Information Resources for Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees 1985-1999 *************************

Ethics




Bibliography


Anderson, D., M.J. Reiss, and P.N. Campbell (1993). Ethical issues in biomedical sciences, animals in research and education: proceedings of a national conference organized by the Institute of Biology's Biomedical Sciences and Education Divisional Committees, in collaboration with the British Toxicology Society held in London, October 1992 London: Institute of Biology, 103 pp.
NAL call number: HV4913.E84 1993
Descriptors: animal experimentation, animal rights, animal welfare.

Appleby, M.C. (1998). Genetic engineering, welfare, and accountability. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1(3): 255-273.
NAL call number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: experimental techniques, advisory committees, effects of genetic modification on welfare of individual animals, direct effects, side effects, husbandry and related effects, transgenics, effects on attitudes, farm animals used for agricultural products, farm animals used for biomedical products, laboratory animals, commercial exploitation, public perception, ethical evaluation, legislation and control.

Balls, M.. (1995). Chimpanzee medical experiments: moral, legal and scientific concerns. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA 23 (5): 607-614..
NAL call number: Z7994.L3A5
Abstract: FRAME's (Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments) role in drawing attention to the special scientific and ethical concerns raised by the use of non-human primates as laboratory animals is reviewed, with special emphasis on the FRAME/CRAE proposals to the British Government (1987) and the RSPCA/FRAME survey of research on non-human primates conducted in Great Britain between 1984 and 1988. Attention is then focused on the moral case and the scientific case against using chimpanzees as laboratory animals, with particular emphasis on research on AIDS. Finally, a call is made for universal agreement that no more laboratory experiments should ever be performed on chimpanzees.
Descriptors: chimpanzees, animal experiments, medical research, animal welfare, ethics.

Blatz, C. (1987). Mad bears and innocent hares: Remarks toward a theory of diminished responsibility. Between the Species 3: 3-11.
NAL call number: HV4701 B4
Descriptors: ethics, responsibility, animal experimentation, innocence.

Boothe, D.M., M.R. Slater, R.F. Playter (1992). Ethical considerations in clinical research. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 200(11): 1616-1621.
NAL call number: 41.8 AM3
Descriptors: veterinary informed consent, laboratory animal care, animal welfare, guidelines.

Boyce, J.R. (1990). Care and use of animals. Probing four views of animal use. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196(9): 1368-9.
NAL call number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal welfare, ethics, veterinary medicine.

Britt, D. (1984). Ethics, ethical committees and animal experimentation. Nature 311(5986): 503-506.
NAL call number: 472 N21
Descriptors: public concern, research, animal welfare, ACUC.

Caplan, A.L. (1987). Doing ethics by committee: Problems and pitfalls. Laboratory Animal Science 37(special issue): 45-47.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: animal welfare, animal experiments, ACUC.

Carriero A., A. Spinazzi A, and L. Bonomo (1996). Ethics and research. European Radiology 6 (2): 11-15.
Descriptors: animal welfare, ethics committees, guidelines, human experimentation, informed consent, research design.

Cheong, J. (1989). The use of animals in medical education: A question of necessity versus desirability. Theoretical Medicine 10: 53-57.
Descriptors: ethics, animal rights, medicine.

Cohen, C. (1995). An ethical perspective on animal research. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206 (4): 458-461.
NAL call number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: animal experiments, bioethics, animal welfare, moral values.

Cohen, B.J. (1981). Animal rights and animal experimentation. In Rights and Responsibilities in Modern Medicine M.D. Basson (ed.), New York: Liss Publishing, pp. 85-92.
NAL call number: R724.C6 1979
Descriptors: ethics, animal experimentation, alternatives.

de Cock Buning, T. (1998). Xenotransplantation: A problematic world behind a glamorous facade. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1(3): 275-281.
NAL call number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: ethics, scientific problems, graft rejection, potential for development of zoonotic diseases, IACUC review, alternatives, animal suffering, isolation of animals, repeated blood and tissue sampling, immunosuppression, preclinical research, scientific goals, public perception, cost-benefit balance.

Donnelly, S. (1999). How and why animals matter. ILAR Journal 40(1): 22-28.
NAL call number: QL55 A1I43
Descriptors: moral concern, moral decision making, institutional policies, animals in different contexts, laboratories, home, wild, human involvement in the wild, Charles Darwin, Aldo Leopold, Alfred North Whitehead, Hans Jonas.

Donnelley, S. and K. Nolan (eds.) (1990). Animals, Science, and Ethics. Hastings Center Report 20(3Supp.): 1-32.
NAL call number: R724 H27
Descriptors: animal experimentation, anthropomorphism, bioethics, research, ACUC.

Donnelley, S. (1989). Speculative philosophy, the troubled middle, and ethics of animal experimentation. Hastings Center Report 19(2): 15-7.
NAL call number: R724 H27
Descriptors: animal experimentation, animal welfare, decision making, ACUC.

Dresser, R. (1989). Measuring merit in animal research. Theoretical Medicine 10(1): 21-34.
Descriptors: attitude of health personnel, disease models, ethics, peer-review, laboratory animals.

Dresser, R. (1988). Standards for animal research: Looking at the middle. Journal of Medical Philosophy 13: 123-143.
Descriptors: ethics, animal experimentation, standard, balance, utilitarianism.

Finsen, L. (1988). Institutional animal care and use committees: A new set of clothes for the emperor? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 13(2): 145-158.
Descriptors: animal welfare, ethics.

Flemming, A.H. (1987). Animal suffering: How it matters. Laboratory Animal Science 37(special issue): 140-144.
NAL call number: 410.9 P94
Descriptors: animal welfare, pain, animal experiments, ACUC.

Fraser, D. (1996). Animal ethics and animal welfare science: bridging the two solitudes. Proceedings of the 30th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology: 14-17 August, 1996, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, p. 3.
NAL call number: SF756.7.I57 1996
Descriptors: animal welfare, ethics.

Fraser, D., D.M. Weary, E.A. Pajor, and B.N. Milligan (1997). A scientific conception of animal welfare that reflects ethical concerns. Animal Welfare 6 (3): 187-205.
NAL call number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: animal welfare, quality of life, ethics, values.

Galvin, S. L. and H.A. Herzog (1992). The ethical judgment of animal research. Ethics and Behavior 2(4): 263-286.
Descriptors: animal welfare, decision making, ethics, research, gender differences.

Gendin, S. (1991). Reply to Stephenson on Biomedical Research. Between the Species Winter: 9-11.
NAL call number: HV4701 B4
Descriptors: animal rights, biomedical research, ethics, ACUC.

Goodall, J. (1995). Why is it unethical to use chimpanzees in the laboratory? Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA 23 (5): 615-620.
NAL call number: Z7994.L3A5
Abstract: Chimpanzees are more like humans than any other living beings, differing in the composition of their DNA by just over one per cent. There are striking similarities in the anatomy and wiring of the chimpanzee and human brains and central nervous systems. Thus, it should not be surprising to find that there are also striking similarities in the social behaviour, emotional needs and expressions, and cognitive abilities of chimpanzees and humans. These similarities have become increasingly apparent during the last 15 years. Chimpanzees in the wild develop close affectionate bonds between family members that may persist throughout their lifetime of 50 years or more, and examples of true altruism, when individuals protect or even save the lives of non-related companions. Chimpanzees use many objects as tools, and tool-using behaviours differ from place to place across their range. Indeed, there are a number of behaviours that vary between different groups - evidence of cultural traditions passed from one generation to the next through observational learning and imitation. Thus chimpanzees have a very special relationship with humans. A healthy adult chimpanzee is more similar to a healthy adult human in the expression of the intellect than a brain-damaged human, yet in many medical research facilities, chimpanzees are maintained in bleak, bare cages measuring only 5' X 5' X 7'. They may remain in these prisons for life. We do not treat hardened human killers so badly in our society today - there would be a public outcry if we did. I feel strongly that the use of a being so like us, as a human guinea-pig, is not morally justified, and to that end the Jane Goodall Institute has been involved in three workshops with the, aim of clarifying the extent to which they are seen to be useful in diseases such as hepatitis and AIDS research. There is no consensus among scientists regarding their usefulness at the present time. If the proposed experiments of transplanting chimpanzee bone marrow tissue into AIDS patients go ahead in the Netherlands, it will be a sad blow for chimpanzee liberation. The attitude of those who believe that any use of non-human primates can be justified provided it results in some benefit, or expected benefit, to humankind, is of precisely the same mind set as that which once allowed us to exploit human beings of another race and use them as slaves. Once we admit that chimpanzees have minds and feelings, are capable of sadness, fear and despair, are able to feel pain, show altruism, and are capable of communicating with each other and with humans in a man-made language, we have to ask serious questions, initially of ourselves, as to whether we should continue to use them in medical research.
Descriptors: chimpanzees, laboratory animals, animal experiments, medical research, animal welfare, ethics.

Haynes, R.P. (1996). The muddled middle: the search for ethical principles to regulate the use of animals in research. Between Species 12(1-2): 19-33.
Descriptors: laboratory animals, ethics, principles, biomedical research.

Herzog, H. (1996). Ethical ambiguities and moral standing: practical lessons from animal care and use Committees. Lab Animal 25 (6): 29-32.
NAL call number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: animal experiments, animal welfare, ethics, regulations.

Jamieson, D. (1993). Ethics and animals: a brief review. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.1): 15-20.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: animal welfare, ethics, animal behavior, philosophy.

Jennings, M. and S. Silcock (1995). Benefits, necessity and justification in animal research. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA 23 (6): 828-836.
NAL call number: Z7994.L3A5
Abstract: The cost-benefit assessment in the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 is said to ensure that animals are only used in experiments which are justified and necessary. The way in which the Home Office Inspectorate derives the cost-benefit assessment is explained in the Report of the Animal Procedures Committee for 1993. However, evaluation of both costs and benefits is largely subjective, as are concepts such as "necessity" and "justification". These concepts mean different things to different people in different places and at different times, depending on the pressures to which they are subject. These include the socio-economic climate and the context in which the proposed research is to be earned out. Animal use cannot, therefore, be said to be necessary and/or beneficial unless serious questions are answered with respect to who or what the research is necessary for, who or what will benefit from it and who defines the criteria used in the justification process. Retrospective analysis of whether the proposed benefit was actually achieved and applied is also important. Discussion regarding the necessity, benefits and justification of individual research projects, and of overall research goals or directions, tends to be obscured by the polarised debate over the morality and scientific validity of animal experiments as a whole. This paper raises some of the issues that could be discussed in a wider view of the cost-benefit assessment, with reference to selected areas of animal use as examples. Descriptors: animal experiments, animal welfare, ethics, regulations.

Lehman, H. (1993). Are value judgements inherent in scientific assessment? Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.2): 60-67.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: values, ethics, methodology.

McCarthy, C.R. (1995). Ethical aspects of animal-to-human xenografts. ILAR Journal 37 (1): 3-8.
NAL call number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: xenografts, organs, genetic engineering, transplantation, recipients, animal welfare, bioethics.

McCarthy, C.R. (1995). How and why should IACUC's develop a code of ethics? In Current Issues and New Frontiers in Animal Research, K.A.L. Bayne, M. Greene, and E.D. Prentice, (eds.), Greenbelt, Maryland: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, pp. 31-33.
NAL call number: HV4913 C87 1995
Descriptors: arguments for and against IACUC's exercising leadership in developing a code.

Mepham, T.B. (1993). Approaches to the ethical evaluation of animal biotechnologies. Animal Production. 57 (pt.3): 353-359.
NAL call number: 49 An55
Descriptors: transgenic animals, animal welfare, biotechnology, bioethics.

Orlans, F. B. (1997). Ethical decision making about animal experiments. Ethics Behavior 7(2): 163-171.
Descriptors: laboratory animals, ethics, research, pain, distress.

Remfry, J. (1985). Ethical committees and animal experimentation. Veterinary Record 117(19): 508.
NAL call number: 41.8 V641
Descriptors: animal research, review, ethics, ACUC.

Rodenburg, F. (1997). The ethical use of animals in research, teaching, and testing. CALAS/ACSAL 31(4): 116-119.
NAL call number: SF405.5 C36
Descriptors: Canadian approach to ethical review, tools for ethical analysis, Dutch model, ethical scoring system, British model, biotechnology.

Rollin, B.E. (1993). Animal welfare, science, and value. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.2): 44-50.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: animal welfare, zoology, pain, stress, moral values, ethics.

Rollin, B.E. (1996). Bad ethics, good ethics and the genetic engineering of animals in agriculture. Journal of Animal Science 74(3): 535-541.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Abstract: Genetic engineers have been remiss in addressing ethical and social issues emerging from this powerful new technology, a technology whose implications for agriculture are profound. As a consequence of this failure, society has been uneasy about genetic engineering of animals and has had difficulty distinguishing between genuine and spurious ethical issues the technology occasions. Many of the most prominent concerns do not require a serious response. On the other hand, concerns about a variety of possible risks arising from genetic engineering of animals require careful consideration and dialogue with the public. Such concerns are an admixture of ethics and prudence. A purely ethical challenge, however, hitherto not addressed, is represented by problems of animal welfare that arise out of genetically engineering agricultural animals. A principle of "conservation of welfare" is suggested as a plausible moral rule to guide such genetic engineering.
Descriptors: animal welfare, genetic engineering, ethics, transgenic animals, risk, species differences, domestic animals.

Russow, L-M. (1999). Bioethics, animal research, and ethical theory. ILAR Journal 40(1): 15-21.
NAL call number: QL55 A1I43
Descriptors: ethical theory, moral reasoning, treatment of animals within traditional ethical theory, differential treatment of humans and animals, morally relevant differences, animal rights, animal welfare, animalwell-being.

Sideris, L., C. McCarthy, and D.H. Smith (1999). Roots of concern with nonhuman animals in biomedical ethics. ILAR Journal 40(1): 3-14.
NAL call number: QL55 A1I43
Descriptors: historical overview of animal protection, British origins, American origins, biomedical ethics, animal regulations, Silver Spring monkeys, University of Pennsylvania head trauma studies, 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act, harmonization of Federal policies, guidelines and regulations.

Simpson, J. (1984-85). Animal rights re-evaluated. Free Inquiry 5: 37-40.
Descriptors: ethics, treatment, economics.

Smith, J.A. and M. Jennings (1998). Ethics training for laboratory animal users. Laboratory Animals 32(2): 128-136.
NAL call number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: In the UK, all applicants for licences under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 must receive training in ethical aspects of laboratory animal use. There is, however, considerable uncertainty about the aims, suitable content and most appropriate means of delivery of such training. In this review a series of aims for licensee training in ethics are proposed, the key content is described and possible approaches to delivering such training are critically evaluated. Ethics training, it is argued, should: (i) be rooted in practice, focusing on the practical application of the Act to licensees' own work and encouraging them to take all possible steps to reduce or resolve any moral conflicts which the work entails; (ii) promote discussion, encouraging licensees to challenge their own views and critically appraise their work; and (iii) provide the necessary theoretical background to inform and stimulate such discussion. A variety of means of generating discussion and a range of practical considerations are explored.

Stephenson, W. (1991). Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees and the Moderate Position. Between the Species Winter: 6-8.
NAL call number: HV4701 B4
Descriptors: animal rights, biomedical research, ethics, justification, value.

Sumner, L.W. (1988). Animal welfare and animal rights. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 13:159-175.
Descriptors: ethics, animal experimentation.

Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (1972). The Rational Use of Living Systems in Bio-Medical Research. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare: Hertfordshire, UK.
NAL call number: QL55 R37
Descriptors: ethics, animal experimentation, utility, vaccine, transplantation, feeling, reason, consent.

Webster, A.J.F. (1993). Animal welfare: the five freedoms and the free market. BSAP occasional publication (17): 45-49. In The Series Analytic: Safety and Quality of Food from Animals, J.D. Wood and T.L.J. Lawrence (eds.), Proceedings of a symposium held June 1992 at Bristol.
NAL call number: SF5.B74
Descriptors: animal welfare, animal behavior, regulations.


Useful World Wide Web Sites


Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals
http://www.apa.org/science/anguide.html
Developed by the American Psychological Association's Committee on Animal Research and Ethics.

Center for Bioethics, University of Pennsylvania
http://www.med.upenn.edu/bioethics/center
A general site devoted to bioethics.

National Bioethics Advisory Commission
http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/
A government advisory body mainly concerned with research involving humans but has an interesting report on the science of animal cloning

National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature
http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nrc/
The National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature (NRCBL), is a specialized collection of books, journals, newspaper articles, legal materials, regulations, codes, government publications, and other relevant documents concerned with issues in biomedical and professional ethics.

University of Minnesota, Research Animal Resources
http://www.ahc.umn.edu/rar/ethics.html
A brief article on the ethics of animal research and the use of alternative methods.



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Last updated March 11, 2002