Information Resources for Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees 1985-1999 *************************

Selected Animal Welfare Issues

Oocyte Harvesting in Xenopus laevis

This guideline was revised and approved by the National Institutes of Health Animal Research Advisory Committee on February 10, 1999 and is available at

Amphibian oocytes are used for studies in molecular biology, embryology and biochemistry. Stage I-VI oocytes are obtained by surgical laparotomy. Multiple surgeries on a single animal may be justified considering the reduction in the total number of animals used over the long term. However, the total number of animals used must be considered relative to the pain or distress experienced by an individual animal.

1.The total number of laparotomies should be limited and will depend on the condition of the animal and quality of the oocytes as well as the life span of the animal and the duration of egg production. Up to five recovery surgeries (the 6th would be terminal) per animal are acceptable. Additional survival surgeries should have approval of the individual ACUC.

2.Surgeries should be performed by trained personnel using appropriate anesthesia such as tricaine methane-sulfonate (MS-222). Surgeries should be done as aseptically as practical including the use of sterilized instruments and gloves.

3.Single housing or small group housing for several days after surgery should be considered as part of the post surgical care of laparotomized animals. Frogs should be monitored daily during this period for appetite as well as for any complications such as dehiscence or infection. Such adverse effects would be reasons for immediate euthanasia.

4.Adequate recovery time should be allowed between laparotomies. The investigator can alternate oocyte collection between left and right ovaries and consider rotation of frogs so that the interval between surgeries in any individual is maximized. Recovery time of less than one month should have approval of the individual ACUC.

Animal Welfare Issues Bibliography

Anderson, D. L. (1993). Handbook of Live Animal Transport.
NAL call number: HV4733.H36 1993
Descriptors: Animal welfare, animal handling and safety, veterinary procedures, animal health regulations, transporting animals by land, sea and air, exporting animals.

Benn, D.M. (1995). Innovations in research animal care. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206(4): 465-468.
NAL call number: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: animal experiments, laboratory animals, animal welfare.

Beynen A.C. (1992). Communication between rats of experiment-induced stress and its impact on experimental results. Animal Welfare 1(3): 153-159.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: animal experiments, laboratory animals, stress, communication between animals.

Bollen, P., A. Andersen, and L. Ellegaard (1998). The behaviour and housing requirements of minipigs. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science 25(SUPP 1): 23-26.
NAL call number: QL55 S322
Descriptors: animal behavior; pig housing; housing requirements; miniature pigs.

Bosland, M.C. (1995). Is decapitation a humane method of euthanasia in rodents? A critical review. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 34 (2): 46-48.
NAL call number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: rodents, decapitation, euthanasia, animal welfare.

Broderson, J.R. (1989). A retrospective review of lesions associated with the use of Freund's adjuvant. Laboratory Animal Science 39(5): 400-405.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Abstract: A retrospective evaluation was made of lesions observed after the use of Freund's adjuvant formulations in rabbits and monkeys. Inflammation was consistently present at the sites of inoculation. Complications frequently included focal necrosis and ulceration of the skin. Other lesions included fistulous tracts, self-induced trauma, muscle atrophy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and embolic pneumonia. Lesions were most severe with formulations containing larger quantities of mycobacteria or with larger volumes of adjuvant injected per site.
Descriptors: adverse effects, adjuvants, Freund's, polyclonal antibody production, vaccine trials, rabbits, Aotus monkeys.

Broom, D.M. (1998). Psychological indicators of stress and welfare. In Ethics, welfare, law and market forces: the veterinary interface. Proceedings of a Symposium, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, UK, 14-15th November 1996, A.R. Michell and R. Ewbank, (eds.), Wheathampstead, UK: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), p.167-175.
NAL call number: HV4704 E84 1998
Descriptors: stress, animal welfare, behavior.

Broom, D.M. (1993). A usable definition of animal welfare. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.2): 15-25.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: animal welfare, animal production, stress, pain, abnormal behavior, livestock.

Casebolt, D.B., D.J. Speare, and B.S. Horney (1998). Care and use of fish as laboratory animals: current state of knowledge. Laboratory Animal Science 48(2): 124-136.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: transgenic animals, animal housing, water quality, fish diseases, environmental factors, stress, fishes.

Danneman, P.J., S. Stein, and S.O. Walshaw (1997). Humane and practical implications of using carbon dioxide mixed with oxygen for anesthesia or euthanasia of rats. Laboratory Animal Science 47(4): 376-385.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Abstract: A series of studies was undertaken to determine whether CO2 can be used as a humane as well as practical agent for euthanasia or anesthesia of rats. Human volunteers rated the degree of discomfort associated with breathing 50 to 100% CO2 mixed with oxygen. Increasing concentrations of CO2 were judged as progressively more noxious, from "highly unpleasant" for 50% CO2 to "painful" for 100% CO2. The practical aspects of anesthesia and euthanasia with 50 to 100% CO2 were studied, using male Sprague Dawley rats. Time to anesthesia and death were inversely related to CO2 concentration, as were the frequency and severity of adverse reactions, including seizures and hemorrhaging from the nose. The severity of edema and hemorrhage, which were observed on histologic examination of the lungs of all rats euthanized with CO2, were greatest in the animals exposed to the lowest concentrations. There were no significant effects of CO2 concentration on time to recumbency or recovery, and there were no significant effects of precharging versus not precharging the chamber on any of the parameters studied. It was concluded that, although CO2 can be used in a humane manner, the concentrations that are least likely to cause pain and distress are associated with the longest times to anesthesia and death, highest incidence of unwanted side effects, and most severe histologic changes in the lungs. Acceptably humane and reasonably practical euthanasia or anesthesia can be achieved using a nonprecharged chamber and a low gas flow rate so that conscious animals are never exposed to CO2 concentrations >70%.

Doris, P.A. (1989). Humane principles and procedures in animal research. Animal research training series. Texas Tech University Health Science Center, 1 videocassette (30 min.)
NAL call number: Videocassette (2 copies) - nos. 804 and 805
Descriptors: new legal requirements, ACUC, husbandry.

Dreesen, R.G. (1987).Considerations in the humane use of laboratory animals in radiology research. Radiologic Technology 58(4): 347-350.
Descriptors: animal welfare, laboratory animals, radiology, research methods, committee requirements, ACUC.

Foltz, C.J. and M. Ullman-Cullere (1999). Guidelines for assessing the health and condition of mice. Lab Animal 28(4): 28-32.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: transgenic mice, knockout mice, potentially debilitating phenotypes, humane endpoints, monitoring criteria, communications between veterinary staff and investigators, body condition scoring, health guidelines, barbering, fighting, malocclusion, rectal prolapse, tumors and masses, ulcerative dermatitis, vaginal or uterine prolapse, subtle health problems--activity/behavior, anemia, dehydration, diarrhea, hypothermia, preputial or vaginal discharge, additional health problems--abnormal breathing, abnormal locomotion, eye abnormality, head tilt, hyperactivity, lethargy, paresis, paralysis, ruffled fur, tremors.

Guttman, H.N., J.S. Mench, and R.C. Simmonds (eds.) (1988). Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues: From a Conference Held by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare in Washington, DC on June 22-25,1988.
NAL call number: HV4704 S33 1988
Descriptors: industrial IACUC's, ethics, environmental conditions, laboratory animals, farm animals, aversive stimuli, feed deprivation, water deprivation, adjuvants, non-affiliated member of the IACUC.

Hammond, A.C. (1994). Animal well-being in pharmacology and toxicology research. Journal of Animal Science 72 (2): 523-527.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to heighten the awareness of animal welfare issues among animal scientists. Emphasis is placed on issues relating to pharmacology and toxicology research with animals. Use of both laboratory animals and farm animals is addressed; major consideration is given to domestic livestock. Animal welfare issues are complex and have philosophical, ethical, legal, societal, scientific, and biological bases and implications. There is substantial diversity in public opinion and perception regarding use of animals in research, including the belief among some people that use of animals in research should be eliminated altogether. Increasingly, public opinion is tending toward expectations of alternatives to the use of live animals for research. From an animal scientist's viewpoint, although the availability and development of viable alternatives are increasing, live animal research in pharmacology and toxicology currently has no acceptable alternative, in many cases because of the complex interactions involved in whole-animal (biological) systems. Compliance with federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and policies requires animal scientists to use only appropriate species for research, use the minimum number of animals needed, minimize pain and discomfort, and consider alternatives to the use of live animals. In summary, it is essential that animal scientists be advocates of animal well-being and adhere to appropriate guidelines for animal care and use when conducting research with animals.
Descriptors: laboratory animals, livestock, animal experiments, animal welfare, pharmacology, toxicology.

Hawkins, P. (1999). Working together to improve rodent well-being. Lab Animal 28(2):30-32.
NAL call number: QL55A1L33
Abstract: The UK has seen a productive relationship between animal welfare and research interests. This has culminated in the formation of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals/Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (RSPCA/UFAW) Rodent Welfare Group, in which technicians, researchers, veterinarians, and animal advocates share information and experience. The author provides some highlights from recent group meetings.

Hem, A., A.J. Smith, and P. Solberg (1998). Saphenous vein puncture for blood sampling of the mouse, rat, hamster, gerbil, guinea pig, ferret and mink. Laboratory Animals 32(4): 364-368.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Descriptors: alternatives (to retroorbital bleeding), blood sampling techniques, laboratory animals, blood specimen collection, animal welfare.

Hendriksen, C.F.M. and W. de Leeuw (1998). Production of monoclonal antibodies by the ascites method in laboratory animals. Research in Immunology 149(6): 535-542.
NAL call number: QR180 A5
Descriptors: ascites, monoclonal antibodies, animal welfare, animal testing alternatives, production methods.

Herck, H. van, V. Baumans, C.J.W. Brandt, A.P.M. Hesp, J.H. Sturkenboom, H.A. van Lith, G. van Tintelen, and A.C. Beynen (1998). Orbital sinus blood sampling in rats as performed by different animal technicians: The influence of technique and expertise. Laboratory Animals 32 (4): 377-386.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Descriptors: clinical signs, Pasteur pipette or a haematocrit capillary, lateral vs medial canthus of the orbit.

Herck, H. van, V. Baumans, N.R. van der Craats, A.P.M. Hesp, G.W. Meijer, G. van Tintelen, H.C. Walvoort, and A.C. Beynan (1992). Histological changes in the orbital region of rats after orbital puncture. Laboratory Animals 26(1): 53-58.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Descriptors: retroorbital bleeding, pasteur pipette, capillary tube, hemorrhage in puncture track and periosteum, inflammation present four days after procedure in puncture track, eye muscles, periosteum and Harderian gland, no lesions detected at 28 days post-procedure, differences between techniques and technicians.

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (1996). The Psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 168 p. Full-text document is available at
NAL call number: QL737 P9 P776 1998
Descriptors: essentials of a program to provide psychological well-being, general care, effect of special research conditions, prosimians, new world monkeys, old world monkeys, apes, research needs.

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (1996). Laboratory Animal Management Series: Rodents. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 167 p.
Descriptors: rats, mice, gerbils, hamsters, guinea pigs, laboratory animal management, animal husbandry, veterinary care, animal facilities, animal care.

Jackson, L.R. and J.G. Fox (1995). Institutional policies and guidelines on adjuvants and antibody production. ILAR Journal 37(3): 141-152.
NAL call number: QL55 A1I43
Descriptors: monoclonal antibody production, selection of animals, immunization protocols, priming agents, inoculation of hybridoma cells, abdominal paracentesis, clinical observations, alternatives, polyclonal antibody production, antigen preparation, antigen-adjuvant emulsions, routes, volumes, and sites of administration, post-injection observations, blood collection, restraint, institutional resources, personnel safety.

Jackson, LR., L.J. Trudel, J.G. Fox, and N.S. Lipman (1999). Monoclonal antibody production in murine ascites. I. Clinical and pathologic features. Laboratory Animal Science 49(1): 70-80.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Murine ascites production has been associated with appreciable morbidity and mortality, thus raising animal-welfare concerns. To address these concerns, the clinicopathologic changes associated with in vivo production of monoclonal antibodies in mice were characterized, and results were compared among cell lines. METHODS: Five hybridoma cell lines were grown in groups of 20 mice. Fourteen days prior to inoculation with 10(6) hybridoma cells, mice were primed with 0.5 ml of pristane given intraperitoneally; 12 mice were sham treated (controls). Ascites fluid was collected a maximum of three times by abdominal paracentesis. Clinical observations and pre- and postabdominal tap body weights were recorded. Necropsies were performed on all mice. RESULTS: For all groups combined, overall survival to tap 1 was 98%, to tap 2 was 96%, and to tap 3 was 79%; survival among groups ranged from 90 to 100% for tap 1, 85 to 100% for tap 2, and 35 to 100% for tap 3. Disseminated intra-abdominal seeding with irregular soft tissue and/or solid tumor masses was observed at necropsy. CONCLUSIONS: Significant clinicopathologic changes were associated with monoclonal antibody production in mice, and differences between various hybridoma cell lines were apparent.

Jennings, M, G.R. Batchelor, P.F. Brain, A. Dick, H. Elliot, R.J. Francis, R.C. Hubrecht, J.L. Hurst, D.B. Morton, A.G. Peters, R. Raymond, G.D. Sales, C.M. Sherwin, and C. West (1998). Refining rodent husbandry: the mouse. Report of the rodent refinement working party. Laboratory Animals 32(3): 233-259.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Descriptors: animal-husbandry, animal welfare, animal housing, cages, hygiene.

Ladewig, J. Behavior of laboratory animals under unnatural conditions. Archives of Toxicology 20(suppl): 41-46.
NAL call number: RA1190 A7
Abstract: Domestic animals are animals whose living conditions and reproduction, among other things, are controlled by man. As such, the current discussion about the welfare of domestic animals is similar for farm, companion, laboratory, and zoo animals. It concerns identification of the behavioral and physiological needs of the animals and development of living conditions that enable them to satisfy these needs. The paper describes two approaches that have been used in behavior biology to identify such needs. One approach is the measurement of stress responses that may be activated when an animal's needs are not fulfilled. The other approach is the use of operant conditioning techniques to establish demand functions by which the motivation of an animal to perform a specific behavior is measured. It is concluded that, since welfare is characterized by the absence of a number of factors, such as stress, pain, fear, disease, hunger etc., many types of measurements must be applied to ensure optimal welfare.
Descriptors: animal welfare, animal psychology, behavior, laboratory animal science.

Leenaars, P.P.A.M., M.A. Koedam, P.W. Wester, V. Baumans, E. Claassen, and C.F.M. Hendriksen (1998). Assessment of side effects induced by injection of different adjuvant/antigen combinations in rabbits and mice. Laboratory Animals 32(4): 387-406.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Abstract: We evaluated the side effects induced by injection of Freund's adjuvant (FA) and alternative adjuvants combined with different antigens. Rabbits and mice were injected subcutaneously, intramuscularly (rabbits) and intraperitoneally (mice) with different adjuvants (FA, Specol, RIBI, TiterMax, Montanide ISA50) in combination with several types of antigens (synthetic peptides, autoantigen, glycolipid, protein, mycoplasma or viruses). The effects of treatment on the animals' well-being were assessed by clinical and behavioural changes (POT and LABORAS assays) and gross and histopathological changes. In rabbits, treatment did not appear to induce acute or prolonged pain and distress. Mice showed behavioural changes immediately after (predominantly secondary) immunization. Injection of several adjuvant/antigen mixtures resulted in severe pathological changes, depending on adjuvant, type of antigen, animal species used and route of injection. Both rabbits and mice showed pathological changes ranging from marked to severe after injection of FA, and ranging from minimal to marked after Specol and Montanide injections. Pathological changes after RIBI injections were severe in rabbits, though slight in mice. After TiterMax injections, pathological changes were moderate in rabbits, though severe in mice. In conclusion, injection of FA according to present guidelines resulted mostly in severe pathological changes, whereas only very few clinical and behavioural signs indicated prolonged severe pain. Our findings indicate that Montanide ISA50 and Specol induce acceptable antibody titres, and cause fewer pathological changes than FA. Thus they are effective alternatives to FA.

Marbrook, J. (1998). Transgenesis and animals in research - an overview of animal welfare considerations. Surveillance (Wellington, New Zealand) 25(2): 12-14.
NAL call number: SF604.63 N45S87
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, genetics, transgenic animals.

Markowitz, H. and A. Gavazzi (1995). Eleven principles for improving the quality of captive animal life. Lab Animal 24(4): 30-33.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: ability to collect or gather food, varying food availability periodically, novelty, control of environment, socialization, continuing assessment of animals in their cages, animal caretaker interaction.

Martin, B.J. (1995). Evaluation of hypothermia for anesthesia in reptiles and amphibians. ILAR Journal 37(4): 186-190.
NAL call number: QL55 A1I43
Descriptors: research and regulatory guidelines, IACUC evaluation of hypothermia as an appropriate method, review of scientific literature, physiological changes<, pathological changes, literature does not support the use of hypothermia as a clinically efficacious method of anesthesia.

McIntosh, J. and E.C. Staley (1989). Limits of food and water deprivation. In Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues H.N. Guttman, J.A. Mench, and R.C. Simmonds (eds.), Bethesda, Maryland: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, p. 117.
NAL call number: HV4704.S33 1989
Descriptors: protocol, food/water intake, controlled feeding, monitoring of animals.

Meer, M. van der, V. Baumans, and L.F.M. van Zutphen (1996). Transgenic animals: What about their well-being? Scandanavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science 23(Suppl.1): 287-290.
NAL call number: QL55 S322
Descriptors: welfare problems may arise at many different levels-- experimental procedures used to introduce DNA constucts, integration of microinjected DNA into the genome is unpredictable and may cause unintended insertional mutations, review of research.

Moberg, G.P. (1999). When does stress become distress? Lab Animal 28(4): 22-26.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: defining stress and distress in laboratory animals, stress model, perception of the stressor, biological defense, measuring stress reaction, recognizing changes in biological function, prepathological state, cumulative cost of multiple stressors, summated stressors, managing stress and distress.

Moore, C.J. and T.B. Mepham (1995). Transgenesis and animal welfare. Alternatives to laboratory animals: ATLA 23 (3):380-397.
NAL call number: Z7994 L3A5
Abstract: The two main techniques used in biomedical research for the production of transgenic animals have several implications for animal welfare in terms of the Three Rs of Russell & Burch. Some are intrinsic to the transgenic objectives, while others relate to the effects of mutations, transgene expression, associated methodologies, and husbandry or production systems. All of these actual and potential implications for animal welfare demand serious consideration within a broad ethical analysis of the technology. In the light of the Three Rs, this may require a fundamental reappraisal of the processes by which such scientific procedures are approved.
Descriptors: transgenic animals, gene transfer, domestic animals, animal welfare, laboratory animals, animal models, genetic effects, literature reviews.

Morton, D.B. (1998). Perceived and actual welfare issues - laboratory animals. In Ethics, welfare, law and market forces: the veterinary interface. Proceedings of a Symposium, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, UK, 14-15th November 1996, A.R. Michell and R. Ewbank, (eds.), Wheathampstead, UK: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), p. 91-106.
NAL call number: HV4704 E84 1998
Descriptors: animal welfare; laboratory animals

Niemi, S.M., J.S. Venable, and H.N. Guttman (eds.) (1994). Rodents and Rabbits, Current Research Issues: Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) and Working with An imals Used in Research, Drugs, and Surgery (WARDS) held in Washington, D.C. on May 21, 1993. SCAW: Greenbelt, MD and WARDS: Fairfax, VA, 81 p.
NAL call number: SF407.R6R63 1994.
Contents: Request for changes in USDA regulations by Martin L. Stephens -- Recognizing stress in rodents and rabbits by Gerald F. Gebhart -- Enrichment techniques for rodents and rabbits by David Morton -- Transgenic rodents by Terrie Cunliffe-Beamer -- Anesthesia, analgesia for rodents and rabbits by Sally K. Wixson -- Aseptic surgery for rodents by Marilyn J. Brown -- Adjuvant comparison in rabbits by David K. Johnson.
Descriptors: rodents as laboratory animals, rabbits as laboratory animals, animal experimentation, animal welfare.

Niemi, S. (1989). Use of immune stimulants. In Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues H.N. Guttman, J.A. Mench, and R.C. Simmonds (eds.), Bethesda, Maryland: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, pp. 119-121.
NAL call number: HV4704.S33 1988
Descriptors: adjuvant, ACUC, laboratory animals, ascites.

Oestermann, D.J., J.M. Scimerca, J. Forsythe, R. Hanlon, and P. Lee (1997). Special considerations for keeping cephalopods in laboratory facilities. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 36(2): 89-93.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: biology and life history, basic tank and sea water system requirements, receiving and post-shipment handling, feeding, common health problems, health monitoring and treatment, postmortem evaluation.

Poole, T.B. (1995). Guidelines and legal codes for the welfare of non-human primates in biomedical research. Laboratory Animals 29(3): 244-9.
NAL call number: QL55.A1L3.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal welfare, housing, physiology, legislation, behavior, Canada, Europe, Great Britain, United States.

Poole, T. (1997). Happy animals make good science. Laboratory Animals 31(2): 116-124.
NAL call number: QL55.A1L3.
Abstract: In this paper the question is posed whether it is not only better for the animal to he happy, but whether its state of mind may also have the potential to influence the scientific results derived from it. To ensure good science, the animal should have a normal physiology and behaviour, apart from specific adverse effects under investigation. There is a growing body of evidence from a wide variety of sources to show that animals whose well-being is compromised are often physiologically and immunologically abnormal and that experiments using them may reach unreliable conclusions. On scientific, as well as ethical grounds, therefore, the psychological well-being of laboratory animals should he an important concern for veterinarians, animal technicians and scientists.
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, immune response, handling.

Preparation and Maintenance of Higher Mammals During Neuroscience Experiments. Report of a National Institutes of Health Workshop, March 1991. Bethesda, Maryland: DHHS, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, 45 p.
NAL call number: HV4930 P74
Descriptors: prolonged non-survival recording procedures, survival anatomical procedures, perinatal procedures, inducing neurological deficits, awake behaving preparations, animal care and use concerns, sample research protocols.

Reinhardt, V. (1997). Training nonhuman primates to cooperate during handling procedures: a review. Animal Technology 48(2): 55-73.
NAL call number: QL55 I5
Descriptors: literature review, blood collection, injections, topical drug application, blood pressure measurement, urine collection, capture, minimize distress, validity of data, baboons, macaques, chimpanzees, drills, gorillas, marmosets, capuchins, vervets.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (1992). Quantitatively tested environmental enrichment options for singly-caged nonhuman primates: a review. Humane Innovations and Alternatives 6: 374-383.
NAL call number: QL55.H8
Descriptors: primates, laboratory mammals, cages, environmental enrichment, psychological wellbeing, animal welfare.

Reinhardt, V., C. Liss, and C. Stevens (1996). Space requirement stipulations for caged non-human primates in the United States: a critical review. Animal Welfare 5(4): 361-372.
NAL call number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: primates, laboratory animals, cage size, height, space requirements, abnormal behavior, regulations, animal welfare.

Rollin, B.E. (1997). An ethicist's commentary on the case of the infected research animal. Canadian Veterinary Journal 38(3): 136.
NAL call number: 41.8 R3224
Descriptors: rats, veterinary medicine, animal welfare, infectious disease research.

Ruiven, R. van, G.W. Meijer, A. Wiersma, V. Baumans, L.F.M. van Zutphen, and J. Ritskes-Hoitinga (!998). The influence of transportation stress on selected nutritional parameters to establish the necessary minimum period for adaptation in rat feeding studies. Laboratory Animals 32(4): 446-456.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Abstract: After transportation of rats by car and by air to and from the laboratory for a total period of 15 h, measurements were carried out for a period of 3 weeks after transport. Control and transported animals were housed in the same laboratory before and after transportation. During transport the animals had access to food and water. As blood collection could also cause stress, a factorial design was carried out with transport and blood collection as main factors (12 rats per group). Transport or blood collection did not cause significant effects on the following parameters: body weight, growth, clinical observation, and blood activities of lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase. Water intake was significantly increased after transport. Food intake did not show consistent effects after transport or blood collection. Unexpectedly, blood corticosterone levels were significantly lower in the transported animals at day 1 after transport. After 3 days these levels had returned to normal. Blood glucose, blood free fatty acids and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were incidentally decreased, whereas total cholesterol levels showed an incidental rise in the transported rats. The open-field behaviour test revealed no clear-cut results concerning the effects of transport or blood collection on faeces production, rearing and ambulation. It is concluded that after transport, an adaptation period of 3 days appears to be sufficient for rats to be used in nutritional studies.
Descriptors: adaptation, animal transport, rats, feeding studies, stress, blood collection, food intake, water intake, corticosterone, body weight, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, nutrition research.

Schlingmann, F., W.J. Pereboom, and R. Remie (1993). The sensitivity of albino and pigmented rats to light. A mini review. Animal Technology 44(2): 71-85.
NAL call number: QL55 I5
Abstract: Light is the most important environmental factor for animals. However, most animal facilities are designed for the convenience and comfort of the people who work in it, and not for the experimental animals. Several studies show that these light intensities are causing damage to the photoreceptor cells in the retina. Albino rats are especially more sensitive to light when compared to pigmented rats. Light values as recommended by several guidelines are often too high. Retinal degeneration seems not only to be dependent on intensity, but also on the wavelength of the light source. Finally, the role of light in the maintenance of circadian rhythm is discussed.

Smith, K.R. and R.A. Markle (1998). Capsaicin use in neonatal rats: Husbandry and welfare concerns. Lab Animal 27(10): 38-40.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L33
Descriptors: Commonly used to induce long-lasting neural desensitization in neonatal rats, clinical side-effects, initial respiratory distress, skin lesions, urine retention, considerations when employing capsaicin treatment, animals may not show signs of pain and distress due to neural insensitivity, few papers in literature describe complications, complications may have acted as a selective force on experimental animals possibly altering data.

Toth, L.A., A.W. Dunlap, G.A. Olson, and J.R. Hessler (1989). An evaluation of distress following intraperitoneal immunization with Freund's adjuvant in mice. Laboratory Animal Science 39(2): 122-126.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: adverse effects, immunization, pain, stress, adjuvants, Freund's, albumin, multiple granulomatous abdominal adhesions, lymphoid hyperplasia, animals did not appear to be chronically impaired, mice.

United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research guidelines for the welfare of animals in experimental neoplasia. (1989). Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council. ILAR News 31(3): 16-21.
NAL call number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal welfare, neoplasms, guidelines, United Kingdom, tumor growth.

Voipio, H-M. (1997). How do rats react to sound? Scandanavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science 24(Suppl. 1): 1-80.
NAL call number: QL55 S322
Descriptors: Ph. D. dissertation, review of literature, ultrasonic vocalizations, vocalizations, hearing ability, physiological responses, materials and methods, sounds used in experiments, chambers, experimental procedures, behavior monitoring, response to sounds, groups, female groups, pups, comparison of sexes, statistics.

Webster, A.J.F. (1998). The nature of physiological stress. In Ethics, welfare, law and market forces: the veterinary interface. Proceedings of a Symposium, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, UK, 14-15th November 1996, A.R. Michell and R. Ewbank, (eds.), Wheathampstead, UK: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), p.177-189.
NAL call number: HV4704 E84 1998
Descriptors: animal welfare, stress, adrenal cortex hormones.

Weihe, W.H. (1998). The impact of stress and discomfort on experimental outcome. Archives of Toxicology 20(suppl): 47-59.
NAL call number: RA1190 A7
Abstract: Stress refers to a physiological and emotional state of man and higher animals in which the autonomic regulation is overstrained and temporarily disturbed under the impact of conflicting stimuli. Stress activates, invigorates, acts life-sustaining, and initiates and drives adaptive changes towards improved fitness. While the positive action is commonly underestimated, much attention is given to the discomfort and the strain of efforts required during coping. The label of stress as being bad and the core of suffering has been applied with particular empathy to laboratory animals, for they are kept in captivity and are exposed to experimental procedures. The husbandry conditions to which the animals are adapted are commonly standardized. This applies to procedures for subacute and chronic toxicity testing. Acute toxicity tests are the classical example of stress research in which the demands on the organism exceed the limits of its regulative capacity. Stressors are: the test compound, the procedure proper and preceding treatment of the animal. The experimental stress contributes to model the real situation. The weighting between the stressors may modify the outcome of the test.
Descriptors: animal welfare, animal psychology, laboratory animal science, stress, physiopathology, toxicology, research.

Wiepkema, P.R., W.G.P. Schouten, and P. Koene (1993). Biological aspects of animal welfare: new perspectives. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.2): 93-103.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: livestock, animal welfare, stress, emotions, social interaction.

Witkin, J.M. (1989). Issues in the use of aversive stimuli in animal experimentation. In Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues H.N. Guttman, J.A. Mench, and R. C. Simmonds (eds.), Bethesda, Maryland: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, pp. 115-116.
NAL call number: HV4704.S33 1989
Descriptors: noxious stimuli, alternatives, parameters, evaluation of proposals.

Wolfensohn, S.E. (1997). Brief review of scientific studies of the welfare implications of transporting primates. Laboratory Animals 31(4): 303-5.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Descriptors: primates, psychology, stress, animal husbandry, standards, physiology, transportation.

Zeller, W., G. Meier, K. Burki, and B. Panoussis (1998). Adverse effects of tribromoethanol as used in the production of transgenic mice. Laboratory Animals 32(4): 407-413.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Descriptors: anesthesia, embryo transfer, ketamine, xylazine, histopathology, animal welfare.

Zutphen, L.F.M.van and M. Balls (eds.) (1997). Animal alternatives, welfare, and ethics, Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in Utrecht, the Netherlands, 20-24 October 1996 Amsterdam, New York :Elsevier, 1260 p.
NAL call number: QL1.D48 v.27
Descriptors: alternatives to animal testing, animal experimentation, animal welfare, laboratory animals, databases, literature searching.

Issues in Rodent Housing Bibliography

Arnold, C.E. and D.Q. Estep (1994). Laboratory caging preferences in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Laboratory Animals 28(3): 232-238.
NAL call number: Ql55 A1L3
Descriptors: hamsters, housing, behavior, flooring, litter, animal welfare, cages, wire-bottoms, solid-bottom.

Boot, R., H. van Herck, and J. van der Logt (1996). Mutual viral and bacterial infections after housing rats of various breeders within an experimental unit. Laboratory Animals 30(1): 42-45.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Abstract: Fifteen athymic rat strains from 11 breeding colonies were housed within an experimental facility for an immunological study. Health status records supplied with 14 of the strains listed infections by Kilham's rat virus (KRV), Clostridium piliforme (Bacillus piliformis) and Pasteurella pneumotropica for 2, 2 and 1 colonies respectively. In sera taken previous to the study from euthymic rats of 10 strains, antibodies to KRV were detected in 3 strains, to Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), Rat corona virus (RCV) and Sendai virus in one strain each and to P. pneumotropica in 2 strains. Only 2 of the KRV infections had been reported by the supplier. During the study rats of all 10 strains developed antibodies to 2-4 of viral antigens. Eight out of 10 rat strains seroconverted to 1-5 of the antigens C. piliforme (B. piliformis), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus spp., P. pneumotropica and Streptobacillus moniliformis. Two rat strains housed in filtertop cages did not develop antibodies to bacterial antigens. The potential detrimental effects of intercurrent infections on the outcome of the comparative immunological study are discussed.

Brown, K.J. and N.E. Grunberg (1995).Effects of housing on male and female rats: crowding stresses male but calm females. Physiology and Behavior 58(6): 1085-9.
NAL call number: QP1 P4
Abstract: Housing conditions affect behavioral and biological responses of animals. Effects of same-sex grouped, crowded, or individually housed conditions on plasma corticosterone levels of male and female Wistar rats were examined in two experiments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of individual vs. crowded housing conditions on corticosterone, a biochemical index of stress, in seven male and seven female rats. Experiment 2 extended the findings of Experiment 1 by separately manipulating spatial and population aspects of housing with 50 male and 50 female rats. Male rats had higher corticosterone levels under crowded conditions. In contrast, female rats had higher levels when individually housed. Spatial crowding was the key variable for males, whereas the number of other animals was more important for females. These results indicate that investigators must consider housing conditions as an intervening variable that is likely to differentially affect behaviors of male and female rats.
Descriptors: behavior, housing, sex characteristics, sex differences, stress, physiopathology, analysis of variance; corticosterone, Wistar rats.

Clough, G. (1991). Suggested guidelines for the housing and husbandry of rodents for aging studies. Neurobiology of Aging 12(6): 653-8.
Abstract: The available published guidelines for the housing of rodents are reviewed, and assessments are made with regard to whether the data on which these guidelines are based appear to be sound. Ambient air temperature, relative humidity, lighting levels and photoperiods, sound levels, cage sizes, and ventilation rates are discussed, and a summary is provided covering the relationship between these and other factors and the well-being of laboratory rats and mice exposed to such conditions.
Descriptors: aging physiology, animal husbandry standards, housing standards, rodents.

Everitt, J.I., P.W. Ross, and T.W. Davis (1988). Association of wire caging with development of mouse urological syndrome. Laboratory Animal Science 38(4): 507.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: mice, urinary tract diseases, cages, wire-bottoms.

Hurst, J.L., C.J. Barnard, C.M. Nevison, and C.D. West (1997). Housing and welfare in laboratory rats: welfare implications of isolation and social contact among caged males. Animal Welfare 6(4): 329-347.
NAL call number: HV4701 A557
Descriptors: animal welfare, physiopathology, housing, animal behavior.

Klir, P., R. Bondy, J. Lachout, and T. Hanis T (1984). Physiological changes in laboratory rats caused by different housing. Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 33(2): 111-21
Abstract: Males rats of the Wistar strain (Institute of Physiology, CSAV) were divided into six groups from the 30th to the 200th day of age. Rats (n=54) were put into cages in various numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 animals in a cage) and were weighed regularly and the consumption of water and food was measured. At the end of the experiment the animals were killed and the weight of some organs and hematological values were determined. During the experiment the highest weight was attained in animals with 3 or 4 members in one cage. The differences in weight were significant from the 80th day of age. The consumption of diets and water was not influenced significantly by the number of animals in a cage. On the 200th day, the differences between the groups were found in the weight of some organs, and in some hematological values.
Descriptors: physiology, body weight, crowding, housing, rats, inbred strains, blood cell count, hematocrit, lung, organ weight, pituitary gland, testis, anatomy and histology.

Kuhnen, G. (1999). Housing-induced changes in the febrile response of juvenile and adult golden hamsters. Journal of Experimental Animal Science 39(4): 151-155.
NAL call number: QL1 J687
Descriptors: stress, body temperature, housing, animal welfare, fever, environmental enrichment, lipopolysaccharide, housing conditions significantly affect febrile response of juvenile and adults, hamsters.

Manser, C.E., H. Elliott, T.H. Morris, and D.M. Broom (1996). The use of a novel operant test to determine the strength of preference for flooring in laboratory rats. Laboratory Animals 30(1): 1-6.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Abstract: A previous study showed that laboratory rats preferred to dwell on a solid floor rather than a grid one, particularly when resting (Manser et al. 1995). The strength of this preference was investigated in an operant trial using a novel test apparatus, which consisted of a grid-floored cage and a solid-floored cage, joined via a central box containing a barrier whose weight was adjustable. Trials in which rats had to lift the barrier in order to explore the whole apparatus were alternated with those in which the rats were confined on the grid floor and then had to lift the barrier in order to reach the solid floor. The latter trials were carried out at the beginning of the light period when the rats were seeking a resting place. In both trials, theweight of the barrier was progressively increased for each rat, until a maximum weight was found which it would lift either to explore its environment (weight A) or to reach the solid floor (weight B). No significant differences were found between weights A and B, showing that rats would work as hard to reach a solid floor to rest on as they would to explore a novel environment. The apparatus used could, with some modifications, be appropriate for use in other operant studies in laboratory rats.

Manser, C.E., T.H. Morris, and D.M. Broom (1996). An investigation into the effects of solid or grid cage flooring on the welfare of laboratory rats. Laboratory Animals 29(4): 353-363.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Abstract: The welfare of laboratory rats housed on either solid or grid floors was investigated in several ways. No differences were found in body weight gain, food consumption or water consumption amongst rats housed in either condition. When handling was standardized between the 2 groups, there was no correlation between flooring and docility. Preference testing revealed that rats chose to dwell on solid floors rather than grids, regardless of previous housing experience. This preference for solid floors was particularly marked (88%) when the animals were resting and much less marked during activity (55.4%). Since the rats were observed to spend 70 to 75% of their time resting, it was concluded that their welfare was likely to be improved by housing them on solid floors.

Milligan, S.R., G.D. Sales, K. Khirnykh (1993). Sound levels in rooms housing laboratory animals: an uncontrolled daily variable. Physiology & Behavior 53(6): 1067-76.
NAL call number: QP1 P4
Abstract: High sound levels are known to have adverse effects on the behaviour and physiology of laboratory animals, yet their acoustic environment is rarely monitored. In particular, high-frequency sounds that are above the limit of human hearing, but are well within the limits of many laboratory species (i.e., ultrasounds), are usually ignored. In this study, the acoustic environment of laboratory animals was investigated in a variety of different animal facilities. Sound pressure levels (dB SPL) were monitored for periods up to 24 h over two frequency ranges: a relatively low range (0.01-12.5 kHz), and a high range (12.5-70 kHz). While background sound levels in undisturbed situations were generally low (i.e., below 50 dB SPL), marked increases in sound levels often occurred during the working day, producing characteristic daily variations in the sound profile. Peak SPLs commonly reached values of 80-95 dB in the low-frequency range and 50-75 dB in the higher range. In most cases, sound levels were low over weekends. The results suggested that human activities were a very important source of sound in most animal facilities. In a few situations (e.g., rabbits, marmosets, dogs), the animals themselves provided a significant contribution to the acoustic environment. It is clear that the acoustic environment of laboratory animals is a daily variable that is usually uncontrolled and that may have important implications for behavioural and physiological experiments and for animal welfare.
Descriptors: animal welfare, arousal, noise, social environment, Callithrix, cats, circadian rhythm, ferrets, loudness perception, mice, pitch perception, psychoacoustics, rabbits, rats, sound spectrography, species specificity, ultrasonics.

Mizisin, A.P., M.W. Kalichman, R.S. Garrett, and K.C. Dines (1998). Tactile hyperesthesia, altered epidermal innervation and plantar nerve injury in the hindfeet of rats housed on wire grates. Brain Research 788(1-2): 13-19.
Abstract: The effects of wire grates on nerve injury and recovery were examined in rats housed in cages with sawdust-covered solid flooring. For the first 3 weeks of the study, 20 rats were housed on sawdust alone and 20 rats were housed in cages with wire grates placed over the sawdust. For the remaining 9 weeks, 10 animals housed on sawdust had wire grates added to their cages, while grates were removed from the cages of 10 animals. The effects of tactile stimulation on hindpaw plantar skin was measured weekly using the Von Frey filament test. Intraepidermal innervation using PGP 9.5 immunostaining and plantar nerve histology were assessed at the end of the 12-week study. After just 1 week on grates, hindpaw withdrawal thresholds were already markedly decreased and remained low until the grates were removed at 3 weeks. Thresholds returned to normal by 4 weeks after removal of the grates. Wire grates also induced increases in PGP 9.5 immunoreactive intraepidermal fine nerve endings that were normalized after grate removal. Demyelination, Wallerian degeneration and Renaut bodies were induced in the medial plantar nerve in rats housed in cages with wire-grate flooring. Nerve injury was largely resolved after 9 weeks on sawdust flooring. These data demonstrate that wire grates rapidly induce hindpaw tactile hyperesthesia and plantar neuropathy in rats and emphasize a risk of using wire-grate cage flooring in studies assessing hindlimb function and structure.
Descriptors: epidermis innervation, foot innervation, hyperesthesia, peripheral nerves injuries, hindlimb, housing, immunohistochemistry, Sprague-Dawley rats, wire-bottoms.

Olfert, E. D. (1998). A rodent's-eye view of environmental enrichment: Asking the animal what it prefers. CALAS/ACSAL Newsletter 32(5): 9-13.
NAL call number: SF405.5 C36
Descriptors: behavioral needs, natural behavior, preference testing, interpreting results, strength of a preference, preference and animal welfare, floor types, bedding, nesting material, shelters, enrichment devices, nest boxes, mice, rats, the "preferred mouse cage," the "preferred rat cage."

Perez, C., J.R.Canal, E. Dominguez, J.E. Campillo, M. Guillen, M.D. Torres (1997). Individual housing influences certain biochemical parameters in the rat. Laboratory Animals 31(4): 357-61.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Abstract: Individual housing has been reported to modify animal behaviour. The present study compares the plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol, weight, and food and water intake in two groups of female rats. Group A: 10 rats who remained grouped in two cages for 21 days; and Group B: 10 rats housed in two cages for 7 days, then isolated in individual cages from day 8 to day 15, and finally grouped together again for the last 7 days of the study. The results showed that the plasma values of glucose declined (P < 0.05) in the Group B rats when they had been returned to group condition (4.79 +/- 0.72 mM) than when they had been isolated (5.45 +/- 0.94 mM). Plasma triglyceride levels were lower (P < 0.05) in isolated rats (0.70 +/- 0.26 mM) than in any determination of the grouped rats. Group B: 1st week 1.21 +/- 0.21 mM, 3rd week 0.88 +/- 0.20 mM; and Group A: 1.22 +/- 0.20, 0.96 +/- 0.16, and 0.96 +/- 0.36 mM, in the first, second, and third week, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in total cholesterol values as a function of the individual housing of animals. While there was no weight difference between the two groups of rats that could be ascribed to individual housing, there was a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in the food intake of isolated rats (17.5 +/- 3.2 g) with respect to values in the same Group B animals when they were housed together (1st week, 16.6 +/- 2.8 g; 3rd week, 16.8 +/- 3.1 g). These results therefore confirm that individual housing of female rats provoke variations in certain biochemical parameters, and that if this is not taken into account in performing different scientific studies, it could give rise to unreliable or even dubious results.
Descriptors: animal behavior, animal physiology, pH, blood glucose analysis, cholesterol, housing, triglycerides, drinking, eating, Wistar rats, social isolation.

Perkins, S.E. (1996). Evaluation of microenvironmental conditions and noise generation in three individually ventilated rodent caging systems and static isolator cages. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 35(2): 61-65.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: caging, contaminants, environmental temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, ammonia, noise level, significant differences reported between cage types for all parameters measured, mice.

Raynor, T.H., W.H. Steinhagen, and T.E. Hamm (1983). Differences in the microenvironment of a polycarbonate caging system: bedding vs raised wire floors. Laboratory Animals 17(2): 85-9.
NAL call number: QL55 A1L3
Abstract: The microenvironment of polycarbonate cages housing rats with and without various types of bedding was compared with that of cages that utilized wire floor inserts with different bedding types. Parameters monitored were temperature, humidity, ammonia concentrations and particulates. No differences were noted in the various caging types in relation to temperature and humidity measurements. Significant differences in ammonia concentrations existed in some of the cages when bedding material was used. The use of raised floorwalk inserts also demonstrated significant differences in particulate counts to cages without inserts. The data obtained demonstrated that contact bedding was useful in controlling ammonia generation and that a raised floorwalk insert reduced significantly the aerosolization of bedding particles that could be ingested or inhaled by the rats.
Descriptors: animals, housing ammonia, animal husbandry, bedding, humidity, polymers, rats, temperature.

Rock, F.M., M.S. Landi, H.C. Hughes, R.C. Gagnon (1997). Effects of caging type and group size on selected physiologic variables in rats. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 36(2): 69-72.
NAL call number: SF405.5 A23
Descriptors: caging, group-size, body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, feed intake, body weight, animal husbandry, rats, motor activity, cage types had significant effects on motor activity and feed intake.

Salvin, S.B., B.S. Rabin, and R. Neta (1990). Evaluation of immunologic assays to determine the effects of differential housing on immune reactivity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 4(3): 180-8.
Abstract: The mechanism is being investigated to determine specifically how an environmental variation such as differential housing can influence the multiple components of the host defense mechanism. Male C3H/HeJ mice were housed either one or five per cage. Cells and sera from these mice were analyzed and compared by several immunologic techniques to determine in which cells or tissues the effect of differential housing was most pronounced. The individually housed mice (a) had a greater capacity to phagocytose dead cells of Candida albicans. (b) had spleens that produced more macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). (c) were more responsive to M-CSF, (d) had peritoneal macrophages that released greater quantities of interleukin-1 in vitro into the surrounding medium and that had a greater capacity to migrate toward a chemotactic stimulus, and (e) had higher titers of IgM hemagglutination antibody to sheep erythrocytes. Differential housing of mice may therefore be a highly important modulator and indicator of the nature and extent of an animal's immunologic response to an environmental stimulus.
Descriptors: antibody formation, housing, cellular immunity, leukocyte chemotaxis, hemagglutination tests, hematopoietic stem cells, drug effects, IgM biosynthesis, interleukin-1 secretion, macrophage colony-stimulating factor--pharmacology, macrophages, mice, inbred C3H mice, peritoneal cavity, phagocytosis, spleen cytology, chemical stimulation.

Weerd, H. A. van de, P.L.P. van Loo, L.F.M. van Zutphen, J.M. Koolhaas, and V. Baumans (1998). Strength of preference for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 55(3/4): 369-382.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, nesting mice, cages, litter, floor husbandry; floor type, animal behavior, animal welfare, wire-bottoms.

Weerd, H.A. van de, F.A.R. van den Broek, and V. Baumans (1996). Preference for different types of flooring in two rat strains. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 46(3/4): 251-261.
NAL call number: QL750 A6
Abstract: Bedding material is a permanent part of the environment of laboratory rodents. In the present study, rats of two strains (Wistar HsdCpb:WU and Brown Norway BN/SsNCpbHsd) were placed in a preference test system to evaluate their preference for three types of bedding material (sawdust, softwood shavings and paper particles) compared to wire mesh. The rats showed a significant preference for the cages with wood shavings and paper bedding, both consisting of large particles. The paper bedding may serve as an alternative to wire mesh floor in some (e.g. toxicological) studies, because of its defined composition. The cages with sawdust and wire mesh floor were relatively avoided. Rats slept in the cages with large-particle bedding, but used the other cages for active behaviour such as eating and defecating; furthermore, many rats preferred different cages during day and night. It is suggested that different behavioural activities may require different cage floor covering.

Yoganathan, S., T.A. Wilson, and R.J. Nicolosi (1998). Housing conditions effect plasma lipid concentrations and early atherogenesis independent of treatment in hamsters. Nutrition Research 18(1): 83-92.
NAL call number: 389.8 N954
Descriptors: lipoproteins, atherogenesis, atherosclerosis, housing, blood, hypercholesterolaemia, cholesterol, intake, triacylglycerols, hamsters, housing conditions affect plasma lipids.

Zochodne, D.W., M.N. Murray, P. van der Sloot, and R.J. Riopelle (1995). Distal tibial mononeuropathy in diabetic and nondiabetic rats reared on wire cages: an experimental entrapment neuropathy. Brain Research 698(1-2):130-136.
Abstract: Using electrophysiological recordings, we studied a distal tibial mononeuropathy that involves the hind foot of rats reared in cages with wire grid flooring. In an initial set of experiments, serial sciatic-tibial motor conduction recordings were made in smaller or larger rats reared in cages with wire grid or sawdust flooring. Electrophysiological features of the neuropathy were loss in the amplitude of the distal tibial nerve M potential recorded over hind limb foot muscles, temporal dispersion of the potential, often into multiple peaks, and a prolonged distal latency of the response. The changes in M amplitude were more apparent in larger rats with a greater body weight. In a second series of experiments we studied sciatic-tibial conduction over 16 weeks in nondiabetic rats and rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin raised and wire grid or plastic flooring. Tibial mononeuropathy developed in both wire grid-reared groups, but there was evidence that it appeared earlier in diabetic rats. Electrophysiological changes of distal mononeuropathy also obscured the expected slowing of sciatic-tibial motor conduction velocity from diabetics. Tibial mononeuropathy in rats reared on wire grid flooring may be a useful animal model of human entrapment neuropathy but its presence can confound studies of experimental neuropathy. Rats used in studies of experimental neuropathy should be housed in plastic cages with sawdust or shavings flooring.
Descriptors: experimental diabetes mellitus, diabetic neuropathies, housing, nerve compression syndromes, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve, analysis of variance, diabetes mellitus complications, Sprague-Dawley rats, wire-bottoms.

Useful World Wide Web Sites

Blood collection in mice using the saphenous vein - An alternative to retro orbital collection (PDF 847KB)
The method has been developed by the Laboratory Animal Centre of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health by Annelise Hem and Per Solberg. Annelise Hem and Adrian Smith have submitted a paper on saphenous vein puncture to the journal "Laboratory Animals". They have successfully used this technique on mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, guinea-pigs, mink and ferrets.

Environmental Enhancement for Caged Rhesus Macaques-A Photographic Documentation
Defining improved 'psychological well-being' as having the option to actively express species-typical behavior patterns that were formerly inhibited due to a lack of appropriate stimuli, and experiencing less fear/distress in the presence of people, the author developed and implemented the following environmental enhancement plan for the center's colony of approximately 700 caged rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

Guidelines for the Production of Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies in Rodents and Rabbits
This site is maintained by the State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse. The purpose of these Guidelines is to provide methods with demonstrated success that also minimize pain and distress for the laboratory animals employed in the technique.

National Institutes of Health, Animal Research Advisory Committee (ARAC)
Recommendation on toe clipping of animals.

University of Arizona Department of Animal Care
This site provides extensive information on handling, restraint, and techniques of laboratory rodents.

University of Minnesota, Research Animal Resources
Husbandry guidelines for laboratory animals including rodent cage floor policy.

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