical, anesthetics, dosage, drug therapy, fluid therapy, preoperative care.

Johnson Delaney, C.A. (2004). Medical therapies for ferret adrenal disease. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 13(1): 3-7. ISSN: 1055-937X.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1536
Descriptors: ferrets, adrenal gland diseases, adrenalectomy, medical therapies, surgical operations, neoplasia, symptoms.

Johnston, M.S. (2005). Clinical approaches to analgesia in ferrets and rabbits. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 14(4): 229-235. ISSN: 1055-937X.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1536
Descriptors: ferrets, rabbits, analgesia, behavior, ketamine, local anesthetics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, opioids, pain management.

Kawaguchi, H., N. Miyoshi, M. Souda, H. Maeda, H. Kawashima, K. Gejima, K. Uchida, Y. Umekita, and H. Yoshida (2006). Renal Adenocarcinoma in a Ferret. Veterinary Pathology 43(3): 353-356. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: A spontaneous case of renal tumor was observed in a 7-year-old ovariectomized female pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Clinical signs included exhaustion, emaciation, anorexia, and stooping position. At necropsy, a solid and cystic mass replaced the left kidney and adrenal gland. The tumor was composed of pleomorphic epithelial cells with a large number of giant cells. Metastases were recognized in the lung, liver, greater omentum, right renal pelvis, and systemic lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical stains revealed that the tumor cells were positive for CD10, cytokeratin (CAM 5.2), and Ki-67 (MIB-1). On the basis of morphologic and immunohistochemical features, the tumor was diagnosed as a pleomorphic renal adenocarcinoma. This type of neoplasm is very rare in all species and has never been reported in a ferret.
Descriptors: Mustela putorius, case studies, kidney diseases, adenocarcinoma, metastasis, histopathology.

Kona Boun, J.J., B. Mercier, E. Troncy, J. Pare, and I. Langlois (2004). Le furet domestique. [The domestic ferret]. Medecin Veterinaire Du Quebec 34(3): 220-227.
Descriptors: ferrets, anesthetic techniques, handling, venous access, catheterization, intubation, analgesics, anesthetics, fluid administration.
Language of Text: French.

Kottwitz, J. (2004). Horizontal beam radiography in ferrets. Exotic DVM 6(1): 37-41. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, horizontal beam radiography, diagnostic techniques, restraint.

Lennox, A.M. (2005). Gastrointestinal diseases of the ferret. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 8(2): 213-225. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Descriptors: ferrets, gastrointestinal diseases, age factors, diagnosis, differential, foreign bodies, complications, etiology.

Lester, S.J., N.J. Kowalewich, K.H. Bartlett, M.B. Krockenberger, T.M. Fairfax, and R. Malik (2004). Clinicopathologic features of an unusual outbreak of cryptococcosis in dogs, cats, ferrets, and a bird: 38 cases (January to July 2003). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 225(11): 1716-1722. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical and pathologic findings associated with an outbreak of cryptococcosis in an unusual geographic location (British Columbia, Canada). DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 1 pink-fronted cockatoo, 2 ferrets, 20 cats, and 15 dogs. PROCEDURE: A presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcosis was made on the basis of serologic, histopathologic, or cytologic findings, and a definitive diagnosis was made on the basis of culture or immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: No breed or sex predilections were detected in affected dogs or cats. Eleven cats had neurologic signs, 7 had skin lesions, and 5 had respiratory tract signs. None of 17 cats tested serologically for FeLV yielded positive results; 1 of 17 cats yielded positive results for FIV (western blot). Nine of 15 dogs had neurologic signs, 2 had periorbital swellings, and only 3 had respiratory tract signs initially. Microbiologic culture in 15 cases yielded 2 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii (serotype A) and 13 isolates of C. neoformans var gattii (serotype B); all organisms were susceptible to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Serologic testing had sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Serologic titers were beneficial in identifying infection in animals with nonspecific signs, but routine serum biochemical or hematologic parameters were of little value in diagnosis. Most animals had nonspecific CNS signs and represented a diagnostic challenge. Animals that travel to or live in this region and have nonspecific malaise or unusual neurologic signs should be evaluated for cryptococcosis.
Descriptors: ferrets, dogs, cats, birds, epidemiology, diseases, cockatoos, cryptosporidiosis, amphotericin b, antifungal agents, bird diseases, drug therapy, cat diseases, cryptosporidiosis, disease outbreaks, dog diseases, ketoconazole, retrospective studies, treatment outcomes.

Lichtenberger, M. (2005). Shock, fluid therapy, anesthesia and analgesia in the ferret. Exotic DVM 7(2): 24-30. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, anesthesia, analgesia, hypovolemic shock, corrective fluid therapy, circulatory diseases.
Notes: International Conference on Exotics, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. May 26-28, 2005.

Lindeberg, H., J. Aalto, S. Amstislavsky, K. Piltti, M. Jarvinen, and M. Valtonen (2003). Surgical recovery and successful surgical transfer of conventionally frozen-thawed embryos in the farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius). Theriogenology 60(8): 1515-1525. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Surgical transfer of in vivo produced conventionally frozen-thawed embryos of farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) was investigated as a part of an ex-situ preservation program which has the long-term aim of developing a genome resource bank for the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola). Eighteen oestrous yearling European polecat donors were mated once daily on two consecutive days using 13 fertile males. The donors were surgically flushed for embryos 8-9 days after the first mating. The embryo recovery rate was 60% (116 embryos/193 corpora lutea). The embryos were cryopreserved with 1.5 M ethylene glycol in a programmable freezer using a conventional slow freezing protocol. The thawed embryos were surgically transferred either after dilution with 0.5 M sucrose or directly without removal of ethylene glycol. To induce ovulation, eight recipient females were mated once daily on two consecutive days with vasectomized males starting 7 or 8 days before embryo transfer. The recipients received 7-11 embryos each and three recipients delivered a total of nine pups after a gestation length of 44-46 days. The embryo survival rate was 10% (9 pups/93 frozen embryos). This report describes the first successful cryopreservation of embryos in the Mustelidae family resulting in viable offspring. The low embryo survival rate, however, indicates that the freezing-thawing protocol needs to be improved.
Descriptors: ferrets, embryo transfer, tissue and organ harvesting, breeding, cryopreservation, ethylene glycol, gestational age, litter size, ovulation induction, uterus surgery.

Lindeberg, H., S. Amstislavsky, M. Jarvinen, J. Aalto, and M. Valtonen (2002). Surgical transfer of in vivo produced farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) embryos. Theriogenology 57(9): 2167-2177. ISSN: 0093-691X.
NAL Call Number: QP251.A1T5
Abstract: Surgical embryo transfer of farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) was investigated as part of an ex situ preservation project. The long-term objective of the project is to develop effective technology for ex situ conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola), which is a highly endangered aboriginal European species. Twenty European polecat females, which served as a model species for the European mink, were humanely killed 4-9 days after first mating and embryos were recovered from oviducts and uteri. Donor-recipient pairs (n = 16) were generated by mating the donors (n = 20) once a day for 2 consecutive days with fertile males and by mating the corresponding recipients (n = 16) on the same days with vasectomized males. An embryo recovery rate of 70% (200 recovered embryos/284 corpora lutea) was achieved from 20 donors. Morulae and blastocysts were recovered between Days 5 and 9 after first mating and were regarded as the best developmental stages for uterine embryo transfer. A total of 172 embryos were transferred surgically under general anaesthesia into the ovarian third of the left uterine horn of 16 recipients with a thin glass capillary. Eleven recipients (69%) produced 72 pups equivalent to an average success rate of 42% (72 pups/172 transferred embryos). The average litter size was 4.5 (range 0-9). These results with this model species, farmed European polecat, demonstrate the potential of embryo transfer as an effective method for the preservation of the endangered European mink (M. lutreola). These species are closely related and have a similar reproductive physiology. However, success of applying embryo transfer in conserving European mink is. still dependent on further studies both into its reproductive physiology and developing of improved flushing techniques for anaesthetized donors and the successful transfer of frozen-thawed embryos.
Descriptors: Mustela, embryo transfer, surgery, endangered species, wildlife management, animal models, morula, blastocyst, embryogenesis, ovulation.

Lloyd, M. (2002). Veterinary care of ferrets. 2. Common clinical conditions. In Practice 24(3): 136-138, 141, 144-145. ISSN: 0263-841X.
NAL Call Number: SF601.I4
Descriptors: ferrets, viral diseases, bacterial diseases, parasitoses, distemper virus, gastroduodenal diseases, otodectes cynotis, cardiomyopathy, nutritional disorders, paresis, ataxia, diagnosis, medical treatment, Helicobacter mustelae, hyperoestrogenism.

Lloyd, M. (2002). Veterinary care of ferrets. 1. Clinical examination and routine procedures. In Practice 24(2): 90-95. ISSN: 0263-841X.
NAL Call Number: SF601.I4
Descriptors: ferrets, veterinary medicine, clinical examination, radiography, blood sampling, urine analysis, vaccination, disease prevention, anesthesia, surgical operations, postoperative care.

Lu, D., C.R. Lamb, J.C. Patterson Kane, and R. Cappello (2004). Treatment of a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc in a ferret. Journal of Small Animal Practice 45(10): 501-503. ISSN: 0022-4510.
Abstract: A seven-month-old, male ferret had acute paraplegia and radiographs showed signs of disc prolapse between the second and third lumbar vertebrae (L2/3). Hemilaminectomy was performed to decompress the spinal cord. Histological examination revealed that the extradural material was consistent with annulus fibrosus and the L2/3 articular facets were enlarged as a result of bone remodelling. The ferret became ambulatory one month postoperatively. Five months postoperatively, the ferret had normal posture with mild proprioceptive deficits in the pelvic limbs, and fusion of the L2 and L3 vertebral bodies.
Descriptors: ferrets, intervertebral disk displacement, lumbar vertebrae surgery, laminectomy methods, spinal cord compression, surgery, disc prolapse, lumbar, treatment outcome.

Lunn, J.A., P. Martin, S. Zaki, and R. Malik (2005). Pneumonia due to Mycobacterium abscessus in two domestic ferrets (Mustelo putorius furo). Australian Veterinary Journal 83(9): 542-546. ISSN: 0005-0423.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Au72
Abstract: Two ferrets were diagnosed with pneumonia due to Mycobacterium abscessus. Both cases were treated successfully using clarithromycin after positive cultures were obtained via unguided bronchoalveolar lavage. This is the first time M abscessus has been isolated in our laboratory and the first report of this organism causing disease in companion animals in Australia. Underlying respiratory tract disease was thought to be an important factor in the development of the infections. Thorough investigation of chronic lower respiratory tract disease in ferrets is recommended as this species appears predisposed to atypical infections.
Descriptors: ferrets, anti-bacterial agents, mycobacterium infections, bacterial pneumonia, bronchoalveolar lavage, fluid microbiology, mycobacterium isolation, treatment outcome.

Mayer, J. (2006). Management of ferrets with multiple pathologies. In: Small animal and exotics Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. January 7, 2006-January 11, 2006, Orlando, Florida, USA., The North American Veterinary Conference: Gainesville, USA, Vol. 20, p. 1750.
Online: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: ferrets, diseases, concurrent infections, multiple pathologies, management, drug therapy.

Mayer, J. (2006). Diagnostic work-up of the anemic ferret. In: Small animal and exotics: Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference. January 7, 2006-January 11, 2006, Orlando, Florida, USA., The North American Veterinary Conference: Gainesville, USA, Vol. 20, p. 1746-1747.
Online: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: ferret, anemia, diagnostic techniques, hematocrit, neoplasms, treatment, Helicobacter.

Mayer, J. (2006). Interpreting renal values in the ferret. In: Small animal and exotics: Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference., January 7, 2006-January 11, 2006, Orlando, Florida, USA., The North American Veterinary Conference: Gainesville, USA, Vol. 20, p. 1743.
Online: http://www.tnavc.org
Descriptors: ferret, renal values, interpreting, blood chemistry, diagnostic techniques, kidney diseases, normal values.

McLain, D.E. (2006). Use of an adjustable restraint device for prolonged and intermittent intravenous infusion and blood sampling in ferrets. Lab Animal 35(7): 47-50. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: ferrets, restraint, instrumentation, blood specimen, collection, methods, infusions, intravenous, methods, infusions.

Miller, D.S., R.P. Eagle, S. Zabel, R. Rosychuk, and T.W. Campbell (2006). Efficacy and safety of selamectin in the treatment of Otodectes cynotis infestation in domestic ferrets. Veterinary Record 159(22): 748. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: ferrets, Otodectes, infestation, treatment, efficacy, safety, selamectin.

Montiani Ferreira, F., B.C. Mattos, and H.H.A. Russ (2006). Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Veterinary Ophthalmology 9(4): 209-213. ISSN: 1463-5216.
NAL Call Number: SF891.V47
Abstract: To perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in healthy ferrets with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 15 healthy, unrelated ferrets were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Eight of the 15 ferrets were used for central corneal thickness evaluation. Ages varied from 1.5 to 6 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test, tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen¬), central corneal thickness using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach¬, Model 200P +) and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Staphylococcus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctival and eyelid margins, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the ferret. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated here for the ferret eye were as follows: intraocular pressure: 14.50 ½ 3.27 mmHg; Schirmer tear test: 5.31 ½ 1.32 mm/min; central corneal thickness: 0.337 ½ 0.020 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. The reference data for the ocular tests obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists to more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the ferret. Knowledge of these reference values will be particularly useful to diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the ferret eye.
Descriptors: ferret, reference values, ophthalmic diagnostic tests, normal physiological reference values, ferret eye, diagnosis, ocular diseases.

Moore, G.E., N.W. Glickman, M.P. Ward, K.S. Engler, H.B. Lewis, and L.T. Glickman (2005). Incidence of and risk factors for adverse events associated with distemper and rabies vaccine administration in ferrets. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 226(6): 909-912. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of and risk factors for adverse events associated with distemper and rabies vaccine administration in ferrets. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS: 3,587 ferrets that received a rabies or distemper vaccine between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003. PROCEDURES: Electronic medical records were searched for possible vaccine-associated adverse events. Adverse events were classified by attending veterinarians as nonspecific vaccine reactions, allergic reactions, or anaphylaxis. Patient information that was collected included age, weight, sex, cumulative number of distemper and rabies vaccinations received, clinical signs, and treatment. The association between potential risk factors and occurrence of an adverse event was estimated with logistic regression. RESULTS: 30 adverse events were recorded. The adverse event incidence rates for administration of rabies vaccine alone, distemper vaccine alone, and rabies and distemper vaccines together were 0.51%, 1.00%, and 0.85%, respectively. These rates were not significantly different. All adverse events occurred immediately following vaccine administration and most commonly consisted of vomiting and diarrhea (52%) or vomiting alone (31%). Age, sex, and body weight were not significantly associated with occurrence of adverse events, but adverse event incidence rate increased as the cumulative number of distemper or rabies vaccinations received increased. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the cumulative number of distemper vaccinations received was significantly associated with the occurrence of an adverse event. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that in ferrets, the risk of vaccine-associated adverse events was primarily associated with an increase in the number of distemper vaccinations.
Descriptors: diarrhea, ferrets, rabies vaccines, adverse effects of viral vaccines, distemper virus, canine immunology, logistic models, rabies virus, vomiting.

Morera, N., X. Valls, and J. Mascort (2006). Intervertebral disk prolapse in a ferret. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 667-671. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: This case report describes the diagnosis and resolution of an inter-vertebral disk prolapse in a 6-year-old ferret. No predisposing causes were found in the patient's history. A right hemilaminectomy, performed 1 week after presentation, was chosen to treat the patient surgically, and complete remission of clinical signs was achieved 2 months after presentation.
Descriptors: ferret, intervertebral disk prolapse, hemilaminectomy, remission, clinical signs.

Munday, J.S., N.L. Stedman, and L.J. Richey (2003). Histology and immunohistochemistry of seven ferret vaccination-site fibrosarcomas. Veterinary Pathology 40(3): 288-293. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: The anatomical location, histology, and immunohistochemistry of 10 ferret dermal and subcutaneous fibrosarcomas were examined. Seven of the 10 tumors were from locations used for vaccination. All fibrosarcomas contained spindle-shaped cells surrounded by variable quantities of connective tissue stroma. However, vaccination-site fibrosarcomas (VSFs) subjectively contained a higher degree of cellular pleomorphism. Multinucleated cells were present in three of seven VSFs but not in any of the nonvaccination-site fibrosarcomas (NVSFs). Large histiocytic cells, interpreted as macrophages, containing intracytoplasmic basophilic granular material were observed in two VSFs but not in any of the NVSFs. Five VSFs contained peripheral lymphoplasmacytic aggregates. Immunohistochemically, three VSFs stained with anti-smooth muscle actin antibodies and one stained with antibodies against desmin. No expression of muscle cytoskeletal filaments was observed in any NVSF. Filaments interpreted as actin were visible in both the VSFs examined ultrastructurally. One of the VSFs examined ultrastructurally contained intracytoplasmic crystalline material. The preferential development of subcutaneous fibrosarcomas in vaccination sites suggests that, as in cats, vaccination may promote local sarcoma development in ferrets. Additionally, some of the histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of these tumors are similar to those reported for feline vaccine-associated sarcomas. To the authors' knowledge, vaccination has not previously been reported to be oncogenic in any species other than cats.
Descriptors: ferrets, fibrosarcoma, soft tissue neoplasms, vaccination adverse effects, fibrosarcoma etiology, pathology, ultrastructure, immunohistochemistry, retrospective studies, etiology.

Murray, M.J. (2002). Laparoscopy in the domestic ferret. Exotic DVM 4(3): 65-69. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferret, laparoscopy, surgery, anesthesia, diagnostic techniques, equipment.
Notes: 4th Annual international conference on exotics (ICE2002), Key West, Florida, USA, 2002.

Mutlow, A. and D.S. Biller (2004). A ferret with a painful abdomen. Exotic DVM 99(3): 230, 232, 234. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferret, painful abdomen, disease, diagnosis, veterinary.

Nolte, D.M., C.A. Carberry, K.M. Gannon, and F.C. Boren (2002). Temporary tube cystostomy as a treatment for urinary obstruction secondary to adrenal disease in four ferrets. The Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 38(6): 527-532. ISSN: 0587-2871.
NAL Call Number: SF601.A5
Descriptors: ferrets, pets, age, adrenal gland diseases, clinical aspects, urethra, urination disorders, complications, adrenalectomy, surgery, catheterization, catheters, prostate, histopathology, pancreas, omentum, adenoma, adenocarcinoma, adrenal cortex, postoperative care, urination, small animal practice, animal hospitals.

Nugent, J.S., B. Whisman, and L.L. Hagan (2003). Ferret allergy: Identification of serum specific ige to albumin with crossreactivity to cat. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 111(2 Abstract Supplement): S324. ISSN: 0091-6749.
Descriptors: ferret, allergy, immune system disease, seum specific ige, albumin, electrophoretic techniques, cats.
Notes: AAAAI 60th Anniversary Meeting, Denver, CO, USA; March 7-12, 2003.

Oglesbee, B.L. (2006). The 5-Minute Veterinary Consult: Ferret and Rabbit., 1st edition, Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa, 422 p. ISBN: 0781793998.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.F47 O35 2006
Descriptors: ferrets, rabbits, diseases, handbooks, veterinary medicine.

Orcutt, C.J. (2003). Ferret urogenital diseases. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 6(1): 113-138. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Improved nutrition and client education have decreased the incidence of certain urinary tract diseases in ferrets. Early neutering programs at commercial breeding farms in the United States have also led to a marked decrease in the incidence of reproductive tract disease, especially estrogen-induced bone marrow suppression. However, the increased incidence of adrenal disease and its secondary effects on reproductive and associated urinary tract tissue presents an ongoing challenge for the clinician working with pet ferrets. Acute and chronic renal failure remain important, though less common, disease entities. It is imperative that the veterinarian working with pet ferrets be aware of the clinical presentation and clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with these syndromes.
Descriptors: ferrets, urogenital diseases, diagnosis, surgery, therapy, ultrasonography, nutrition, neutering, reproductive tract disease.

Patterson, M.M., A.B. Rogers, M.D. Schrenzel, R.P. Marini, and J.G. Fox (2003). Alopecia attributed to neoplastic ovarian tissue in two ferrets. Comparative Medicine 53(2): 213-217. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77 .C65
Abstract: Ferrets with adrenal gland dysfunction have alopecia as their most common clinical sign of disease. Two cases of alopecia in neutered female ferrets are reported that were associated instead with neoplastic tissue found at the site of an ovarian pedicle. Androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, but not estradiol, concentrations were high in both ferrets. Following surgical resection of the abnormal tissue in one ferret, the high hormone values decreased quickly and hair regrowth ensued. In both cases, histologic examination revealed features consistent with classical sex cord-stromal (gonadostromal) tumors: prominent spindle cells, along with polyhedral epithelial cells and cells with vacuolated cytoplasm. Although similar cell types have been described in the adrenal glands of ferrets with adrenal-associated endocrinopathy, an ovarian origin for the current neoplasms is considered likely on the basis of their anatomic location; accessory adrenal tissue has only been described close to an adrenal gland or in the cranial perirenal fat of ferrets. Immunohistochemical analysis, using an antibody against Mullerian-inhibiting substance, failed to prove definitively the source of the steroidogenic cells.
Descriptors: ferrets, alopecia, adrenal gland diseases, ovarian cancer, estradiol, progesterone, androstenedione, immunohistochemistry, excision of the ovaries.

Peltola, V.T., K.L. Boyd, J.L. McAuley, J.E. Rehg, and J.A. McCullers (2006). Bacterial sinusitis and otitis media following influenza virus infection in ferrets. Infection and Immunity 74(5): 2562-2567. ISSN: 1098-5522.
NAL Call Number: QR1.I57
Abstract: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of otitis media, sinusitis, and pneumonia. Many of these infections result from antecedent influenza virus infections. In this study we sought to determine whether the frequency and character of secondary pneumococcal infections differed depending on the strain of influenza virus that preceded bacterial challenge. In young ferrets infected with influenza virus and then challenged with pneumococcus, influenza viruses of any subtype increased bacterial colonization of the nasopharynx. Nine out of 10 ferrets infected with H3N2 subtype influenza A viruses developed either sinusitis or otitis media, while only 1 out of 11 ferrets infected with either an H1N1 influenza A virus or an influenza B virus did so. These data may partially explain why bacterial complication rates are higher during seasons when H3N2 viruses predominate. This animal model will be useful for further study of the mechanisms that underlie viral-bacterial synergism.
Descriptors: ferrets, bacterial infection, virus infection, sinusitis, pneumonia, viral-bacterial synergism.

Pennick, K.E., M.A. Stevenson, K.S. Latimer, B.W. Ritchie, and C.R. Gregory (2005). Persistent viral shedding during asymptomatic Aleutian mink disease parvoviral infection in a ferret. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 17(6): 594-597. ISSN: 1040-6387.
NAL Call Number: SF774.J68
Abstract: A 2-year-old domestic ferret that appeared clinically healthy was repeatedly seropositive for Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) over a 2-year observation period. Antibody titers, determined by counter-immunoelectrophoresis, ranged from 1024 to 4096. Viral DNA also was identified in serum, urine, feces, and blood cell fractions by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Ultimately, DNA in situ hybridization revealed ADV DNA in histologic sections of various tissues and organs. These data indicate that this asymptomatic ferret was persistently infected with ADV.
Descriptors: ferrets, Aleutian mink disease, virology, carrier state, virus shedding, antibodies, blood, physiopathology, DNA, physiology, kidney, liver, lung, spleen, urine.

Peterson, R.A., M. Kiupel, M. Bielinska, S. Kiiveri, M. Heikinheimo, C.C. Capen, and D.B. Wilson (2004). Transcription factor GATA-4 is a marker of anaplasia in adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Veterinary Pathology 41(4): 446-449. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: Adrenocortical neoplasms are a common cause of morbidity in neutered ferrets. Recently we showed that gonadectomized DBA/2J mice develop adrenocortical tumors that express transcription factor GATA-4. Therefore, we screened archival specimens of adrenocortical neoplasms from neutered ferrets to determine whether GATA-4 could be used as a tumor marker in this species. Nuclear immunoreactivity for GATA-4 was evident in 19/22 (86%) of ferret adrenocortical carcinomas and was prominent in areas exhibiting myxoid differentiation. Normal adrenocortical cells lacked GATA-4 expression. Two other markers of adrenocortical tumors in gonadectomized mice, inhibin-alpha and luteinizing hormone receptor, were coexpressed with GATA-4 in some of the ferret tumors. No GATA-4 expression was observed in three cases of nodular hyperplasia, but patches of anaplastic cells expressing GATA-4 were evident in 7/14 (50%) of tumors classified as adenomas. We conclude that GATA-4 can function as a marker of anaplasia in ferret adrenocortical tumors.
Descriptors: ferrets, adrenal cortex neoplasms, adrenocortical carcinoma, DNA binding, proteins metabolism, transcription factors, tumor markers, biological metabolism.

Peterson, R.A. II, M. Kiupel, M. Bielinska, S. Kiiveri, M. Heikinheimo, C.C. Capen, and D.B. Wilson (2004). Transcription factor GATA-4 is a marker of anaplasia in adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Veterinary Pathology 41(4): 446-449. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Descriptors: ferret, adenocortical neoplasms, transcription factor GATA-4, disease marker, anaplasia.

Pilny, A.A. and S. Chen (2004). Ferret insulinoma: Diagnosis and treatment. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 26(9): 722-728. ISSN: 0193-1903.
NAL Call Number: SF601.C66
Descriptors: ferret, insulinoma, diagnosis, treatment, neoplasia.

Pilny, A.A. and L. Hess (2004). Ferrets: Wound healing and therapy. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 7(1): 105-121. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: In all species of mammals, the stages of wound healing are the same, and both host factors and wound characteristics affect how wounds heal. The basic principles of wound care in ferrets, such as lavage, bandaging, and surgical closure, are similar to those in other species; however, knowledge of ferrets' anatomy and pathophysiology, as well as skin conditions commonly seen in ferrets, will help ensure proper wound healing.
Descriptors: ferrets, injuries, wounds, wound healing, therapy, lavage, bandaging, anatomy, pathophysiology, skin conditions.

Ramer, J.C., K.G. Benson, J.K. Morrisey, R.T. O'brien, and J. Paul Murphy (2006). Effects of melatonin administration on the clinical course of adrenocortical disease in domestic ferrets. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 229(11): 1743-1748. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: Objective-To evaluate the effect of oral administration of melatonin on clinical signs, tumor size, and serum steroid hormone concentrations in ferrets with adrenocortical disease. Design-Noncontrolled clinical trial. Animals-10 adult ferrets with clinical signs of adrenocortical disease (confirmed via serum steroid hormone concentration assessments). Procedures-Melatonin (0.5 mg) was administered orally to ferrets once daily for 1 year. At 4-month intervals, a complete physical examination; abdominal ultrasonographic examination (including adrenal gland measurement); CBC; serum biochemical analyses; and assessment of serum estradiol, androstenedione, and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were performed. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations were evaluated at the first, second, and last examinations, and serum cortisol concentration was evaluated at the first and last examinations. Results-Daily oral administration of melatonin greatly affected clinical signs of adrenocortical disease in ferrets; changes included hair regrowth, decreased pruritus, increased activity level and appetite, and decreased vulva or prostate size. Mean width of the abnormally large adrenal glands was significantly increased after the 12-month treatment period. Recurrence of clinical signs was detected in 6 ferrets at the 8-month evaluation. Compared with pretreatment values, serum 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and prolactin concentrations were significantly increased and decreased after 12 months, respectively. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggest that melatonin is a useful, easily administered, palliative treatment to decrease clinical signs associated with adrenocortical disease in ferrets, and positive effects of daily treatment were evident for at least an 8-month period. Oral administration of melatonin did not decrease adrenal gland tumor growth in treated ferrets.
Descriptors: domestic ferrets, adrenocortical disease, melatonin, clinical signs.

Riggs, S.M., J.J. Heatley, J. Nevarez, and M.A. Mitchell (2002). Ferret blood collection: A quick and simple technique. Exotic DVM 4(6): 6-7. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferret, blood collection technique, anesthesia, blood chemistry, blood sampling.

Ritzman, T.K. and D. Knapp (2002). Ferret orthopedics. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 5(1): 129-155, Vii. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: Orthopedic conditions requiring surgical intervention and correction frequently occur in the ferret patient. Elbow luxations and long bone fractures are among the most common syndromes affecting the ferret patient, which often presents in an emergency setting. Orthopedic conditions in the ferret, as in other mammalian species, are often the result of trauma. Surgical treatment including reduction and stabilization of the affected bony structure, combined with supervision and the recommended postoperative care, can provide a good prognosis to return to normal function for the ferret.
Descriptors: ferrets injuries, fracture fixation, bone fractures, forelimb injuries, bone radiography, bone therapy, hindlimb injuries.

Rosenthal, K. (2002). The use of diagnostic imaging in ferrets. Veterinary Practice News 14(1): 44. ISSN: 1528-6398.
Descriptors: ferrets, diagnostic imaging, diseases, computed tomography, diagnostic techniques, magnetic resonance imaging.

Rosenthal, K.L. (2002). The basics of placing catheters, venipuncture, and what to do with the blood once you have it in ferrets and rabbits. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference 16: 972-974.
NAL Call Number: SF605.N672
Descriptors: ferrets, rabbits, catheters, blood sampling, venipuncture, blood.
Notes: In the volume: Small animal and exotics. Part of a three volume set. Meeting held January 12-16, 2002, Orlando, Florida.

Sanchez Migallon Guzman, D., J. Mayer, R. Melidone, R. McCarthy J, E. McCobb, A. Kavirayani, and J. Rush E (2006). Pacemaker implantation in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with third-degree atrioventricular block. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 9(3): 677-687. ISSN: 1094-9194.
NAL Call Number: SF997.5.E95 E97
Abstract: A 7.5-year-old castrated male ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was diagnosed with third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. A monopolar epicardial pacemaker system was implanted, resulting in a regular, paced cardiac rhythm with third-degree AV block at 140 beats per minute. Over the next 2 months, the ferret developed anorexia, interstitial pneumonia, intermittent diarrhea, and hind-limb weakness and had a slow and progressive recovery. The ferret developed clinical signs of congestive heart failure 4 months after the surgery, resulting in its death 3 weeks later. Necropsy results attributed the death to cardiac failure due to extensive myocardial mineralization. To the authors' knowledge this is the first published report of surgical report of surgical pacemaker implantation in a ferret.
Descriptors: ferret, atrioventricular block, pacemaker, implantation, congestive heart failure, myocardial mineralization.

Schoemaker, N., A. Kuijten, and H. Moorman (2006). Alternatieven voor castratie bij fretten. [Alternatives for castration of ferrets]. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 131(2): 56. ISSN: 0040-7453.
Descriptors: ferrets, surgery, orchiectomy, ovariectomy, progesterone analogs, derivatives, drug implants, adverse effects, methods, progesterone therapeutic use.
Language of Text: Dutch.

Schoemaker, N.J. (2002). Ferrets. In: A. Meredith and S. Redrobe (Editors), BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets, 4th edition, British Small Animal Veterinary Association: Quedgeley, UK, p. 93-101. ISBN: 0905214471.
Descriptors: ferrets, anesthesia, analgesics, housing, biology, diseases, diagnostic techniques, diet, drug therapy, euthanasia, handling, parasites, surgery.

Schoemaker, N.J., J.T. Lumeij, and A. Rijnberk (2005). Current and future alternatives to surgical neutering in ferrets to prevent hyperadrenocorticism. Veterinary Medicine 100(7): 484-485, 488, 490, 492, 495-496. ISSN: 8750-7943.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 M69
Descriptors: ferrets, hyperadrenocorticism, surgical neutering, alternatives, diseases.

Schoemaker, N.J., J.A. Mol, J.T. Lumeij, J.H. Thijssen, and A. Rijnberk (2003). Effects of anaesthesia and manual restraint on the plasma concentrations of pituitary and adrenocortical hormones in ferrets. Veterinary Record 152(19): 591-595. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Abstract: Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of sampling techniques on the plasma concentrations of pituitary and adrenocortical hormones in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). In the first experiment blood was collected on two occasions from 29 ferrets which were either manually restrained or anaesthetised with isoflurane. In the second experiment eight intact ferrets were fitted with jugular catheters and blood was collected on four occasions, just before and as soon as possible after they had been manually restrained or anaesthetised with medetomidine or isoflurane; blood was also collected 10 and 30 minutes after the induction of anaesthesia. Medetomidine anaesthesia had no effect on the plasma concentrations of pituitary and adrenocortical hormones. Isoflurane anaesthesia resulted in a significant increase in the plasma concentration of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) directly after the induction of anaesthesia. Manual restraint resulted in a significant increase in the plasma concentrations of cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and a decrease in the plasma concentration of alpha-MSH.
Descriptors: anesthesia, ferrets, restraint, specimen handling, blood chemical analysis, corticotropin, blood hydrocortisone, hyperaldosteronism, isoflurane, medetomidine, pituitary adrenal function tests.

Schoemaker, N.J., K.J. Teerds, J.A. Mol, J.T. Lumeij, J.H. Thijssen, and A. Rijnberk (2002). The role of luteinizing hormone in the pathogenesis of hyperadrenocorticism in neutered ferrets. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 197(1-2): 117-125. ISSN: 0303-7207.
Abstract: Four studies were performed to test the hypothesis that gonadotrophic hormones, and particularly luteinizing hormone (LH) play a role in the pathogenesis of ferrets: (I) adrenal glands of ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism were studied immunohistochemically to detect LH-receptors (LH-R); (II) gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation tests were performed in 10 neutered ferrets, with measurement of androstenedione, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and cortisol as endpoints; (III) GnRH stimulation tests were performed in 15 ferrets of which 8 had hyperadrenocorticism, via puncture of the vena cava under anesthesia; and (IV) urinary corticoid/creatinine (C/C) ratios were measured at 2-week intervals for 1 year in the same ferrets as used in study II. Clear cells in hyperplastic or neoplastic adrenal glands of hyperadrenocorticoid ferrets stained positive with the LH-R antibody. Plasma androstenedione and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations increased after stimulation with GnRH in 7 out of 8 hyperadrenocorticoid ferrets but in only 1 out of 7 healthy ferrets. Hyperadrenocorticoid ferrets had elevated urinary C/C ratios during the breeding season. The observations support the hypothesis that gonadotrophic hormones play a role in the pathogenesis of hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets. This condition may be defined as a disease resulting from the expression of LH-R on sex steroid-producing adrenocortical cells.
Descriptors: adrenocortical hyperfunction, ferrets, luteinizing hormone, orchiectomy, 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone, adenoma, adrenal cortex, adrenocortical hyperfunction, androstenedione, gonadorelin, hydrocortisone, LH receptors, urine.

Schoemaker, N.J., M.H. van der Hage, G. Flik, J.T. Lumeij, and A. Rijnberk (2004). Morphology of the pituitary gland in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with hyperadrenocorticism. Journal of Comparative Pathology 130(4): 255-265. ISSN: 0021-9975.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 J82
Abstract: Pituitary tumours are the cause of hyperadrenocorticism in a variety of species, but the role of the pituitary gland in hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets is not known. In this species, the disease is mediated by the action of excess gonadotrophins on the adrenal cortex and is characterized by an excessive secretion of sex steroids. In this study, the pituitary gland of four healthy control ferrets, intact or neutered, and 10 neutered ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism was examined histologically following immunohistochemical labelling for adrenocorticotrophic hormone, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Immunohistochemistry revealed that somatotrophs, thyrotrophs and lactotrophs were the most abundant cell types of the pars distalis of the pituitary gland in the healthy ferrets. The distribution of corticotrophs was similar to that in the dog and man. In ferrets, as in dogs, the melanotrophic cell was almost the only cell type of the pars intermedia. Gonadotrophs were found in the pars distalis of neutered, but not intact ferrets. All the ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism had unilateral or bilateral alterations of the adrenal gland. In addition, in the pituitary gland of two of these ferrets a tumour was detected. These tumours were not immunolabelled by antibodies against any of the pituitary hormones, and had characteristics of the clinically non-functional gonadotroph tumours seen in man. In some of the other ferrets low pituitary immunoreactivity for gonadotrophic hormones was detected, which may have been due to the feedback of autonomous steroid secretion by the neoplastic transformation of the adrenal cortex. It is concluded that initially high concentrations of gonadotrophins resulting from castration may initiate hyperactivity of the adrenal cortex. The low incidence of pituitary tumours and the low density of gonadotrophin-positive cells in non-affected pituitary tissue in this study suggest that persistent hyperadrenocorticism is not dependent on persistent gonadotrophic stimulation.
Descriptors: ferrets, adrenocortical hyperfunction, pituitary gland, adenoma, adrenal glands, castration, pituitary neoplasms.

Schoemaker, N.J., J. Wolfswinkel, J.A. Mol, G. Voorhout, M.J.L. Kik, J.T. Lumeij, and A. Rijnberk (2004). Urinary glucocorticoid excretion in the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 27(1): 13-24. ISSN: 0739-7240.
NAL Call Number: QL868.D6
Abstract: Hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets is usually associated with unaltered plasma concentrations of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), although the urinary corticoid/creatinine ratio (UCCR) is commonly elevated. In this study the urinary glucocorticoid excretion was investigated in healthy ferrets and in ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism under different circumstances. In healthy ferrets and in one ferret with hyperadrenocorticism, approximately 10% of plasma cortisol and its metabolites was excreted in the urine. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed one third of the urinary corticoids to be unconjugated cortisol; the other peaks mainly represented cortisol conjugates and metabolites. In 21 healthy sexually intact ferrets, the UCCR started to increase by the end of March and declined to initial values halfway the breeding season (June). In healthy neutered ferrets there was no significant seasonal influence on the UCCR. In two neutered ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism the UCCR was increased, primarily during the breeding season. In 27 of 31 privately owned ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism, the UCCR was higher than the upper limit of the reference range (2.1 x 10(-6)). In 12 of 14 healthy neutered ferrets dexamethasone administration decreased the UCCR by more than 50%, whereas in only 1 of the 28 hyperadrenocorticoid ferrets did the UCCR decrease by more than 50%. We conclude that the UCCR in ferrets primarily reflects cortisol excretion. In healthy sexually intact ferrets and in ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism the UCCR increases during the breeding season. The increased UCCR in hyperadrenocorticoid ferrets is resistant to suppression by dexamethasone, indicating ACTH-independent cortisol production.
Descriptors: ferrets, hyperadrenocorticism, disease diagnosis, urine, glucocorticoids, cortisol, excretion, metabolites, creatinine, breeding season, seasonal variation, dexamethasone, urinary corticoid-creatine ratio (UCCR).

Schwarz, L.A., M. Solano, A. Manning, R.P. Marini, and J.G. Fox (2003). The normal upper gastrointestinal examination in the ferret. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 44(2): 165-172. ISSN: 1058-8183.
NAL Call Number: SF757.8.A4
Abstract: Upper gastrointestinal examinations were performed in 11 unsedated ferrets and 4 ferrets sedated with ketamine and diazepam. Each animal received a 8-13 mL/kg body weight dosage of barium liquid (30% weight:volume). Radiographs were made immediately and at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min (mins) after the barium was administered. Gastric emptying began immediately. Mean total gastric emptying was longer in sedated ferrets (130 +/- 40 min versus 75 +/- 54 min); however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). Small intestinal transit time was less than 2 h in all ferrets. The barium-filled small bowel was best visualized on the 20- and 40-min radiographs and did not exceed 5-7 mm in width. Flocculation of barium in the small intestine and adherence of barium to the stomach mucosa was seen in almost all animals. The longitudinal colonic mucosal folds in the colon were well visualized in the normal upper gastrointestinal study and aided in distinguishing small intestine from large intestine. The use of ketamine and diazepam sedation did not significantly affect the parameters evaluated in the upper gastrointestinal study series.
Descriptors: ferrets, gastric emptying, conscious sedation, diazepam, digestive system anatomy, histology, ketamine.

Silverman, S. and L.A. Tell (2005). Radiology of Rodents, Rabbits and Ferrets: An Atlas of Normal Anatomy and Positioning, Elsevier Saunders: St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 299 p. ISBN: 0721697895 (hbk.).
NAL Call Number: SF757.8 .S56 2005
Descriptors: veterinary radiology, rodent anatomy, rabbit anatomy, ferret anatomy, positioning.

Taki, S., K. Suzuki, H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, M. Yuki, and M. Narita (2003). Megaoesophagus in ferrets: 2 case reports. Journal of Veterinary Medicine 56(8): 625-629. ISSN: 0447-0192.
Descriptors: ferrets, megaoesophagus, case reports, diseases.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Tunev, S.S. and M.G. Wells (2002). Cutaneous melanoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Veterinary Pathology 39(1): 141-143. ISSN: 0300-9858.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 P27
Abstract: A 4-year-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was clinically evaluated for a slightly raised subcutaneous mass in the dorsal lumbar area. The mass was surgically excised and submitted for histopathologic evaluation. Histologically, the mass was composed of closely packeted large, atypical, polygonal to spindle-shaped cells arranged in sheets and short bundles. A few cells contained variable amounts of granular, brown to black intracytoplasmic pigment. Warthin-Starry and Fontana-Masson silver stains demonstrated variable numbers of fine black intracytoplasmic granules in most cells. The atypical cells stained positively for vimentin and S100 protein and negatively for cytokeratin and Melan A. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells contained intracytoplasmic melanosomes in different stages of development. Compound melanosomes were not identified. To our knowledge, this report documents the first case of a spontaneous cutaneous melanoma in the ferret.
Descriptors: ferrets, melanoma, skin neoplasms, melanoma, ultrastructure, ovariectomy, skin pathology.

van Zeeland, Y.R., S.J. Hernandez Divers, M.W. Blasier, G. Vila Garcia, D. Delong, and N.L. Stedman (2006). Carpal myxosarcoma and forelimb amputation in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Veterinary Record 159(23): 782-785. ISSN: 0042-4900.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: ferret, carpal myxosarcoma, forelimb amputation.

Vastenburg, M.H., S.A. Boroffka, and N.J. Schoemaker (2004). Echocardiographic measurements in clinically healthy ferrets anesthetized with isoflurane. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 45(3): 228-232. ISSN: 1058-8183.
NAL Call Number: SF757.8.A4
Abstract: Two-dimensional, M4-mode, and color flow Doppler echocardiography was performed in 29 (18 females, 11 males) clinically healthy ferrets anesthetized with isoflurane. M-mode measurements of the left ventricle, left atrial appendage diameter (LAAD), and aorta (Ao) were obtained. The fractional shortening and LAAD/Ao ratio were calculated. The values of the M-mode measurements were compared between the male and female ferrets using a Student's t-test. No significant differences were found. The difference in body weight between the male and female ferrets was highly significant (P<0.001), but no significant correlation was found between body weight and M-mode measurements. Color flow Doppler examinations of the mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves were recorded and there was minor valvular regurgitation in five ferrets, which was considered nonsignificant.
Descriptors: anesthesia, anesthetics, inhalation pharmacology, ferrets, heart ventricles, isoflurane, ultrasonography, reference values, doppler ultrasonography, echocardiography.

Vos, A., T. Muller, J. Cox, L. Neubert, and A.R. Fooks (2004). Susceptibility of ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) to experimentally induced rabies with European Bat Lyssaviruses (EBLV). Journal of Veterinary Medicine. B, Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health 51(2): 55-60. ISSN: 0931-1793.
Abstract: Twenty ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were inoculated by intramuscular (i.m.) injection with European Bat Lyssaviruses (EBLV) type-1 and 2 using 10(4.0) foci-forming units (FFU) EBLV-2 (n = 6), 10(4.0) FFU EBLV-1 (n = 7) and 10(6.0) FFU EBLV-1 (n = 7). Furthermore, 15 mice received 10(2.5) FFU EBLV-2 (n = 5), 10(2.5) FFU EBLV-1 (n = 5) and 10(4.5) FFU EBLV-1 (n = 5) by i.m. inoculation. All ferrets and mice receiving the higher dose of EBLV-1 succumbed to infection. In contrast, only three of seven ferrets and two of five mice inoculated experimentally with the lower EBLV-1 dose died. By comparison, all of the EBLV-2 infected ferrets and four of five mice survived infection. All 20 infected ferrets seroconverted. Using sensitive molecular tools, the virus was detected in different tissues, but it could not be found in any saliva samples taken during the 84-day observation period.
Descriptors: ferrets, lyssavirus, rhabdoviridae infections, DNA, viral analysis, disease susceptibility.

Wagner, R.A., C.A. Piche, W. Jochle, and J.W. Oliver (2005). Clinical and endocrine responses to treatment with deslorelin acetate implants in ferrets with adrenocortical disease. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66(5): 910-914. ISSN: 0002-9645.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3A
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and endocrine responses of ferrets with adrenocortical disease (ACD) to treatment with a slow-release implant of deslorelin acetate. ANIMALS: 15 ferrets with ACD. PROCEDURE: Ferrets were treated SC with a single slow-release, 3-mg implant of deslorelin acetate. Plasma estradiol, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were measured before and after treatment and at relapse of clinical signs; at that time, the adrenal glands were grossly or ultrasonographically measured and affected glands that were surgically removed were examined histologically. RESULTS: Compared with findings before deslorelin treatment, vulvar swelling, pruritus, sexual behaviors, and aggression were significantly decreased or eliminated within 14 days of implantation; hair regrowth was evident 4 to 6 weeks after treatment. Within 1 month of treatment, plasma hormone concentrations significantly decreased and remained decreased until clinical relapse. Mean time to recurrence of clinical signs was 13.7 +/- 3.5 months (range, 8.5 to 20.5 months). In 5 ferrets, large palpable tumors developed within 2 months of clinical relapse; 3 of these ferrets were euthanatized because of adrenal gland tumor metastasis to the liver or tumor necrosis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In ferrets with ACD, a slow-release deslorelin implant appears promising as a treatment to temporarily eliminate clinical signs and decrease plasma steroid hormone concentrations. Deslorelin may not decrease adrenal tumor growth in some treated ferrets. Deslorelin implants may be useful in the long-term management of hormone-induced sequelae in ferrets with ACD and in treatment of animals that are considered at surgical or anesthetic risk.
Descriptors: ferrets, adrenal cortex diseases, triptorelin administration, aging, drug implants, gonadal steroid hormones.

Wenker, C. and C. Christen (2002). Frettchen in der Tierarztpraxis. [Ferrets in veterinary practice]. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 144(11): 575-584. ISSN: 0036-7281.
Abstract: Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) show up with increasing frequency in veterinary practice. Originally domesticated for hunting of rodents and rabbits, they became very popular pets which require legal permission though and the further fulfillment of various husbandry needs. Ferrets have to be maintained on a high protein diet which in practice is often done with commercial feline products. Physical examination is similar to dogs and cats whereas the frequent occurrence of non-specific symptoms require further diagnostic investigation including blood sampling, radiology, ultrasound or exploratory laparatomy. The preferred anaesthetic method is the direct face mask induction and maintenance using isoflurane without pramedication. Special attention of veterinarians has to be paid to canine distemper vaccination, the specialized reproduction physiology of the females (jills) which can develop, if unmated, a persistent oestrus with fatal consequences of hyperestrogenism, as well as the frequent occurrence of further endocrine disorders, congestive cardiomyopathy and gastrointestinal diseases.
Descriptors: ferrets, disease prevention and control, animal husbandry methods, anesthesia, feed, nutrition, distemper virus, handling, physical examination, rabies virus, reproduction, vaccination, viral vaccines.
Language of Text: German.

White, S.D. (2006). Rabbit, rodent and ferret dermatology. In: Ahead of the curve: OVMA Conference Proceedings., January 26, 2006-January 28, 2006, Ontario Veterinary Medical Association: Milton, Canada, p. 102-115.
Online: http://www.ovma.org
Descriptors: ferrets, rabbits, rodents, dermatology, etiology, alopecia, clinical aspects, diagnosis, drug therapy, ectoparasites, pruritus, skin diseases.

Willard, T.R. (2002). Ferrets. Exotic DVM 4(4): 36-37. ISSN: 1521-1363.
NAL Call Number: SF981 .E96
Descriptors: ferrets, anatomy, physiology, diets, feed formulation, nutrient requirements.

Wilson, G.H., C.E. Greene, and C.B. Greenacre (2003). Suspected pseudohypoparathyroidism in a domestic ferret. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222(8): 1093-1096, 1077. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Abstract: A 1.5-year-old ferret examined because of seizures was found to have low serum calcium, high serum phosphorus, and extremely high serum parathyroid hormone concentrations. Common causes of these abnormalities, including nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, chronic renal secondary hyperparathyroidism, tumor lysis syndrome, and hypomagnesemia, were ruled out, and a tentative diagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism was made. Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a hereditary condition in people that, to our knowledge, has not been identified in ferrets previously and is caused by a lack of response to high serum parathyroid hormone concentrations, rather than a deficiency of this hormone. The ferret improved after treatment with dihydrotachysterol (a vitamin D analog) and calcium carbonate. It was still doing well after 3.5 years of continued treatment.
Descriptors: ferrets, parathyroid hormone, pseudohypoparathyroidism, blood calcium, calcium carbonate, dihydrotachysterol, blood phosphorus, seizures, thyroid gland.

Wise, A.G., M. Kiupel, C. Isenhour, and R. Maes (2003). Development and evaluation of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of Epizootic Catarrhal Enteritis infection of ferrets. In: Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41 Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere. [Proceedings of the Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, No.5], May 28, 2003-June 1, 2003, Rome, Italy, 427-431 p.
Descriptors: ferrets, epizootic catarrhal enteritis, coronavirus, etiology, diagnosis, diagnostic techniques, development, feces, RNA, saliva, viral diseases.

Wise, A.G., M. Kiupel, and R.K. Maes (2006). Molecular characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE) in ferrets. Virology 349(1): 164-174. ISSN: 0042-6822.
Abstract: A novel coronavirus, designated as ferret enteric coronavirus (FECV), was identified in feces of domestic ferrets clinically diagnosed with epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE). Initially, partial sequences of the polymerase, spike, membrane protein, and nucleocapsid genes were generated using coronavirus consensus PCR assays. Subsequently, the complete sequences of the nucleocapsid gene and the last two open reading frames at the 3' terminus of the FECV genome were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses based on predicted partial amino acid sequences of the polymerase, spike, and membrane proteins, and full sequence of the nucleocapsid protein showed that FECV is genetically most closely related to group 1 coronaviruses. FECV is more similar to feline coronavirus, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and canine coronavirus than to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and human coronavirus 229E. Molecular data presented in this study provide the first genetic evidence for a new coronavirus associated with clinical cases of ECE.
Descriptors: ferrets, coronavirus, enteritis, amino acid sequence, infections epidemiology, canine genetics, feline genetics, epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE).

Wyre, N.R. and L. Hess (2005). Clinical technique: Ferret thoracocentesis. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 14(1): 22-25. ISSN: 1055-937X.
NAL Call Number: SF994.2.A1536
Descriptors: ferrets, anatomy, thoraccoentesis, diagnostic techniques, pneumothorax, respiratory diseases.
Notes: Special issue: Cardiology.

Zandvliet, M.M.a. (2005). Electrocardiography in psittacine birds and ferrets. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 14(1): 34-51. ISSN: 1055-937X.
Descriptors: electrocardiography, ECG, psittacine, Mustela furo, cardiac disease, parrots, ferrets.

Zitzow, L.A., T. Rowe, T. Morken, W.J. Shieh, S. Zaki, and J.M. Katz (2002). Pathogenesis of avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses in ferrets. Journal of Virology 76(9): 4420-4429. ISSN: 0022-538X.
NAL Call Number: QR360.J6
Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses caused outbreaks of disease in domestic poultry and humans in Hong Kong in 1997. Direct transmission of the H5N1 viruses from birds to humans resulted in 18 documented cases of respiratory illness, including six deaths. Here we evaluated two of the avian H5N1 viruses isolated from humans for their ability to replicate and cause disease in outbred ferrets. A/Hong Kong/483/97 virus was isolated from a fatal case and was highly pathogenic in the BALB/c mouse model, whereas A/Hong Kong/486/97 virus was isolated from a case with mild illness and exhibited a low-pathogenicity phenotype in mice. Ferrets infected intranasally with 10(7) 50% egg infectious doses (EID(50)) of either H5N1 virus exhibited severe lethargy, fever, weight loss, transient lymphopenia, and replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract, as well as multiple systemic organs, including the brain. Gastrointestinal symptoms were seen in some animals. In contrast, weight loss and severe lethargy were not noted in ferrets infected with 10(7) EID(50) of two recent human H3N2 viruses, although these viruses were also isolated from the brains, but not other extrapulmonary organs, of infected animals. The results demonstrate that both H5N1 viruses were highly virulent in the outbred ferret model, unlike the differential pathogenicity documented in inbred BALB/c mice. We propose the ferret as an alternative model system for the study of these highly pathogenic avian viruses.
Descriptors: disease models, ferrets, influenza physiopathology, influenza A virus, avian pathogenicity, adolescent, child, influenza pathology and virology, lung pathology and virology, virulence, virus replication.

Return to Top

Return to Contents