Marin, M.C.; Rodriguez, J.R.; Ferrus, A. (2004) Transcription of Drosophila Troponin I gene is regulated by two conserved, functionally identical, synergistic elements. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 15(3): 1185-1196. ISSN: 1059-1524.

            NAL call number: QH604.C452

Descriptors: molecular genetics, biochemistry, molecular biophysics, muscular system, Diptera, Anopheles, Drosophila pseudoobscura, chromosome, sarcomere, suppressor of Zeste 3 gene products, Troponin I, intron regulatory element, myocyte enhancer factor 2, upstream regulatory element, transcription initiation site, Drosophila wings-up A gene, LacZ gene, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, genetic and laboratory techniques, transgenesis, biochemistry studies, physiology, comparative study.


Scamborova, P.; Wong, A.; Steitz, J.A. (2004) An intronic enhancer regulates splicing of the twintron of Drosophila melanogaster prospero pre-mRNA by two different spliceosomes. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 24(5): 1855-1869. ISSN: 0270-7306.

            NAL call number: QH506.M664

Descriptors: development, molecular genetics, biochemistry and molecular biophysics, Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster, U12-type spliceosome, pros-L, S messenger RNA,-generation, alternative splicing, intronic enhancer, prospero twintron, systematic deletion/mutation analysis, genetic and laboratory techniques, embryogenesis, twintron splicing, comparative study, experimental morphology, physiology and pathology.


Senger, K.; Armstrong, G.W; Rowell, W.J.; Kwan, J.M.; Markstein, M.; Levine, M. (2004) Immunity regulatory DNAs share common organizational features in Drosophila. Molecular Cell. 13(1): 19-32. ISSN: 1097-2765.

Descriptors: immune system, chemical coordination and homeostasis, infection, molecular genetics, biochemistry and molecular biophysics, Diptera, Drosophila, fat body, Dif--REL-containing protein, transcription factor, Dorsal--REL-containing protein, GATA synergy, eukaryotic enhancer, consensus binding site, immunity regulatory DNA, transcription start site, SELEX assay, laboratory techniques, comparative study, experimental morphology, physiology and pathology.


Tamura, K.; Subramanian, S.; Kumar, S. (2004) Temporal patterns of fruit fly (Drosophila) evolution revealed by mutation clocks. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21(1): 36-44. ISSN: 0737-4038.

            NAL call number: QH506.M642

Descriptors: evolution and adaptation, molecular genetics, biochemistry and molecular biophysics, paleobiology, terrestrial ecology, Diptera, Drosophila erecta, Drosophila melanogaster, fruit fly, model organism, Drosophila montium, Drosophila orena, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila takahashii, Drosophila teisseri, Drosophila yakuba, nuclear genome sequence, sequence comparison, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, mathematical and computer techniques, biogeographic data, fossil records, gene sequence data, genomic mutation distances, habitat fragmentation, molecular clock, mutation clock, paleoclimate changes, speciation events, temporal evolution patterns, environmental biology.


Zhong, Y.; Wu, C.F. (2004) Neuronal Activity and Adenylyl Cyclase in Environment-Dependent Plasticity of Axonal Outgrowth in Drosophila. Journal of Neuroscience. 24(6): 1439-1445. ISSN: 0270-6474.

Descriptors: adenylate cyclase, cyclic AMP, phosphodiesterase, cell adhesion molecule, nerve cell plasticity, nerve fiber growth, nervous system development, Drosophila, environmental factor, temperature sensitivity, larva, neuromuscular synapse, potassium channel, temperature sensitive mutant, enzyme activity, protein expression, rearing, ion channel, gene, neurology, developmental biology and teratology.



Houle, D.; Rowe, L. (2003) Natural selection in a bottle. American Naturalist. 161(1): 50-67. ISSN: 0003-0147.

            NAL call number: 470 AM36

Descriptors: natural selection, laboratory evolution, constraint, life history, development time, age at maturity, norm of reaction, guppies, Poecilia reticulate, plant physiological traits, Drosophila melanogaster, body size, environment interactions, directional selection, genetic polymorphism, correlated responses, differing selection.



Drier, E.A.; Tello, M.K.; Cowan, M.; Wu, P.; Blace, N.; Sacktor, T.C.; Yin, J.C. (2002) Memory enhancement and formation by atypical PKM activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature Neuroscience. 5(4): 316-324. ISSN: 1097-6256.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, protein kinase C, long term potentiation, Caenorhabditis elegans, persistent activation, consolidated memory, cell polarity, M Zeta, maintenance, bazooka, facilitation.


Florin, A.B.; Odeen, A. (2002) Laboratory environments are not conducive for allopatric speciation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 15(1): 10-19. ISSN: 1010-061X.

            NAL call number: QH359 J68

Descriptors: allopatric speciation, bottlenecks, divergent selection, effective population size, meta analysis, peripatric speciation, reproductive isolation, speciation experiments, vicariance speciation, founder flush speciation, Drosophila pseudoobscura, reproductive isolation, genetic revolutions, evolution, selection, populations, direction.


Geiger-Thornsberry, G.L.; Mackay, T.F. (2002) Association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the Delta locus with genotype by environment interaction for sensory bristle number in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetical Research. 79(3): 211-218. ISSN: 0016-6723.

            NAL call number: 443.8 G283

Descriptors: stabilizing selection, quantitative variation, mutations, fitness, maintenance, populations, sensory bristles..


Matos, M.; Avelar, T.; Rose, M.R. (2002) Variation in the rate of convergent evolution: adaptation to a laboratory environment in Drosophila subobscura. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 15(4): 673-682. ISSN: 1010-061X..

            NAL call number: QH359 J68

Descriptors: ecology, evolutionary biology, genetics and heredity, adaptation, convergence, Drosophila subobscura, evolutionary trajectory, novel environment, lif history, genetic divergence, uniform selection, stress resistance, populations, senescence, components, responses, culture.


Norry, F.M.; Loeschcke, V. (2002) Temperature-induced shifts in associations of longevity with body size in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution. 56(2): 299-306. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: body size, cold-stress tolerance, developmental time, Drosophila melanogaster, longevity, trade-offs, trait associations, life-history traits, environment, interaction, natural selection, experimental populations, phenotypic plasticity, laboratory evolution, correlated responses, artificial selection, quantitative trait, male fruitflies.


Sheeba, V.; Chandrashekaran, M.K.; Joshi, A.; Sharma, V.K. (2002) Locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster after 600 generations in an aperiodic environment. Naturwissenschaften. 89(11): 512-514. ISSN: 0028-1042.

            NAL call number: 474 N213

Descriptors: laboratory populations, persistence, senescence, evolution, Drosophila melanogaster.



Ackermann, M.; Bijlsma, R.; James, A.C.; Partridge, L.; Zwaan, B.J.; Stearns, S.C. (2001) Effects of assay conditions in life history experiments with Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 14(2): 199-209. ISSN: 1010-061X.

            NAL call number: QH359 J68

Descriptors: biology, miscellaneous ecology, genetics and heredity, assay environment, Drosophila, genotype environment interaction, life history, selection experiments, correlated responses, artificial selection, laboratory evolution, natural selection, phenotypic plasticity, postponed senescence, genetic correlations, larval development, body weight, trade offs.


da Silva, L.B.; Valente, V.L. (2001) Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are uncorrelated under laboratory conditions. Journal of Genetics. 80(2): 77-81. ISSN: 0022-1333.

            NAL call number: 442.8 J823

Descriptors: behavior, genetics, morphology, Diptera, Drosophila willistoni, female, male, wing length analysis, F1 progeny analysis, body size analysis, copulations, environmental effects, mating activity/success analysis, cytogenetics, behavioral biology, comparative behavior, anatomy and histology, comparative and experimental morphology, physiology and pathology.


Hoffmann, A.A.; Hallas, R.; Sinclair, C.; Partridge, L. (2001) Rapid loss of stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster under adaptation to laboratory culture. Evolution. 55(2): 436-438. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: biology, ecology, genetics, heredity, Drosophila melanogaster, laboratory adaptation, stress resistance, life history, desiccation resistance, starvation resistance, selection, populations, evolution, tolerance, environments, components, longevity.


Linnen, C.; Tatar, M.; Promislow, D. (2001) Cultural artifacts: A comparison of senescence in natural, laboratory-adapted and artificially selected lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Evolutionary Ecology Research. 3(8): 877-888. ISSN: 1522-0613.

            NAL call number: QH540.E96

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, rearing techniques, laboratory culture, artificial selection, longevity selection experiments, age, senescence, effects of laboratory culture, wild vs. laboratory population comparisons, virgin males, evolutionary adaptation, laboratory environment adaptation, ageing rate, techniques, care in captivity, genetic techniques, biometrics, life cycle, development, land and freshwater zones.


Pierce, V.A.; Elghandour, R.S.; Jarrouge, E.G.; Marcin-Kiewicz, A. (2001) Using laboratory populations of D. melanogaster to study adaptation of metabolic pathways. American Zoologist. 41(6): 1555. ISSN: 0003-1569. Note: Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Anaheim, California.

            NAL call number: 410 AM3

Descriptors: climatology, environmental biology, evolution and adaptation, metabolism, Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster, fruitfly, glycolytic enzymes, phosphoglucoisomerase, phosphoglycerokinase, phosphoglyceromutase, adaptation, metabolism, temperature acclimation.


Sheeba, V.; Chandrashekaran, M.K.; Joshi, A.; Sharma, V.K. (2001) Persistence of oviposition rhythm in individuals of Drosophila melanogaster reared in an aperiodic environment for several hundred generations. Journal of Experimental Zoology. 290(5): 541-549. ISSN: 0022-104X.

            NAL call number: 410 J825

Abstract: The oviposition rhythm of individual flies of Drosophila melanogaster from a population maintained in an aperiodic environment (with light, temperature, humidity, and other factors which could provide time cues, kept constant) for several hundred generations was assayed in constant light (LL), in light/dark (LD 12:12 hr) cycle, and in constant darkness (DD). More than 50% of the flies assayed exhibited rhythmicity in oviposition in all three light regimes. The results indicate that the phenomenon of egg laying is rhythmic in individual D. melanogaster females and is controlled by an endogenous time keeping mechanism. The persistence of the oviposition rhythm in a large proportion of individuals in the population after several hundred generations of rearing in a constant environment strengthens the view that possessing biological clocks may confer some intrinsic fitness advantage even to organisms living in aperiodic environments.

Descriptors: oviposition physiology, periodicity, biological clocks, Drosophila melanogaster, light, circadian clock, locomotor activity, light, entrainment, mechanism, timeless, zoology.



Bokor, K.; Pecsenye, K. (2000) Differences in the effect of ethanol on fertility and viability components among laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Hereditas. 132(3): 215-227. ISSN: 0018-0661.

            NAL call number: QH426 I13

Descriptors: alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism, dietary ethanol, ADH locus, environmental alcohol, tolerance, temperature, metabolism; frequencies; population; selection.


De Jong, G.; Gavrilets, S. (2000) Maintenance of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity: the role of environmental variation. Genetical Research. 76(3): 295-304. ISSN: 0016-6723.

            NAL call number: 443.8 G283

Descriptors: heredity, spatially heterogeneous environment, reaction norms, Drosophila melanogaster, quantitative genetics, morphological traits, polygenic variation, size characters, selection, evolution, populations.


Harshman, L.G.; Hoffmann, A.A. (2000) Laboratory selection experiments using Drosophila: what do they really tell us? Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 15(1): 32-36. ISSN: 0169-5347.

            NAL call number: QH540 T74

Descriptors: long term selection, life history, postponed senescence, stress resistance, knockdown resistance, environmental stress, genetic divergence, uniform selection, replicate lines, Drosophila melanogaster.


Iriarte, P.F.; Hasson, E. (2000) The role of the use of different host plants in the maintenance of the inversion polymorphism in the cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii. Evolution. 54(4): 1295-1302. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: antagonistic pleiotropy, cactus hosts, Drosophila buzzatii, inversion polymorphism, life history traits, genotype environment interaction, evolutionary history, natural population, body size, chromosomal polymorphism, colonizing populations, quantitative genetics, heterogeneous environments, antagonistic pleiotropy, larval performance.


Matos, M.; Rose, M.R.; Pite, M.T.; Rego, C.; Avelar, T. (2000) Adaptation to the laboratory environment in Drosophila subobscura. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 13(1): 9-19. ISSN: 1010-061X.

            NAL call number: QH359 J68

Descriptors: adaptation, additive genetic correlation, additive genetic variance, Drosophila subobscura, novel environment, history trade off, quantitative genetics, antagonistic pleiotropy, fitness components, natural selection, Escherichia coli, fly, Diptera, evolution, populations.


Nghiem, D.; Gibbs, A.G.; Rose, M.R.; Bradley, T.J. (2000) Postponed aging and desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Experimental Gerontology. 35(8): 957-969. ISSN: 0531-5565.

            NAL call number: QP86 E85

Descriptors: Drosophila, biomarker, stress resistance, desiccation, water loss, laboratory selection, environmental stress, respiratory pattern, cuticular lipids, senescence, responses, evolution.


Pascual, M.; Sagarra, E.; Serra, L. (2000) Interspecific competition in the laboratory between Drosophila subobscura and D. azteca. American Midland Naturalist. 144(1): 19-27. ISSN: 0003-0031.

            NAL call number: 410 M58

Descriptors: ecology, Diptera, Drosophila azteca, Drosophila subobscura, interspecific competition, laboratory conditions, comparative and experimental morphology, physiology and pathology, environmental biology.


Prasad, N.G.; Shakarad, M.; Gohil, V.M.; Sheeba, V.; Rajamani, M.; Joshi, A. (2000) Evolution of reduced pre-adult viability and larval growth rate in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster selected for shorter development time. Genetical Research. 76(3): 249-259. ISSN: 0016-6723.

            NAL call number: 443.8 G283

Descriptors: genetics, heredity, dependent natural selection, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Diptera, life history traits, postponed senescence, artificial selection, correlated responses, mating success, body size, trade off, environment.


Teotonio, H.; Rose, M.R. (2000) Variation in the reversibility of evolution. Nature. 408(6811): 463-466. ISSN: 0028-0836.

            NAL call number: 472 N21

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, postponed senescence, laboratory evolution, peppered moth, history, environment, resistance, selection.


Vieira, C.; Pasyukova, E.G.; Zeng, Z.B.; Hackett, J.B.; Lyman, R.F.; Mackay, T.F. (2000) Genotype-environment interaction for quantitative trait loci affecting life span in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 154(1): 213-227. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Descriptors: age specific patterns, bristle number, Caenorhabditis elegans, postponed senescence, laboratory evolution, phenotypic variation, stress resistance, genetic variance, family member, selection.


Wang, J.L. (2000) Effects of population structures and selection strategies on the purging of inbreeding depression due to deleterious mutations. Genetical Research. 76(1): 75-86. ISSN: 0016-6723.

            NAL call number: 443.8 G283

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, subdivided populations, artificial selection, captive populations, effective size, fitness, environment, simulation.



Docquier, F.; Randsholt, N.B.; Deutsch, J.; Santamaria, P. (1999) The 35UZ transposon of Drosophila melanogaster reveals differences in maintenance of transcriptional control between embryonic and larval stages. International Journal of Developmental Biology. 43(3): 275-278. ISSN: 0214-6282. 

Descriptors: silencing maintenance, developmental enhancers, PREs, polycomb group genes, Ubx, bithorax complex, polycomb, gene, ultrabithorax, expression, element, region, accessibility, repression, enhancers.


Frankham, R. (1999) Resolving conceptual issues in conservation genetics: The roles of laboratory species and meta-analyses. Hereditas. 130(3): 195-201. ISSN: 0018-0661.

            NAL call number: 442.8 H42

Descriptors: environmental protection, genetics, species, natural population, experimental laboratory species, computer simulation, theory, research, wildlife, Drosophila, meta analysis, nonhuman, review, public health, social medical and epidemiology, clinical and experimental biochemistry.


Hoffmann, A.A.; Harshman, L.G. (1999) Desiccation and starvation resistance in Drosophila: patterns of variation at the species, population and intrapopulation levels. Heredity. 83(6): 637-643. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Descriptors: environmental stress, laboratory selection, life history, trade offs, opposite latitudinal clines, stress resistance, postponed senescence, physiological mechanisms, correlated responses, environmental stress, natural populations, life span, tolerance.


Orengo, D.J.; A. Prevosti (1999) Wing-size heritability in a natural population of Drosophila subobscura. Heredity. 82(1): 100-106. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Abstract: Heritability of wing size was determined in a natural population of Drosophila subobscura for two consecutive year samples. In the 1988 sample, heritability in the laboratory environment was around 15%, whereas the lower bound in nature was around 0.1%. On the other hand, in the 1989 sample, heritability in the laboratory was around 90% and in nature around 15%. Differences between the two years could be caused by the more variable climate in which the males used as fathers of the 1988 sample developed. This indicates the importance of determining the environment in which parents developed in nature before discussing the heritability values obtained.

Descriptors: Drosophila subobscura, wing size, length, width, heritability, populations, comparisons, laboratories, variance, environmental temperature, Spain.


Shaw, F.H.; Promislow, D.E.; Tatar, M.; Hughes, K.A.; Geyer, C.J. (1999) Toward reconciling inferences concerning genetic variation in senescence in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 152(2): 553-566. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, age specific mortality, carlo maximum likelihood, life history, environment interaction, laboratory evolution, selection, variance, models, rates, components.


Shirley, M.D.; Sibly, R.M. (1999) Genetic basis of a between-environment trade-off involving resistance to cadmium in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution. 53(3): 826-836. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: antagonistic pleiotropy, cadmium resistance, Drosophila melanogaster, fitness costs, life histories, metallothionein, trade-offs, metallothionein genes, life-history, terrestrial invertebrates, insecticide resistance, laboratory evolution, Mimulus guttatus, metal tolerance, esterase gene, heat-shock, expression.




Bryant, E.H.; Meffert, L.M. (1998) Quantitative genetic estimates of morphometric variation in wild-caught and laboratory-reared houseflies. Evolution. 52(2): 626-630. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: heritability, maternal effects, morphometrics, environmental sex determination, Drosophila melanogaster, heritability, variability, populations, traits, differentiation, bottleneck, characters, selection.


Chippindale, A.K.; Gibbs, A.G.; Sheik, M.; Yee, K.J.; Djawdan, M.; Bradley, T.J.; Rose, M.R. (1998) Resource acquisition and the evolution of stress resistance in Drosophila Melanogaster. Evolution. 52(5): 1342-1352. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: developmental time, Drosophila melanogaster, growth rate, life-history evolution, physiology, starvation, stress resistance, trade-offs, desiccation resistance, postponed senescence, correlated responses, trade-off, starvation resistance, environmental stress, laboratory evolution, selection, tolerance, longevity.


Clark, A.G.; C.D. Fucito (1998) Stress tolerance and metabolic response to stress in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity. 81(5): 514-527. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Abstract: A potentially important physiological response to stress may be alteration in the gross regulation of energy metabolism. Different genotypes may respond differently to environmental stress, and the variation in these norms of reaction may be of key importance to the maintenance of genetic variation in metabolic traits. In the study reported here, a set of genetically defined lines of Drosophila melanogaster were exposed to four stresses (acetic acid, ethanol, starvation and thermal stress) in order to assess the magnitude of environmental effects and genotype x environment interactions. In addition to scoring metabolic traits, distributions of survival times under each stress were also quantified. Although both metabolic traits and survival times exhibited strong differences among genotypes, the correlations between enzyme traits and survival were generally weak. Many of the genetic correlations exhibit significant heterogeneity across environments. The results suggest that transient environmental stress may play an important role in the evolution of this highly intercorrelated set of metabolic traits.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, stressors, acetic acid, ethanol, heat stress, starvation, line differences, tolerance, genotype environment interaction, metabolism, genotypes, genetic correlation, survival, enzyme activity, epistasis.


Fry, J.D.; S.V. Nuzhdin; E.G. Pasyukova; T.F. Mackay (1998) QTL mapping of genotype-environment interaction for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetical Research. 71(2): 133-141. ISSN: 0016-6723.

            NAL call number: 443.8 G283

Abstract: A fundamental assumption of models for the maintenance of genetic variation by environmental heterogeneity is that selection favours alternative alleles in different environments. It is not clear, however, whether such antagonistic pleiotropy is common. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) causing variation for reproductive performance in each of three environmental treatments among a set of 98 recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from a cross between two D. melanogaster laboratory strains. The three treatments were standard medium at 25 degrees C, ethanol-supplemented medium at 25 degrees C, and standard medium at 18 degrees C. The RI lines showed highly significant genotype-environment interaction for the fitness measure. Of six QTLs with significant effects on fitness in at least one of the environments, five had significantly different effects at the different temperatures. In each case, the QTL by temperature interaction arose because the QTL had stronger effects at one temperature than at the other. No evidence for QTLs with opposite fitness effects in different environments was found. These results, together with those of recent studies of crop plants, suggest that antagonistic pleiotropy is a relatively uncommon form of genotype-environment interaction for fitness, but additional studies of natural populations are needed to confirm this conclusion.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, inbred lines, genotype environment interaction, quantitative traits, loci, genetic mapping, genetic variation, pleiotropy, reproductive performance, ethanol, temperature, environmental factors.


Gause, M.; Hovhannisyan, H.; Kan, T.; Kuhfittig, S.; Mogila, V.; Georgiev, P. (1998) Hobo- induced rearrangements in the yellow locus influence the insulation effect of the gypsy su(Hw)-binding region in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 149(3): 1393-1405. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Abstract: The su(Hw) protein is responsible for the insulation mediated by the su(Hw)-binding region present in the gypsy retrotransposon. In the y2 mutant, su(Hw) protein partially inhibits yellow transcription by repressing the function of transcriptional enhancers located distally from the yellow promoter with respect to gypsy. y2 mutation derivatives have been induced by the insertion of two Hobo copies on the both sides of gypsy: into the yellow intron and into the 5' regulatory region upstream of the wing and body enhancers. The Hobo elements have the same structure and orientation, opposite to the direction of yellow transcription. In the sequence context, where two copies of Hobo are separated by the su(Hw)-binding region, Hobo-dependent rearrangements are frequently associated with duplications of the region between the Hobo elements. Duplication of the su(Hw)-binding region strongly inhibits the insulation of the yellow promoter separated from the body and wing enhancers by gypsy. These results provide a better insight into mechanisms by which the su(Hw)-binding region affects the enhancer function.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, hairy wing protein, enhancer promoter, interactions, zinc finger protein, gypsy retrotransposon, regulatory elements, hybrid dysgenesis, induced mutations, cut locus, gene, suppressor, DNA binding proteins, metabolism, gene rearrangement, genes insect, nuclear proteins, repressor proteins, retroelements, transposase, binding sites, chromosome mapping, crosses, genetic enhancer elements, gene library, phenotype, restriction mapping.


Imasheva, A.G.; V. Loeschcke; L.A. Zhivotovsky; O.E. Lazebny. (1998) Stress temperature and quantitative variation in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity. 81(3): 246-253. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Abstract: Using an isofemale line analysis, we analysed the consequences of extreme rearing temperatures for genetic variation in quantitative characters in Drosophila melanogaster. Three types of characters were used: life history (viability and developmental time), body size (thorax length and wing length) and meristic (number of sternopleural chaetae and number of arista branches). Phenotypic variation significantly increased under stress conditions in all morphological characters studied; for viability, it increased at the low stress temperature. Genetic variation, measured by the coefficient of intraclass correlation, was generally higher at both low and high stress temperatures for thorax length and sternopleural chaeta number. For wing length and viability, genetic variation was higher at the low extreme temperature. No consistent trend was found for genetic variation in arista branch number and developmental time. Our results agree with the hypothesis that genetic variation is increased in stressful environments. A possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon is briefly discussed.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, air temperature, environmental temperature, genetic variation, phenotypic variation, quantitative traits, viability, biological development, time, thorax, wings, length, body parts, genotype environment interaction.


Kraft, R.; Levine, R.B.; Restifo, L.L. (1998) The steroid hormone 50-hydroxyecdysone enhances neurite growth of Drosophila mushroom body neurons isolated during metamorphosis. Journal of Neuroscience. 18(21): 8886-8899. ISSN: 0270-6474.

Descriptors: central nervous system, serotonin containing neurons, dendritic spine density, programmed cell death, moth Manduca sexta, hippocampal neurons, horseradish peroxidase, identified motoneurons, insect metamorphosis, dissociated neurons, Drosophila neurons.


Liimatainen, J.O.; Hoikkala, A. (1998) Interactions of the males and females of three sympatric Drosophila virilis-group species, D. montana, D. littoralis, and D. lummei, (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in intra- and interspecific courtships in the wild and in the laboratory. Journal of Insect Behavior. 11(3): 399-417. ISSN: 0892-7553.


            NAL call number: QL496.J68

Descriptors: Drosophila courtship behavior, interspecies interaction, species differences, species recognition, insect environments, intraspecific vs. interspecific courtships interactions and species recognition in lab vs wild environment, D. montana vs D. littoralis vs D. lummei, social and instinctive behavior.


Mackay, T.F.; Lyman, R.F. (1998) Polygenic mutation in Drosophila melanogaster: genotype x environment interaction for spontaneous mutations affecting bristle number. Genetica. 103(SI): 199-215. ISSN: 0016-6707.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G282

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, bristle number, genotype environment, interaction, mutation selection balance, polygenic mutation, quantitative trait loci, P-element, insertions, stabilizing selection, genetic interactions, abdominal bristle, inbred strains, fitness, maintenance, divergence.


Mercer, J.D. (1998) Behavioral measures of heat and lead stress in laboratory-reared Drosophila melanogaster. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 58 (7-B): 3431. ISSN: 0419-4217. Note: University Microfilms International.

            NAL call number: Z5055 U49D53

Descriptors: breeding, courtship behavior, environmental stress, heat effects, lead (metal), heat and lead stress, courtship success and fecundity, laboratory-reared male and female Drosophila melanogaster, general psychology.


Wayne, M.L.; Mackay, T.F. (1998) Quantitative genetics of ovariole number in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Mutational variation and genotype-environment interaction. Genetics. 148(1): 201-210. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Descriptors: P-element insertions, polygenic mutation, mating success, selection balance, bristle number, reaction norms, male, size, traits, maintenance, viability.



Djawdan, M.; Rose, M.R.; Bradley, T.J. (1997) Does selection for stress resistance lower metabolic rate? Ecology. 78(3): 828-837. ISSN: 0012-9658.

            NAL call number: 410 EC7

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, metabolic rate, physiological response, stress resistance, postponed senescence, environmental stress, laboratory evolution, energy metabolism, desiccation, temperature, population, energetics.


Fernandez, J.; Lopez-Fanjul, C. (1997) Spontaneous mutational genotype-environment interaction for fitness-related traits in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution. 51(3): 856-864. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, life history traits, quantitative traits, natural populations, artificial selection, genetic variability, viability, maintenance, evolution.


Gibbs, A.G.; Chippindale, A.K.; Rose, M.R. (1997) Physiological mechanisms of evolved desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Experimental Biology. 200(12): 1821-1832. ISSN: 0022-0949.

            NAL call number: 442.8 B77

Descriptors: desiccation, fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, water balance, evolution, cuticular lipid, laboratory selection, postponed senescence, environmental stress, selection, spectroscopy, permeability, temperature, adaptation, tolerance, history.


Gilchrist, G.W.; Huey, R.B.; Partridge, L. (1997) Thermal sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster: Evolutionary responses of adults and eggs to laboratory natural selection at different temperatures. Physiological Zoology. 70(4): 403-414. ISSN: 0031-935X.

            NAL call number: 410 P56

Descriptors: heat shock proteins, life history traits, experimental populations, Escherichia coli, artificial selection, postponed senescence, environmental stress, shape variation, adaptation, resistance, Drosophila melanogaster.


Hoikkala, A.; Isoherranen, E. (1997) Variation and repeatability of courtship song characters among wild-caught and laboratory-reared Drosophila montana and D. littoralis males (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Journal of Insect Behavior. 10(2): 193-202. ISSN: 0892-7553. http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/0892-7553

            NAL call number: QL496.J68

Descriptors: courtship behavior, mate selection, strain differences, vocalizations, environments, variations and repeatability of different song characters, strains of wild caught vs lab reared Drosophila montana and D. littoralis, male flies, social and instinctive behavior.


Joshi, A. (1997) Laboratory studies of density-dependent selection: Adaptations to crowding in Drosophila melanogaster. Current Science. 72(8): 555-562. ISSN: 0011-3891.

            NAL call number: 475 Sci23

Descriptors: ecology, nutrition, physiology, Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster, crowding, density-dependent selection, food acquisition, life history, population studies, environmental biology, nutritional status and methods, comparative and experimental morphology, physiology and pathology.


Min, K.T.; S. Benzer (1997) Wolbachia, normally a symbiont of Drosophila, can be virulent, causing degeneration and early death. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94(20): 10792-10796. ISSN: 0027-8424.

            NAL call number: 500 N21P

Abstract: Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted microorganism of the Rickettsial family, is known to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, or feminization in various insect species. The bacterium-host relationship is usually symbiotic: incompatibility between infected males and uninfected females can enhance reproductive isolation and evolution, whereas the other mechanisms enhance progeny production. We have discovered a variant Wolbachia carried by Drosophila melanogaster in which this cozy relationship is abrogated. Although quiescent during the fly's development, it begins massive proliferation in the adult, causing widespread degeneration of tissues, including brain, retina, and muscle, culminating in early death. Tetracycline treatment of carrier flies eliminates both the bacteria and the degeneration, restoring normal life-span. The 16s rDNA sequence is over 98% identical to Wolbachia known from other insects. Examination of laboratory strains of D. melanogaster commonly used in genetic experiments reveals that a large proportion actually carry Wolbachia in a nonvirulent form, which might affect their longevity and behavior.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia rickettsia, symbionts, strains, virulence, lifespan, degeneration, pathogenesis, cytopathogenicity, ribosomal DNA, nucleotide sequences.


Pirrotta, V. (1997) Chromatin-silencing mechanisms in Drosophila maintain patterns of gene expression. Trends in Genetics. 13(8): 314-318. ISSN: 0168-9525.

            NAL call number: QH426.T74

Descriptors: polycomb group genes, binding sites, UBX gene, regulatory sequences, bithorax complex, protein, trithorax, enhancer, domains.


Santos, M.; Borash, D.J.; Joshi, A.; Bounlutay, N.; Mueller, L.D. (1997) Density-dependent natural selection in Drosophila: Evolution of growth rate and body size. Evolution. 51(2): 420-432. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: body size, critical size, density dependent selection, development time, Drosophila melanogaster, efficiency, feeding rate, growth rate, trade offs, gene-environment interaction, life history traits, correlated responses, k-selection, overcrowded cultures, postponed senescence, artificial selection, competitive ability, larval competition, thorax length.



Arking, R.; Force, A.G.; Dudas, S.P.; Buck, S.; Baker, G.T. (1996) Factors contributing to the plasticity of the extended longevity phenotypes of Drosophila. Experimental Gerontology. 31(6): 623-643. ISSN: 0531-5565.

            NAL call number: QP86 E85

Descriptors: longevity, life span, Drosophila, genetic control of aging, genetic plasticity, phenotypic plasticity, environment effects, long-lived strain, elongation factor ef-1-alpha, ZN superoxide dismutase, postponed senescence, oxidative stress, environment interaction, quantitative genetics, correlated responses, laboratory evolution, evolution of phenotypic life-history, trade-offs, senescence, size at maturity, age-specific, mortality, long term cost.


Fry, J.D.; Heinsohn, S.L.; Mackay, T.F. (1996) The contribution of new mutations to genotype-environment interaction for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution. 50(6): 2316-2327. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: antagonistic pleiotropy, environmental heterogeneity, mutation selection balance, phenotypic plasticity, quantitative genetics, larval performance, by environment, natural populations, polygenic mutation, insect herbivore, host plants, strains, maintenance, Drosophila gene, tissue-specific expression, P-element mutations affecting embryonic peripheral nervous-system development.


Hughes, K.; Sokolowski, M.B. (1996) Natural selection in the laboratory for a change in resistance by Drosophila melanogaster to the parasitoid wasp Asobara tabida. Journal of Insect Behavior. 9(3): 477-491. ISSN: 0892-7553.

            NAL call number: QL496.J68

Descriptors: behavior, ecology, parasitology, pathology, physiology, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Asobara tabida, Drosophila melanogaster, host defense, polymorphism, behavioral biology, environmental biology, comparative and experimental morphology, physiology and pathology.


Jenkinson, L.S.; Davies, A.J.; Wood, S.; Shorrocks, B.; Lawton, J.H. (1996) Not that simple: global warming and predictions of insect ranges and abundances - results from a model insect assemblage in replicated laboratory ecosystems. Aspects of Applied Biology. 45: 343-348. ISSN: 0265-1491.

            NAL call number: QH301 A76

Descriptors: global warming, temperature, insect pests, dispersal, geographical distribution, population dynamics, greenhouse effect, climatic change, ecology, environmental factors, biology, agricultural entomology, Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Diptera, pathogens and biogenic diseases of plants, meteorology and climate, behavior.


Marco, R.; A. Benguria; J. Sanchez; E. de Juan (1996) Effects of the space environment on Drosophila melanogaster development. Implications of the IML-2 experiment. Journal of Biotechnology. 47(2/3): 179-189. ISSN: 0168-1656.

            NAL call number: QH442.J69

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, embryonic development, oogenesis, space flight, weightlessness, laboratories, biological development, centrifuges.


Weigensberg, I.; Roff, D.A. (1996) Natural heritabilities - Can they be reliably estimated in the laboratory? Evolution. 50(6): 2149-2157. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: additive genetic variance, narrow sense heritability, natural heritability, quantitative genetics, environmental sex determination, flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, cross fostered broods, tit Parus major, body size, egg size, external morphology, Drosophila buzzatii, tarsus length.



Blows, M.W.; M.B. Sokolowski (1995) The expression of additive and nonadditive genetic variation under stress. Genetics. 140(3): 1149-1159. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Abstract: Experimental lines of Drosophila melanogaster derived from a natural population, which had been isolated in the laboratory for approximately 70 generations, were crossed to determine if the expression of additive, dominance and epistatic genetic variation in development time and viability was associated with the environment. No association was found between the level of additive genetic effects and environmental value for either trait, but nonadditive genetic effects increased at both extremes of the environmental range for development time. The expression of high levels of dominance and epistatic genetic variation at environmental extremes may be a general expectation for some traits. The disruption of the epistatic gene complexes in the parental lines resulted in hybrid breakdown toward faster development and there was some indication of hybrid breakdown toward higher viability. A combination of genetic drift and natural selection had therefore resulted in different epistatic gene complexes being selected after approximately 70 generations from a common genetic base. After crossing, the hybrid populations were observed for 10 generations. Epistasis contributed on average 12 hr in development time. Fluctuating asymmetry in sternopleural bristle number also evolved in the hybrid populations, decreasing by >18% in the first seven generations after hybridization.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, genetic variation, dominance, epistasis, genetic effects, genetic drift, natural selection, stress, nutrient availability, lines, propionic acid, genotype environment interaction, hybrids.


Campbell, R.B.; D.R. Sinclair; M. Couling; H.W. Brock (1995) Genetic interactions and dosage effects of Polycomb group genes of Drosophila. Molecular and General Genetics. 246(3): 291-300. ISSN: 0026-8925.

            NAL call number: 442.8-Z34

Abstract: The Polycomb (Pc) group of genes are required for maintenance of cell determination in Drosophila melanogaster. At least 11 Pc group genes have been described and there may be up to 40: all are required for normal regulation of homeotic genes, but as a group, their phenotypes are rather diverse. It has been suggested that the products of Pc group genes might be members of a heteromeric complex that acts to regulate the chromatin structure of target loci. We examined the phenotypes of adult flies heterozygous for every pairwise combination of Pc group genes in an attempt to subdivide the Pc group functionally. The results support the idea that Additional sex combs (Asx), Pc, Polycomblike (Pcl), Posterior sex combs (Psc), Sex combs on midleg (Scm), and Sex combs extra (Sce) have similar functions in some imaginal tissues. We show genetic interactions among extra sex combs (esc) and Asx, Enhancer of Pc, Pcl, Enhancer of zeste E(z), and super sex combs and reassess the idea that most Pc group genes function independently of esc. Most duplications of Pc group genes neither exhibit anterior transformations nor suppress the extra sex comb phenotype of Pc group mutations, suggesting that not all Pc group genes behave as predicted by the mass-action model. Surprisingly, duplications of E(z) enhance homeotic phenotypes of esc mutants. Flies with increasing doses of esc+ exhibit anterior transformations, but these are not enhanced by mutations in trithorax group genes. The results are discussed with respect to current models of Pc group function.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, structural genes, DNA binding proteins, gene interaction, gene dosage, gene expression, genetic regulation, mutations, Polycomb group genes.


Cavicchi, S.; Guerra, D.; Latorre, V.; Huey, R.B. (1995) Chromosomal analysis of heat-shock tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster evolving at different temperatures in the laboratory. Evolution. 49(4): 676-684. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: acclimation, climate warming, Drosophila melanogaster, D. subobscura, heat hardening, heat tolerance, genetic analysis, induced thermotolerance, temperature, experimental populations, evolutionary adaptation, environmental factors, thermal environment, subobscura adults, Escherichia coli, shape variation, resistance, selection, divergence.


Draye, X.; Lints, F.A. (1995) Geographic variations of life history strategies in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Analysis of laboratory-adapted populations. Experimental Gerontology. 30(5): 517-32. ISSN: 0531-5565.

            NAL call number: QP86 E85

Abstract: Life history traits--hatchability, longevity, and egg production--of five wild-caught populations of Drosophila melanogaster were measured after these populations had been reared in constant laboratory conditions during a 4-year period. The results were analyzed together with those that had been obtained with the same populations just after capture. They are probably the first convincing results that reveal the existence of genetic variability for some life history traits measured in the laboratory. Besides, no significant phenotypic correlations, either positive or negative, between early and late components of fitness were found. Finally, the five populations showed different patterns of genetic correlation between early and late fitness traits. One of the populations showed a negative correlation, another showed a positive correlation, while the remaining three populations showed no correlation at all. This was equally observed at the within- and between-population levels. That result suggests that both the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis proposed by Williams and the concordant pleiotropy hypothesis suggested by Lints are not of general validity.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, genetics, fertility, longevity, variation, adaptation biological, analysis of variance, physiology, environment controlled, evolution, ovum, phenotype.


Ebbert, M.A. (1995) Variable effects of crowding on Drosophila hosts of male-lethal and non-male-lethal spiroplasmas in laboratory populations. Heredity. 74(3): 227-240. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Descriptors: ecology, genetics, physiology, population genetics, population studies, Diptera, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Drosophila willistoni, host fitness, maternal inheritance, dynamics, transmission rate, cytogenetics, environmental biology, comparative and experimental morphology, physiology and pathology, spiroplasmas.


James, A.C.; Partridge, L. (1995) Thermal evolution of rate of larval development in Drosophila melanogaster in laboratory and field populations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 8(3): 315-330. ISSN: 1010-061X.

            NAL call number: QH359 J68

Descriptors: development, ecology, evolution and adaptation, genetics, morphology, physiology, Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster, adult body size, genetic correlation, latitudinal variation, temperature, cytogenetics, environmental biology, anatomy and histology, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis, comparative and experimental morphology, physiology and pathology.


Latter, B.D.; J.C. Mulley (1995) Genetic adaptation to captivity and inbreeding depression in small laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 139(1): 255-266. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Abstract: The rate of adaptation to a competitive laboratory environment and the associated inbreeding depression in measures of reproductive fimess have been observed in populations of Drosophila melanogaster with mean effective breeding size of the order of 50 individuals. Two large wild-derived populations and a long-established laboratory cage population were used as base stocks, from which subpopulations were extracted and slowly inbred under crowded conditions over a period of 210 generations. Comparisons have been made of the competitive ability and reproductive fitness of these subpopulations, the panmictic populations produced from them by hybridization and random mating and the wild- or cage-base populations from which they were derived. After an average of approximately 180 generations in the laboratory, the wild-derived populations exceeded the resampled natural populations by 75% in fitness under competitive conditions. The cage-derived panmictic population, after a total of 17 years in the laboratory, showed a 90% superiority in competitive ability over the corresponding wild population. In the inbred lines derived from the wild-base stocks, the average rate of adaptation was estimated to be 0.33 + 0.06% per generation. However, the gain in competitive ability was more than offset by inbreeding depression at an initial rate of approximately 2% per generation. The effects of both adaptation and inbreeding on reproductive ability in a noncompetitive environment were found to be minor by comparison. The maintenance of captive populations under noncompetitive conditions can therefore be expected to minimize adaptive changes due to natural selection in the changed environment.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, inbreeding depression, laboratory populations, competitive ability, cages, competition, inbred lines, adaptation, fecundity, reproductive performance, body weight, biological development, genetic distance, heterozygosity, alloenzymes, genetic variation, enzyme polymorphism, intraspecific competition, crowding, New South Wales, Australian capital territory.


Latter, B.D.; J.C. Mulley; D. Reid; L. Pascoe (1995) Reduced genetic load revealed by slow inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 139(1): 287-297. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Abstract: The rate of decline in reproductive fitness in populations of Drosophila melanogaster inbred at an initial rate of appoximately 1% per generation has been investigated under both competitive and noncompetitive conditions. Breeding population size was variable in the inbred lines with an estimated harmonic mean of 66.7 +/- 2.2. Of the 60 lines maintained without reserves, 75% survived a period of 210 generations of slow inbreeding and were then rapidly inbred by full-sib mating to near-homozygosity. The initial rate of inbreeding was estimated to be 0.96 +/- 0.16% per generation, corresponding to an effective population size of approximately 50. However, the rate of inbreeding declined significantly with time to average only 0.52 +/- 0.08% per generation over the 210 generation period, most likely due to associative overdominance built up by genetic sampling and selection in the small populations. The total inbreeding depression in fitness was estimated to be 87 +/- 3% for competitive ability and 27 +/- 5% for fitness under uncrowded conditions, corresponding to rates of decline of 2.0 +/- 0.3 and 0.32 +/- 0.07%, respectively, per 1% increase in the inbreeding coefficient. The frequency of lethal second chromosomes in the resultant near-homozygous lines was of the order of 5%, lethal free second chromosomes showed a mean viability under both crowded and uncrowded conditions of approximately 95%, and their population cage fitness was 60% that of Cy/+ heterozygotes. It can be concluded that homozygous genotypes from which deleterious genes of major effect have been eliminated during slow inbreeding may show far less depression in reproductive fitness than suggested by earlier studies of wild chromosome homozygotes. The loss in fitness due to homozygosity throughout the entire genome may be as little as 85-90% under competitive conditions, and 25-30% in an optimal environment.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, inbreeding depression, genetic load, lethals, competition, competitive ability, crowding, inversion, segregation, wild strains, laboratory strains, cages, fecundity, reproductive performance, body weight, biomass, inbred lines, homozygosity, intraspecific competition, New South Wales, Australian capital territory.


Partridge, L.; Barrie, B.; Barton, N.H.; Fowler, K.; French, V. (1995) Rapid laboratory evolution of adult life-history traits in Drosophila melanogaster in response to temperature. Evolution. 49(3): 538-544. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 EV62

Descriptors: body size, Drosophila melanogaster, fecundity, fertility, fitness, intrinsic rate of increase, life-span, temperature, thermal sensitivity, male fruitflies, span, environment, adaptation, mutation.


Wright, N.J.; Zhong, Y. (1995) Characterization of K+ currents and the cAMP-dependent modulation in cultured Drosophila mushroom body neurons identified by LacZ expression. Journal of Neuroscience. 15(2): 1025-1034. ISSN: 0270-6474.

Descriptors: K+ current, mushroom body, Drosophila, CAMP, modulation, LACZ, mediated enhancer detection, central nervous system, potassium channels, ion channels, sodium channels, single channel, shaker, mutants, locus, gene.



Hodgetts, R.B.; M.S. Patel; J. Piorecky; A.D. Swan; C. Spencer (1994) Identification of a sequence motif upstream of the Drosophila Dopa decarboxylase gene that enhances heterologous gene expression. Genome. 37(4): 526-534. ISSN: 0831-2796.

            NAL call number: QH431.G452

Abstract: In this paper we have examined the role that element S, a DNA sequence motif found approximately 215 bp upstream of the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene, might play in regulating Ddc expression. Nearly identical versions of the element are present upstream of four other Drosophila genes. For two of these, the element appears to be an important component of the upstream regulatory region, since mutations in it reduce expression of the downstream gene. Because an element S polymorphism differentiates the Ddc+ allele of an inbred laboratory strain from the Ddc+4 allele present in a strain isolated from the wild, we decided to test the activity of both forms. Oligonucleotides containing Ddc+ or Ddc+4 versions of element S were synthesized and their ability to drive the expression of an heterologous (Adh) reporter gene at the second molt was examined. Transgenic larvae carrying the element S-Adh fusion constructs consistently exhibited Adh levels that were elevated 1.5-fold above those seen in control organisms. We have also determined the effects of element S in white prepupae and once again, ADH expression levels were significantly above controls in both groups of transformants carrying the element S construct. The results point to a functional role for element S. Since reporter gene expression in third instar larvae was restricted to tissues where ADH is normally found, we conclude that element S is not involved in directing the tissue specificity of Ddc expression. However, its ability to enhance heterologous gene expression suggests that it may be the fifth in the set of cis-acting sequences in the complex regulatory domain known to specify epidermal Ddc expression during development.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, DNA, nucleotide sequences, element S, structural genes, carboxylyases, genetic regulation, gene expression, reporter genes, alcohol dehydrogenase, recombinant DNA, gene splicing, transgenic strains.


Krstevska, B.; Hoffmann, A.A. (1994) The effects of acclimation and rearing conditions on the response of tropical and temperate populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans to a temperature gradient (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Journal of Insect Behavior. 7(3): 279-288. Note: 17 ref.

            NAL call number: QL496.J68

Descriptors: temperature, pest insects, behavior, Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans, biology, environmental factors, Diptera, Drosophilidae, noxious species.


Leroi, A.M.; W.R. Chen; M.R. Rose (1994) Long-term laboratory evolution of a genetic life-history trade-off in Drosophila melanogaster. 2. Stability of genetic correlations. Evolution. 48(4): 1258-1268. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 Ev62 

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, genetic correlation, genotype environment interaction, life history, fecundity, starvation, longevity, artificial selection.


Leroi, A.M.; A.K. Chippindale; M.R. Rose (1994) Long-term laboratory evolution of a genetic life-history trade-off in Drosophila melanogaster. 1. The role of genotype-by-environment interaction. Evolution. 48(4): 1244-1257. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 Ev62

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, pleiotropy, genotype environment interaction, life history, fecundity, ovaries, weight, longevity, population density, evolution, nutrient availability, starvation, artificial selection.


Miller, P.S. (1994) Is inbreeding depression more severe in a stressful environment? Zoo Biology. 13(3): 195-208. ISSN: 0733-3188.

            NAL call number: QL77.5.Z6

            Descriptors: captive breeding, competition, Drosophila, genetic variation, reintroduction.


Santos, M.; K. Fowler; L. Partridge (1994) Gene-environment interaction for body size and larval density in Drosophila melanogaster: an investigation of effects on development time, thorax length and adult sex ratio. Heredity. 72(5): 515-521. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Abstract: We measured the effect of larval density on thorax length, development time, sex ratio and a measure of total fitness, using strains of Drosophila melanogaster artificially selected for increased thorax length, control lines otherwise cultured in an identical way, and the base stock from which the lines had been derived. We used the addition experimental design (Mather and Caligari, 1981). No genotype-environment interaction was observed when comparing the reduction in thorax length of 'large' and 'control' lines with increasing larval density for any culture series, i.e. rank ordering of genotypes and additive genetic variances remained the same in all the environments tested. In contrast, the reduction in thorax length for the base stock as density increased was proportionally smaller than that of the 'large' and 'control' lines. Development time increased more rapidly with larval density in the 'large' lines than in the 'controls' or base stock. Sex ratio was unaffected by larval density but thorax length and the development time of females were more affected than those of males by increasing larval density. The estimate of total fitness showed clear evidence of gene-environment interaction for the effect of body size on fitness, with genetically large individuals at an increasing disadvantage with increasing larval density.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, genotype environment interaction, population density, larvae, sex ratio, thorax, length, biological development, time, genetic variance, body length.



Aspi, J.; A. Hoikkala (1993) Laboratory and natural heritabilities of male courtship song characters in Drosophilia montana and D. littoralis. Heredity. 70(4): 400-406. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Abstract: We estimated heritabilities for several male courtship song characters in two Drosophila species using father-son regression under conditions where both fathers and sons had been raised in the laboratory. In D. montana the heritabilities of song characters were rather high (-0.23 to 0.80) and in most cases significant. In D. littoralis the heritabilities of song characters were generally lower (-0.33 to 0.18), and none of them was significantly larger than zero. We also estimated heritabilities regressing characters of wild-caught fathers with those of their laboratory reared sons, and used the method employed by Riska et al. to estimate the lower bound of heritabilities in nature. In D. montana most and in D. littoralis all of the across-environment heritabilities were non-significant (-0.15 to 0.43 and -0.04 to 0.15, respectively), and in some cases the across-environment heritabilities were significantly lower than the heritabilities measured under laboratory conditions. The low across-environment heritabilities appeared to be due to larger phenotypic variability of song characters in the field and in some cases also due to genotype-environment interactions.

Descriptors: Drosophila montana, D. littoralis, heritability, mating behavior, sound production, genotype environment interaction, sexual selection, male courtship songs.


Good, D.S. (1993) Evolution of behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster in high-temperatures-genetic and environmental-effects. Journal of Insect Physiology. 39(7): 537-544. ISSN: 0022-1910.

            NAL call number: 421 J825

Descriptors: searching behavior, temperature preference, laboratory natural selection, genetics, Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster, differentiation, consequences, orientation, populations, selection, duration.


Kohler, R.E. (1993) Drosophila: A life in the laboratory. Journal of the History of Biology. 26(2): 281-310. ISSN: 0022-5010.

            NAL call number: QH305 J6

Descriptors: ecology, education, evolution and adaptation, history, physiology, Diptera, Drosophila, evolution, genetics, teaching tool, textbooks, education, audio-visual aids, general biology-history and archaeology, environmental biology, comparative and experimental morphology, pathology.


Service, P.M. (1993) Laboratory evolution of longevity and reproductive fitness components in male fruit flies: mating ability. Evolution. 47(2): 387-399. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 Ev62

Descriptors: cell biology, development, ecology, evolution and adaptation, genetics, physiology, reproductive system, Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster, development, fertility, inbreeding, longevity, mutation accumulation, thorax length, cytology and cytochemistry, genetics and cytogenetics, environmental biology, physiology and biochemistry, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis, comparative and experimental morphology, pathology.


Thomas, R.H.; J. S. Barker (1993) Quantitative genetic analysis of the body size and shape of Drosophila buzzatii. Theoretical and applied genetics. 85(5): 598-608. ISSN: 0040-5752.

            NAL call number: 442.8 Z8

Abstract: Body size in Drosophila is known to be closely related to a number of traits with important life history consequences, such as fecundity, dispersal ability and mating success. We examine the quantitative genetic basis of body size in three populations of the cactophilic species Drosophila buzzatii, which inhabit climatically different areas of Australia. Flies were reared individually to eliminate any common environmental component in a full-sib design with families split between two temperatures (18 degrees and 25 degrees C). The means of several size measures differ significantly among populations while the genetic correlations among these traits generally do not differ, either among populations from different natural environments or between the different laboratory temperatures. This stability of correlation structure is necessary if laboratory estimates of genetic correlations are to have any connection with the expression of genetic variation in the field. The amount of variance due to genotype-by-environment interactions (family X temperature of development) varied among populations, apparently in parallel with the magnitudes of seasonal and diurnal variation in temperature experienced by the different populations. A coastal population, inhabiting a relatively thermally benign environment, showed no interaction, while two inland populations, inhabiting thermally more extreme areas, showed interaction. This interaction term is a measure of the amount of genetic variation in the degree of phenotypic plasticity of body size in response to temperature of development. Thus the inland flies vary in their ability to attain a given body size at a particular temperature while the coastal flies do not. This phenotypic plasticity is shown to be due primarily to differences among genotypes in the amount of response to the change in temperature. A possible selective basis for the maintenance of genetic variation for the levels of phenotypic plasticity is proposed.

Descriptors: Drosophila buzzatii, genotype environment interaction, life history, anatomy, size, environmental temperature, seasonal variation, temporal variation, quantitative genetics, genetic correlation, geographical distribution, environmental factors, races, genetic variation, phenotypes, genotypes, thorax, wings, length, Australian populations.



Ahmed, A.A. (1992) Genetical studies on natural and laboratory population of Drosophila melanogaster: Environmental effects on multiple mating. Alexandria University (Egypt). Faculty of Agriculture, Thesis Degree: Thesis (M.Sc. in Genetics) 111 p. Note: 11 ill. 13 tables; Bibliography: p. 98-108.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, mating systems, laboratory population, environmental factors, animal husbandry, methods, Diptera.


Falb, D.; Fischer, J.; Maniatis, T. (1992) Rearrangement of upstream regulatory elements leads to ectopic expression of the Drosophila mulleri Adh-2 gene. Genetics. 132(4): 1071-9. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Abstract: The Adh-2 gene of Drosophila mulleri is expressed in the larval fat body and the adult fat body and hindgut, and a 1500-bp element located 2-3 kb upstream of the Adh-2 promoter is necessary for maximal levels of transcription. Previous work demonstrated that deletion of sequences between this upstream element and the Adh-2 promoter results in Adh-2 gene expression in a novel larval tissue, the middle midgut. In this study we show that the upstream element possesses all of the characteristics of a transcriptional enhancer: its activity is independent of orientation, it acts on a heterologous promoter, and it functions at various positions both 5' and 3' to the Adh-2 gene. Full enhancer function can be localized to a 750-bp element, although other regions possess some redundant activity. The ectopic expression pattern is dependent on the proximity of at least two sequence elements. Thus, tissue-specific transcription can involve complex proximity-dependent interactions among combinations of regulatory elements.

Descriptors: Drosophila, genetics, enhancer elements, gene expression regulation, regulatory sequences, nucleic acid, gene deletion, gene rearrangement, genes structural, intestines, enzymology, pseudogenes, RNA messenger, restriction mapping, transcription.


Gebhardt, M.D.; S.C. Stearns (1992) Phenotypic plasticity for life-history traits in Drosophila melanogaster. III. Effect of the environment on genetic parameters. Genetical Research. 60(2): 87-101. ISSN: 0016-6723.

            NAL call number: 443.8 G283

Abstract: We estimated genetic and environmental variance components for developmental time and dry weight at eclosion in Drosophila melanogaster raised in ten different environments (all combinations of 22, 25 and 28 degrees C and 0.5, 1 and 4% yeast concentration, and 0.25% yeast at 25 degrees C). We used six homozygous lines derived from a natural population for complete diallel crosses in each environment. Additive genetic variances were consistently low for both traits (h2 around 10%). The additive genetic variance of developmental time was larger at lower yeast concentrations, but the heritability did not increase because other components were also larger. The additive genetic effects of the six parental lines changed ranks across environments, suggesting a mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variation in heterogenous environments. The variance due to non-directional dominance was small in most environments. However, there was directional dominance in the form of inbreeding depression for both traits. It was pronounced at high yeast levels and temperatures but disappeared when yeast or temperature were decreased. This meant that the heterozygous flies were more sensitive to environmental differences than homozygous flies. Because dominance effects are not heritable, this suggests that the evolution of plasticity can be constrained when dominance effects are important as a mechanism for plasticity.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, genetic variance, phenotypes, life history, genotype environment interaction, heritability, biological development, body weight, line differences, temperature, nutrient availability, inbreeding depression.


Graves, J.L.; Toolson, E.C.; Jeong, C.; Vu, L.N.; Rose, M.R. (1992) Desiccation, flight, glycogen, and postponed senescence in Drosophila melanogaster. Physiological Zoology. 65(2): 268-286.

            NAL call number: 410 P56

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, epicuticular hydrocarbon composition, life history, environmental stress, laboratory evolution, resistance, selection, Pseudoobscura, permeability, mechanisms, tolerance.



Garcia-Dorado, A.; P. Martin; N. Garcia (1991) Soft selection and quantitative genetic variation: a laboratory experiment. Heredity. 66(3): 313-323. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Abstract: The effect of environmental heterogeneity on the genetic variation of different quantitative characters was studied in two laboratory and two recently captured populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Two different culture media (habitats R and G) were used. Coarse-grained heterogeneity with independent density control in each habitat (R + G), and fine-grained (R/G) heterogeneity were simulated in population cages. Control populations in both R and G habitats were also maintained. Genetic differences for oviposition-site preference, larval preference and/or within-habitat viability were found between subpopulations sampled from different media. This happened in all four populations maintained on R + G, two populations maintained on R/G, and one control population. Thus, environmental heterogeneity seems to protect genetic variability responsible for between-habitat genetic differentiation, particularly when such heterogeneity corresponds to the 'soft selection' model (R + G). However, for the quasi-neutral trait sternopleural bristle number, no genetic between-habitat differentiation, nor increased heritability were observed in populations maintained under any kind of environmental heterogeneity. Hence, although soft selection seems to be a real force in determining adaptation to heterogeneous environments, the genetic variability maintained may be small in relation to the whole genome.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, genetic variation, soft selection, genotype environment interaction, environmental factors, habitat selection, larvae, heritability, bristles, phenotypes, oviposition, culture media, types.


Oudman, L.; Vandelden, W.; Kamping, A.; Bijlsma, R. (1991) Polymorphism at the Adh and Alpha-GPDH loci in Drosophila melanogaster- effects of rearing temperature on developmental rate, body-weight, and some biochemical parameters. Heredity. 67: 103-115.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Descriptors: ADH, alpha-GPDH, developmental time, Drosophila melanogaster, temperature, weight, alcohol-dehydrogenase locus, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enzyme polymorphisms, natural selection, dietary ethanol, fitness, allozymes, larvae, environment, adaptation.



Craig, C.L. (1990) Effects of background pattern on insect perception of webs spun by orb-weaving spiders. Animal Behavior. 39(1): 135-144. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call number: 410 B77

Abstract: Recent studies show that many insects are able to see spider webs and avoid them. The orb-spinning spiders and their close relatives are an abundant and diverse group of predators that make use of a variety of habitats and light environments. A combination of field and laboratory approaches was used to explore the effects of light environment, silk reflectance and background pattern on insect perception of spider webs. Field experiments showed that in dim visual habitats, background patterns have no significant effect on insect perception of webs but in bright visual habitats, patterns behind webs decreased the ability of insects to see and avoid them. In the laboratory Drosophila melanogaster meigen have more difficulty seeing brightly lit webs when they are suspended close to backgrounds of high spatial frequencies than when webs are suspended in front of distant backgrounds or of low spatial frequencies. When Drosophila are confronted with webs characterized by low reflectivity, however, they are unable to see and avoid them, regardless of light level or background spatial pattern. Web visibility results from a series of complex interactions among the reflectance properties of silks, web architecture, background pattern, ambient light level and the peculiar visual physiology of the approaching insect.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, perception, Araneae, spider webs, light, silk reflectance, background patterns.


Weber, K.E. (1990) Selection on wing allometry in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 126 (4): 975-989. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Abstract: Five bivariate distributions of wing dimensions of Drosophila melanogaster were measured, in flies 1) subjected to four defined environmental regimes duringdevelopment, 2) taken directly from nature in seven U.S. states, 3) selected in ten populations forchange in wing form, and 4) sampled from 21 long inbred wild-type lines. Environmental stresses during development altered both wing size and the ratios of wing dimensions, but regardless of treatmentall wing dimensions fell near a common allometric baseline in each bivariate distribution. Thewings of wild-caught flies from seven widely separated localities, and of their laboratory-rearedoffspring, also fell along the same baselines. However, when flies were selected divergently for lateral offsetfrom these developmental baselines, response to selection was rapid in every case. The mean divergencein offset between oppositely selected lines was 14.68 SD of the base population offset, afteronly 15 generations of selection at 20%. Measurements of 21 isofemale lines, founded from wild-caughtflies and maintained in small populations for at least 22 years, showed large reductions inphenotypic variance of offsets within lines, but a large increase in the variance among lines. Thevariance of means of isofemale lines within collection localities was ten times the variance of means amonglocalities of newly established wild lines. These observations show that much additive genetic varianceexists for individual dimensions within the wing, such that bivariate developmental patterns can bechanged in any direction by selection or by drift. The relative invariance of the allometricbaselines of wing morphology in nature is most easily explained as the result of continuous naturalselection around a local optimum of functional design.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, lines, artificial selection, selection responses, wing size, allometry, genetic variation, genotype environment interaction, heritability, environmental factors, stress, phenotypes, variation, geographical distribution, Arizona, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Vermont.



Barnes, P.T.; B. Holland; V. Courreges (1989) Genotype-by-environment and epistatic interactions in Drosophila melanogaster: the effects of Gpdh allozymes, genetic background and rearing temperature on larval developmental time and viability. Genetics. 122(4): 859-868. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Abstract: The possible role of temperature as a component of natural selection generating the latitudinal clines in Gpdh allele frequencies in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster was examined. Effects of rearing temperature (16 degrees, 22 degrees, and 29 degrees) and of Gpdh allozymes (S and F) on larval developmental time and viability were measured. Eight genetic backgrounds from each of three populations (continents) were used to assess the generality of any effects. Analyses of variance indicated significant temperature effects and allozyme-by-genetic background interaction effects for both characters. Viability showed significant genetic background effects, as well as significant temperature-by-allozyme and temperature-by-allozyme-by-population interactions. In general, the S/S genotype was significantly lower in viability than the F/F and F/S genotypes at extreme temperatures (16 degrees and 29 degrees), with no significant differences at 22 degrees. However, each population had a slightly different pattern of viability associated with temperature, and only the Australian population showed a pattern that could contribute to the observed cline formation. Although the same two interactions were not significant for developmental time, examination of the means showed that the S/S genotype had a slightly faster rate of development at 16 degrees than the F/F genotype in all populations (by an average of 0.25 day or 1.1%). The low temperature effect on developmental time is consistent with the clines observed in nature, with the S allele increasing in frequency with higher latitudes. The results for both viability and developmental time are consistent with the interpretation of Gpdh as a minor polygene affecting physiological phenotypes, as indicated by previous work with adult flight metabolism. Finally, it is proposed that the temperature-dependent antagonistic effects of the allozymes on viability vs. developmental time and flight metabolism may be the underlying force giving rise to the worldwide polymorphism.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, larvae, genotypes, glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase, genetic analysis, genotype environment interaction, epistasis, temperature, viability, natural selection, genetic polymorphism, analysis of variance, crosses, enzymology, growth and development, isoenzymes, larva growth and development, North America, temperature, time factors, Europe, Australia.


Prout, T.; J.S. Barker (1989) Ecological aspects of the heritability of body size in Drosophila buzzatii. Genetics. 123(4): 803-813. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Abstract: The heritability of thorax length in the cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii was determined for flies from each of 10 rotting cactus cladodes. For each rot, emerging flies were used as parents of progeny reared in the laboratory. The methods used were full sib analysis with the parents mated assortatively and also offspring-parent regression. From this, heritabilities were measured for the laboratory environment and for the natural environment of the rotting cladode. For the laboratory environment, h2 =0.3770 +/- 0.0203 and for the natural environment h2 = 0.0936 +/- 0.0087 within rots and h2 = 0.0595 +/- 0.0123 for a population drawn randomly from different rots. Because of the possibility of genotype-environment interaction between the laboratory and rot environments, the methods of B. Riska, T. Prout and M. Turelli were used to show it is possible that there is no such interaction, but if there is, the above natural heritabilities are approximate lower bounds. These results are related to the general problem of determining heritabilities in nature where it is impractical to measure both parents and progeny in nature. Determining heritability not only in nature but in relation to subdivision into ephemeral patches (cladodes in this case) has an important bearing on natural selection response and to general theories of stabilizing selection proposed to explain the existence of genetic variation. Attempts were made to detect selection by using the size of emerging adults as an indicator of various levels of larval stress. No selection was detected, but the power to do so was very weak. Differences between progeny means from different rots indicated some genetic differences between rots which can be adequately explained by small numbers of founders. This suggests a random fine scale subdivision amounting to Fst = 0.1483 +/- 0.0462.

Descriptors: Drosophila buzzatii, body measurements, ecology, heritability, progeny, mathematical methods.


Riska, B.; T. Prout; M. Turelli (1989) Laboratory estimates of heritabilities and genetic correlations in nature. Genetics. 123(4): 865-871. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Abstract: A lower bound on heritability in a natural environment can be determined from the regression of offspring raised in the laboratory on parents raised in nature. An estimate of additive genetic variance in the laboratory is also required. The estimated lower bounds on heritabilities can sometimes be used to demonstrate a significant genetic correlation between two traits in nature, if their genetic and phenotypic correlations in nature have the same sign, and if sample sizes are large, and heritabilities and phenotypic and genetic correlations are high.

            Descriptors: plants, Drosophila, heritability, genetic variation, genetic correlation.




Kohane, M.J.; P.A. Parsons (1988) Domestication: evolutionary change under stress. Evolutionary Biology. 23: 31-48. ISSN: 0071-3260.

            NAL call number: QH308.E8

Descriptors: domestication, evolution, adaptation, Drosophila, foxes, genotype environment interaction, laboratory rearing, stress factors.


Markow, T.A. (1988) Reproductive behavior of Drosophila melanogaster and D. nigrospiracula in the field and in the laboratory. Journal of Comparative Psychology. 102(2): 169-73. ISSN: 0735-7036.

Abstract: The reproductive behaviors of two species of fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster and D. nigrospiracula, were compared in field and laboratory populations. A number of differences were observed in the behavior of the two species in their natural habitats. D. melanogaster, which was observed on citrus, mates at its feeding site, whereas D. nigrospiracula, which is cactiphilic, mates on a non-resource-based male territory adjacent to its feeding site. In both species large male size is important for reproductive success. However, in D. melanogaster smaller males tended to be excluded from the breeding site and were therefore not among the pool of potential mates to which females were exposed. Sex ratios were biased toward females in both species, but the high frequency of female remating in D. nigrospiracula may have provided more mating opportunities for the males of this species. Field observations differed from laboratory observations, and I discuss the importance of these differences for understanding the evolution of Drosophila mating systems.

            NAL call number: BF671.J6

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, D. nigrospiracula, sex behavior, social environment, species specificity, social dominance, evolution of mating systems.


Mukai, T. (1988) Genotype-environment interaction in relation to the maintenance of genetic variability in populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Quantitative Genetics / edited by B.S. Weir ... [et al.]. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates, p. 21-31. ISBN: 0878939016.

            NAL call number: QH452.7.I58 1987

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, genetic variation, genotype environment interaction, selection, inbreeding depression.



Kohane, M.J.; Parsons, P.A. (1987) Mating ability in laboratory-adapted and field-derived Drosophila melanogaster: the stress of domestication. Behavior Genetics. 17(6): 541-58. ISSN: 0001-8244.

            NAL call number: QH301.B45

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, genetics, sex behavior, physiology, stress genetics, environment, selection genetics, temperature.



Millar, C.D.; Lambert, D.M. (1986) Laboratory-induced changes in the mate recognition system of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Behavior Genetics. 16(2): 285-294. ISSN: 0001-8244. http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/0001-8244

            NAL call number: QH301.B45

Descriptors: environments, mating behavior, strain differences, species recognition, Drosophila, geography, geographic strain differences, mate recognition system, Drosophila pseudoobscura of long term laboratory stock vs new population, genetics, social and instinctive behavior.



Nigro, L.; Costa, R.; Jayakar, S.D.; Zonta, L. (1985) Est-6 in Drosophila melanogaster: effects of genetic composition temperature and oviposition period on fitness in laboratory populations polymorphic for rare alleles. Heredity. 55(1): 83-91. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Descriptors: Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster, polymorphism, rare allele, esterase, fitness, genotype environment interaction, gene interaction, egg laying, enzyme.



Haley, C.S.; Birley, A.J. (1983) The genetical response to natural selection by varied environments. II. Observations on replicate populations in spatially varied laboratory environments. Heredity. 51(3): 581-606. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Abstract: From each of two populations of Drosophila melanogaster, collected two months previously, from Chateau Tahbilk, S. Australia and Groningen, The Netherlands, duplicate populations were initiated in each of four environments which differed in their degree of environmental heterogeneity. Differing combinations of three food media based on oatmeal/treacle, potato or fig were used to simulate levels of environmental heterogeneity within the populations. The polymorphic loci, Adh, Est-6, G-6pdh, alpha-Gpdh, Pgm, Lap-D and Aph in both the Chateau Tahbilk and Groningen derived populations and 6Pgdh, which was only polymorphic in the populations which came from Chateau Tahbilk, were monitored in the experiment. The populations maintained a size of about 2500 adults and were sampled after 16 and 32 generations. Large changes of phenotype frequency were shown by all loci. Despite a frequent divergence of phenotype frequencies between duplicate cages, systematic effects of occasion and environment were present and allele frequencies at many loci were shown to be changing at a faster rate than could be due to random genetic drift. Genetic heterozygosity differed between environments but was not positively correlated with degree of environmental heterogeneity.

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster genetics, environment, selection genetics, Australia, electrophoresis, starch gel, genetics, population, Netherlands, phenotype.



Barker, J.S.; G.J. Parker; G.L. Toll; P.R. Widders (1981) Attraction of Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila aldrichi to species of yeasts isolated from their natural environment. I. Laboratory experiments. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences. 34(5/6): 593-612. ISSN: 0004-9417.

            NAL call number: 442.8 AU72

Descriptors: Drosophila buzzatii, Drosophila aldrichi, yeasts, laboratory studies, attraction, ecology, environmental biology.



Markow, T.A. (1980) Rare male advantages among Drosophila of the same laboratory strain. Behavior Genetics. 10(6): 553-6. ISSN: 0001-8244.

            NAL call number: QH301.B45

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, sex behavior, male flies, laboratory strain, environment.



Skrzipek, K.H.; Kroener, B.; Hager, H. (1979) Inter-male aggression in Drosophila melanogaster - a laboratory study. Zeitschrift fuer Tierpsychologie. 49(1): 87-103. ISSN: 0044-3573. Note: In German.

            NAL call number: 410 Z35

Descriptors: aggressive behavior, environments, male flies, laboratory setting, defensive behavior, Drosophila melanogaster, social and instinctive behavior.



Alahiotis, S. (1978) Rate of hybridization between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans in greek natural populations and in laboratory. Biologia Gallo Hellen. 7(1-2): 219-222.

Descriptors: Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans, laboratory study, environmental factor, population genetics, hybridization, natural population.


Ashburner, M.; Thompson, J.N. Jr. (1978) The Laboratory Culture of Drosophila. The Genetics and Biology of Drosophila. Volume 2a. Academic Press. London: i-xi, 1-604, Ii-Iliv, Chapter pagination: 109. Book chapter.

Descriptors: Drosophila, rearing techniques, diet, culture media, parthenogenesis, incidence, life cycle, laboratory optimal conditions, developmental stages, environmental influences, parasites, diseases, in culture, humidity, temperature, survival through range, techniques, care in captivity, nutrition, reproduction, abiotic factors, physical factors.


Wallace, B. (1978) Population size, environment, and the maintenance of laboratory cultures of Drosophila melanogaster (Includes genetic aspects). Acta Biologica Iugoslavica. Serija F. Genetika. 10(1): 9-16. ISSN: 0534-0012. Note: In English, Publisher: Yugoslav Union of Biological Sciences.

            NAL call number: QH431.G44

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, laboratory culture, maintenance, population size, environment, genetics.



Langley, C.H.; Ito, K. (1976) Spontaneous mutability in Drosophila melanogaster, in natural and laboratory environments. Mutation Research. 36(3): 385-6. ISSN: 0027-5107.

            NAL call number: QH431.M8

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, gene frequency, mutation, lethal, genes, recessive genes, linkage genetics, sex chromosomes.



Anderson, W.W.; T. Dobzhansky; O. Pavlovsky (1972) A natural population of Drosophila transferred to a laboratory environment. Heredity. 28(1): 101-107. Ref.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Descriptors: laboratory population, chromosome aberrations, Drosophila, genetics population, adaptation biological, alleles, chromosomes, environment, evolution, gene frequency, hybridization, genetic, karyotyping, polymorphism genetics, selection genetics, statistics.


Hay, D.A. (1972) Genetical and maternal determinants of the activity and preening behavior of Drosophila melanogaster reared in different environments. Heredity. 28(3): 311-36. ISSN: 0018-067X.

NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Descriptors: Drosophila melanogaster, environment, models biological, analysis of variance, behavior, crosses, genotype, mortality, sex factors.



Hosgood, S.M.; Parsons, P.A. (1971) Genetic heterogeneity among the founders of laboratory populations of Drosophila. IV. Scutellar chaetae in different environments. Genetica. 42(1): 42-52. ISSN: 0016-6707.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G282

Descriptors: environment, genetics population, variation genetics, analysis of variance, Drosophila melanogaster, phenotype, temperature effects.




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