Devillers, J.; Dore, J.C.; Tisseur, M.; Cluzeau, S.; Maurin, G. (2004) Modelling the flight activity of Apis mellifera at the hive entrance. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 42(2): 87-109. ISSN: 0168-1699.

            NAL call number: S494.5.D3C652

Descriptors: climatology, models and simulations, computational biology, Hymenoptera, Apis mellifera, flight activity, artificial neural network model, mathematical and computer techniques, co-inertia analysis, electronic bee counters, palinological analysis, laboratory techniques, partial least squares regression, principal component analysis, co-structures, data matrices, global radiation, hive entrance, outgoing bee data, mathematical biology and statistical methods, ecology, environmental biology, France.


Duchateau, M.J.; Velthuis, H.H.; Boomsma, J.J. (2004) Sex ratio variation in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Behavioral Ecology. 15(1): 71-82. ISSN: 1045-2249.

Descriptors: behavior, evolution and adaptation, reproduction, terrestrial ecology, Hymenoptera, Bombus terrestris, bumblebee, path analysis, laboratory techniques, colony development and life cycle, diapause duration, reproductive parameters and strategies, sex allocation patterns, kin selection perspective, sex ratio variation, evolution, comparative study, environmental biology.


Ellis, H.A. (2004) Quadrastichus lasiocerus (graham) (Hym., Eulophidae, Tetrastichinae) reared from Wachtliella persicariae (l.) (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae) galls on Persicaria amphibia (l.) S.F. Gray in Northumberland. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 139(1676-78): 37-38. ISSN: 0013-8908.

            NAL call number: 421 En86

Descriptors: ecology, environmental biology, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Wachtliella persicariae, Quadrastichus lasiocerus, Persicaria amphibian, Northumberland, UK, Europe.


Heil, M.; Baumann, B.; Krueger, R.; Linsenmair, K.E. (2004) Main nutrient compounds in food bodies of Mexican Acacia ant-plants. Chemoecology. 14(1): 45-52. ISSN: 0937-7409.

            NAL call number: QH541.15.C44

Descriptors: terrestrial ecology, Hymenoptera, Macaranga, Pseudomyrmex, Acacia chiapensis, Acacia collinsii, Acacia cornigera, Acacia globulifera, Acacia hindsii, amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, glycogen, lipids, nutrients, proteins, chromatographic techniques, laboratory techniques, ant-plant interaction, chemoecology, indirect defense, mutualism, environmental biology.


Jennings, M. (2004) Parasitoids reared from galls of Phanacis hypochoeridis (kieffer, 1887), P. centaureae foerster, 1860, and P. caulicola (hedicke, 1939) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Entomologist's Gazette. 55(1): 67-70. ISSN: 0013-8894.

            NAL call number: 421 EN834

Descriptors: ecology, Hymenoptera, Centaurea scabiosa, Compositae, Phanacis caulicola, Phanacis centaureae, Phanacis hypochoeridis, galls, parasitism, environmental biology.


Kanbar, G.; Engels, W. (2004) Visualisation by vital staining with trypan blue of wounds punctured by Varroa destructor mites in pupae of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Apidologie. 35(1): 25-29. ISSN: 0044-8435.

            NAL call number: SF521.A64

Descriptors: parasitology, terrestrial ecology, Acarina, Hymenoptera, Varroa destructor, mite, Apis mellifera, honey bee, hemolymph, blood and lymphatics, Chelicerates, trypan blue, vital staining, histology and cytology techniques, laboratory techniques, parasite-host relations, puncture wounds, wound visualization, environmental biology.


Maschwitz, U.; Go, C.; Kaufmann, E.; Buschinger, A. (2004) A unique strategy of host colony exploitation in a parasitic ant: Workers of Polyrhachis lama rear their brood in neighbouring host nests. Naturwissenschaften. 91(1): 40-43. ISSN: 0028-1042.

            NAL call number: 474 N213

Descriptors: terrestrial ecology, Hymenoptera, Diacamma sp., Hymenoptera, Polyrhachis lama, brood rearing, host colony exploitation, reproductive division, social parasitism, environmental biology, comparative study, morphology, physiology, pathology.


Moritz, R.F.; Neumann, P. (2004) Differences in nestmate recognition for drones and workers in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (l.). Animal Behavior 67(4): 681-688. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call number: 410 B77

Descriptors: behavior, molecular genetics, biochemistry and molecular biophysics, population genetics, population studies, reproduction, terrestrial ecology, environmental biology, Apis mellifera, honeybee, Hymenoptera, female, male, drone, nestmate, queen, worker, DNA microsatellite loci, methods and equipment, genotyping, genetic techniques, laboratory techniques, colony integrity, emigration, immigration, nestmate recognition, odor cues, polyandry.


Riabinin, K.; Kozhevnikov, M.; Ishay, J.S. (2004) Ventilating activity at the hornet nest entrance. Journal of ethology. 22(1): 49-53. ISSN: 0289-0771.

            NAL call number: QL750.J68

Descriptors: ventilation, nest, hive, worker insect, temperature regulation, room temperature, Vespa orientalis, laboratory study, animal construction, environmental factor, Vespidae, Aculeata.


Ronhede, S.; Boomsma, J.J.; Rosendahl, S. (2004) Fungal enzymes transferred by leaf-cutting ants in their fungus gardens. Mycological Research 108 (1): 101-106, ISSN: 0953-7562.

            NAL call number: QK600.M82

Descriptors: enzymology, biochemistry and molecular biophysics, terrestrial ecology, Hymenoptera, Acromyrmex echinatior, leaf-cutting ant, Atta colombica, carboxymethylcellulase, laccase, pectinase, protease, isoelectric focusing, electrophoretic and laboratory techniques, specific staining, histology and cytology, ant fungus garden, mycelial colonization, environmental biology.


Webster, T.C.; Pomper, K.W.; Hunt, G.; Thacker, E.M; Jones, S.C. (2004) Nosema apis infection in worker and queen Apis mellifera. Apidologie. 35(1): 49-54. ISSN: 0044-8435.

            NAL call number: SF521.A64 

Descriptors: infection, ecology, Hymenoptera, Nosema apis, pathogen, Apis mellifera, honeybee, queen, worker, primer sequences, DNA extraction, genetic and laboratory techniques, light microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, environmental biology, biochemistry, nucleic acids, purines and pyrimidines, comparative study.



Pankiw, T.; Tarpy, D.R.; Page, R.E. (2002) Genotype and rearing environment affect honeybee perception and foraging behavior. Animal Behavior. 64(4): 663-672. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call number: 410 B77

Descriptors: bees, Apis mellifera, colony level, selection, division of labor, response thresholds, phenotypic plasticity, task specialization, sucrose, polyethism, age.


Salles, H.C. (2002) A method for rearing immature stages of Apis melifera outside the colony (Hymenoptera : Apidae). Sociobiology. 39(2): 187-193. ISSN: 0361-6525.

            NAL call number: QH549.S6

Descriptors: Apis mellifera, development, experimental condition, environment for developing immature stages, honeybee.



Buyukguzel, K. (2001) DNA gyrase inhibitors: Novobiocin enhances the survival of Pimpla turionellae (Hym., Ichneumonidae) larvae reared on an artificial diet but other antibiotics do not. Journal of Applied Entomology. 125(9-10): 583-587. ISSN: 0931-2048.

            NAL call number: 421 Z36

            Descriptors: Hymenoptera, larvae culture, entomology, developmental biologics.


Quiran, E.M.; Steibel, J.P. (2001) Acromyrmex lobicornis emery 1887 body and load weight relationship. A laboratory experience. Gayana. 65(2): 113-118. Note: In Spanish.

            NAL call number: 450 G25

Descriptors: Hymenoptera, Acromyrmex lobicornis, artificial nest, laboratory equipment, ant colonies, body weight, ecological processes, environmental conditions, foraging distance, leaf harvesting, load weight, nutritional demands, plant chemical composition, general and comparative behavior, behavioral biology, comparative and experimental morphology and physiology.




Fisher, P.J.; Stradling, D.J.; Watling, R.; Frankland, J.C.; Ainsworth, A.M.; Isaac, S.; Robinson, C. H. (2000) Tropical Mycology Macromycetes. Laboratory Studies with Leucoagaricus and Attine Ants. CABI Publishing, Selected Papers of the Millennium Symposium on Tropical Mycology, Liverpool, England, UK. April, 2000, Sponsor: British Mycological Society, p 113-130. ISBN: 0-85199-542-X.

            NAL call number: QK615.7 T76 2002

Descriptors: terrestrial ecology, environmental biology, biosystematic names, Basidiomycetes, Hymenoptera, Atta cephalotes, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus.


Mohammedi, A.; Le Conte, Y. (2000) Do environmental conditions exert an effect on nest-mate recognition in queen rearing honey bees? Insectes Sociaux. 47(4): 307-312. ISSN: 0020-1812.

            NAL call number: 421 IN79

Descriptors: honey bees, nest-mate recognition, kinship, queen rearing, Apis mellifera, discrimination, kin, frequencies.


Plateaux-Quenu, C.; Plateaux, L.; Packer, L. (2000) Population-typical behaviors are retained when eusocial and non-eusocial forms of Evylaeus albipes (f.) (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) are reared simultaneously in the laboratory. Insectes Sociaux. 47(3): 263-270. ISSN: 0020-1812.

            NAL call number: 421 IN79

Descriptors: behavior, terrestrial ecology, Hymenoptera, Evylaeus albipes, eusocial form, female, male, non-eusocial form, France, Europe, eusociality, laboratory rearing, overwintering, photoperiod, population-typical behaviors, social evolution, temperature, environmental biology, comparative and experimental morphology and physiology.



Goodisman, M.A.; P.D. Mack; D.E. Pearse; K.G. Ross (1999) Effects of a single gene on worker and male body mass in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 92(4): 563-570. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 En82

Abstract: This study examines the effects of general-protein-9 (Gp-9) genotype on the body mass of polygyne (multiple-queens per nest) Solenopsis invicta buren workers and males. We found that Gp-9 genotype was significantly associated with variation in worker mass in field but not laboratory colonies. Moreover, triploid workers with 2 distinguishable genotypes (Gp-9(BBb) and Gp-9(Bbb)) weighed significantly more than diploid workers with the heterozygous genotype (Gp-9(Bb)). Our results, combined with those obtained from previous studies, indicate that Gp-9 genotype, ploidy, social form, and colony queen number affect mass of S. invicta workers. We also discovered that Gp-9 genotype significantly influenced the mass of haploid males reared in both field and laboratory environments. As a group, polygyne males were significantly lighter than monogyne males, even when Gp-9 genotype was taken into account, indicating that social environment interacts with Gp-9 genotype to influence male mass. Given that diploid males previously have been shown to be lighter than haploid males, 3 factors (Gp-9 genotype; social form, and ploidy) are now known to affect the mass of male fire ants.

Descriptors: Solenopsis invicta, structural genes, genotypes, genetic effects, body weight, caste, males, ploidy, polygyny, general-protein-9 (Gp-9) genotype.


Harbo, J.R.; J.W. Harris (1999) Heritability in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of characteristics associated with resistance to Varroa jacobsoni (Mesostigmata: Varroidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 92(2): 261-265. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: This study uses sibling analysis to measure the heritability in honey bees, Apis mellifera l., of characteristics that have been associated with resistance to the mite, Varroa jacobsoni oudemans. Twenty-eight uniform colonies of bees were established on 13 May in Baton Rouge, LA, each with 1 kg of mite-infested bees and a queen. The 28 unrelated queens in these colonies were divided into 7 groups of 4 based on the insemination of 4 queens with the same mixture of semen from 1 of 7 sire colonies. After worker progeny from these queens had replaced the initial bee populations, a colony was related as a full sister to the other 3 colonies in its sire group and unrelated to the other 24 colonies. Heritability (h(2)) was 1.24 for proportion of mites in brood, 0.65 for hygienic behavior, 0.89 for the duration of the capped period, 0.46 for suppression of mite reproduction, and 0.00 for physical damage to mites (measured by the presence of physically broken or dented mites on the bottom board). These results suggest that it should be possible to enhance the expression of 4 of these 5 characteristics with selective breeding of bees, thus reinforcing confidence in our ability to breed honey bees for resistance to V. jacobsoni.

Descriptors: Apis mellifera, Varroa jacobsoni, pest resistance, genetic resistance, heritability, genetic analysis, honey bee colonies, sibling analyses.


Paleolog, J.; Akademia, R.L.; Katedra, B.P.; Flis, W.; Pszczelarskie, P.W. (1999) Wplyw (wywierac wplyw na) *genotypes* i srodowiska zachowania tablicy do nalepiania reklam w *honey* *bee* w laboratorium (laboratoryjny) i teren (polowy) próby. [Influence of genotypes and environments of hoarding behavior in honey bee in the laboratory and field tests.] Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio EE Zootechnica. 17: 289-294. ISSN: 0239-4243. Note: 3 fig.; 10 ref., In Polish.

            NAL call number: SF84 A56

Abstract: Worker-bees from different colonies were introduced to weeding hives and placed under isolators with outdoor feeders to study whether hoarding behavior estimated in laboratory is similar to this shown in the field and how environment and genotypes influenced these correlations. Two repetitions, one during good and second during poor weather conditions were carried out. The cage test was also perforated to worker-bees from the colonies to compare results obtained under laboratory and field conditions. CAU were worse than CAR under good and they were a little bit better under poor conditions (interactions). CAR were the best in the laboratory (BC) were similar to CAU. Results obtained in laboratory tests were different from those obtained in the field. It was easier to estimate differences between genotypes in laboratory but it was impossible to answer which of those genotypes should preferred.

Descriptors: worker bees, genotypes, behavior, environmental factors, honey bee colonies, hoarding behavior, useful insects.



Brown, P.E.; Frank, C.P.; Groves, H.L.; Anderson, M. (1998) Spectral sensitivity and visual conditioning in the parasitoid wasp Trybliographa rapae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. 88: 239–245. ISSN: 0007-4853.

            NAL call number: 421 B87

Descriptors: Trybliographa rapae, parasitoid wasp, spectral sensitivity, visual conditioning.


Hu, J.S.; S.B. Vinson (1998) The in vitro development from egg to prepupa of Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in an artificial medium: importance of physical factors. Journal of Insect Physiology. 44(5/6): 455-461. ISSN: 0022-1910.

            NAL call number: 421 J825

Abstract: A further attempt to improve the in vitro rearing of the solitary larval endoparasitoid Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) was made after third instars were obtained in previous studies. Respiration was an important factor for the parasitoid's continued development: both small diet volumes that exposed the larval cuticle to air and O2 greatly improved growth and development of C. sonorensis. Fifth instars were obtained when the parasitoid larvae were reared in medium volumes of 0.25 ml and 0.1 ml per well. Increasing the O2 tension of the air resulted in larger larvae and prepupae. The agar layer under the nutritional medium was designed to slowly remove water from the diet. The results indicated that a drier environment was important for the parasitoid at the terminal stage. One percent and 0.8% agar gels, which removed water from the diet more rapidly, provided a drier environment and resulted in improved larval growth compared to the 0.6% agar gel. The detrimental effect of higher concentration of chicken egg yolk mixed in the diet was eliminated by using a dry egg yolk layer covered by an agar layer. This sandwich technique resulted in more parasitoid larvae molting to the final larval instar (5th) and the formation of many prepupae. However, the development of prepupae was premature and none of the fifth instar larvae successfully formed a normal cocoon.

Descriptors: Campoletis sonorensis, rearing techniques, in vitro, culture media, volume, oxygen, hatching, growth, biological development, parasitoids.


Hrassnigg, N.; K. Crailsheim (1998) The influence of brood on the pollen consumption of workers bees (Apis mellifera l.). Journal of Insect Physiology. 44(5/6): 393-404. ISSN: 0022-1910.

            NAL call number: 421 J825

Abstract: (1) In midgut dry weight (tissue plus contents) of worker bees we found a representative parameter for pollen consumption. Midguts of bees of successive ages were analyzed and correlated with various parameters. The relative proportions of sugar, protein and water were either constant or negatively correlated with midgut weight. Only the relative pollen weight (percent of midgut dry weight) increased. (2) To investigate the influence of different levels of brood on pollen consumption of individual bees, midgut dry weights from 2 normally breeding control colonies and 2 brood-reduced experimental colonies were analyzed. In bees from control colonies the pollen consumption increased up to the nursing age (3-10 d), remained on an elevated level in middle-aged-bees (10-18 d) and decreased relatively sharply towards the foraging ages ( > 21 d). When queens were caged in the experimental colonies, the following decline of brood cells affected the consumption of pollen differently. After 6 days of caging, with a reduction of open brood only, no effect was seen. After 15 days, and even more pronounced after 23 days when no brood was present, the pollen consumption in young and middle-aged (10, 14, 18 d) worker bees was significantly reduced, while it was clearly elevated in older bees. We discuss pollen consumption as an adaptation to reduced necessity to nurse brood in young and middle-aged bees, and to enhance life span in older animals.

Descriptors: Apis mellifera, worker honey bees, pollen, intake, feeding behavior, midgut, weight, water content, protein content, sugars, honey bee brood, age differences, brood care.


Quiran, E.M.; Molas, B.M. (1998) Vuelo de Nuptial y fundación de las colonias de los lobicornis de Acromyrmex (himenópteros: Formicidae) en laboratorio, en la provincia de la pampa del la, la Argentina. [Nuptial flight and colonies foundation of Acromyrmex lobicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in laboratory, in La Pampa Province, Argentina.] Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina. 57(1-4): 67-70. ISSN: 0373-5680. Note: In Spanish.

            NAL call number: 420 So14

Descriptors: terrestrial ecology, environmental biology, Hymenoptera, Acromyrmex lobicornis, La Pampa Province, Argentina, colonies formation, nuptial flight, behavioral biology.


Walin, L.; L. Sundstrom; P. Seppa; R. Rosengren (1998) Worker reproduction in ants--a genetic analysis. Heredity. 81(6): 604-612. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Abstract: Workers of social insects may enhance their inclusive fitness by laying unfertilized eggs that develop into males. In particular, workers may gain from rearing worker-produced males if their average relatedness to them exceeds their relatedness to queen-produced males. These relatedness values depend both on the queen mating frequency and on the number and relatedness of nestmate queens. We examined the occurrence of worker reproduction in field colonies of four ant species of the genera Formica and Myrmica. Based on relatedness arguments alone, worker reproduction was expected in all species because of low queen mating frequency, or low effective queen numbers. Nevertheless, genotype matching of workers and males showed that worker reproduction was absent or rare in two of the three Formica species studied here. In M. ruginodis, queens may have been the sisters of the workers in many cases, which means that workers of this species may regularly rear nephews. In the three species in which worker reproduction was not found, workers bias colony sex ratios to enhance their inclusive fitness. We therefore hypothesize that sex ratio biasing and male production may be mutually exclusive strategies for workers.

Descriptors: Myrmica ruginodis, Formica rufa, queens, worker ants colonies, worker ant produced males, mating frequency, genetic markers, genotypes, genetic analysis, paternity, sex ratio, sexual reproduction, isoenzymes, loci, alleles, enzyme polymorphism, Finland.



Dawes-Gromadzki, T.Z.; Bull, C.M. (1997) Laboratory studies of ant predation on parapatric reptile ticks. Australian Journal of Ecology. 22(1): 1-7. ISSN: 0307-692X.

            NAL call number: QH540.A8

Descriptors: ecology, environmental biology, physiology, Acarina, Chelicerata, Hymenoptera, Amblyomma limbatum, Iridomyrmex, Rhytidoponera, Australasian Region, parasite, predation, reptile tick, terrestrial ecology, nutritional status and methods.


Grbic, M.; D. Rivers; M.R. Strand (1997) Caste formation in the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae): in vivo and in vitro analysis. Journal of Insect Physiology. 43(6): 553-565. ISSN: 0022-1910.

            NAL call number: 421 J825

Abstract: The polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum produces two morphologically distinct types of larvae in its host Trichoplusia ni. Reproductive larvae consume the host, pupate, and form adult wasps, whereas precocious larvae manipulate the sex ratios of the reproductive caste and defend the brood against interspecific competitors. Previous study indicated that morphogenesis of the reproductive caste was associated with a 9-day competency period, and that ecdysteroids of host origin were required for completion of embryogenesis. Here we investigated whether factors associated with the host environment mediate morphogenesis of precocious larvae and caste determination. Embryogenesis of precocious larvae was found to be synchronized with specific stages of the host first-fourth instars. However, development of precocious larvae did not depend on environmental factors specifically associated with these host stages. Elevation of the host juvenoid titer using the analogue methoprene induced T. ni to undergo a supernumerary sixth instar, but did not alter the proportion of wasp embryos that developed into precocious and reproductive larvae. In contrast, embryos competent to initiate morphogenesis developed into precocious larvae when transplanted into novel host stages such as pupae. Development of precocious larvae was arrested by ablation of the host's source of ecdysteroids, but could be rescued dose-dependently by injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone. In vitro rearing studies confirmed that completion of embryogenesis of the precocious caste required an exogenous pulse of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Combined with previous studies, our results indicate that embryos forming precocious and reproductive larvae acquire the competence to undergo morphogenesis at different times. However, we find no evidence to suggest that caste determination is mediated by environmental factors associated with a specific stage of the host.

Descriptors: Copidosoma, caste determination, polyembryony, larvae, dimorphism, embryonic development, morphogenesis, timing, methoprene, ecdysterone, hormonal control, parasitoids, host parasite relationships, Trichoplusia ni, developmental stages, in vitro.


Messing, R.H.; Klungness, L.M.; Jang, E.B. (1997) Effects of wind on movement of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies, in a laboratory flight tunnel. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 82(2): 147-152. ISSN: 0013-8703.

            NAL call number: 421 EN895

Descriptors: flight, locomotion, wind, parasitoid active movement and activity, velocity, pest, laboratory study, Braconidae, Tephritidae, parasitism, environmental factor, Hymenoptera.


Williams, R.S.; Lincoln, D.E.; Thomas, R.B. (1997) Effects of elevated CO2-grown loblolly pine needles on the growth, consumption, development, and pupal weight of red-headed pine sawfly larvae reared within open-topped chambers. Global Change Biology. 3(6): 501-511. ISSN: 1354-1013.

            NAL call number: QC981.8.C5G6323

Descriptors: elevated CO2, leaf nitrogen monoterpenes, Neodiprion lecontei, Pinus taeda, pupal weight, carbon dioxide atmospheres, insect herbivore interactions, enriched CO2 atmospheres, western spruce budworm, Taeda l seedlings, nutritional ecology, nutrient balance, Junonia coenia, water stress, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera.



Calderone, N.W.; R.E. Page Jr. (1996) Temporal polyethism and behavioral canalization in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Animal Behavior. 51(3): 631-643. ISSN: 0003-3472.

            NAL call number: 410 B77

Abstract: Two models of temporal polyethism in the honey bee were evaluated. The developmental-programme model asserts a causal relationship between age and task performance. The foraging-for-work model asserts that this relationship is an epiphenomenon associated with a self-organizing system. The effect of a worker's pre-foraging environment on task selection as a forager was also examined. Four groups of workers, emerging at 6-day intervals, were introduced to a colony. Workers in group 1 were introduced when less than 12 h old. Workers in groups 2 and 3 were divided into deprived and non-deprived groups. Non-deprived groups were introduced to the colony when less than 12 h old. Deprived groups were confined to an incubator for 12 days and 6 days, respectively, then introduced to the colony along with group 4 (< 12 h old). Foraging activities were quantified for two sets of workers from strains of bees selected for high and low pollen hoarding. The results support the developmental-programme model. Non-deprived workers began foraging in the order that they were introduced. Deprived workers from groups 2 and 3 began to forage before younger workers in group 4, even though all three groups were introduced to the colony at the same time. The results also suggest that a forager's task selection is primarily determined by her genotype and immediate environment. High-strain workers collected pollen more often than low-strain workers, regardless of their pre-foraging environments. Differences between deprived and non-deprived groups of the same strain and age were rare.

Descriptors: Apis mellifera, social behavior, age, forager’s task selection, colonies, work sharing, genotypes, environment, deprived and non-deprived groups.



Danka, R.G.; J.D. Villa; T.E. Rinderer; G.T. Delatte (1995) Field test of resistance to Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and of colony production by four stocks of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 88(3): 584-591. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: Characteristics of four stocks of honey bees, Apis mellifera l., were evaluated in colonies managed commercially for honey production at three U.S. locations-one north-central location (Iowa) and two south-central locations (Mississippi, Texas). Stocks were compared for 1 yr beginning in October 1991 to determine the levels of infestation by tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (rennie), and to ascertain survival rates, levels of honey production, and sizes of adult and brood populations. Test stocks were ARS-Y-C-1 (A. mellifera carnica pollman, imported from Yugoslavia), buckfast (imported from the United Kingdom), survivor (developed from colonies in a Louisiana apiary believed to have had severe tracheal mite infestation), and unchallenged (developed from a feral Louisiana population never exposed to tracheal mites). Stocks initially were represented by 15-20 colonies at each location. After an initial inoculation of mite-infested bees in the autumn, infestation percentages increased more markedly in the susceptible (survivor and unchallenged) stocks than in the resistant (ARS-Y-C-1 and buckfast) stocks. Mean infestation percentages in the resistant stocks remained <15% and thus were below levels associated with economic damage. Mean infestation percentages in susceptible stocks ranged from 13 to 95% at each site during the final 6 mo of the study. Numbers of mites per infested bee differed between stocks in 4 of 21 samples; mite numbers tended to be greatest in survivor bees and least in buckfast bees. Mortality increased more rapidly among susceptible colonies than among resistant colonies as infestation increased in 1992. Honey production was greatest by buckfast, intermediate by survivor, and least by unchallenged and ARS-Y-C-1 colonies. Differences in population sizes of adult bees and brood occurred in approximately half of samples taken in spring and autumn; survivor and buckfast colonies were most populous. Stock characteristics showed no interaction of genotype with environment, i.e., location. Our results support the feasibility of an approach using genetically regulated resistance to manage problems caused by tracheal mites.

Descriptors: Apis mellifera carnica, Acarapis woodi, infestation with tracheal mites, honey bee colonies, honey bee brood, parasitism, survival, honey, production, host strain differences, pest resistance, Iowa, Mississippi, Texas, infestation analysis.


Herrera, C.M. (1995) Floral biology, microclimate, and pollination by ectothermic bees in an early-blooming herb. Ecology. 76(1): 218-228. ISSN: 0012-9658.

            NAL call number: 410 Ec7

Abstract: Abiotic factors may constrain the functioning of species interactions such as plant-pollinator mutualisms. I investigated how thermal environment affects the interaction between the early-blooming daffodil, Narcissus longispathus (Amaryllidaceae) and its major bee pollinator (Andrena bicolor; Andrenidae), focusing simultaneously on plant and pollinator sides of the interaction. I studied fruit and seed set, flower duration, and the intrafloral thermal environment of N. longispathus, and the thermal biology, foraging behavior, and thermoregulatory ability of A. bicolor, over a 6-yr period in southeastern Spain. N. longispathus flowers from February to April, when unsuitable weather often limits pollinator activity, yet most flowers are successfully pollinated in all years and sites. Fruit set was weakly pollen limited, but among flowers setting fruit the proportion of ovules developing into seeds was not. Individual flowers lasted for 17 d on average, remaining functional during this period. On sunny days, the air inside N. longispathus flowers was significantly warmer than outside. Mean temperature excess inside flowers was as high as 8 degrees C, and was positively related to solar irradiance. Within flowers, air temperature was highest around the anthers; this intrafloral gradient was consistent with variation among perianth parts in radiation transmittance. Andrena bicolor foraged in N. longisapthus flowering patches only on sunny days with air temperature > 12 degrees - 13 degrees C, and foraging behavior and flower visitation rate were temperature dependent. Bees were able to fly at relatively low thoracic temperatures (Tth; range 22 degrees - 31 degrees C) and this was essential for successfully foraging at N. longispathus. Under the range of irradiance and air temperature found at foraging sites, A. bicolor individuals inside flowers were able to reach Tth suitable for flight by passive means alone. Under laboratory conditions, A. bicolor was unable to raise or otherwise regulate Tth by physiological means, but free-flying individuals thermoregulated behaviorally. Basking was used to raise Tth, and intrafloral microclimate, by influencing the proportion of foraging time devoted to basking, played an important role in thermoregulation. Flower visitation rate was positively related to the average temperature inside visited flowers, and the probability of basking immediately after one floral visit declined with increasing flower temperature. I conclude that the favorable microclimate within N. longispathus flowers, their long duration, and the thermal biology of A. bicolor, were critical elements in this early-season pollination system.

Descriptors: Narcissus longispathus, Andrena bicolor, foraging, pollination, flowering, seed set, fruits, environmental factors, microclimate, air temperature, bee body temperature, thermoregulation, phenology, Spain.


Macom, T.E.; Porter, S.D. (1995) Food and energy requirements of laboratory fire ant colonies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environmental Entomology. 24(2): 387-391. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: ecology, economic entomology, fire ant metabolism, food requirements, nutrition, physiology, Campanulaceae, Hymenoptera, Solenopsis invicta, bioenergetics, environmental biology.


Perez-Lachaud, G.; M. Campan (1995) Influence of previous sexual experience and post-emergence rearing conditions on the mating behavior of Chryseida bennetti. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 76(2): 163-170. ISSN: 0013-8703.

            NAL call number: 421 En895

Descriptors: Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, mating behavior, social environment, mating frequency, parasitoids, parasites of insect pests, Acanthoscelides obtectus, laboratory rearing, copulation.


Ready, C.C.; Vinson, S.B. (1995) Seed selection by the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the the laboratory. Environmental Entomology. 24(6): 1422-1431. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: fire ant behavior, development, ecology, economic entomology, nutrition, physiology, reproduction, Campanulaceae, Gramineae, Hymenoptera, Labiatae, Leguminosae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Solenopsis invicta, Zea mays, competition, germination, seed dispersal, seed predation, seed size, environmental biology, biochemistry and biophysics, comparative and experimental laboratory study.


Schmidt, L.S.; J.O. Schmidt; H. Rao; W. Wang; L. Xu (1995) Feeding preference and survival of young worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fed rape, sesame, and sunflower pollen. Journal of Economic Entomology. 88(16): 1591-1595. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: Young worker honey bees, Apis mellifera l., exhibited differences in feeding preferences and survival when fed pollen of rape, Brassica napus l., sesame, Sesamum indicum l., and sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Rape pollen was readily consumed and increased longevity 2.5 times relative to the controls fed only sucrose water. Sunflower pollen was readily consumed with bees on average surviving 1.6 times longer than the controls. Sesame pollen was not readily consumed and bees survived 1.7 times longer than the controls. The results suggest that honey bees used to pollinate monoculture crops of either sunflowers or sesame, but not rape, will need to be provided alternate floral or nutritional supplements source to enrich their diets and maintain colony health.

Descriptors: Apis mellifera, worker honey bees, feeding preferences, Brassica napus, Sesamum indicum, Helianthus annuus, pollen food effects on survival and longevity.



Inoue, M.; Ueda, M.; Ai, N. (1994) [Laboratory lesson for physiolosical [sic] study on respiration-modified strategy for estimation about oxgen consumption on respiration.] Japanese Journal of Biological Education. 34(4): 314-327. ISSN: 0287-119X. Note: In Japanese.

Descriptors: science education, respiration, Formicidae, oxygen consumption and demand, teaching material, mean value, education and training, Hymenoptera, Pterygota, environmental quality index, index number, numerical value.


Tsuji, K. (1994) Inter-colonial selection for the maintenance of cooperative breeding in the ant Pristomyrmex pungens: A laboratory experiment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 35(2): 109-113. ISSN: 0340-5443.

            NAL call number: QL751.B4

Descriptors: ecology, evolution and adaptation, nutrition, physiology, reproduction, Hymenoptera, Pristomyrmex pungens, behavior, colony competition, foraging, natural selection, parthenogenesis, social structure, evolution, environmental biology, nutritional status and methods, biochemistry, comparative and experimental morphology.


Vinson, S.B.; A.K. Mourad.; D.K. Sebesta (1994) Sources of possible host regulatory factors in Cardiochiles nigriceps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Archives of Insect Biochemistry and physiology. 26(2/3): 197-209. ISSN: 0739-4462.

            NAL call number: QL495.A7

Abstract: Both larvae and teratocytes liberated upon hatching from the eggs of the endoparasitoid Cardiochiles nigriceps viereck were found to release proteins into their surrounding environment as they develop. Teratocytes were found to synthesize and release a number of proteins into culture media in which they were incubated. The proteins released differed among the different teratocyte ages. Larvae were also found to release proteins into the culture media in which they were incubated. Ligation of the head or anal vesicle altered the protein pattern found in the media. The results demonstrate that both larvae and the associated teratocytes release proteins that may have important functions in the parasitoid-host interaction.

Descriptors: Heliothis virescens, Cardiochiles nigriceps, parasitoids, larvae and teratocytes release proteins, cells, growth regulators, ligation of head or anal vesicle.



Barrera, J.F.; Infante, F.; Alauzet, C.; Gomez, J.; De La Rosa, W.; Castillo, A. (1993) Biology of Cephalonomia stephanoderis betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in the laboratory: II. Development cycle, sex ratio, adult longevity and life expectancy. Cafe Cacao. 37(3): 205-214. ISSN: 0007-9510.

            NAL call number: 68.8 C112

Descriptors: development, ecology, economic entomology, horticulture, parasitology, physiology, reproductive system, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Rubiaceae, Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Hypothenemus hampei, biological control, coffee bean pest, environmental biology, biochemistry, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis, comparative and experimental morphology, pathology.


Chuda-Mickiewicz, B.; Prabucki, J. (1993) Próba (usilowac) stwierdzac wplyw *drone* *rearing* czas (obliczac) na wartosci *inseminated* *honeybee* królowe. [Attempt to ascertain the influence of the drone rearing time on value of inseminated honeybee queens.] Pszczelnicze Zeszyty Naukowe. 37: 41-49. ISSN: 0552-4563. Note: 18 ref., In Polish.

            NAL call number: 424.8 P954

Abstract: An attempt was undertaken to ascertain the influence of the drone rearing time on value of inseminated honeybee queens. A total of 2770 drones and 150 honeybee queens were examined directly through qualifying the quality of their semen, as well as indirectly through judging the queens, inseminated at different times in the season. The results obtained showed that the drones reared in June and used for insemination in the middle of July were the most valuable while those reared in July and used in August were the least valuable. The filling of the spermatheca as well as the beginning of oviposition of queens inseminated at different times of the season, seem to be more dependent on environment factors than on the time in which the drones were reared.

Descriptors: queen bees, drones, breeds, artificial insemination, seasons, summer, environmental factors, honeybee husbandry, methods, bee colonies, mating systems, reproduction control, seasons, taxa, useful insects.


Collett, T.S.; S.N. Fry; R. Wehner (1993) Sequence learning by honeybees. Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology. 172(6): 693-706. ISSN: 0340-7594.

            NAL call number: QP33.J68

Abstract: Bees of several genera make foraging trips on which they visit a series of plants in a fixed order. To help understand how honeybees might acquire such routes, we examined whether (1) bees learn motor sequences, (2) they link motor instructions to visual stimuli, (3) their visual memories are triggered by contextual cues associated with the bees' position in a sequence. 1. Bees were trained to follow a complex route through a series of obstacles inside a large, 250 cm by 250 cm box. In tests, the obstacles were briefly removed and the bees continued to fly the same zig-zag trajectory that they had when the obstacles were present. The bees' complex trajectory could reflect either the performance of a sequence of motor instructions or their attempt to reach fixed points in their environment. When the point of entry to the box was shifted, the bees' trajectory with respect to the new point of entry was relatively unchanged, suggesting that bees have learnt a motor sequence. 2. Bees were trained along an obstacle course in which different flight directions were associated with the presence of different large patches of colour. In tests, the order of coloured patches was reversed, the trajectory followed by the bees was determined by the order of colours rather than by the learnt motor sequence suggesting that bees will readily link the performance of a particular trajectory to an arbitrary visual stimulus. 3. Bees flew through a series of 3 similar compartments to reach a food reward. Passage from one compartment to the next was only possible through the centre of one of a pair of patterns, e.g. white + ve vs. black - ve in the first box, blue + ve vs. yellow - ve in the second, vertical + ve vs. horizontal - ve in the last. In some tests, bees were presented with a white vs. a vertical stimulus in the front compartment, while, in other tests, the same pair of stimuli was presented in the rear compartment. Bees preferred the white stimulus when tested in the first compartment, but chose the vertical stimulus in the last compartment. Bees reaching a compartment are thus primed to recall the stimulus which they normally encounter there. We argue that the elements which are linked together to form a route are "path-segments", each of which takes a bee for a given distance in a given direction.

Descriptors: Apis mellifera, worker honey bees, foraging, learning, vision, obstacle route training, path segment, navigation.


Le Moli, F.; Grasso, D.A.; D'Ettorre, P.; Mori, A. (1993) Intraspecific slavery in Polyergus rufescens latr. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): field and laboratory observations. Insectes Sociaux. 40(4): 433-437. ISSN: 0020-1812.

            NAL call number: 421 IN79

Descriptors: development, ecology, physiology, Hymenoptera, Polyergus rufescens, dulosis, ant slave raid, ant slave-makers, behavioral biology, environmental biology, developmental biology, embryology, intraspecific interactions.


Obin, M.S.; Morel, L.; Vander, M., Robert, K. (1993) Unexpected, well-developed nestmate recognition in laboratory colonies of polygyne imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Insect Behavior. 6(5): 579-589. ISSN: 0892-7553. http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/0892-7553

            NAL call number: QL496.J68

Descriptors: ant environments, genetics, kinship recognition, aggressive behavior in ants, laboratory vs. field maintenance, nestmate recognition, polygene, imported fire ants, social and instinctive behavior.


Vivas-Rodriguez, J.A.; Cabrera-Cauich, D.A.; Medina-Medina, L.A.; Baeza-Rodriguez, J.J. (1993) Biological components to nectar and pollen gathering. III. Environmental effect on brood rearing and food storage. Guadalajara, Jal. (Mexico), 27-30 Sep 1993, National Reunion on Animal Research. Jalisco 1993 (Summaries), CENID Microbiologia, Mexico, D.F., Sep 1993, p. 65, Note: Meeting, CENID Microbiologia. Apdo. Postal 41-652. Mexico, D.F. 05110, In Spanish.

Descriptors: honeybees, Africanized bees, apiculture, honeycombs, Yucatan, America, honeybee husbandry, beehives, Mexico, useful insects.



Bromenshenk, J.J.; Cronn, R.C.; Nugent, J.J. (1992) Ecological indicators, Vols 1 and 2. Surveillance monitoring of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory with honey bees. University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. (2): 1522-1523. ISBN: 1-85166-722-9 (set); 1-85166-711-3 (vol. 1); 1-85166-721-0 (vol. 2). Note: Conference/Meeting: International Symposium Fort Lauderdale, Florida, October 16-19, 1990.

            NAL call number: TD193.2 E26 1992

Descriptors: climatology, pathology, pollution assessment control and management, toxicology, Hymenoptera, anthropogenic chemicals, contaminant exposure, ecological indicators, environmental monitoring, industrial emissions, pollution effects, spatial trends, ecology, environmental biology, bioclimatology and biometeorology, toxicology methods and experimental, environmental and industrial toxicology, public health, environmental health, air, water and soil, comparative and experimental morphology, physiology.


Salmanova, L.M.; Chernyshev, V.B.; Olifer, V.V.; Grinberg, S.M.; Afonina, V.M. (1992) Gradual changes of Trichogramma in the course of laboratory rearing (Trichogramma evanescens): (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal. 71(10): 90-96. ISSN: 0044-5134.

            NAL call number: 410 R92

Descriptors: development, parasitology, physiology, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Mamestra brassicae, Sitotroga cerealella, Trichogramma evanescens, beneficial species, biological control, flight, kairomone response, natural host, parasite efficiency, spontaneous jumping, behavioral biology, insect communication, ecology, environmental biology, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis, comparative and experimental morphology, biochemical studies, movement, endocrine system, economic entomology.



Ledwa, W. (1991) Fehlerhaftes Aufrichten (Einziehen) und Verluste der Biene Kolonien. [Erroneous rearing (feeding) and losses of bee colonies.] Schweizerische Bienen Zeitung. 114(10): 588-591. ISSN: 0036-7540. Note: 2 photographs, In German.

            NAL call number: 424.8 SCH9

Descriptors: Apidae, bee colonies, Varroa, Acariasis, nectar, pest control, biotopes, Acarina, Arachnida, environments, honeybees, Hymenoptera, Mesostigmata, parasitoses, plant secretions, useful insects, Varroidae.


Wardle, A.R.; J.H. Borden (1991) Effect of prior experience on the response of Exeristes roborator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) to a natural host and microhabitat in a seminatural environment. Environmental Entomology. 20(3): 889-898. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: In a field cage, the responses of females of the polyphagous ichneumonid ectoparasitoid Exeristes roborator (f.) to a natural host and microhabitat were reduced by prior experience with the same host in an artificial microhabitat. Learning of the artificial microhabitat probably interfered with females' normal responses to the natural system. Parasitoids that had previously attacked hosts in the artificial microhabitat contacted the natural system in fewer numbers and performed host-seeking and host-attacking activities on it with lower intensity than control females. They also killed fewer host larvae than controls. Thus, rearing procedures that permit parasitoids produced for release as biological control agents to gain experience with nontarget hosts and microhabitats could impair these insects' effectiveness against target pests. Prior experience with the natural host and microhabitat did not increase females' responses to them. This result could reflect the way in which learning functions for E. roborator. Learning might allow the parasitoid to use unusual or less preferred hosts when its normal hosts are rare but not to enhance its responses to hosts for which it has a strong innate preference. Learning may have caused E. roborator to respond almost exclusively to the natural host and microhabitat when it was familiar with them. Fidelity to a target system caused by prior exposure to it might enhance a biological control agents' performance over a longer term than was examined here.

Descriptors: Pinus sylvestris, Rhyacionia buoliana, Exeristes roborator, parasites of insect pests, field cage, ectoparasitoid, effectiveness of artificially reared wasps, habitats, host seeking behavior, British Columbia.



Martin, P. (1990) Respiration d'une colonie d'unifasciatus de Leptothorax (latr.) élevé dans le laboratoire. [Respiration of a colony of Leptothorax unifasciatus (latr.) reared in the laboratory.] Actes des Colloques Insectes Sociaux. (6): 219-226. ISSN: 0256-0076. Note: In French.

Descriptors: environmental factors, temperature, social insects, physiology, respiration, insect physiology and biochemistry, agricultural entomology, Leptothorax unifasciatus, Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Belgium, pests of plants, insect physiology and biochemistry.


Moli, F. le; Mori, A. (1990) Laboratory experiments on environmental sources of nestmate and non-nestmate discrimination in three species of Formica ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche. 97(3-4): 147-169. ISSN: 0033-2615.

            NAL call number: 421 P95

Descriptors: social insects, diets, biology, behavior, agricultural entomology, Formica cunicularia, Hymenoptera, Formica lugubris, Formica rufa, Italy, pests.



Abdullah, M.; Dawah, H.A.; Jervis, M.A. (1989) New rearing records for the parasitoids Homoporus subniger (walker), H. febriculosus (girault) and Merisus splendidus walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Entomologist's Gazette. 40(4): 325-327. ISSN: 0013-8894.

            NAL call number: 421 EN834

Descriptors: Dactylis glomerata, useful insects, natural enemies, habitats, Pteromalidae, parasites, hosts, biological competition, British Isles, environments, Gramineae, Hymenoptera, noxious insects, parasitism, pests, Western Europe.


Bindokas, V.P.; Gauger, J.R.; Greenberg, B. (1989) Laboratory investigations of the electrical characteristics of honey bees and their exposure to intense electric fields. Bioelectromagnetics. 10(1): 1-12. ISSN: 0197-8462.

Descriptors: bioelectric phenomena, electric field effects, honey bee electrical characteristics, Apis mellifera, intense electric fields, vibrations, wings, antennae, body hairs, behavior, conductive substrate, voluntary movements, lower thorax, legs, enhanced current density, insulator, bee impedance, step-potential-induced currents, 60 Hz, 240 nA, 1 Mohm, bioelectricity, biological effects of radiations.


Goussard, F.; Geri, C. (1989) Un élevage continu du pini l. de Diprion dans le laboratoire. [A continuous rearing of Diprion pini l. in laboratory.] Agronomie. 9(9): 911-918. ISSN: 0249-5627. Note: 28 ref., In French.

            NAL call number: SB7.A3

Descriptors: Pinus sylvestris, diprion, diapause, lighting, laboratory rearing techniques, biological development, conifers, crops, economic plants, environmental control, gymnosperms, Hymenoptera, physiological functions, Pinaceae, structural crops, timber trees.



Brown, P.E.; Frank, C.P.; Groves, H.L.; Anderson, M. (1988) Spectral sensitivity and visual conditioning in the parasitoid wasp Trybliographa rapae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. 88: 239–245. ISSN: 0007-4853.

            NAL call number: 421 B87

Descriptors: Trybliographa rapae, parasitoid wasp, spectral sensitivity, visual conditioning.


Hall, R.D.; Fischer, F.J. (1988) Laboratory studies on the biology of Spalangia nigra (Hym.: Pteromalidae). Entomophaga. 33(4): 495-503. ISSN: 0013-8959.

            NAL call number: 421 En835

Descriptors: host-parasite relation, host selection, development, parasitism rate, temperature, sex ratio, longevity, entomophagous, laboratory study, environmental factors, Spalangia nigra, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, parasitoid, Pteromalidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera, Muscidae, Diptera.


Herard, F.; Keller, M.A.; Lewis, W.J. (1988) Rearing Microplitis demolitor wilkinson (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the laboratory for use in studies of semiochemical mediated searching behavior. Journal of Entomological Science. 23(2): 105-111. ISSN: 0749-8004.

            NAL call number: QL461 G4

Descriptors: natural enemies, temperature, environmental factors, humidity, sex ratio, rearing techniques, parasitoids, hosts, techniques, agricultural entomology, Microgaster demolitor, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Helicoverpa zea, biological control, techniques and methodology, pests.


Kfir, R.; Hamburg, H.van (1988) Interspecific competition between Telenomus ullyetti (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Trichogrammatoidea lutea (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitizing eggs of the cotton bollworm Heliothis armiger in the laboratory. Environmental Entomology. 17(4): 664-670. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: temperature, natural enemies of plant pests, photoperiod, relative humidity, parasitoids, hosts, cotton, fields, interactions, environmental factors, Telenomus ullyetti, Trichogrammatoidea lutea, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Scelionidae, Helicoverpa armigera, Gossypium, South Africa, Malvaceae, Malvales, Africa South of Sahara, pathogens and biogenic diseases, biological control.


Kolodny-Hirsch, D.M. (1988) Influence of some environmental factors on the laboratory production of Cotesia melanoscela (Braconidae: Hymenoptera): a larval parasitoid of Lymantria dispar. Environmental Entomology. 17(1): 127-131. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: temperature, sex ratio, light, natural enemies of insect forest pests, biology, environmental factors, parasitoids, hosts, rearing techniques, Apanteles melanoscelus, Lepidoptera, Lymantria dispar, Cotesia melanoscelus, Braconidae, Hymenoptera, biological control, silviculture, pathogens and biogenic diseases, techniques and methodology.


Rami, K. fir; Van Hamburg, H. (1988) Interspecific competition between Telenomus ullyetti (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Trichogrammatoidea lutea (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitizing eggs of the cotton bollworm Heliothis armiger in the laboratory. Environmental Entomology. 17(4): 664-670. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: interspecific competition, multiparasitism, temperature, parasite, entomophagous, laboratory study, Oophagous, environmental factor, Scelionidae, Trichogrammatidae, Heliothis armigera, parasitoid, Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera.


Southerland, M.T. (1988) The effects of temperature and food on the growth of laboratory colonies of Aphaenogaster rudis emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insectes Sociaux. 35(3): 304-309. ISSN: 0020-1812.

            NAL call number: 421 IN79

Descriptors: temperature effects, social insects, diets, biology, environmental factors, Aphaenogaster rudis, Hymenoptera, Formicidae, pests, pathogens and biogenic diseases, ants.


Sureerat, P.; Siriwat, W. (1988) Queen rearing with Apis cerana in Thailand. Programme and Abstracts 14th Conference on Science and Technology of Thailand, Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). p. 422-423. ISBN: 974-86840-3-2. Note: In English and Thai.

Abstract: Queen rearing with Apis cerana in Thailand is a new technology in selection and breeding program. The method for rearing queens of A. mellifera was applied to A. cerana queen rearing at the Bee Biology Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, where up to 90 % of the transplanted larvae were accepted during swarming season and less than 30% were accepted during the rainy season and lack of food. Production of queen rearing with A. cerana by single grafting were compared with double grafting. There was no significant difference between two methods (at 95 % level). Only the external environment factors were important effects for queen rearing with A. cerana.

Descriptors: queen bee rearing, Apis cerana, apiculture, environmental factors, yields, Thailand, animal husbandry, Apidae, Asia, honeybees, Hymenoptera, South East Asia, useful insects, Bee Biology Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University.



Adashkevich, B.P.; Saidova, E.K. (1987) [Features of the development of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) during rearing in the laboratory.] Zoologicheskii Zhurnal. 66(10): 1509-1515. ISSN: 0044-5134. Note: In Russian.

            NAL call number: 410 R92

Descriptors: temperature, humidity, natural enemies, pests, fecundity, ecology, development, heat sums, parasitoids, hosts, biology, environmental factors, Galleria mellonella, USSR, Bracon, Braconidae, Hymenoptera, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera, biological control, pathogens and biogenic diseases, development in artificial rearing.


Mintzer, A.C. (1987) Primary polygyny in the ant Atta texana: number and weight of females and colony foundation success in the laboratory. Social Insects. 34(2): 108-117.

Descriptors: Atta texana, Formicidae, weight, effect on survival and colony success, polygamy, cooperative colony foundation success, reproductive productivity, female founder weight relationships, colony formation, female colony founders, related to body weight, biometrics, reproduction, behavior, ecology, population dynamics, Aculeata, Apocrita, Hymenoptera.



Obin, M.S. (1986) Nestmate recognition cues in laboratory and field colonies of Solenopsis invicta buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Effect of environment and role of cuticular hydrocarbons. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 12(9): 1965-1975. ISSN: 0098-0331.

            NAL call number: QD415.A1J6

Descriptors: Solenopsis invicta, discrimination, colonies, odors, cuticles, hydrocarbons, communication between insects, aggressive behavior.



Adashkevich, B.P.; Umarova, T.M. (1985) Peculiarities of the development of Trichogramma principium (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) under laboratory conditions. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal. 64(9): 1413-1417. ISSN: 0044-5134.

            NAL call number: 410 R92

Descriptors: natural enemies, parasites, hosts, ecology, environmental factors, Trichogramma principium, Lepidoptera, Sitotroga cerealella, USSR, biological control, pests, developmental changes, artificial rearing.


Filho, B.F. do Amaral (1985) Contribuicao ao conhecimento do ciclo biologico de Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) sob condicoes de laboratorio. [Contribution to the knowledge of the biological cycle of Venturia canescens (gravenhorst, 1829) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) under laboratory conditions.] Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil. 14(1): 17-22. ISSN: 0301-8059. Note: In Portuguese.

            NAL call number: QL461.S64

Descriptors: Ephestia kuehniella, Pyralidae, hymenopteran parasites, Venturia canescens, parasite life cycle, Ichneumonidae, developmental stages, duration, longevity, Lepidopteran hosts, environmental influences on life cycle, abiotic factors, life cycle relationship, parasites diseases and disorders, Heteroneura, Glossata, Terebrantia, Apocrita.



Grant, J.F.; Shepard, M. (1984) Laboratory biology of Meteorus autographae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an indigenous parasitoid of soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Environmental Entomology. 13(3): 838-842. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, oil plant, development, temperature, host parasite relation, laboratory study, fecundity, parasite efficiency, pest, Noctuidae, Braconidae, entomophagous, Pseudoplusia includens, Glycine max, Leguminosae.


Liu, S.S.; Hughes, R.D. (1984) The relationships between temperature and rate of development in two geographic stocks of Aphidius sonchi in the laboratory. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 36(3): 231-238. ISSN: 0013-8703.

            NAL call number: 421 En895

Descriptors: Hymenoptera, parasite, Homoptera, development, temperature, laboratory study, Aphidiidae, pest, environmental factor, entomophagous, weed, Sonchus oleraceus, Compositae.


Yadav, R.P.; Chaudhary, J.P. (1984) Laboratory studies on the biology of Ooencyrtus papilionis ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg-parasitoid of the sugarcane leaf hopper (Pyrilla perpusilla walker). Journal of Entomological Research (New Delhi). 8(2): 162-166. ISSN: 0378-9519.

            NAL call number: QL483.I4J6

Descriptors: Ooencyrtus papilionis, Encyrtidae, egg number, duration, laboratory, emergence from pupa, Hemipteran hosts, Pyrilla perpusilla, population sex ratio, seasonal environmental effects, humidity, temperature, seasonal variation effects on life cycle, Lophopidae, Hymenopteran parasites, reproductive productivity, development, metamorphosis, parasites diseases and disorders, hosts, population dynamics, Chalcidoidea, Terebrantia, Apocrita, Fulgoroidea, Auchenorrhyncha, Homoptera, true bugs, parasitoids.



Beassem, J. (1982) Étude de laboratoire de l'effet des facteurs eco-physiologiques sur la biologie des flavipes d'Apanteles (came.) (Hym :Braconidae) développé sur le zacconius Blesz de Chilo. (Lep : Pyralidae). [Laboratory study of the effect of eco-physiological factors on the biology of Apanteles flavipes (Cam.) (Hym: Braconidae) grown on Chilo zacconius Blesz. (Lep: Pyralidae).] Ec. Natl. Super. Agron. University, Montpellier, Degree: Thesis, Doct.: Agron. 137 f.-22 pl. Note: In French.

Descriptors: Hymenoptera, parasite, Lepidoptera, temperature, humidity, feeding, host parasite relation, Apanteles flavipes, Braconidae, Pyralidae, pest, entomophagous, environmental factor.



Turillazzi, S.; Conte, A. (1981) Temperature and caste differentiation in laboratory colonies of Polistes foederatus (kohl) (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Monitore Zoologico Italiano. 15(4): 275-297. ISSN: 0026-9786.

            NAL call number: QL1 M6

Descriptors: caste differentiation, temperature, environmental factor, Hymenoptera, Polistes foederatus, social polymorphism, Vespidae, ethology.



Bilewicz-Pawinska, T. (1977) Time reduction of diapause of parasitic Peristenus foerster (Hymenoptera) under laboratory conditions. Bulletin de l'Academie Polonaise des Sciences. Serie des Sciences Biologiques. 25(5): 301-305. ISSN: 0001-4087.

            NAL call number: 512 W262

Descriptors: Braconidae, postembryonic development, diapause, environment, temperature.


Vesely, V. (1977) First experience with rearing the honey-bees in controlled-environment room. Vedecke Prace Vyzkumneho Ustavu Vcelarskeho. (8): 113-131. Note: 2 tables; 10 ref., Dol u Libcic, In Czech.

            Descriptors: Honey bees (Apis mellifera), laboratory rearing conditions.



Varma, G.C.; Bindra, O.S. (1974) Laboratory studies on host-parasite relationships of two Apanteles species when reared on Chilo partellus (swinhoe). Indian Journal of Entomology. 36(2): 110-112. ISSN: 0367-8288.

            NAL call number: 420 IN23

Descriptors: Apanteles flavipes, Braconidae, Chilo partellus, mass rearing, entomophagous, laboratory study, environmental factor, relative humidity, Hymenoptera, India, Lepidoptera, parasitism, Pyralidae, host parasite relation, parasitism rate, temperature, ecology.


Varma, G.C.; Bindra, O.S. (1974) Laboratory studies on multiparasitism in Apanteles flavipes (cameron) and Apanteles chilonis munakata (Braconidae: Hymenoptera). Indian Journal of Entomology. 36(1): 34-37. ISSN: 0367-8288.

            NAL call number: 420 IN23

Descriptors: Apanteles flavipes, Braconidae, interspecific competition, entomophagous, laboratory study, environmental factor, relative humidity, Hymenoptera, India, natural enemy introduction, multiparasitism, parasitism, temperature, ecology.



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