Regulatory Issues

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National and International Animal Welfare Acts in Relation to Fish

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Allan G, Heasman H. (2001) The ethics of research with fish: who is watching the scientists and why? Fish NSW. 4(1):40-41
In New South Wales (NSW) (Australia), the Animal Research Act of 1985 was introduced to protect the welfare of animals and it applies to any organization or individual that uses or supplies vertebrate animals for research or teaching in NSW. NSW Fisheries conducts research with fish to help achieve the corporate goals and all research involves some handling of fish. Where fish surveys or tagging are undertaken, some fish may be killed but most fish are returned unharmed to the environment. In aquaculture research, the overwhelming emphasis is on keeping fish in the best possible, low stress conditions in order to promote rapid growth and natural reproduction. In all cases, the ultimate goal is to protect and manage fisheries resources for the benefit of current and future generations. The establishment and maintenance of the NSW Fisheries Animal Care and Ethics Committee, under the Animal Welfare Act, helps to ensure that scientists consider the ethics of the research they conduct and that these ethics accord with the views of the community. Of equal importance is the need to reassure the community that ethics are given prime consideration before any animal experimentation commences.
Descriptors:  fish, aquaculture enterprises, research programmes, research institutions, Australia, New South Wales
ASFA; Copyright © 2003, FAO

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Hyattsville, MD. (2002) Licensing and Registration Under the Animal Welfare Act. Guidelines for Dealers, Exhibitors, Transporters, and Researcher.  Corporate Source Codes: 061345000.  Report Number: USDA/APHIS Program Aid 1117.  24p
Note:  Order this product from NTIS by: phone at 1-800-553-NTIS (U.S. customers); (703)605-6000 (other countries); fax at (703)605-6900; and email at
NAL Call No.  1 Ag84Pro no.1117
Many businesses that buy or sell warmblooded animals, exhibit them to the public, transport them commercially, or use them in experiments or teaching must be licensed or registered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Normal farm-type operations that raise, or buy and sell, animals only for food and fiber, and businesses that use only fish and other coldblooded animals are exempt by law; those that use only rats, mice, or birds are exempt by regulation. The rabbit business is exempt from regulation if the rabbits are intended for food or fiber. If any rabbits are designated for use I n the pet, exhibit or laboratory-animal trade, the business is regulated. Certain other types of businesses are specifically exempt by law or regulation. No exempt business has to be licensed or registered.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, licensing, guidelines, permits, commerce, homeotherms, law  (jurisprudence), legislation, federal law, businesses, regulations, standards, inspections, APHIS, animal welfare      

Brooman S, Legge D (2000) Animal welfare vs free trade--free trade wins: an examination of the animal welfare implications of R v Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food ex p Compassion in World Farming (1998).  Animal Welfare. 9 (1):81-85.
NAL Call No. HV4701.A557
Descriptors: European Union, animal welfare, social legislation, free trade, veal calves, calf housing, fish 

Brosse H, Wilmsmann F (1994) Zur Verfassungsmassigkeit 'tierschutzerischer' Bestimmungen im Landesfischereirecht. [The constitutionality of 'animal welfare' provisions in fishery legislation of the Lander.] Agrarrecht  24(10):323-325 (In German)  ISSN: 0340-840X
Under the German constitution the Lander are empowered to legislate to preserve and control inland fisheries, including angling. Detailed examination of their powers in this field and in that of animal welfare leads to the conclusion that legislation forbidding the use of live fish as bait or the holding of live fish in catch nets is within the legal competence of the Lander under the constitution.
Descriptors: angling, legislation, fisheries, animal welfare
Copyright © 2003, CAB International.

Burgoyne D (1999) International trade and animal welfare. Cahiers Agricultures.  8(6):445-449  (In French with English summary)
NAL Call No.  S5.C34
The World Trade Organization (WTO), the successor to GATT, has an increasingly important role in the way agricultural commerce is conducted between countries and within our own borders. The last GATT agreement signed in 1994 reflects the concerns of the majority of the member countries with regard to the health protection of plants, animals and humans for agricultural and agrifood trade. Since WTO's mandate took effect on 1 January 1995, agricultural and agrifood trade between member countries must respect its rules. There are basically three places under which an animal welfare protection measure could fall: Article XX of the General Agreement, the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). Article XX of the General Agreement permits a member country to, among other actions, take the measures it views necessary to protect public moral values. However, these measures must respect the Agreement on the Application of SPS Measures and the Agreement on TBT. To date, no member country has called on these exemptions to restrict imports of agricultural products. At this point in time, we do not clearly know how this clause could ensure the respect of animal welfare because there are no precedents on the subject. During the Uruguay Round, the European Union wanted to introduce other measures into the Agreement on the Application of SPS Measures. To assess the legitimacy of an SPS measure, the EU promoted such other considerations as: the possibility of deciding which preferences the majority of consumers hold, the existence of environmental standards in the country of origin with respect to production methods, as well as the level of animal welfare in the country of origin of the animal. These latter two measures were not adopted because they would lead to sovereignty infringements between countries. A compulsory measure that would dictate how an animal should be kept, fed and transported in its country of origin before being imported would introduce an oversight over the laws of another country. Such an example presented itself recently. In October 1998, Switzerland officially notified the WTO members that it was considering adopting an SPS measure that would have forced the labeling of imported eggs produced by hens kept in cages banned in its country. Canada, along with a number of other countries, asked Switzerland to explain the reasons behind that measure. Could it justify what the measure was aimed at protecting? Could it identify the risk that eggs from hens kept in battery cages elsewhere in the world would present for animals and humans in Switzerland? In December 1998, the Swiss government removed all reference to the method of production of imported eggs from its final regulation. Notwithstanding this example, a country may adopt measures consistent with its WTO obligations to prevent stressed, injured, dehydrated or sick animals from entering its territory. The difficulty in creating international rules on animal welfare stems from the fact that members cannot agree on a common definition of intangible concepts like stress and of its methods of analysis to come up with an objective evaluation. In the agri-food sector, TBT or normative measures, refer mostly to technical regulations and voluntary standards. For products such as meat, it would be difficult to determine whether or not it is from an animal that was raised with or without cruelty when there are only laboratory analyses to rely on. This is why a compulsory technical rule on the importation of meat and related products which aims to ensure the respect of animal welfare will be contested. A member country can nonetheless take certain measures with respect to animal welfare while respecting its obligations towards other members. All countries can freely adopt standards and regulations aimed at domestic animal welfare. A direct subsidy scheme can, in that case, best solve the problem of inequality of production costs. However, all taxpayers end up supporting this production method. Secondly, for imported products, it is possible to adopt a voluntary system of labeling with the aim of identifying products that respect animal welfare. For example, the WTO ruling in the case of the effects of tuna fishing on dolphins said that positive labeling was a legitimate measure to limit the use of the “dolphin-friendly” label solely to products that respect this fishing standard. The organic food sector currently uses such a system with success. The advantage to the taxpayer is that the consumer who chooses to buy food produced under these norms is also financially supporting the system. Lastly, it is also possible for countries with kindered spirits to facilitate the trade of products that meet certain animal welfare standards by negotiating mutual recognition agreements-provided that they do not restrict trade from other countries.
Descriptors: animal husbandry (agriculture), government and law, agrifood industry, European Union, World Trade Organization {WTO}, GATT successor, application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures {SPS Measures}, agricultural commerce, animal welfare, international agreements, international regulations, international trade, negotiations, trade regulation, voluntary standards  
Note:  The citation and abstract are made available courtesy of BIOSIS, Biological Abstracts Inc., Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, Suite 700, Philadelphia, PA 19103-7095. BIOSIS is a registered trademark of Biological Abstracts, Inc.

Cook, R.H., Simpson, F.J. (1995) Roles of government agencies in aquaculture development in Atlantic Canada: Regulation and incentives. (Ed:) Boghen AD. Cold Water Aquaculture in Atlantic Canada, 2nd Edition. Univ. Moncton, NB, Canada Cirrd.  pp. 503-538
NAL Call No.  SH37.5 A8C64 1995
Aquaculture began in Canada under existing federal, provincial, and municipal acts designed for the regulation of a wide range of human activities. The municipalities established and managed zoning regulations, licensed businesses, and assessed property taxes. The provinces administered laws respecting property and civil rights, the enhancement and control of natural resources and the environment, and the promotion and control of provincial commerce, education, and health and welfare within their boundaries. And the federal government was responsible for the regulation, conservation, and protection of the fishery and sponsored most of the research and development work in support of the industry. Some of the federal government's regulations concerning the practice of agriculture (e.g., Pest Control Products Act) also apply to aquaculture, as do those pertaining to protecting navigable waters, the environment and fish habitat, health and product safety, control of introductions and transfers of fish, interprovincial and international trade, and the administration of criminal law, as well as all other matters that affect Canadians as a whole.
Descriptors:  aquaculture regulations, Canada, governments, aquaculture development, environmental protection, resource conservation, aquaculture enterprises, animal welfare
ASFA; Copyright © 2003, FAO

Costello MJ, Grant A, Davies IM, Cecchini S, Papoutsoglou S, Quigley D, Saroglia M. (2001) The control of chemicals used in aquaculture in Europe. Journal of Applied Ichthyology.  17(4):173-180
NAL Call No.  QL614 Z44
A range of chemicals are used in European marine aquaculture and these may be categorized as disinfectants, antifoulants and medicines (includes vaccines). This article provides a review of chemicals used in aquaculture in Europe, their regulatory status, and a checklist of points considered best practice in the use (and avoidance of use) of medicines in marine aquaculture. The release of antifoulants and disinfectants into the marine environment is controlled by local and/or national waste discharge regulations that may in turn be guided by wider environmental quality objectives. The authorization of veterinary medicines, biologicals (vaccines) and pharmaceuticals (chemicals), in Europe is the subject of several EC Directives. Registration dossiers address the issues of product quality, safety and efficacy and include environmental and consumer safety where the product is destined for use in a food-producing animal. Fish farmers, like all livestock producers, must have access to a range of properly authorized medicines to safeguard animal health and welfare. The distribution and supply of medicines must be appropriately controlled and their authorization appropriately includes environmental risk assessment to a common European Union (EU) or international standard. There is progress towards the harmonization of the authorization process within the EU and this will help to ensure the continued availability of medicines for fish. Consumer safety is addressed by the setting of maximum residue limits (MRLs) derived through toxicological risk assessment and by surveillance of food for residues of veterinary medicines. The system for the environmental risk assessment of chemicals used in aquaculture is being developed and is outlined in the present article. It is recommended that the supply and use of fish medicines is uniformly regulated in the EU and supported by appropriate codes of best practice. A number of codes of practice that include reference to the use of medicines have been produced both at a European level and in member states. It is recommended that all European marine aquaculture producers adopt a code of best practice for the use of medicinal and other chemicals their industry. Medicines are one part of an integrated package in dealing with animal health. This includes environmental conditions, nutrition and hygiene. The best practice guidelines presented here are based on the outcome of three European workshops as part of the EU MARAQUA project that involved industry, government and research scientists. They cover the avoidance and minimizing of the need to use medicines and other chemicals, to recording and monitoring their use and effectiveness (in case of resistance development), exchange of experiences within the industry, and staff training. Recommendations are also included for manufacturers of medicines and other chemicals, and for regulatory authorities. Minimizing the need to use medicines and other chemicals requires attention to a healthy source of fish stock. Staff must be appropriately trained in fish husbandry (to minimize stress), hygiene and disease recognition and treatment, including management of the farm site to keep it disease free. The latter may require single generations of fish per site to allow a fallow period during which a disease or parasite cycle is broken. These recommendations and guidelines are in accordance with the current codes of practice being developed by different sectors of the aquaculture industry in different countries. They do not necessarily involve significantly higher production costs and indeed are more likely to save costs as medicines and disease impacts are very costly to industry.
Descriptors:  marine aquaculture, medicine, disinfectants, antifouling substances, waste disposal, legal aspects, Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Dicentrarchus labrax, Sparus aurata
ASFA; Copyright © 2003, FAO

Damsgaard B (1997) Fiskens velferd - Kan vi forene en etisk riktig produksjon og en konkurransdyktig naering?[ The welfare of the fish - can we combine an ethic correct production with a competitive business?].  Norsk Fiskeoppdrett, Naeringsliv Politikk Marked Forsknin.  22(4):30-31,33   (In Norwegian) ISSN: 0332-7132
Descriptors:  fishes, fish culture, animal welfare, behaviour, stress, ethics, aquaculture

Frohlich T, Steinigeweg W (1995) Tierschutzrechtliche Uberwachung von Tierborsen, ein amtstierarztliches Stiefkind? [Supervision of animal welfare regulations in animal markets--an official veterinary stepchild?].  Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift (Germany). 102(3):131-133.  (In German with English summary)
NAL Call No.  41.8 D482
The authors report about problems in animal welfare during commercial animal exhibitions. A list of claims in accordance to animal welfare for these forms of animal presentation is given. Remaining problems are described.
Descriptors: animal welfare, legislation and jurisprudence, domestic, commerce, veterinary medicine, commerce, standard, fishes, Germany, poultry

Keresztessy K (1993) A magyar halfajok vedettsegenek uj szabalyozasa. [New animal welfare regulations on protection of fish species in Hungary.] Halaszat. 86(3):114-116 (In Hungarian)
NAL Call No.  414.8 H12
Descriptors: legislation, freshwater fishes, animal welfare

Knierim U (1996) Die Tierscutz-Schlachtverordnung. [The animal welfare regulations at slaughter.] Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift  103(2):52-54 (In German with English summary)
NAL Call No.  41.8 D482
The animal welfare regulation on the slaughter of animals, existing only as a draft for the time being, is designed not only to transpose EC-legislation into national law but also to update and strengthen preconstitutional national legislation on this matter. For a wide area related to the slaughter or killing of animals, animal welfare requirements are put in concrete terms. Among the topics belonging to this area are the theoretical and practical knowledge of the personnel, the handling of animals before slaughter or killing, stunning, the control of its efficacy and the permessibility of certain stunning or killing methods. Not only livestock but also, for example, fur animals and fish are concerned. In practice it will take some efforts in order to attain compliance with the provisions of the animal welfare slaughter regulation.
Descriptors: regulations, stunning, poultry, legislation, slaughter, animal welfare, cattle, pigs, sheep, fishes

Koenigs E (1988) Tierschutzaspekte im Fischereirecht[Animal protection aspects in legal fishery]. Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift. 95(2):58-60.  (In German with English summary)
NAL Call No.  41.8 D482

Descriptors:  fishes, fisheries, legal principles, animal welfare, animal health, animals, aquatic animals, aquatic organisms, economic sectors, fishing industry, legislation

Lahteensmaki V (1987) Legislation dealing with animal experimentation in Finland. Animal Technology. 38:229-233.
NAL Call No.  QL55.I5
Descriptors:  fish, animal welfare, legal principles, legislation, animal health, research

Nowak D (1993) Tierschutzrelevante Probleme bei der Kontrolle von Zoofachgeschaften aus amtstierarztlicher Sicht [Problems relevant to animal welfare in the control of pet shops from the viewpoint of official veterinarians]. Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift (Germany). 100(2):76-68.  (In German with English summary)
NAL Call No.  41.8 D482
Results of an inquiry of all official veterinarians in
Berlin are presented, concerning the situation of animal welfare in pet shops. Typical problems of keeping animals in pet shops are revealed. Many of the  official veterinarians make complaints about the lack of practical guidelines, manuals or expert opinions when they are asked to give legal assessments. Existing recommendations, e.g. for cage sizes, are of a broad variety, which is underlined by some demonstrative pictures.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, standard, animal welfare, domestic, commercial standards, Berlin, birds, cats, dogs, fishes, housing, standards, reptiles, rodentia

Olson KR, Crawford RL, Gingerich WH, Meyerhoff RD, Miller JG (1991) The Animal Welfare Act: Implication and predictions in lower vertebrate research. 14. ASTM Symp. on Aquatic Toxicology and Risk Assessment, San Francisco, CA (USA), 22-24 Apr 1990. Aquatic Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Fourteenth Volume. Eds: Mayes, MA, Barron MG. Philadelphia, PA USA American Society for Testing and Materials. pp. 5-11.
NAL Call No.  QH545 W3S95
The use of animals in basic and applied research is governed by both scientific objectives and ethical considerations. Heightened concern over the humane treatment of experimental animals by the scientific community and the public has led to the development of guidelines and regulations concerning animal care and use. Most of these regulations, to a large extent under the purview of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and federal granting agencies such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), are directed towards research on higher vertebrates, especially mammals. Guidelines for care and use of lower vertebrates are minimal to nonexistent and are frequently extrapolated from mammalian models. However, it appears that further regulation of lower vertebrate research is probable. This paper summarizes a panel discussion that was conduced at the 14th ASTM Aquatic Toxicology Symposium on 22 April 1990. The panel consisted of two members from federal regulatory agencies (USDA and NIH) and three members from research institutions (representing industrial, Federal, and academic laboratories). The purpose of this discussion was to establish a dialogue on the care and use of lower vertebrates in research. Included is a discussion of the history and future of animal welfare legislation and how the various regulations are implemented in the three laboratory situations. Emphasis will be on fish, although the principles of animal care and use could apply to other ectotherms as well. A number of key issues need to be addressed by the scientific community relative to lower vertebrate research: (1) Should additional guidelines be established? (2) Who should establish them? (3) What is the role of the investigator in formulating guidelines that will affect his/her research? (4) Are separate guidelines needed for different organizations (university, industry, and government) and for specific applications such as animal holding-maintenance versus experimentation? (5) Should general or specific guidelines be identified? (6) What criteria should be used? (7) How can this be implemented? The consensus of the panel is that it is in the best interest of the investigators to take an active role in the development of suitable guidelines for the animals with which they work. Possible mechanisms to achieve this are discussed.
Descriptors: environmental legislation, environmental monitoring, bioassays, pollution indicators, indicator species, test organisms, legislation, USA, government policy, toxicity testing
ASFA; Copyright © 2003, FAO

Pritchard DG (2001) The role of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in animal welfare. Research in Veterinary Science. 70(Supplement A):53
NAL Call No.  41.8 R312
Descriptors: animal care, government and law, fisheries, animal welfare

Sauer N,  Manz D (1994) Tierschutztatbestande bei Fischen. [Animal welfare legislation and fish.] Tierarztliche Umschau. 49(10):653-658 (In German with English summary)
NAL Call No.  41.8 T445
Hygienic and therapeutical principles in fish rearing and in production in commercial enterprises, including feeding, breeding, over fishing, sorting, mixing of species, transportation and slaughter are discussed form the animal welfare point. The major points for aquarium fish are related to capture, breeding and trade, as well as from errors in the management and care by aquarists. Game fishing has gained considerable attention with respect to welfare. Examples are presented for all of these diverse activities.
Descriptors: fisheries, fish production, fishing, fish culture, aquaculture, fish farming, animal welfare, fishes
Copyright © 2003, CAB International.

Schnick RA (1996) Cooperative Fish Therapeutic Funding Initiative: States in partnership with federal agencies to ensure the future of public fish culture. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. pp. 553-55  
NAL Call No.  412.9 N814

The impetus for the Cooperative Fish Therapeutic Funding Initiative was and is the lack of properly approved drugs to reduce disease-related mortality and improve production efficiency and product quality on public aquaculture facilities. This crisis requires more cost-effective methods to gain approval of drugs for use in public aquaculture. Public concerns about human food safety, human health and environmental impacts have resulted in increasingly strict interpretation and enforcement of regulations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Such actions have drastically curtailed the availability and use of drugs essential to maintain fish health in hatcheries. Drug and chemical manufacturers are reluctant to undertake any significant efforts to gain approval of aquaculture drugs because the market potential for these products is below the potential sales target for research investment (estimated to be $3.5 million for one fish species and one disease). The approval of a drug by FDA can only be obtained with the development of required safety and efficacy data that leads to a new animal drug application (NADA) that is submitted to FDA for review and approval. The process to generate all the data and have the NADA approved by FDA may take 5 to 10 years. Only three therapeutants and one anesthetic are currently approved and available to hatchery managers. It became apparent to a number of individuals, agencies and organizations that a massive, coordinated and cooperative effort was needed to resolve this crisis. This is the story of how various groups have joined together to meet this awesome responsibility.
Descriptors:  drugs, disease control, fish culture, government policy, public health, product development, USA
ASFA; Copyright © 2003, FAO

Schnick RA, Gingerich WH, Koltes KH (1996) Federal-state aquaculture drug registration partnership: A success story in the making. Fisheries.  21(5):4
NAL Call No.  SH1.F54
During the past 20 years, aquaculture has grown both as a vital tool for fisheries management and as a viable industry. But now a crisis has arisen from the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) increased regulation of drug use in aquaculture in response to public concerns about human food safety, human health, and environmental effects. Lack of approved drugs and chemicals has dramatically reduced the effectiveness and increased the cost of fish production for natural resource management agencies. To make badly needed therapeutants available, the FDA is requiring an array of specialized laboratory research studies and clinical field trials. Pharmaceutical manufacturers are reluctant to undertake any major efforts to gain approval of aquaculture drugs because each (i.e., use on one species for one purpose) is estimated to cost a minimum of $3.5 million. Hence, the expenditure is not warranted by the apparent market potential. Only three therapeutants and one anesthetic are currently approved and available to hatchery managers.
Descriptors:  aquaculture products, aquatic drugs, pharmacology, legislation, USA, disease control, aquaculture, pharmaceuticals
ASFA; Copyright © 2003, FAO

Tegge G (1978) Halterung, Transport und Toten von Fischen. Aus der Sicht des Tierschutzgesetzes vom 24, Juli 1972 [Keeping, transport and killing of fish in relation to Animal Welfare legislation of 24th July 1972]. Du und das Tier. 8(1):8-9  (In German) ISSN: 0341-5759
Descriptors: animal welfare, legislation, transport of animals, fishes

Young JA (1998) Organic Salmon production and consumption: Ethics, consumer perceptions and regulation.  (Eds:) Barthel KG, Barth H, Bohle-Carbonell M, Fragakis C, Lipiatou E, Martin P, Ollier G, Weydert M.  Third European Marine Science and Technology Conference MAST Conference, Lisbon, 23 27 May 1998: Project Synopses Vol 6: Fisheries and Aquaculture FAIR: 1994-98, Selected Projects from the Research Programme for Agriculture and Fisheries including Agro Industry, Food Technology, Forestry, Aquaculture and Rural Development FAIR.  Luxembourg Luxembourg European Commission DG 12 Science, Research and Development.  6:350-352
The primary project objectives are: 1. Evaluate definitions of organic salmon and aquaculture production from both industry and consumer perspectives. 2. Explore consumers' ethical perceptions of organic salmon in the major EU markets. 3. Critically appraise the technical, animal welfare,and environmental aspects., implicit in organic salmon production in terms of ethical, social, economic and sustainability considerations. 4. Explore critical issues in the regulatory and legal framework at the national and EU level, thus providing input to regulatory bodies developing standards for organic fish farming at the EU level. These objectives will be achieved through the combined expertise and skills of the academic partners coupled with a key industrial sub contractor involved in the development of organic salmon. This combination will give unique access to data and its analysis though an integrative multi discipline approach. The research programme will provide information to consumers, producers, regulators, environmental and animal welfare groups and others in order to help inform. and determine a frarnework for consensus and should lirait the potential for negative repercussions to other organic products and conventional salmon production which might result from a poorly regulated move to organic salmon production. Compliance with the work programme: The principal focus for the project addresses many of the aims in the ELSA' programme. In particular the project would seek to assess the. attitudes and perceptions of consumers, producers, animal welfare and environmental, groups and regulatory bodies on the regulation, ethics and other aspects of organic salmon production.
Descriptors:  aquaculture, consumers, legislation, organic, salmon 
ASFA; Copyright © 2003, FAO


The editor has taken the liberty of researching and providing the reader with selected current national and international animal welfare acts having to do in some part with fish (either specifically including or excluding).  This list in not internationally all inclusive as data from only the selected countries was available.  This table of acts is intended to provide the reader with a place to start in searching more about regulations and animal welfare in relation to fish. 

National and International Animal Welfare Acts in Relation to Fish

Country or Union

Name of Act(s)


Bundesgesetz vom 27 September 1989 über Versuche an lebenden Tieren (Tierversuchgesetz 1988)


Arrêté Royal du 14 novembre 1993 relatif à la protection des animaux d'expérience

European Union

EU-Directive (86/609/EEC)


Décret 87-848 du 19 octobre 1987 pris pour l'application de l'article 454 du code pénal et du troisième alinéa de l'article 276 du code rural et relatif aux expériences pratiquées sur les animaux.


Eläinsuojelulaki 247/1996  (Law On Animal Protection);

Eläinsuojeluasetus 396/1996 (Act On Animal Protection);

Asetus koe-eläintoiminnasta 1076/1985.  (Act on Animal Experimentation, changed partially by Act 395/1996);

Maa- ja metsätalousministeriön päätös tieteellisten eläinkokeiden luokituksesta 447/1986 (Decree of Veterinary Division in Ministry of Forestry and Agriculture on classification of animal experiments);

Asetus kokeellisiin ja muihin tieteellisiin tarkoituksiin käytettävien selkärankaisten eläinten suojelemiseksi tehdyn eurooppalaisen yleissopimuksen voimaansaattamisesta 1360/1990 (Introductory Act on European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes)


Décret présidentiel du 12-04-1991, FEK A numéro 64 du 03-05-1991 Page 1061


Erste Gesetz zur Ænderung des Tierschutzgesetzes vom 12-08-1986

Bundesgesetzblatt Teil I vom 22-08-1986 Seite 1309.


The Cruelty to Animals Act of 15-08-1876.

EC (Amendment of the Cruelty to Animals Acts of 1976) Regulations of 1994, Statutory Instruments Number 17 of 1994.


DM 27/01/1992 - Attuazione della Direttiva n. 86/609/CEE in materia di protezione degli animali utilizzati a fini sperimentali o ad altri fini scientifici

Circolare 05/05/1993 - Decreto Legislativo 27 gennaio 1992, n. 116, articoli 8 e 9, concernenti deroghe agli articoli 3 e 4. 

Circolare 22/04/1994 n. 8 - Applicazione del Decreto Legislativo 27 gennaio 1992, n. 116, in materia di protezione degli animali utilizzati a fini sperimentali o ad altri fini scientifici.


The 1974 Animal Welfare Act (in addition supplemented by EU Directive 86/609/CEE)


Decreto-lei numero 129/92 de 15-06-1992, Diario da Republica I Série A, numero 153 de 06-07-1992 Pagina 3197.


Real Decreto numero 223/88 de 14-103-1988 relativo a la protection de los animales utilizados para experimentacion y otros fines científicos, Boletín Oficial del Estado numero 67 de 18-03-1988 Pagina 8509.

United Kingdom

The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 (subsequently amended by three Statutory Instruments)


Djurskyddslag’, no. 1988/534, amended 25 February 1998 (no. 1998/56)

United States of America

The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 (subsequently amended in 1970, 1976, 1985, 1990, and 2002)

Web Resources: 

Animal Protection with Bioassays – Humane Research:  A Collection of International Laws, Regulations, Recommendations. 
Tierschutz - Animal Welfare
            A hint to accessing this site in an English translation:  1) open your web browser.  2) go to
    3)  search  (the site will be
             the only site found).  4)  next to the title “Tierschutz - Animal Welfare” will be button
            [translate this page], left click this button.  5)  the site will open in an English translation by
            Google’s translation mechanism.  (Remember that this is a computer generated translation,
            so if you need clarification, you will need to go back to the original German site.) 

CVM Guide 1240.4200
Low Regulatory Priority Aquaculture Drugs

CVM Guide 1240.4260
Classification of Aquaculture Species as Food or Nonfood

Drugs Approved for Use in Aquaculture

The European Union Online

FDA-CVM Guidance Document 150
Guidance for Industry, Status of Clove Oil and Eugenol for Anesthesia of Fish

Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet

US Animal Welfare Act and Regulations

US Department of Agriculture, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal Care

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