Broderick, N.A.; Raffa, K.F.; Goodman, R.M; Handelsman, J. (2004) Census of the bacterial community of the gypsy moth larval midgut by using culturing and culture-independent methods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 70(1): 293-300. ISSN: 0099-2240.

            NAL call number: 448.3 Ap5

Descriptors: ingestion and assimilation, ecology, Lepidoptera, Lymantria dispar, gypsy moth, polyphagous folivore, butterfly, moth, midgut, microbial analysis, DNA sequencing, rRNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, laboratory techniques, culturing techniques, insect diets, environmental biology.


DeChaine, E.G.; Martin, A.P. (2004) Historic cycles of fragmentation and expansion in Parnassius smintheus (Papilionidae) inferred using mitochondrial DNA. Evolution. 58(1): 113-127. ISSN: 0014-3820.

            NAL call number: 443.8 Ev62

Descriptors: climatology, evolution and adaptation, paleobiology, population genetics, Lepidoptera, Parnassius smintheus, alpine butterfly, cytochrome oxidase I, mitochondrial DNA, archipelago model, nested clade analysis, laboratory techniques, climate oscillation and warming, cold glacial period, down-slope migration, ecosystem contraction and expansion, genetic drift and variation, high-elevation ecosystem, historic fragmentation cycle, molecular clock, natural selection, paleoclimatic events, phylogenetics, sky island refugia, evolution, environmental biology, boclimatology and biometeorology.


Gilbert, L.; Toivola, J.; Lehtomaki, E.; Donaldson, L.; Kapyla, P.; Vuento, M.; Oker-Blom, C. (2004) Assembly of fluorescent chimeric virus-like particles of canine parvovirus in insect cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 313(4): 878-887. ISSN: 0006-291X.

            NAL call number: 442.8 B5236

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, infection, methods and techniques, DNA viruses, Lepidoptera, Baculovirus, Sf9 cell line, Canine parvovirus, enhanced green fluorescent protein, confocal imaging, laboratory techniques, comparative study, experimental morphology, physiology and pathology.


Martin, L.A.; Pullin, A.S. (2004) Host-plant specialisation and habitat restriction in an endangered insect, Lycaena dispar batavus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) I. Larval feeding and oviposition preferences. European Journal of Entomology. 101(1): 51-56. ISSN: 1210-5759.

            NAL call number: QL461 E9884

Descriptors: terrestrial ecology, environmental biology, Lycaena dispar, large copper butterfly, Lepidoptera, endangered species, larval feeding preferences, larval performance, oviposition preferences, Rumex hydrolapathum, Polygonaceae, laboratory experiment, laboratory techniques, fenland habitat, host-plant specialization, insect conservation, plant chemistry, specialized food plant requirements, specialized habitat requirements, wetland habitat loss.


Onyilagha, J.C.; Lazorko, J.; Gruber, M.Y.; Soroka, J.J.; Erlandson, M.A. (2004) Effect of flavonoids on feeding preference and development of the crucifer pest Mamestra configurata (walker). Journal of Chemical Ecology. 30(1): 109-124. ISSN: 0098-0331.

            NAL call number: QD415.A1J6

Descriptors: terrestrial ecology, Cruciferae, Lepidoptera, Brassica napus, Mamestra configurata, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, dihydroquercetin, flavanones, flavanonols, flavonoids, isorhamnetin-3-sophoroside-7-glucoside, kaempferol-3,7-diglucoside, feeding deterrent bioassay, laboratory techniques, feeding preference, environmental biology.


Oura, M. (2004) Insect factory. Mass production of useful proteins using silkworms. Kagaku to Seibutsu. 42(2): 72-74. ISSN: 0453-073X.

Descriptors: Bombyx mori, silkworm, sericulture, animal protein, recombinant protein, useful material, mass production, production system, unmanned factory, nuclear polyhedrosis virus, vector, genetics, productivity enhancement, Lepidoptera, larva, growth stage, rearing management, insect and animal virus.


Schmitt, T.; Hewitt, G.M. (2004) The genetic pattern of population threat and loss: A case study of butterflies. Molecular Ecology. 13(1): 21-31. ISSN: 0962-1083.

            NAL call number: QH540.M64

Descriptors: biogeography, population genetics, terrestrial ecology, Lepidoptera, Erebia medusa, Pieris napi, Polyommatus coridon, allozyme electrophoresis, laboratory techniques, biodiversity loss, fitness, genetic population structure, glacial refugia, phylogeographical patterns, environmental biology.


Schtickzelle, N.; Baguette, M. (2004) Metapopulation viability analysis of the bog fritillary butterfly using RAMAS/GIS. Oikos. 104(2): 277-290, ISSN: 0030-1299.

            NAL call number: 410 OI4

Descriptors: conservation, mathematical and computational biology, population studies, terrestrial ecology, environmental sciences, Lepidoptera, Proclossiana eunomia, bog fritillary butterfly, RAMAS/GIS 3.0, metapopulation viability analysis, mathematical and computer techniques, population viability analysis, laboratory techniques, spatially structured metapopulation model, climatic variables, demographic parameters, density dependence, dispersal, fragmented landscapes, global warming, habitat fragmentation, habitat management, local population dynamics, metapopulation dynamics and persistence, natural habitat patches, patch dynamics, rustic herbivore grazing, environmental biology.



Buckingham, G.R.; Bennett, C.A. (2001) Life history and laboratory host range tests of Parapoynx seminealis (walker) (Crambidae: Nymphulinae) in Florida, U.S.A. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 55(3): 111-118. ISSN: 0024-0966.

            NAL call number: 421 L554

Descriptors: pest assessment control and management, terrestrial ecology, environmental biology, Hydrocharitaceae, Lepidoptera, Egeria densa, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphoides aquatica, Neuroptera, Parapoynx seminealis, biological control agent, host range, life history.


Tisdale, R.A.; Sappington, T.W. (2001) Realized and potential fecundity, egg fertility, and longevity of laboratory-reared female beet armyworm (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) under different adult diet regimes. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 94(3): 415-419. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 En82

Descriptors: fecundity, fertility, egg, longevity, female, diet, pest, laboratory study, Spodoptera exigua, population dynamics, environmental factor, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera.



Miao, Y. (2000) Studies on the light and water content of artificial diet for silkworm, Bombyx mori, rearing. Sericologia. 40(3): 399-405. ISSN: 0250-3980. Note: 5 ref.

Abstract: It was studied the effects of the light and water content of artificial diet rearing on the growth and development of silkworm, Bombyx mori l. The results showed: Treatment with 16h light and 8h dark in rearing period was suitable to the silkworm growth; 68-72% of water content in artificial diet is suitable.

Descriptors: Bombyx mori, silkworms, light regimes, feeds, moisture content, silkworm performance, Bombycidae, environmental control, Lepidoptera, lighting, useful insects.


Peng, Y.; Ohura, M. (2000) Remote automated environmental control system for insect production. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 16(6): 715-721. ISSN: 0883-8542.

            NAL call number: S671.A66

Descriptors: insect production facility, silkworm growth, temperature and humidity, remote control, E-mail server, natural ventilation, control algorithm.


Ziesmann, J.; Valterova, I.; Haberkorn, K.; Sanchez, M.G. de Brito; Kaissling, K.E. (2000) Chemicals in laboratory room air stimulate olfactory neurons of female Bombyx mori. Chemical Senses. 25(1): 31-37. ISSN: 0379-864X.

            http://chemse.oupjournals.org/ and http://www.oup.co.uk

            NAL call number: QP456.C5

Descriptors: chemicals, environmental effects, experimental laboratories, olfactory neuron perception and stimulation, chemicals in laboratory air, female Bombyx mori.



Fantinou, A.A.; Tsitsipis, J.A. (1999) Effect of larval density on development and diapause of Sesamia nonagrioides (lef.) (Lep., Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Applied Entomology. 123(3): 187-190. ISSN: 0931-2048.

            NAL call number: 421 Z36

Descriptors: population density, life cycle, diapause, larva, pupation, controlled environment study, Sesamia nonagrioides, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera.


Gao, J.; Li, T.; Deng, J.; Wu, X.; Song, C.; Wang, G.; Zhu, W.; Hong, C. (1999) Effect of temperature and humidity on a laboratory population of Ephestia elutella hubner. Zoological Research. 20(5): 368-371. ISSN: 0254-5853.

            NAL call number: QL1.T85

Descriptors: stored products insect pests, life tables, biological development, reproduction, population dynamics, air temperature, relative humidity, environmental factors, longevity, survival, fertility, hatching, agricultural entomology, Ephestia elutella, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera, development and life cycle, wild insects, meteorology and climate.


Ma, J.; Chen, Y.; Xiao, S.; Mo, G. (1999) Influence of temperature on the increase of laboratory population of Spodoptera exigua. Journal of Hunan Agricultural University. 25(4): 308-311. Note: In Chinese.

            NAL call number: S471 C62H852

Descriptors: life history, development, fecundity, environmental factors, temperature, survival, reproduction, mathematical models, agricultural entomology, Spodoptera exigua, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, pests, pathogens and biogenic diseases of plants, mathematics and statistics.


Matheson, S.F.; Levine, R.B. (1999) Steroid hormone enhancement of neurite outgrowth in identified insect motor neurons involves specific effects on growth cone form and function. Journal of Neurobiology. 38(1): 27-45. ISSN: 0022-3034.

            NAL call number: QP351 J55

Descriptors: growth cone, cytoskeleton, steroid hormone, metamorphosis, neurite outgrowth, ecdysone, cell culture, morphometry, microtubule associated protein, interference contrast microscopy, dendritic spine density, Manduca sexta, hippocampal neurons, time lapse, in vitro, sympathetic neurons, target, recognition, tobacco hornworm, Lepidoptera.


Peng, Y.; Ohura, M. (1999) Development of measurement and control system of rearing environment for insect factory, 2: Temperature and humidity control of silkworm [Bombyx mori] rearing room. Journal of the Japanese Society of Agricultural Machinery. 61(4): 151-158. ISSN: 0285-2543. Note: 9 figs., In Japanese.

            NAL call number: 58.9 So1

Descriptors: silkworms, sericultural equipment, thermoregulation, humidity control, air conditioning, animal husbandry, equipment, environmental control, physiological functions and regulation, useful insects.



Fantinou, A.A.; Tsitsipis, J.A.; Karandinos, M.G. (1998) Diapause termination in Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions. Environmental Entomology. 27(1): 53-58. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: dormancy breaking, diapause, pest, cereal crop, photoperiod, temperature, overwintering, Greece, Zea mays, Sesamia nonagrioides, Europe, environmental factor, Gramineae, Monocotyledones, Angiospermae, Spermatophyta, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera.


Ohura, M.; Peng, Y. (1998) [Construction of silkworm [Bombyx mori] rearing environment automatic control system by personal computer.] Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan. 67(3): 231-236. ISSN: 0037-2455. Note: 1 table; 9 fig., In Japanese.

            NAL call number: 425.9 SE6

Descriptors: Bombyx mori, rearing techniques, mass rearing, environmental computer control systems, temperature, humidity, Bombycidae, Lepidoptera.


Peng, Y.; Ohura, M. (1998) [Development of measurement and control system of rearing environment for insect factory, 1: Configuration of simulation system and fundamental examination.] Journal of the Japanese Society of Agricultural Machinery. 60(3): 107-115. ISSN: 0285-2543. Note: 2 tables; 10 fig.; 6 ref., In Japanese.

            NAL call number: 58.9 So1

Descriptors: silkworms, environmental control, mass rearing, optimization methods, operations research, rearing techniques, Bombyx mori.


Shirai, Y. (1998) Laboratory evaluation of flight ability of the oriental corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. 88(3): 327-333. ISSN: 0007-4853.

            NAL call number: 421 B87

Descriptors: pest, duration, flight, temperature, longevity, breeding success and mating, reproduction, Ostrinia furnacalis, environmental factor, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera.


Singh, G.P.; Mathur, V.B.; Kamble, C.K.; Datta, R.K. (1998) Young age rearing of silkworm, Bombyx mori l., a review. Sericologia. 38(2): 199-228. ISSN: 0250-3980. Note: 85 ref., 9 tables.

Descriptors: Bombyx mori, silkworms, young insects, rearing techniques, environmental temperature, relative humidity, feeding, nutritional requirements, leaves, Bombycidae, environmental factors, Lepidoptera, Moraceae.


Stan, G. (1998) [Influence of temperature on growth, development and food consumption by larvae of Mamestra brassicae l. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions.] Studia Universitatis Babes Bolyai Biologia. 43(1-2): 51-64. ISSN: 0039-3398. Note: In Romanian.

            NAL call number: 442.9 C62

Descriptors: climatology, Lepidoptera, Mamestra brassicae, Noctuidae, larva, food consumption, biomass conversion, efficiency, temperature effects, physiology, ecology, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis.


Tshernyshev, W.B.; Danthanarayana, W. (1998) Laboratory studies of flight activity in some noctuids (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Heliothinae). 2. Activity from day to day. Russian Entomological Journal. 7(1/2): 96-100.

Descriptors: flight activity, moonlight effects, magnetism, atmospheric pressure, environmental factors, biology, behavior, Australothis rubrescens, Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa punctigera, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, plant pests.


Xie, L.; Jiang, M.; Zhang, X. (1998) [Effect of temperature and humidity on laboratory population of Helicoverpa assulta.] Acta Entomologica Sinica. 41(1): 61-69. ISSN: 0454-6296. Note: In Chinese.

            NAL call number: 421 K96

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, Helicoverpa assulta, tobacco budworm, developmental duration, fecundity, survival rate, temperature and humidity effects, environmental biology, reproductive system, physiology, biochemistry.



Papiewska, C.A. (1997) [Differences in individual development and morphology within larval populations of Pieris brassicae l. (Lep., Pieridae) reared at different temperatures and photoperiods.] Novenyvedelem. 33(3): 121-127. ISSN: 0133-0829. Note: 5 Tables; 6 ill., In Hungarian.

            NAL call number: Z5354 P2A34

Abstract: According to our observations on Pieris brassicae l. larvae reared in 1994 and 1995 in our laboratory, the ones kept at 23°C and 25°C and at 13:11 LD photoperiod went to 100 percent into diapause while the ones kept at 14:10 LD diapaused only to 50 percent. At the highest temperature level (28 degrees C) only 60 percent of larvae entered diapause at 13:11 LD and none of them at 14:10 LD photoperiod. At the longer light periods (15:9, 16:8, 17:7 LD) all larvae transformed into adults, without diapause. The various rearing temperatures and photoperiods resulted in differences of the head capsule measurements of larvae. Simultaneously to increasing temperature the widhts of head capsules decreased of all larval stages.

Descriptors: Pieris brassicae, larvae, temperature at 23°C and 25°C, photoperiodicity, diapause, Hungary, developmental stages, dormancy, environmental factors, Lepidoptera, light regimes.


Shukla, A.; Pathak, S.C.; Agrawal, R.K. (1997) Effect of some plant odours in the breeding environment on fecundity and hatching of okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella fab. under laboratory conditions. Crop Research (Hisar). 13(1): 157-161. ISSN: 0970-4884.

            NAL call number: 80 H7892

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, okra plant pest, physiology, reproductive system, sense organs, sensory reception, Labiatae, Lepidoptera, Liliaceae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Verbenaceae, garlic, neem, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Earias vittella, Eucalyptus rostrata, Lantana camara, Ocimum basilicum, adult longevity, cotton pest, egg hatching and output, fecundity, fruit borer, hatching, plant odor, shoot borer, spotted bollworm, Tulsi, sense organs, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis.



Grant, A.J.; Borroni, P.F.; O'Connell, R.J. (1996) Different seasonal rearing conditions do not affect pheromone-sensitive receptor neurons of the adult cabbage looper, moth, Trichoplusia ni. Physiological Entomology. 21(1): 59-63. Note: 32 ref.

            NAL call number: QL461.P5

Descriptors: temperature effects, photoperiodicity, tissues, Trichoplusia ni, environmental factors, sex pheromones, body parts, Lepidoptera, light regimes, nervous system, Noctuidae, North America, semiochemicals.


Magrini, E.A.; Neto, S.S.; Parra, J.R.; Botelho, P.S. (1996) Effect of temperature on egg laying capacity and longevity of Anticarsia gemmatalis hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions. Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba). 71(1): 93-103. ISSN: 0034-7655.

            NAL call number: 9.2 R324

Descriptors: temperature, oviposition, biology, environmental factors, plant pest, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, behavior.


Nishimura, A.; Fujieda, T.; Kuwabara, N. (1996) [Effects of temperature in the fifth instar and cocooning frame on the cocoon quality and diapause property in the parent silkworms reared on artificual diet.] Bulletin of the Gunma Sericultural Experiment Station. (2): 23-26. ISSN: 1341-2981. Note: 2 tables, In Japanese.

Descriptors: Bombyx mori, environmental temperature effects, diapause, caterpillar feeding, Bombycidae, dormancy, environmental factors, Lepidoptera.


Tsenov, P.; Selskostopanska, A.S. (1996) [The effect of some environmental factors during rearing of parent silkworms on the hatchability of daughter eggs.] Zhivotnov"dni Nauki, Animal Science. 33(5): 70-73. ISSN: 0514-7441. Note: 3 tables; 15 ref., In Bulgarian.

            NAL call number: SF1.A56

Descriptors: Bombyx mori, parents, temperature, silkworm feeding, daughter eggs, hatching, ancestry, developmental stages, Lepidoptera, physiological functions, progeny, sexual reproduction, insect husbandry rearing production, physiology.




Atachi, P.; Ahounou, M. (1995) Experimental study of the biological potential of Maruca testulalis (geyer) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on some food substrata under laboratory conditions. Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France Evolution et Zoologie. 120(1): 29-45. ISSN: 0037-962X.

            NAL call number: 410.9 P214B

Descriptors: aging, ecology, genetics, physiology, reproductive system, Lepidoptera, Maruca testulalis, life history, longevity, mortality, sex ratio, cytogenetics, sex differences, environmental biology, pathology, necrosis, biochemistry, gerontology, diets.


Brakefield, P.M.; Mazzotta, V. (1995) Matching field and laboratory environments - effects of neglecting daily temperature- variation on insect reaction norms. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 8(5): 559-573. ISSN: 1010-061X.

            NAL call number: QH359 J68

Descriptors: reaction norm, phenotypic plasticity, life history, thermoperiod, wing pattern of butterfly, evolutionary significance, Lepidoptera, growth, patterns of selection, genetic assimilation, reproductive strategies, life-history evolution, ecological costs, rapid senescence, maturation in insects.


Ermakova, N.I.; Efimov, V.M. (1995) Cyclical changes in the state of a laboratory population of the meadow moth (Loxostege sticticalis l.). Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii. 56(3): 380-390. ISSN: 0044-4596.

            NAL call number: 442.8 Z6

Descriptors: ecology, microbiology, physiology, reproductive system, Lepidoptera, viruses, Loxostege sticticalis, competition, population density and dynamics, viral contamination, environmental biology, biochemistry.


Fedosov, S.A. (1995) Diurnal activity rhythm of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae) in nature and in the laboratory. Entomological Review. 74(5): 77-84. ISSN: 0013-8738. Note: English Translation of Entomologicheskoye Obozreniye.

            NAL call number: 421 R322Ae  

Descriptors: biosynchronization, ecology, physiology, reproductive system, Lepidoptera, Hyphantria cunea, adult emergence, oviposition, circadian rhythms and other periodic cycles, environmental biology, biochemistry, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis, laboratory and field comparisons.


Froehlich, P.A. (1995) Engineering control observations and recommendations for insect rearing facilities at pink boll worm rearing facility, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs (PPQ), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Phoenix, Arizona. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Edinburg, TX. Report Number: ECTB-010-01A 30 Jan 1995, 30 pgs., Announcement: USGRDR0311.

Abstract: In early 1993, the Engineering Control Technology Branch of the Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering was asked to assist in an Occupational Asthma Identification project being carried out by the Clinical Investigations Branch of the Division of Respiratory Disease Studies (DRDS) by evaluating engineering controls used in insect rearing facilities. This was to be done while assisting Patrick Hintz, Environmental Investigations Branch, DRDS with an industrial hygiene evaluation of three insect rearing facilities operated by the Animal and Plant Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Observations were made at the Pink Boll Work Rearing Facility in Phoenix, Arizona, August 22-26, 1993; the Mexican Fruit Fly Rearing Facility in Edinburg, Texas, August 28-30, 1993; and the Gypsy Moth Rearing Group at Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts, November 1-4, 1993.

Descriptors: engineering controls, occupational safety and health of workers, insect rearing facilities, industrial hygiene, recommendations, asthma, respiratory diseases, environmental surveys, facilities, Mexican fruit flies, Gypsy moths, Pink boll worms, occpational asthma identification, NTISHEWOSH, Lepidoptera, US Department of Agriculture.


Keena, M.A.; Odell, T.M.; Tanner, J.A. (1995) Phenotypic response of two successive gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) generations to environment and diet in the laboratory. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 88(5): 680-689. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 EN82

Descriptors: development, genetics, nutrition, pathology, physiology, Lepidoptera, Lymantria dispar, abnormal performance syndrome, development, larvae, cytogenetics, diets, nutritional status and methods, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis.


Kirby, M.L.; Ottea, J.A. (1995) Multiple mechanisms for enhancement of glutathione-S-transferase activities in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 25(3): 347-353. ISSN: 0965-1748.

            NAL call number: QL495.A1I57

Descriptors: glutathione-s-transferase, 8-methoxypsoralen, xanthotoxin, pentamethylbenzene, enzyme induction, aryl-hydrocarbon hydroxylase, YA subunit gene, tetrachlorvinphos resistant strain, antioxidant responsive element, fall armyworm Lepidoptera, house fly, Drosophila melanogaster, insecticide resistance, phytophagous insects, inducible expression, plant pests.


Leyva, K.J.; Clancy, K.M.; Price, P.W. (1995) Performance of wild versus laboratory populations of western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) feeding on douglas-fir foliage. Environmental Entomology. 24(1): 80-87. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: ecology, economic entomology, forestry, pathology, physiology, Lepidoptera, Choristoneura occidentalis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, crop industry significance, population, environmental biology, necrosis, comparative study.


Mankin, R.W.; D.W. Hagstrum (1995) Three-dimensional orientation of male Cadra cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) flying to calling females in a windless environment. Environmental Entomology. 24(6): 1616-1626. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: A male Cadra cautella (walker) flying in a windless environment first reacts behaviorally to the sex pheromone plume of a calling female from a distance of approximately 40 cm. Its angular velocity (turning rate in degrees per second) increases and, if it approaches within approximately 20 cm, its velocity decreases gradually until it lands near the female. The orientation pattern differs from orientation in wind primarily in the fraction of turns with net movement away from the female, initially approximately 0.5. This fraction decreases to approximately 0.2 if the male approaches within approximately 10 cm. Previously developed computer models suggest that such behavior is less efficient for finding a pheromone source than pheromone-stimulated optomotor anemotaxis but more efficient than random searching. Thus, it can be expected that pheromone traps are less effective at sampling remote populations of insects in a warehouse than in a field, but are helpful in pinpointing nearby infestations.

Descriptors: Ephestia cautella, males, flight, orientation, female sex pheromones, male searching behavior, wind, taxis, comparisons, communication between Lepidopterans.


Sekharappa, B.M.; Muniraju, E.; Gururaj, C.S. (1995) Use of an isolation chamber for rearing young age (chawki) silkworms in the tropics. Sericologia. 35(3): 525-538. ISSN: 0250-3980. Note: 14 ref., In English and French.

Descriptors: silkworms, Bombyx mori, tropical zones, animal husbandry equipment, silkworm housing, heating, humidity, larvae, biological development, performance, veterinary hygiene, developmental stages, Bombycidae, chemicophysical properties, environmental control, equipment, Lepidoptera, useful insects.



Barker, J.F.; Enz, J.W. (1994) Development of laboratory reared banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes walsingham (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae), in relation to temperature. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 66(4): 420-426. ISSN: 0022-8567.

            NAL call number: 420 K13

Descriptors: agronomy, biosynchronization, climatology, economic entomology, mathematical biology, computational biology, models and simulations, morphology, pathology, physiology, Lepidoptera, Cochylis hospes, degree days, diapause, head capsule size, humidity, larva, mortality, predictive model, pupa, seasonality, statistical methods, circadian rhythms and other periodic cycles, ecology, environmental biology, bioclimatology and biometeorology, biophysics, biocybernetics, external effects-temperature as a primary variable, necrosis, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis, comparative and experimental morphology, sunflower pest.


Kim, J.U. (1994) Study on technical system of rearing Japanese oak silkworm, Antheraea Yamamai cuerin-meneville. Korean Journal of Sericultural Science. 36(2): 130-137. ISSN: 0440-2332. Note: 1 illus.; 6 tables; 25 ref.

            NAL call number: SF553 K6H3

Descriptors: Antheraea, rearing techniques, environmental factors, temperature, humidity, lighting, feeds, chemicophysical properties, Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, artificial rearing system.


Pons, S.; Eizaguirre, M.; Sarasua, M.J.; Avilla, J. (1994) Influencia del photoperiod en la inducción del diapause del pomonella de Cydia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en condiciones del laboratorio y del campo. [Influence of photoperiod on diapause induction of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in laboratory and field conditions.] Investigacion Agraria. Produccion y Proteccion Vegetales, Dic. 9(3): 477-492. ISSN: 0213-5000. Note: 3 tab., 5 fig.; 23 ref., In Spanish.

            NAL call number: SB29.S7 I59

Descriptors: Cydia pomonella, biological development, developmental stages, diapause, photoperiodicity, field and laboratory experimentation, Spain, dormancy, environmental factors, Lepidoptera, light regimes, methods, Tortricidae, trial methods.


Popescu, M.; Ciovica, C.; Paraschivescu, M. (1994) [Study of microclimate for silkworm rearing houses.] Medicina Veterinara si Cresterea Animalelor. 4-5: 5-8. ISSN: 1220-8507. Note: 2 tables; 5 ref., In Romanian.

            NAL call number: SF1 P735

Abstract: The paper presents the results of several light intensity determinations, of carbon dioxide concentrations and of draft speed in a climatised IFET type rearing house. Light intensity which was unevenly distributed on the rearing area showed high variations between 3-800 lux. The carbon dioxide build-up determined in the house populated at the highest capacity increased at the same time with larvae aging without exceeding the highest admitted level of 0,5 percent for the silk worm. The draft speed, depending on the relative humidity and on the airing system had average values up to 0,280 m/s.

Descriptors: silkworms, insect housing, microclimate, environmental factors, climate, useful insects, light lux levels, CO2 levels, ventilation.


Sanshikonchunogiken (1994) [News of the sericultural and insect laboratory.] Sanshi Konchuken Nyusu. (24): 4. ISSN: 0915-2679. Note: Journal Number: J1028AAU, Sponsor: National Institute of sericultural and Entomological Science Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, In Japanese.

            NAL call number: SF542.75.J3S36

Descriptors: sericulture, Morus alba, plant breeding, silkworm, ultraviolet irradiation, leaf analysis, antifeedant, environmental pollution, rearing management, Moraceae, Phanerogamae, breeding, genetics, larvae, growth stage, photoirradiation, electromagnetic irradiation, biological sample analysis, defensive substance, allomone, bioactive factor, insect rearing.


Sharan, S.K.; Singh, M.K.; Ojha, N.G.; Sinha, S.S. (1994) Regulation of voltinism in Antheraea mylitta by manipulation of rearing period of larval stages. International Journal of Wild Silkmoth and Silk. 1(2): 191-194. ISSN: 1340-4725. Note: 2 tables; 7 ref.

Descriptors: Antheraea mylitta, dormancy, larvae, environmental factors, silkworms, life cycle, developmental stages, Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, useful insects.


Wang, M.Y.; W.E. Bentley (1994) Continuous insect cell (Sf-9) culture with aeration through sparging. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 41(3): 317-323. ISSN: 0175-7598.

            NAL call number: QR1.E9

Abstract: The continuous growth of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells in a 250-ml blown-glass jacketed spinner flask under a direct air sparging environment was investigated. Even at 220 ml working volume (about 90% of total volume), this spinner flask provided good mixing and oxygenation as demonstrated by a higher cell density compared with fermentor cultures. This eliminates a common limitation of the traditional spinner flask, namely much lower cell density at high working volume. Furthermore, this spinner flask has been run with Sf-9 cell culture at five different dilution rates and two different air sparging rates at steady state, demonstrating its utility in research applications where cell size, metabolic activity and environmental conditions can be constantly maintained. In addition to demonstrating the utility of the reactor, three novel points are made in this report. First, cell density in continuous cultures is increased significantly due to a high agitation rate and, especially, air sparging rate, which is seldom used in animal cell or insect cell culture. Second, there is no apparent difference in the specific death rate at two different sparging rates (0.0093 vvm and 0.0125 vvm). Finally, we have maintained Sf-9 cells for more than 4 months in a continuous culture using a serum-free medium without loss of recombinant protein expression in infected cells.

Descriptors: Spodoptera frugiperda (sf-9), insect cell lines, cell culture, agitation, aeration, processing, density, growth rate, metabolism, viability, genetic vectors, protein synthesis, serum-free medium, oxygenation.



Boots, M.; Begon, M. (1993) Trade-offs with resistance to a granulosis virus in the Indian meal moth, examined a laboratory evolution experiment. Functional Ecology. 7(5): 528-534. ISSN: 0269-8463.

            NAL call number: QH540 F85

Descriptors: development, ecology, economic entomology, evolution and adaptation, genetics, infection, microbiology, pathology, pest assessment control and management, reproductive system, Lepidoptera, Plodia interpunctella, developmental time, egg viability, fitness costs, genotype, life history traits, microbial agents, microevolutionary selection, pest species, pupal weight, evolution, cytogenetics, environmental biology, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis, host viruses, medical and clinical microbiology, virology, comparative and experimental morphology, physiology.


Han, E.N.; Bauce, E. (1993) Physiological changes and cold hardiness of spruce budworm larvae, Choristoneura fumiferana (clem.), during pre-diapause and diapause development under laboratory conditions. Canadian Entomologist. 125(6): 1043-1053. ISSN: 0008-347X.

            NAL call number: 421 C16

Descriptors: biochemistry and molecular biophysics, climatology, ecology, economic entomology, physiology, Lepidoptera, Choristoneura fumiferana, biochemical metabolite, overwintering, supercooling, water content, bioclimatology and biometeorology, environmental biology, physiological water studies, temperature: its measurement, effects and regulation, thermoadaptation, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis, comparative and experimental morphology, pathology.


Hughes, D.S.; R.D. Possee; L.A. King (1993) Activation and detection a latent baculovirus resembling Mamestra brassicae nuclear polyhedrosis virus in M. brassicae insects. Virology. 194(2): 608-615. ISSN: 0042-6822.

            NAL call number: 448.8 V81

Abstract: A laboratory culture of Mamestra brassicae insects (MbLC) has been found to harbor a latent baculovirus infection. The latent virus was activated by feeding the M. brassicae larvae with either the closely related Panolis flammea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), or the distantly related Autographa californica NPV. Restriction fragment profiles of the activated virus DNA showed that it is very closely related, if not identical, to M. brassicae NPV. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of polyhedrin gene sequences demonstrated that the latent virus was present throughout the life cycle of the insect; eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults. We failed to detect the presence of a latent virus in a second culture of M. brassicae insects, obtained from the environment and only recently adapted to growth in laboratory conditions, and thus these insects acted as an effective negative control in all the PCR and activation experiments. Using PCR analysis of DNA isolated from dissected tissues of fourth instar MbLC larvae, latent virus sequences were only detected in the fat body. Cell lines established from the isolated MbLC fat body tissue were also shown to harbor the latent virus sequences and should prove useful in further studies to elucidate the mechanisms of latency and virus activation.

Descriptors: Mamestra brassicae, Lepidoptera, larvae, developmental stages, nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, latent infections, DNA, nucleotide sequences, mode of action, body fat, cell lines.


Ingalls, V. (1993) Startle and habituation responses of blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) in a laboratory simulation of anti-predator defenses of Catocala moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Behavior 126(1-2): 77-96. ISSN: 0005-7959.

            NAL call number: 410 B393

Descriptors: ecology, physiology, sense organs, sensory reception, Lepidoptera, Catocala, Cyanocitta cristata, visual characteristics, behavioral biology, environmental biology, sense organs, associated structures and functions, physiology and biochemistry, comparative and experimental morphology, pathology.


Kami, K. (1993) Diapause termination in Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 86(3): 273-277. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 En82

Descriptors: diapause, temperature, photoperiod, diet, water, laboratory study, pest, cereal crop, feeding, corn Zea mays, Busseola fusca, environmental factor.


Kfir, R. (1993) Diapause termination in the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the laboratory. Annals of Applied Biology. 123(1): 1-7. Note: 32 ref.

            NAL call number: 442.8 AN72

Descriptors: stem eating insects, temperature, photoperiodicity, diet, Chilo partellus, biology, diapause, dormancy, environmental factors, light regimes, lighting, noxious insects, pests.


Monastyrskii, A.L.; Kotlobai, A.A. (1993) Some biological characteristics of Sericinus telamon (papilionoidea) and its rearing in laboratory. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal. 72(5): 142-146. ISSN: 0044-5134.

            NAL call number: 410 R92

Descriptors: biosynchronization, ecology, endocrine system, chemical coordination and homeostasis, morphology, nutrition, physiology, Aristolochiaceae, Lepidoptera, Aristolochia clematitis, Aristolochia contorta, Sericinus telamon, caterpillar longevity, diapause, egg emergence, ethology, fecundity, morphology, predation, pupation, rare species, behavioral biology, circadian rhythms and other periodic cycles, environmental biology, anatomy and histology, nutritional status and methods, reproductive system, biochemistry, endocrine system, neuroendocrinology, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis.


Onyango, F.O.; Ochieng'-Odero, J.P. (1993) Laboratory rearing of the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis geyer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on a semi-synthetic diet. Insect Science and its Application. 14(5-6): 719-722. ISSN: 0191-9040.

            NAL call number: QL461.I57

Descriptors: ecology, economic entomology, horticulture, nutrition, physiology, reproductive system, cowpea, soybean, Maruca testulalis, fecundity, fertility, environmental biology, nutrition general dietary studies, biochemistry, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis, comparative and experimental morphology, nutritional status and methods.


Rami, K. (1993) Diapause termination in the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the laboratory. Annals of Applied Biology. 123(1): 1-7. ISSN: 0003-4746.

            NAL call number: 442.8 An72

Descriptors: laboratory study, photoperiod, temperature, water, life cycle, diet, pupation, diapause, Chilo partellus, pest, environmental factors.



Allotey, J.; Goswami, L. (1992) Competition between the phycitid moths Plodia interpunctella (hubn.) and Ephestia cautella (wlk.) in groundnuts and on a laboratory diet. Insect Science and its Application. 13(5): 719-723. ISSN: 0191-9040.

            NAL call number: QL461.I57

Descriptors: agronomy, population studies, ecology, economic entomology, foods, physiology, Juglandaceae, Leguminosae, Lepidoptera, Rosaceae, Palmae, Moraceae, Cadra cautella, control system planning, monitoring system, environmental biology, food technology, comparative and experimental morphology, nutrition.


Armes, N.J.; Bond, G.S.; Cooter, R.J. (1992) The laboratory culture and development of Helicoverpa armigera. Bulletin - Natural Resources Institute (United Kingdom) (57). ISSN: 0952-8245. Note: 44 ref.

Descriptors: laboratory experimentation, diet, environmental factors, Helicoverpa armigera, rearing techniques, pathogens, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, noxious insect pests.


Barker, J.F. (1992) Diapause in laboratory reared banded sunflower moths, Cochylis hospes walsingham (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae), in relation to temperature and photoperiod. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 65(4): 431-434. ISSN: 0022-8567.

            NAL call number: 420 K13

Descriptors: biosynchronization, ecology, physiology, Cochylis hospes, light, photoperiod, temperature, circadian rhythms, environmental biology, light and darkness, temperature effects, developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis.


Gu, H.; Danthanarayana, W. (1992) Influence of larval rearing conditions on the body size and flight capacity of Epiphyas postvittana [light brown apple] moths. Australian Journal of Zoology. 40(6): 573-581. ISSN: 0004-959X. Note: 2 tables, 7 fig., 27 ref.

            NAL call number: 410 Au73

Abstract: Effects of rearing conditions of larvae on the body weight and flight duration of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (walker), were evaluated in the laboratory. The body weight of both male and female moths at emergence decreased with increasing temperature from 15 to 28 deg C during larval stages; in contrast, flight duration increased with rising temperature. There was no effect of larval density on flight duration, although the body weight of moths decreased as density increased. Variation in water content of artificial diet showed a significant influence on flight duration of female moths, but not on body weight in either sex. Flight duration was different only for females when their larvae were reared on young leaves of four host plants. Female moths from larvae on Rumex crispus and Plantago lanceolata flew for significantly longer periods than those from larvae on Trifolium repens and Pyrus malus. Larvae fed on young leaves yielded adults that flew for longer periods than those fed on senescent leaves. Inconsistency in relationships between body weight and flight duration of moths with respect to influences of different environmental factors during the larval stages indicates that flight capacity is unlikely to be influenced by body size in this species.

Descriptors: Epiphyas postvittana, larvae, weight, environmental factors, locomotion, wings, developmental stages, morphology, body regions, Lepidoptera, limbs, movement, physiological functions, Tortricidae.


Kobayashi, H.; Saitoh, T.; Yomoda, M. (1992) [Establishment of use and development of rational rearing house in collective mulberry field, 3: Studies of rearing condition and care during mounting in slidehouse.] Gunma Journal of Agricultural Research Series B. Sericulture. (9): 15-18. ISSN: 0910-4127. Note: 8 tables; 2 fig., In Japanese.

Descriptors: Bombyx mori, sericultural equipment, Morus, environmental factors, insect husbandry equipment, Bombycidae, Lepidoptera, Moraceae.


Singh, A.K.; Rembold, H. (1992) Maintenance of the cotton bollworm, Heliothis armigera huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in laboratory culture: II. Determination of larval instars, their growth and modulation of development. Insect Science and its Application. 13(3): 327-331. ISSN: 0191-9040.

            NAL call number: QL461.I57

Descriptors: agronomy, insect development, ecology, economic entomology, physiology, Lepidoptera, Malvaceae, Heliothis armigera, head capsule, temperature tolerance, environmental biology, temperature effects and regulation, thermoadaptation, developmental biology, embryology, methods, head.


Varjas, L.; Kulcsar, P.; Fekete, J.; Bihatsi Karsai, E.; Lelik, L.; Mauchamp, B.; Couillaud, F.; Baehr, J.C. (1992) JH titres measured by GC-MS, in the hemolymph of Mamestra oleracea larvae reared under different photoperiodic conditions. Insect juvenile hormone research. Fundamental and applied approaches. Chemistry, biochemistry and mode of action. p. 45-50. INRA, Paris (France). ISBN: 2-7380-0428-8.

Descriptors: Mamestra, insect pests, larvae, juvenile, hormones, haemolymph, photoperiodicity, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, analytical methods, developmental stages, insect morphology, body fluids, chromatography, environmental factors, hormones, Lepidoptera, light regimes, Noctuidae, sesquiterpenoids, spectrometry, terpenoids.



Jimenez-Velasquez, J.; Murgueitio, C. (1991) Egg production characterization of Sitotroga cerealella olivier (Lep. Gelechiidae) under laboratory condition in Palmira, Colombia. Les Colloques de l'I.N.R.A. (56): 145-146. ISSN: 0293-1915.

            NAL call number: S539.7 C6

Descriptors: mass rearing, parasite, mass production, egg, host, temperature, humidity, Colombia, pest, environmental factor, entomophagous, Oophagous, Sitotroga cerealella, Lepidoptera, Trichogrammatidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera.


Tessier, D.C.; D.Y. Thomas; H.E. Kouri; F. Laliberte; T. Vernet (1991) Enhanced secretion from insect cells of a foreign protein fused to the honeybee melittin signal peptide. Gene. 98(2): 177-183. ISSN: 0378-1119.

            NAL call number: QH442.A1G4

Abstract: The baculovirus/insect cell system has been remarkably successful in yielding high levels of synthesis of many proteins which have been difficult to synthesize in other host/vector systems. The system is also capable of secreting heterologous proteins, but with generally low efficiency. We have increased the efficiency of secretion of the system by using signal peptides of insect origin to direct the secretion of a foreign protein. The precursor of the plant cysteine protease papain (propapain) has been used as a report enzyme to compare secretion efficiency. Insect cells infected with a baculovirus recombined with the gene encoding propapain fused to the sequence encoding the honeybee melittin signal peptide secreted over five times more papain precursor than the wild-type prepropapain which used the plant signal peptide. Based on these results, we have assembled pVT-Bac, an Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus transfer vector that may enhance secretion of other foreign proteins from insect cells. The vector incorporates a number of features: phage f1 ori to facilitate site-directed mutagenesis, the strong polyhedrin promoter upstream from the melittin signal peptide-encoding sequence, and eight unique restriction sites to facilitate fusion of heterologous genes.

Descriptors: Apis mellifera, Spodoptera frugiperda, nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, vectors, recombinant DNA, melittin, peptides, papain, enzyme precursors, reporter genes, gene splicing, gene expression, protein secretion, cell lines and culture, Lepidoptera.




Choe, K.J.; Lee, D.H.; Park, K.K. (1990) [Study on heating load characteristics and thermal curtain effects for simple silkworm rearing houses, 1; Heating load coefficient and maximum heating load.] Journal of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery. 15(4): 346-354. ISSN: 1010-4542. Note: 7 illus; 3 tables; 8 ref, In Korean.

            NAL call number: S671 H28

Descriptors: silkworms, sericulture, sericultural equipment, temperature, heating, insect husbandry equipment, insect production, environmental control, useful insects, mass rearing facilities.


Clare, G.K.; Pritam, S. (1990) Use of day-degree estimates for rearing management of Ctenopseustis obliquana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the laboratory. New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 17(4): 567-575. ISSN: 0301-4223.

            NAL call number: QL1 A1N4

Descriptors: heat, reproduction, temperature effects, environmental impact, rearing techniques, noxious insects, pests, physiological functions, temperature, heat sums, Ctenopseustis obliquana.


Clare, G.K.; Pritam, S. (1990) Variation in the number of larval instars of the brownheaded leafroller, Ctenopseutis obliquana (Lepidoptera :Tortricidae) at constant laboratory temperatures. New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 17(1): 141-146. ISSN: 0301-4223.

            NAL call number: QL1 A1N4

Descriptors: larva, life history, environmental factors, photoperiod, temperature effects, development.


He, S.; Xia, L. (1990) [Breeding of the silkworm varieties "57A. 57B, 24.46" and their hybrids for both spring and autumn rearing.] Acta Sericologica Sinica. 16(1): 15-20. ISSN: 0257-4799. Note: 5 tables, 2 ref., In Chinese.

            NAL call number: SF553 C6T73

Descriptors: Bombyx mori, genetic ancestry, crossbreeding, selection, silk quality and yields, environmental factors, hybrids, silkworm fibers, Bombycidae, breeding methods, Lepidoptera, processed insect products, progeny.


Jimenez-Velasquez, J.; Murgueitio, C. (1990) Egg production characterization of Sitotroga cerealella olivier (Lep. Gelechiidae) under laboratory condition in Palmira, Colombia. Les Colloques de l'I.N.R.A. (56): 145-456. ISSN: 0293-1915. ISBN: 2-7380-0323-0. Note: International Symposium: Trichogramma and other egg parasitoids. San Antonio (USA), 23-27 Sep 1990, INRA, Paris (France), 1991.

            NAL call number: S539.7 C6

Descriptors: mass rearing, Sitotroga cerealella, hosts, Trichogramma, biological control, ova production, laboratory experiments, environmental temperature, relative humidity, biological competition, biological control organisms, cells, chemicophysical properties, environmental factors, humidity, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, parasitism, rearing techniques, Colombia.


Li, W.; Peng, B.; Dong, X. (1990) [Studies on causal account for dead pupae in late stage of original silkworm egg rearing and its control I. Types of dead pupae, its causes and incidence regulation.] Guangdong Sericultural Newsletter. (2): 31-40. Note: 2 ill., 8 tables, In Chinese.

Descriptors: silkworm production, breeding stock, pupae, death, Guangdong, insect pupae diseases, epidemics, disease control, environmental factors, developmental stages, epidemiology, useful insects, China.


Mahla, J.C.; Chaudhary, J.P. (1990) Biometrical evaluation of sugarcane shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus snellen) at fluctuating laboratory and constant temperatures. Crop Research (Hisar). 3(1): 79-83. ISSN: 0970-4884.

            NAL call number: 80 H7892

Descriptors: pests, temperature effects, reproduction, sugarcane, biology, environmental factors, agricultural entomology, Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Chilo infuscatellus, Saccharum, Pyralidae, Cyperales.


Takayama, H.; Meguro, Y.; Ota, T. (1990) [Rearing results on rearing bed with simple warming function at early winter rearing.] Bulletin of the Fukushima Sericultural Experiment Station. (24): 17-23. ISSN: 0385-3365. Note: 10 tables; 3 fig., In Japanese.

Descriptors: Bombyx mori, sericultural equipment, heating, sericulture, winter, insect husbandry equipment, insect production, Bombycidae, environmental control, seasonal effects.



Bell, C.H. (1989) Influence of natural and laboratory rearing conditions on the requirements for diapause in different breeding lines of the warehouse moth Ephestia elutella (hubner). Journal of Insect Physiology. 35(2): 137-141. ISSN: 0022-1910.

            NAL call number: 421 J825

Descriptors: stored products pests, environmental factors, temperature, photoperiod, survival, physiology, diapause, grain, Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Ephestia elutella, biochemistry, biodeterioration, storage problems.


David, P.J.; Horsburgh, R.L.; Holtzman, G.I. (1989) Development of Platynota flavedana and P. idaeusalis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at constant temperatures in the laboratory. Environmental Entomology. 18(1): 15-18. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: development, temperature, heat sums, pests, apples, biology, environmental factors, techniques, agricultural entomology, Platynota flavedana, Platynota idaeusalis, Malus, Rosaceae, techniques and methodology, insect rearing.


Muggleston, S.J. (1989) Rearing and the effects of photoperiod and temperature on diapause in Stathmopoda aposema (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae: Stathmopodinae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 16(2): 199-204. ISSN: 0301-4223. Note: 13 ref.

            NAL call number: QL1 A1N4

Descriptors: diet, photoperiodicity, diapause, New Zealand, Actinidiaceae, developmental stages, dormancy, environmental factors, Lepidoptera, light regimes, lighting, noxious insects, Oceania, pests.


Shen, W.; Hamano, K.; Mukaiyama, F. (1989) [Effect of environmental temperature on the body temperature and respiratory intensity of silkworm Bombyx mori reared on artificial diet.] Acta Entomologica Sinica. 32(1): 12-16. ISSN: 0454-6296. Note: 6 ill., 9 ref., In Chinese.

            NAL call number: 421 K96

Descriptors: silkworms, larvae, body temperature, respiration, feeds, feeding, developmental stages, Lepidoptera, nutrition, physiological functions, temperature, useful insects, zootechny.



Beach, R.M.; Todd, J.W. (1988) Development, reproduction, and longevity of Autographa biloba (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with observations on laboratory adaptation. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 81(6): 943-949. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 En82

Descriptors: fecundity, longevity, temperature, developmental stage, pest, laboratory study, artificial medium, environmental factor, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera.


Cappellozza, L. (1988) Il baco da seta. Tecniche per inizio di un gelso bianco rinnovato che cresce ed elevazione del baco da seta. [The silkworm. Techniques for beginning of a renewed white mulberry growing and silkworm rearing.] Terra e Sole. 43(555): 690-698, 700-704. ISSN: 0040-3768. Note: 2 tables; 17 ref., In Italian.

            NAL call number: 16 T273

Descriptors: Morus alba, silkworms, varieties, spacing, planting, pruning, tillage, weed control, irrigation, incentives, plant production, environmental protection, sericultural equipment, insect production, control, cultivation, dicotyledons, economic plants, equipment, fibre crops, fruit, implements, industrial crops, Lepidoptera, methods, Moraceae, pest control, plant propagation, plants, production, protection, sericulture, taxonomy, temperate fruits, Urticales, useful insects.


Gavioli, F.; Baronio, P. (1988) Riproduzione nel laboratorio e nelle tecniche di elevazione del cossus l. (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) di Cossus. [Reproduction in the laboratory and rearing techniques of Cossus cossus l. (Lepidoptera, Cossidae).] Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia della Universita degli Studi di Bologna. 42: 87-100. Note: In Italian.

Descriptors: pests, environmental factors, temperature, photoperiod, relative humidity, synthetic diets, rearing techniques, biology, reproduction, agricultural entomology, Lepidoptera, Cossus cossus, techniques and methodology, pathogens and biogenic diseases.


Lighthart, B. (1988) Some changes in gut bacterial flora of field-grown Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) when brought into the laboratory. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 54(7): 1896-1898. ISSN: 0099-2240.

            NAL call number: 448.3 Ap5

Descriptors: gut, bacteria, numeration, environmental factor, laboratory study, diet, field study, Enterobacteriaceae, digestive system, microflora, Peridroma saucia, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera.


Moller, J. (1988) Investigations on a laboratory culture of the diamond-back moth Plutella maculipennis curt. (Lep., Tineidae). II. Influence of larval density on life history parameters of larvae, pupae and adults. Journal of Applied Entomology. 105(5): 425-435. ISSN: 0931-2048.

            NAL call number: 421 Z36

Descriptors: population density, interactions, pests, biology, environmental factors, ecology, agricultural entomology, Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae, Plutella xylostella, pathogens and biogenic diseases.


Ramoneda, J.; Haro, A. (1988) Desarrollo larval del perforador del arroz, walker de los suppressalis de Chilo (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) en el campo y en condiciones del laboratorio. [Larval development of rice borer, Chilo suppressalis walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the field and in laboratory conditions.] Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal. 14(1): 107-118. ISSN: 0213-6910. Note: Ills., graphs; 17 ref, In Spanish.

            NAL call number: SB950 A1S7

Descriptors: Oryza sativa, Chilo, larvae, life cycle, environmental conditions and control, stem eating insects, biological rhythms, developmental stages, Glumiflorae, Gramineae, injurious factors, Lepidoptera, noxious insects, pests, timing.


Shinkura, K. (1988) [Effects of rearing conditions on the development and egg production in the original strain of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, reared on an artificial diet.] Acta Sericologica. (140): 43-52. ISSN: 0036-4495. Note: 3 fig.; 8 ref., In Japanese.

            NAL call number: 425.9 J273S

Descriptors: silkworms, oviposition, compound feeds, environmental conditions, biological development, sericulture, agriculture, insect production, environment, feeds, Lepidoptera, physiological functions, reproduction.


Shinkura, K.; Kato, S.; Takizawa, H. (1988) [Effect of the temperature and light condition in embryonic and larval stages on the larval development in parent silkworms for hybridization reared on artificial diets.] Technical Bulletin of Sericultural Experiment Station. (132): 129-143. Note: 36 ref., In Japanese.

Descriptors: silkworms, egg hatchability, environmental temperature, light regimes, growth, feeds, hybridizing, insect products, biological development, breeding methods, eggs, environmental conditions, Lepidoptera, light, methods, physical states, physiological functions, radiations, useful insects.


Simwat, G.S.; Dhawan, A.K.; Sidhu, A.S. (1988) Laboratory studies on the mortality of diapausing pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella (saund)) larvae at high temperature. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University. 25(1): 73-76. ISSN: 0048-6019.

            NAL call number: S19.P8

Descriptors: temperature effects, relative humidity, cotton pest, biology, environmental factors, fibre plants, agricultural entomology, Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Pectinophora gossypiella, Gossypium.


Suzuki, K. (1988) [Effect of non-daily short photoperiods on the larval growth and reproductivity of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, reared on an artificial diet.] Acta Sericological et Entomologica. (142): 53-64. Note: 24 ref., In Japanese.

Descriptors: silkworms, reproductive performance, photoperiodicity, growth, larvae, compound feeds, insect developmental stages, environmental factors, light regimes, useful insects.


Tzanakakis, M.E.; Barnes, M.M. (1988) Larval development and timeliness of pupation in the laboratory of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae), on certain diets, under various photoperiod, temperature, aeration and humidity conditions. Entomologia Hellenica. 6: 29-41. ISSN: 0254-5381.

            NAL call number: QL482.G82E6

Descriptors: laboratory study, development, environmental factors, diapause, artificial diet medium, feeding, temperature, photoperiod, humidity, aeration, insect pest, Amyelois transitella.


Ueda, S.; Kinoshita, D.; Nojiri, K.; Kato, S.; Suzuki, K. (1988) [Light control in the rearing of parent silkworms for hybridization reared on artificial diets.] Technical Bulletin of Sericultural Experiment Station. (132): 145-160. Note: 17 ref., In Japanese.

Descriptors: silkworms, feeds, light, environmental control, sericulture, hybridizing, insect production, breeding methods, Lepidoptera, methods, physical states, radiations, useful insects.



Kamin-Belsky, N.; Wool, D.; Brower, J.H. (1987) Unplanned factors affecting population size in laboratory populations of the almond moth Ephestia cautella (walker). Proceedings of the Fourth International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, Tel Aviv, Israel, 21-26 September, 1986. p. 463-469.

            NAL call number: SB937 I5 1986

Descriptors: natural enemies, stored products insect pests, relative humidity, biological control, stored flower products, rearing techniques, biology, environmental factors, parasitoids, hosts, wheat, commodities, biodeterioration, international working conference, product protection, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ephestia cautella, Bracon hebetor, Venturia canescens, Cyperales, biodeterioration, methodology.


Kelleher, M.J.; Rickards, J.; Storey, K.B. (1987) Strategies of freeze avoidance in larvae of the Goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana: laboratory investigations of temperature cues in the regulation of cold hardiness. Journal of Insect Physiology. 33(8): 581-586. ISSN: 0022-1910.

            NAL call number: 421 J825

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, larva, thermoregulation, overwintering, cryoprotective agent, adaptation, cold, temperature effects, environmental factors, laboratory study, Olethreutidae.


Martinat, P.J.; Allen, D.C. (1987) Laboratory response of saddled prominent (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) eggs and larvae to temperature and humidity: development and survivorship. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 80(5): 541-546. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 EN82

Descriptors: development, temperature, humidity, survival, outbreaks, forest trees pest biology, environmental factors, agricultural entomology, Heterocampa guttivitta, New York, insect pests of plants, forestry, silviculture.


Mason, L.J.; Pashley, D.P.; Johnson, S.J. (1987) The laboratory as an altered habitat: phenotypic and genetic consequences of colonization. Florida Entomologist. 70(1): 49-58. ISSN: 0015-4040.

            NAL call number: 420 F662

Descriptors: rice, maize, soybeans, phenotypes, ecology, habitats, rearing techniques, reviews, laboratory rearing, effects, genetics, pests, techniques, agricultural entomology, Pseudoplusia includens, symposium on insects in altered environments, Lepidoptera, Cynodon dactylon, Chrysodeixis includens, Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Oryza, Zea mays, Glycine, Cyperales, Fabales, North America, insect pest of plants, methodology, plant breeding, genetics, pest and parasite management.


Schousboe, C. (1987) [Observations and experiments with imagines of Aphomia sociella l. in laboratory (Pyralidae, Lepidoptera).] Entomologiske Meddelelser. 54(2): 149-152. ISSN: 0013-8851. Note: In Danish.

            NAL call number: 421 EN82

Descriptors: mating, feeding, longevity, egg laying, humidity, sexual behavior, environmental factor.


Wool, D.; Brower, J.H.; Kamin-Belsky, N. (1987) The relative importance of factors affecting the size of laboratory populations of the almond moth, Ephestia cautella (walker) (Lep., Pyralidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 104(3): 217-227. ISSN: 0931-2048.

            NAL call number: 421 Z36

Descriptors: natural enemies, biological control, stored products pests, parasitoids, hosts, biology, environmental factors, insecticide resistance, Malathion, techniques, CAS Registry Numbers: 121-75-5, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ephestia cautella, Bracon hebetor, Venturia canescens, organothiophosphate, techniques and methodology, biodeterioration, pesticide resistance, insect pest of plants, control by chemicals and drugs.



Coscolla, R.; Sanchez, J.; Beltran, V. (1986) Estudio preliminar en el efecto de la humedad relativa de alta temperatura y baja en guarida del botrana de Lobesia y mortalidad de los huevos de schiff. [Preliminary study on the effect of high temperature and low relative humidity on Lobesia botrana den. and schiff. eggs mortality.] Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal. 12(1): 3-7. Note: In Spanish.

            NAL call number: SB950 A1S7

Abstract: The effect of high temperature (38-43 degrees C) and low relative humidities (10-22 %) on Lobesia botrana eggs mortality was studied in laboratory during different exposition times. It was observed that at 40 degrees C of temperature and 20 % of relative humidity during 6 hours or 40 degrees C of temperature and 10 % of humidity during 3 hours there was not appreciable mortality. However at 43 degrees C of temperature and 10 % of humidity during 5 h. 30 min. the mortality was notable. In conclusion field observations are necessary for checking the laboratory studies, which are the preliminary contribution in the knowledge of insect eggs natural mortality.

Descriptors: grapevines, air temperature, relative humidity, laboratory experiments, ova, insect and plant developmental stages, atmospheric sciences, climbers, crops, economic plants, environmental conditions and temperature, fruit crops, gametes, humidity, hydrometeorology, injurious factors, meteorology, physiological functions, reproduction, soft fruits, grape berry moths.


Ellington, J.J.; El-Sokkari, A. (1986) A measure of the fecundity, ovipositional behavior, and mortality of the bollworm, Heliothis zea (boddie) in the laboratory. Southwestern Entomologist. 11(3): 177-193. ISSN: 0147-1724.

            NAL call number: QL461.S65

Descriptors: biology, environmental factors, agricultural entomology, Heliothis zea, Lepidoptera, Helicoverpa zea, Noctuidae, insect pest of plants.


Lopez, J.D. Jr. (1986) Thermal requirements for diapause termination in laboratory cultures of Heliothis zea and H. virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environmental Entomology. 15(4): 919-923. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, diapause, emergence, temperature, laboratory study, life history, pest, environmental factor, Noctuidae, Heliothis zea, Heliothis virescens.


Nojiri, K.; Niino, T.; Aoki, H.; Hirata, Y. (1986) [Effects of incubation temperature of pupa for egg production on the egg laying reared on an artificial diet.] Acta Sericologica. (138): 33-41. ISSN: 0036-4495. Note: 7 ref., In Japanese.

            NAL call number: 425.9 J273S

Descriptors: silkworms, pupa, incubation, temperature effects, oviposition, developmental stages, Lepidoptera, physiological functions, processing, reproduction.


Petrushova, N.I.; Sokolova, D.V. (1986) [Laboratory rearing and storage of the codling moth.] Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Nikitskogo Botanicheskogo Sada. 99: 52-60. Note: In Russian.

            NAL call number: 106 Ia5Z

Descriptors: apple insect pest, diets and nutrition, diapause, environmental factors, photoperiod, temperature, relative humidity, storage, rearing, Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Cydia pomonella, Malus, USSR, techniques and methodology.


Silva, R.F. da; Parra, J.R. (1986) O efeito do photoperiod no desenvolvimento do hubner dos gemmatalis de Anticarsia, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) sob o laboratório condiciona. [Effect of photoperiod on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis hubner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions.] Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil. 15(2): 201-207. ISSN: 0301-8059. Note: In Portuguese.

            NAL call number: QL461.S64

Descriptors: photoperiod, sex ratio, soybeans, environmental factors, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Leguminosae, Glycine, Fabales, insect pests of plants, insect reproduction and development.




Boyne, J.V.; Rock, G.C. (1985) Diapause in Platynota idaeusalis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): characterization of larval diapause under laboratory and field conditions. Environmental Entomology. 14(6): 797-804. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, fruit crop, life history, diapause, feeding behavior, molt, respiration, field study, laboratory study, environmental factor, apple pest, Tortricidae, fruit tree, temperature, photoperiod, Malus domestica, North Carolina.


Ferreira, M.J.; Parra, J.R. (1985) Efeito do photoperiod no ciclo de vida de latipes de Mocis (Guenee, 1852) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), sob condições do laboratório. [Effect of the photoperiod on the life cycle of Mocis latipes (Guenee, 1852) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), under laboratory conditions.] Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil. 14(1): 89-95. ISSN: 0301-8059. Note: In Portuguese.

            NAL call number: QL461.S64

Descriptors: biology, environmental factors, Mocis latipes, Brazil, insect pests of plants.


Miyazawa, F. (1985) [Effects of fluctuated temperature on economical character of silkworm reared on an artificial diet at young stage.] Gunma Journal of Agricultural Research. Series B. Sericulture. (2): 33-38. ISSN: 0910-4127. Note: 13 ref., In Japanese.

Descriptors: silkworms, environmental temperature, compound feeds, environment, conditions, Lepidoptera.


Takizawa, H.; Shinkura, K.; Kato, S. (1985) [Effect of temperature and humidity on the development of parent silkworm for hybridization reared on artificial diet.] Technical Bulletin of Sericultural Experiment Station. (125): 105-117. ISSN: 0385-3594. Note: 10 ref., In Japanese.

Descriptors: silkworms, hybridizing, humidity, atmospheric sciences, breeding methods, environment, environmental conditions and temperature, feeding, hydrometeorology, Lepidoptera, meteorology, nutrition, zootechny.


West, R.J.; Laing, J.E. (1985) Development of the potato stem borer, Hydraecia micacea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario. 115: 81-87. ISSN: 0071-0768.

            NAL call number: 420 ON8 

Descriptors: insect pest, development, laboratory and field studies, temperature, hatching, emergence, environmental factor.


West, R.J.; Laing, J.E.; Teal, P.E. (1985) Method for rearing the potato stem borer, Hydraecia micacea esper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in the laboratory. Journal of Economic Entomology. 78(1): 219-221. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, cereal crop, insect rearing, rearing medium, temperature, Ontario, Canada, pest, environmental factor, Zea mays, corn pest.



Fujiyoshi, N.; Yamanaka, M.; Takasaki, T. (1984) [Effect of temperature on the development of the pink borer, Sesamia inferens walker, reared on an artificial diet.] Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu. (30): 82-85. ISSN: 0385-6410. Note: 9 ref., In Japanese.

            NAL call number: SB599 K9

Descriptors: rice, Sesamia, biological development, insect production, cereals, economic plants, environment, environmental conditions, grain crops, Lepidoptera, physiological functions, temperature effects.


Henneberry, T.J.; Clayton, T.E. (1984) Time of emergence, mating, sperm movement, and transfer of ejaculation duct secretory fluid by Heliothis virescens (f.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under reversed light-dark cycle laboratory conditions. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 77(3): 301-305. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 En82

Descriptors: emergence, mating, Spermatozoa, photoperiod, insect pest reproduction, environmental factors, Heliothis virescens.


Herard, F. (1984) L'étude des rapports trophiques entre Lymantria dispar et suber de Quercus dans le laboratoire conditionne simuler ceux de la forêt de Mamora. I. Rapport général des résultats. [Study of trophic relationships between Lymantria dispar and Quercus suber in laboratory conditions simulating those of Mamora forest. I. General statement of the results.] Actes de l'Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II. 4(1): 147-155. ISSN: 0851-0466. Note: In French.

            NAL call number: S19 A27

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, hardwood forest tree, forest, insect plant relation, temporal coincidence, host plant and substitution, meteorological condition, population dynamics, environmental factor, Lymantria dispar, Quercus suber, Quercus ilex, Morocco.


Kogure, M.; Takei, T.; Fujii, N. (1984) [Studies on control of nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection in silkworm, Bombyx mori, reared on an artificial diet at young stage, 2: Relation between rearing environment on grown silkworm and infectivity to N.P.V.] Gunma Journal of Agricultural Research. Series B. Sericulture. (1): 7-10. ISSN: 0910-4127. Note: In Japanese.

Descriptors: silkworms, Baculoviridae, infectivity, feeds, viruses, growth, environmental conditions, biological development and properties, diseases, environment, injurious factors, Lepidoptera, microbial properties, physiological functions, useful insects.


West, R.J.; Teal, P.E.; Laing, J.E.; Grant, G.M. (1984) Calling behavior of the potato stem borer, Hydraecia micacea esper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in the laboratory and the field. Environmental Entomology. 13(5): 1399-1404. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, cereal crop, sexual behavior, courtship behavior, chemical communication, field study, laboratory study, temperature, insect pest, environmental factor, Zea mays corn, Ontario, Canada.



Gohain, R.; Borua, R. (1983) Effect of temperature and humidity on development, survival and oviposition in laboratory populations of eriworm, Philosamia ricini (boisduval) (Lepidoptera Saturniidae). Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie. 91(2): 87-93. ISSN: 0003-9799.

            NAL call number: QP1 A7

Descriptors: temperature, humidity, life history, laboratory study, reproduction, environmental factors, Philosamia ricini, insect populations.



Clayton, T.E.; Henneberry, T.J. (1982) Pink bollworm: effect of soil moisture and temperature on moth emergence in field and laboratory studies. Environmental Entomology. 11(1): 147-149. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461 E532

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, humidity, temperature, ground, emergence, Pectinophora gossypiella, Gelechiidae, pest, laboratory study, field study, environmental factors, ecology.



Jackson, D.M.; Harwood, R.F. (1980) Survival potential of first instars of the codling moth in laboratory experiments. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 73(2): 160-163. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 EN82

Descriptors: Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae, food plants, Malus, apple, ability to penetrate fruit, first instar larvae, foraging, environmental effects, survival, temperature and humidity effects, nutrition, diet, feeding behavior, ecology, population dynamics, abiotic and physical factors, Heteroneura, Glossata, Lepidoptera.



Sanders, C.J.; Wallace, D.R.; Lucuik, G.S. (1978) Flight activity of female eastern spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at constant temperatures in the laboratory. Canadian Entomologist. 110(6): 627-632. ISSN: 0008-347X.

            NAL call number: 421 C16

Descriptors: Choristoneura fumiferana, dispersion, environmental factor, Lepidoptera, Picea, egg laying, laboratory insect population, temperature effects, Tortricidae, flight, ecology.



Raina, A.K.; Bell, R.A.; Carlson, R.B. (1977) Influence of temperature on development of an Indian strain of the pink bollworm in the laboratory and observations on fecundity. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 70(4): 628-630.

            NAL call number: 420 En82

Descriptors: postembryonic development, environment, fecundity, Gelechiidae, reproduction success, temperature effects, ecology.



Pretorius, L.M. (1976) Laboratory studies on the developmental and reproductive performance of Heliothis Armigera (huebn.) on various food plants. African Entomology: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. 39(2): 337-343. ISSN: 0013-8789.

            NAL call number: 420 En86

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, postembryonic development, environment, Heliothis, Noctuidae, insect plant relation, reproduction, breeding success, ecology.



Vassilaina-Alexopoulou, P.; Santorini, A.P. (1973) Some data on the biology of Palpita unionalis hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions. Annales Benakeio Phytopathologiko Institouto. 10(4): 320-326.

            NAL call number: 464.9 AT4

Descriptors: postembryonic development, environment, humidity, egg laying, reproduction, temperature effects, insects.



McMorran, A. (1972) Effects of some environmental factors on the occurrence of second diapause in laboratory-reared Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist. 104(10): 1649-1653. ISSN: 0008-347X.

            NAL call number: 421 C16

Descriptors: diapause, humidity, temperature, biology, trees, agricultural entomology, Choristoneura fumiferana, woody plants, Tortricidae, Lepidoptera, insect pests of woody plants, forestry.



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