Information Resources for Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees 1985-1999 *************************

Farm Animals


Anderson, D. L. (1993). Handbook of Live Animal Transport.
NAL call number: HV4733.H36 1993
Descriptors: Animal welfare, animal handling and safety, veterinary procedures, animal health regulations, transporting animals by land, sea and air, exporting animals.

Bath, G.F. (1998). Management of pain in production animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59(1-3): 147-156.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: animal welfare, pain management, evaluation, animal production, animal behaviour, cattle, pigs, sheep.

Boer, I.J.M. de., F.W.A. Brom, and J.M.G. Vorstenbosch (1995). An ethical evaluation of animal biotechnology: the case of using clones in dairy cattle breeding. Animal Science: An International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research 61(pt.3): 453-463.
NAL call number: SF1.A56
Descriptors: dairy cattle, bioethics, moral values, biotechnology, cloning, animal welfare, genetic variation, artificial insemination, personal development.

Craig, J.V. and J.C. Swanson (1994). Review: welfare perspectives on hens kept for egg Production. Poultry Science 73 (7): 921-938.
NAL call number: 47.8 Am33P
Abstract: Welfare issues relative to egg-laying hens are addressed in terms of historical developments and current concerns. Ethical perspectives, attitudes, and public opinion of the past and present are reviewed. Indices of hens' well-being and what those reveal about alternative husbandry practices and production systems are presented along with estimates of economic consequences of alternative systems of table egg production. Possibilities of genetic selection to reduce welfare-related problems are discussed.
Descriptors: hens, animal welfare, battery husbandry, animal behavior, stress, public opinion, floor husbandry, stocking density, chicken housing, bone strength, production costs, selection responses, domestication, literature reviews.

Cunningham, D.L. and J.M. Mauldin (1996). Cage housing, beak trimming, and induced molting of layers: a review of welfare and production issues. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 5 (1): 63-69.
NAL call number: SF481.J68
Descriptors: hens, poultry housing, cage density, debeaking, molting, induction, egg production, animal welfare, factory farming.

Cunningham, D.L. (1992). Beak trimming effects on performance, behavior and welfare of chickens: A Review. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 1 (1): 129-134.
NAL call number: SF481.J68
Descriptors: chickens, debeaking, animal welfare, animal behavior, literature reviews.

Dantzer, R. (1993). Research perspectives in farm animal welfare: the concept of stress.
Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl. 2): 86-92.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: livestock, animal welfare, stress, stress factors, animal health, homeostasis, physiopathology.

DeTolla, L.J., S. Srinivas, B.R. Whitaker, C. Andrews, B. Hecker, A.S. Kane, and R. Reimschuessel (1995). Guidelines for the care and use of fish in research. ILAR Journal 37 (4): 159-173.
NAL call number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: fishes, laboratory animals, animal experiments, animal husbandry, animal welfare, medical research, anesthesia, anesthetics, euthanasia, zoonoses, guidelines, regulations.

Ewbank, R. (1993). Farm animal welfare: a historical overview. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.1): 82-86.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: livestock farming, animal welfare, ethics, history.

Gonyou, H.W. (1993). Animal welfare: definitions and assessment. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.2): 37-43.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: animal welfare, livestock farming, animal behavior, animal physiology, assessment, animal production.

Guttman, H. (1990). Agricultural Research Service, USDA, publishes new animal care directives. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 1(4):4, 6.
NAL call number: AHV4701.A952
Descriptors: USDA, directives, animal welfare, bioethics, ACUC.

Guttman, H.N. and D.W. Freeman (1996). Model finfish guidelines based upon use of finfish in research by the Agricultural Research Service/U. S. Department of Agriculture. SCAW Newsletter 18 (1): 9-11.
NAL call number: QL55.N48
Descriptors: fishes, fish culture, animal welfare, regulations, guidelines, USDA, research.

Hartog, L.A. den, H.M. Vermeer, J.W.G.M. Swinkels, N. Verdoes, and G.B.C. Backus (1996). Applied research on new pig housing systems. Outlook on Agriculture 25 (4): 257-261.
NAL call number: 10 Ou8
Abstract: Developments in pig housing during the last decade have been influenced not only by economics but also by animal welfare and environmental regulations. Because the different requirements may cause conflicts for some aspects of pig housing, an integrated approach is necessary. Housing systems which partly or fully meet today's animal welfare and environmental regulations in the Netherlands are described.
Descriptors: pig housing, design, animal welfare, environmental protection, applied research, piglets, finishing, lactating females, odor emission, ammonia.

Joiner, G. (1990). Agricultural animal care review. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 1(4): 3, 5.
NAL call number: aHV4701.A952
Descriptors: livestock, bioethics, animal welfare, ACUC.

Kertz, A.F. (1996). Animal care and use: an issue now and in the future. Journal of Animal Science 74 (1): 257-261.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Abstract: Animal rights proponents equate human and animal rights or capacity to suffer pain. Animal welfare is a philosophy that centers on animal well-being, a stewardship role that producers view as affecting profitability but the general public may view as having additional components. The agenda of some animal rights proponents may be positioned under the guise of animal welfare to gain acceptability for portions of their work. Currently, guidelines and accreditation programs targeted at ensuring proper animal care and use increasingly include agricultural animals. Also, public initiatives such as the Massachusetts ballot initiative to curtail animal agriculture and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine's attempts to curtail the use of milk and meat in human diets were defeated by educating the general public. Various organizations have been developed to address animal care and use issues. The Animal Industry Foundation is a broad-based agricultural organization addressing animal rights issues. National biomedical organizations, the Foundation of Biomedical Research and the National Association for Biomedical Research, address education and governmental animal rights issues. State-level coalitions. such as those recently organized in Missouri, of agricultural organizations, academic research units, biomedical institutions, and agribusiness or consumer products companies offer great promise of educating others on animals rights and welfare issues. Animal scientists need to educate themselves on these issues, participate in their own institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, and help to educate the general public through organizations and programs at, the local, state, and national level.
Descriptors: animal welfare, animal husbandry, public opinion, animal experiments, consumer education, public relations, meat and livestock industry, dairy industry.

Lund, V. (1997). Postgraduate teaching in farm animal welfare and ethics. Animal Welfare 6 (2): 105-121.
NAL call number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: graduate study, livestock, animal husbandry, animal welfare, ethics, surveys.

Mench, J.A., S.J. Mayer, and L. Krulisch (eds.) (1992). The well-being of agricultural animals in biomedical and agricultural research. Proceedings from a SCAW sponsored conference, "Agricultural Animals in Research," held September 6-7, 1990, in Washington D.C. Bethesda, Maryland: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 111p.
NAL call number: HV4704.W38 1990
Descriptors: regulatory perspectives, regulatory issues in experimental surgery in farm animals, stress, behavioral assessment of welfare, social and spacing behavior, handling and transport, minimum stress physical restraint of swine and sheep, cattle workshop-- dehorning, debudding, castration, anesthesia, veal calves, feeding, housing, farm animal husbandry practices, horse workshop-- psychological well-being, food and water requirements, ventilation, space, bedding, shade, poultry workshop-- environmental stressors, euthanasia, cervical dislocation, immunosuppression related to genetic selection for larger birds, leg problems, cardiovascular problems, ascites, lighting, housing, well-being, population density in commercial production, blood collection, infectious disease studies, sheep workshop-- predator control, feedlots, handling, lifetime management, space, housing, respiratory research, zoonotic diseases, feeding, surgical and postsurgical care, raised flooring, swine workshop-- housing, space requirements, farm vs. research setting, farrowing and weaning crates, manure handling, malignant hyperthermia, miniature swine, solitary confinement, transportation, environmental factors.

McGlone, J.J. and T.A. Hicks (1993). Teaching standard agricultural practices that are known to be painful. Journal of Animal Science 71 (4): 1071-1074.
NAL call number: 49 J82
Abstract: Animal science faculty teach, demonstrate, and ask students to perform procedures that are known to be painful. Potentially painful procedures include castration, branding, dehorning, ear notching, teeth clipping, beak trimming, comb and wattle removal, and tail docking. In each case, the degree of pain experienced by an animal is generally not known. Furthermore, the consequences of animals having to endure pain are also not fully understood. A survey was conducted of animal science faculty to identify current departmental policies and practices related to castration in beef and swine production classes. Departments vary in what they require of students. Departments should set a policy to address 1) which (and how) potentially painful procedures are taught and 2) how the faculty deal with students who refuse to participate in putatively painful procedures. The institutional animal care and use committee should approve potentially painful teaching procedures after instructor and department have concluded that teaching such procedures is essential to a complete educational experience.
Descriptors: animal welfare, teaching, pain, stress, castration, branding, dehorning, ear notching, teeth clipping, beak trimming, comb and wattle removal, tail docking.

McGlone, J.J. (1993). What is animal welfare? Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.2): 26-36.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: animal welfare, animal production, stress, animal behavior, animal physiology, pain, depression, immunological deficiency, animal health, animal husbandry.

Mench, J.A. (1993). Assessing animal welfare: an overview. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.2): 68-75.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: animal welfare, livestock, animal behavior, emotions, motivation, mental ability, animal physiology, assessment.

Moberg, G.P. (1993). Using risk assessment to define domestic animal welfare. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.2): 1-7.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: farm animals, animal welfare, animal husbandry, stress factors, risk, guidelines.

Moore, R.P. (1998). Perception and reality-welfare in farm animals. In Ethics, welfare, law and market forces: the veterinary interface. Proceedings of a Symposium, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, UK, 14-15th November 1996, A.R. Michell and R. Ewbank, (eds.), Wheathampstead, UK: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), p. 67-70.
NAL call number: HV4704.E84 1998
Descriptors: animal welfare, livestock.

Otto, K.A. and C.E. Short (1998). Pharmaceutical control of pain in large animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59(1-3): 157-169.
NAL call number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: pain management, analgesia, livestock, animal husbandry, livestock, animal welfare, drugs, review.

Rushen, J. and A.M.B. De Passille(1992). The scientific assessment of the impact of housing on animal welfare: a critical review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 72 (4): 721-743.
NAL call number: 41.8 C163
Descriptors: livestock, animal welfare, animal production, animal housing, animal husbandry, abnormal behavior, stress.

Sandoe, P., N. Holtug, H.B. Simonsen (1996). Ethical limits to domestication. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 9 (2): 114-122.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: livestock, domestication, animal welfare, genetic engineering, selective breeding, transgenics, genetic change, regulations, European Union.

Stricklin, W.R. and J.A. Mench (1994). Oversight of the use of agricultural animals in university teaching and research. ILAR News 36(1): 1-6.
NAL call number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: land grant universities, impact of agricultural research, monitoring agricultural animal care and use, commercial production practices, standards for evaluating animal research and teaching, administration of IACUCs, protocol review and facility inspection, agricultural animal technicians and standards of care.

Stricklin, W.R. and J.A. Mench (1993). An international conference on farm animal welfare: ethical, scientific and technological perspectives. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.1): 1-3.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: livestock, animal production, animal welfare, conferences.

Stricklin, W.R. (1989). The development of guidelines for the care and use of agricultural animals used in agricultural research and teaching. In Animal Care and Use in Behavioral Research: Regulations, Issues, and Applications J.W. Driscoll (ed.), Beltsville, Maryland: United States Department of Agriculture/National Agricultural Library, pp. 44-51.
NAL call number: aHV4762.A3A64
Descriptors: agricultural animal care and use program, institutional policies.

Swanson, J.C. (1998). Oversight of farm animals in research. Lab animal 27(3): 28-31.
NAL call number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: livestock, regulations, hazards, animal welfare.

Tauson, R. (1993). Research approaches for improving the physical welfare and environment of laying hens. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.2): 76-85.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: hens, intensive livestock farming, animal welfare, battery cages, design, animal health, animal husbandry, egg production, abnormal behavior, cannibalism, stocking density.

Tillman, P. (1994). Integrating agricultural and biomedical research policies: conflicts and opportunities. ILAR News 36 (2): 29-35.
NAL call number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: livestock, agricultural research, medical research, committees, guidelines, regulations, animal welfare.

Wiepkema, P.R., W.G.P. Schouten, and P. Koene (1993). Biological aspects of animal welfare: new perspectives. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6 (special suppl.2): 93-103.
NAL call number: BJ52.5.J68
Descriptors: livestock, animal welfare, stress, emotions, social interaction.

Useful World Wide Web Sites

Farm Animal Council of Saskatchewan
A comprehensive site that includes codes of practice for all farm animals.

National Institute for Animal Agriculture
The National Institute for Animal Agriculture (NIAA), successor to the Livestock Conservation Institute (LCI), began operation in January 2000 and is collectively addressing issues of interest to the industry, providing vital industry information, continuing education and communication outlets for animal agriculture professionals.

New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries
Codes of recommendations and minimum standards for all farm animals and farm-reared deer.

Species specific signs of pain in farm animals and other laboratory animals.

Coxiella burnetii, a rickettsial organism that is highly resistant to physical and chemical agents used in disinfection. It has been reported in most warm blooded animals including fowl. The most common source of infection in the United States is from sheep, although goats and cattle can carry the disease. This site is provided by the University of Arizona.

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Last updated July 26, 2001