Biocontrol Related Resources



Coleoptera | Collembola | Drosophila | Other Diptera

Hemiptera | Homoptera | Hymenoptera

Lepidoptera | Orthoptera | Miscellaneous







Lee, D.W.; Choo, H.Y.; Kaya, H.K.; Lee, S.M.; Smitley, D.R.; Shin, H.K.; Park, C.G. (2002) Laboratory and field evaluation of Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates against the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 95(5): 918-926. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: economic entomology, pesticides, Coleoptera, Nematoda, Aschelminthes, Helminthes, Exomala orientalis, Heterorhabditis, entomopathogen, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema longicaudum, white grub control.



Saska, P.; Jarosik, V. (2001) Laboratory study of larval food requirements in nine species of Amara (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Plant Protection Science. 37(3): 103-110. ISSN: 1212-2580.

            NAL call number: SB599 R37

Descriptors: economic entomology, nutrition, diets, environmental biology, Coleoptera, Cruciferae, Amara aenea, biological control potential, larval food requirements, Amara familiaris, Amara lunicollis, Amara montivaga, Amara nitida, Amara saphyrea, Amara similata, Amara spreta, Amara tibialis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Stellaria media, weed population biology.



Blossey, B.; T.R. Hunt (1999) Mass rearing methods for Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), biological control agents of Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 92(2): 325-334. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria l., an invasive Eurasian perennial, is degrading wetlands across temperate North America. Because conventional control methods have proven ineffective, current emphasis is on the introduction and release of host-specific biological control agents. To increase the availability of control agents for distribution and thus the potential for faster control, mass rearing techniques for 2 leaf beetles, Galerucella calmariensis l. and G. pusilla duftschmidt, were developed under greenhouse and field conditions. To evaluate the success of various rearing techniques on the number of beetles produced and the effect of these methods on offspring quality, female fecundity, larval development, and adult survival were monitored. Survival of adults maintained at 4 degrees C was approximately equal to 60% and was independent of the type of material used for storage, duration of overwintering, and number of beetles per container. Survival rates increased with increasing numbers of dry stems offered as an overwintering substrate. Females in smaller cages had significantly higher oviposition rates, and with an increase in the number of beetles per cage, female fecundity doubled. Continuous rearing in the greenhouse reduced female fecundity. Allowing beetles to overwinter significantly improved fecundity and rearing efficiency, independent of whether beetles overwintered in a controlled environment or in the field. Field rearings consistently produced 2-5 times more offspring with higher survival than greenhouse rearings.

Descriptors: Galerucella, Lythrum salicaria, biological control agents, weed control, mass rearing, fecundity, oviposition, biological development, survival, overwintering.



Prazak, R.A. (1997) Laboratory evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (bals.) vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) against Trypodendron lineatum oliv. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Zeitschrift fuer Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 104(5): 459-465. ISSN: 0340-8159.

            NAL call number: 464.8 Z3

Descriptors: age, temperature effect, treatment efficiency, air humidity, pest management, microbiological control, Beauveria bassiana, Trypodendron lineatum, laboratory study, Fungi imperfecti, Thallophyta, Scolytidae, Coleoptera, entomology, environmental factor, forestry, biological control of pest, entomopathogen, Silvicolous.



Tauber, M.J.; Tauber, C.A.; Nechols, J.R. (1996) Life history of Galerucella nymphaeae and implications of reproductive diapause for rearing univoltine chrysomelids. Physiological Entomology. 21(4): 317-324. Note: 22 ref.

            NAL call number: QL461.P5

Descriptors: diapause, photoperiodicity, temperature, Galerucella, life cycle, seasons, periodicity, biological control organisms, environmental factors, rearing techniques, United Kingdom, British Isles, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera, dormancy, environmental factors, Europe, light regimes.


Vasconcelos, S.D.; T. Williams; R.S. Hails; J.S. Cory (1996) Prey selection and baculovirus dissemination by carabid predators of Lepidoptera. Ecological Entomology. 21(1): 98-104. ISSN: 0307-6946.

            NAL call number: QL461.E4

Abstract: 1. The interaction between coleopteran predators and baculovirus-infected larvae was studied in the laboratory and the field in order to assess the potential role of predators in the dissemination of a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV). 2. Preference tests using three carabid species, Harpalus rufipes de geer, Pterostichus melanarius illiger, and Agonum dorsale pont. showed no evidence of discrimination between healthy and diseased larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae l. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as prey items. 3. Virus infectivity was maintained after passage through the predator's gut. NPV mortality ranged from 97% to 20% when test larvae were exposed to faeces collected immediately after and 15 days post-infected meal respectively. 4. The potential for transfer of inoculum in the environment was estimated in the laboratory by soil bioassay. Carabids continuously passed infective virus to the soil for at least 15 days after feeding on infected larvae. 5. Field experiments showed that carabids which had previously fed on diseased larvae transferred sufficient virus to the soil to cause low levels of mortality in larval populations of the cabbage moth at different instars.

Descriptors: Mamestra brassicae, larvae, nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, disease transmission, Carabidae, predators, predator prey relationships, infectivity, mortality, feces, soil, disease vectors, England.



Chandler, L.D.; G.R. Sutter; L. Hammack; W.D. Woodson (1995) Semiochemical insecticide bait management of corn rootworms. Clean water, clean environment, 21st century team agriculture, working to protect water resources conference proceedings. March 5-8, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri. St. Joseph, Mich., ASAE, c1995. 1: 29-32. ISBN: 0929355601.

            NAL call number: TD365.C54 1995

Descriptors: Diabrotica barberi, Diabrotica virgifera, carbaryl, semiochemicals, cucurbitacins, baits, Zea mays corn, fields, bait traps, South Dakota, Coleoptera.



Hattingh, V.; Samways, M.J. (1994) Physiological and behavioral characteristics of Chilocorus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the laboratory relative to effectiveness in the field as biocontrol agents. Journal of Economic Entomology. 87(1): 31-38. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: ecology, economic entomology, pest assessment control and management, physiology, Coleoptera, Rutaceae, Chilocorus bipustulatus, Chilocorus cacti, Chilocorus distigma, Chilocorus infernalis, Chilocorus nigritus, Chilocorus simoni, biological control, behavioral biology, biocontrol agent effectiveness.


Roberts, S.J.; Maddox, J.V.; Armbrust, E.J. (1994) A laboratory infection of alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae with the fungal pathogen Zoophthora phytonomi (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae). Great Lakes Entomologist. 27(1): 19-21. ISSN: 0090-0222.

            NAL call number: QL461 M5

Descriptors: development, ecology, economic entomology, infection, pathology, Coleoptera, Fungi imperfecti or deuteromycetes, Phycomycetes, Hypera postica, Zoophthora phytonomi, USA, biological control agent, resting spore, environmental and developmental biology, embryology, morphogenesis, fungal pathogen.




Blumberg, D.; M. Kehat; S. Goldenberg; R.J. Bartelt; R.N. Williams (1993) Responses to synthetic aggregation pheromones, host-related volatiles, and their combinations by Carpophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in laboratory and field tests. Environmental Entomology. 22(4): 837-842. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: The effect of different aggregation pheromones on attraction of Carpophilus hemipterus (l.), C. mutilatus erichson, and C. humeralis (f.) was demonstrated in olfactometer and field trials in Israel. Aggregation pheromones act as synergists to attract Carpophilus spp. to host volatiles. Captures in traps baited with the pheromone-host volatiles combinations were higher than in traps baited with host volatiles alone. Carpophilus spp. aggregation pheromones are not entirely species-specific, and pheromones belonging to one species may also enhance attraction of other species. This cross-attraction is not surprising because congeners do have pheromone components in common. Thus, pheromones of C. lugubris murray and C. freemani dobson enhanced attraction of C. hemipterus to host volatiles, whereas C. humeralis attraction to host volatiles was enhanced by the pheromones of C. hemipterus and C. lugubris. C. mutilatus exhibited a high degree of activity to its own pheromone. Aggregation pheromones of Carpophilus spp. do not have any effect on Haptoncus luteolus (erichson). The possibility of using host volatiles-pheromone combinations for monitoring and perhaps even for control of these pests (by mass-trapping or disruption of egg laying and mating) appears very promising.

Descriptors: Carpophilus hemipterus, Carpophilus mutilatus, Urophorus humeralis, bait traps, aggregation pheromones, Israel.



Bellows, T.S., Jr.; Paine, T.D.; Gerling, D. (1992) Development, survival, longevity, and fecundity of Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on Siphoninus phillyreae (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in the laboratory. Environmental Entomology. 21(3): 659-663. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: temperature, beneficial insects, natural enemies, pests, predators, biology, environmental factors, agricultural entomology, Clitostethus arcuatus, Coleoptera, Siphoninus phillyreae, California, USA, Israel.


Grodowitz, M.J.; Lloyd, E.P.; McKibben, G.H. (1992) Comparison of feeding and olfactory behaviors between laboratory-reared and overwintered native boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 85(6): 2201-2210. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: agronomy, agriculture, behavior, climatology, ecology, economic entomology, physiology, reproductive system, sense organs, sensory reception, Coleoptera, Anthonomus grandis grandis, biological control, crop damage, field-release program, insect control significance, behavioral biology, environmental biology, bioclimatology and biometeorology, biochemistry.


Lance, D.R.; G.R. Sutter (1992) Field tests of a semiochemical-based toxic bait for suppression of corn rootworm beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 85(3): 967-973. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: A semiochemical-based toxic bait for adult Diabrotica virgifera virgifera leconte and D. barberi smith and lawrence was broadcast over three plots (1-3 ha) of maize, Zea mays l. The bait contained all insecticide (0.3% carbaryl), a feeding stimulant (cucurbitacin), and several nonpheromonal volatile attractants (totaling 0.5% of the formulation) in a dry, bran-based carrier. Bait was applied at 7-14 kg/ha (20-40 g [AI] carbaryl/ha). Relative to paired plots that were not treated with bait, numbers of D. v. virgifera and D. barberi counted on maize plants were reduced 77-85% and 55-92%, respectively, 48 h after bait applications. Likewise, relative numbers of D. v. virgifera and D. barberi captured on unbaited yellow sticky traps declined 58-91% and 67-88%, respectively, after applications of bait. Numbers of dead beetles on the ground 24 or 48 h after applications were roughly comparable to reductions in numbers of live beetles counted on plants. Activity of the bait was short-lived in the field, and populations of Diabrotica beetles in treated plots generally returned to near pretreatment levels within 1-2 wk after applications of bait. Although formulations must be improved to enhance activity and longevity, results of this study indicate that semiochemical-based baits for Diabrotica beetles are a potential tool for greatly reducing the amount of insecticide applied in maize production systems.

Descriptors: Zea mays, Diabrotica barberi, Diabrotica virgifera, biocontrol, baits, carbaryl, cucurbitacins, insect attractants, semiochemicals, sticky traps, toxicity, South Dakota.


Yeh, T.; Alm, S.R. (1992) Effects of entomopathogenic nematode species, rate, soil moisture, and bacteria on control of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae in the laboratory. Journal of Economic Entomology. 85(6): 2144-2148. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: ecology, economic entomology, horticulture, infection, parasitology, pathology, physiology, soil science, bacteria, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Nematoda, Aschelminthes, Helminthes, Galleria mellonella, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis heliothidis, Popillia japonica, Steinernema bibionis, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema glaseri, Xenorhabdus luminescens, Xenorhabdus nematophilus, Xenorhabdus poinarii, biological control, mortality, control of turf pests, environmental biology, necrosis.




Cox, P.D.; W.E. Parish (1991) Effects of refuge content and food availability on refuge-seeking behavior in Cryptolestes ferrugineus (stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Journal of Stored Products Research. 27(2): 135-139. ISSN: 0022-474X.

            NAL call number: 421 J829

Abstract: The effects of the contents of the refuge and the presence of food in the arena on refuge-seeking behavior in two strains of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (stephens) was investigated in the laboratory by confining adults in 21 cm dia arenas containing a central refuge. Some beetles were recorded in the refuges even when they contained only glass balls, although considerably fewer than when they contained whole wheat grains of flour. This suggests that a refuge retains some attraction for beetles even when food is absent, perhaps by providing physical contact around the insect's body. The addition of wheat or flour to the arena also reduced the numbers of beetles recorded in the refuges. Results were less clear-cut for a strain of C. ferrugineus that had been reared in the laboratory for over 25 yr than for a strain more recently obtained from the natural storage environment. These results are discussed in relation to the importance of insect behavior in laboratory bioassays and control in grain stores.

Descriptors: flour mills, wheat flour, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, behavior, food supply, laboratory tests, shelter, stored products pests, biocontrol, England.


Krueger, S.R.; M.G. Villani; J.P. Nyrop; D.W. Roberts (1991) Effect of soil environment on the efficacy of fungal pathogens against scarab grubs in laboratory bioassays. Biological Control: Theory and Applications in Pest Management. 1(3): 203-209. ISSN: 1049-9644.

            NAL call number: SB925.B5

Descriptors: Popillia japonica, parasites of insect pests, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria brongniartii, soil fungi, soil temperature and water, mortality, Coleoptera grubs.


Rochat, D.; V.A. Gonzalez; D. Mariau; G.A. Villanueva; P. Zagatti (1991) Evidence for male-produced aggregation pheromone in American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum (l.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology. 17(6): 1221-1230. ISSN: 0098-0331.

            NAL call number: QD415.A1J6

Abstract: Field trapping of the American palm weevil (APW), Rhynchophorus palmarum, showed that the combination of caged male APWs and palm stem was much more attractive to APWs of both sexes than palm stem alone. Caged female APWs did not enhance the attractiveness of the palm. Caged APWs without palm stem were not attractive. Virgin laboratory-bred males were highly attractive to APWs of both sexes in a two-choice pitfall olfactometer, whereas virgin laboratory-bred females were not. Adsorbent-trapped volatiles from virgin laboratory-bred males reproduced the effect of living males, giving evidence for a male-produced aggregation pheromone in this species. Wild-mated APWs of both sexes were as responsive to the aggregation pheromone as virgin laboratory-bred APWs. This is the first record of chemical communication in this species. These results have prompted investigations into the chemical identification of the aggregation pheromone.

Descriptors: Rhynchophorus palmarum, males, aggregation pheromones, insect traps, field tests, bioassays, biological control, chemical communication.


Sedlacek, J.D.; Barney, R.J.; Price, B.D.; Siddiqui, M. (1991) Effect of several management tactics on adult mortality and progeny production of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on stored corn in the laboratory. Journal of Economic Entomology. 84(3): 1041-1046. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: insect pests, stored corn, temperature, moisture, control, maize, insecticides, effects, malathion (CAS Registry Number: 121-75-5), environmental factors, biodeterioration, Sitophilus zeamais, Zea mays, organothiophosphate.


Shimane, T. (1991) [Method for successive mass-rearing of the yellow-spotted longicorn beetle, Psacothea hilaris pascoe (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), on artificial diets.] Bulletin of the National Institute of Sericultural and Entomological Science. (2): 65-112. ISSN: 0915-2652. Note: 26 tables; 8 fig.; 36 ref., In Japanese.

            NAL call number: SF541.S26

Abstract: The yellow-spotted longicorn beetle, Psacothea hilrais pascoe, is one of the insects which cause serious damage to mulberry trees in Japan. Therefore, it is important to control the pest effectively. It had been reported that the adult beetle was specifically infected with an entomogenous fungus, Beauveria brongniartii (=B.tenella) (sacc.) petch. Therefore it was suggested that this fungus could be utilized for the control of the pest. In order to promote studies on microbial control, it is necessary to use a large number of insects for the development of a bioassay. This paper reports on the development of a method for mass-rearing of the yellow-spotted longicorn beetle by using artificial diets for young silkworm larvae. The insect could be reared over successive generations in the laboratory to obtain a large number of insects for use in various experiments, after the effects of some of the environmental rearing conditions on the growth and development of the insect were investigated.

Descriptors: Morus, Cerambycidae, mass rearing, compound feeds, photoperiodicity, growth control, Coleoptera, environmental factors, feeds, light regimes, lighting, Moraceae, rearing techniques.



Haubruge, E.; Gaspar, C. (1990) Laboratory determination of areas favourable to the development of populations of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (horn), in Africa. Agronomie Tropicale. 45(4): 251-258. ISSN: 0151-1238.

            NAL call number: S5.A46

Descriptors: temperature, relative humidity, cereal grains, insect pest of stored products, environmental factors, Maize, commodities, cassava, wheat, triticale, yams, stored products, rearing techniques, Coleoptera, Prostephanus truncates, Triticum, Zea mays, Manihot esculenta, Dioscorea, Africa, Cyperales, Liliales, biodeterioration, techniques and methodology.



Ahmed, Z.I.; Ahmed, R.F. (1988) [The effect of prey (strawberry mite) densities Tetranychus turkestani ugarov and nikolski (Acariformes: Tetranychidae) on the functional and numerical efficiency of Stethorus gilvifrons mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the laboratory.] Journal of Agriculture and Water Resources Research. 7(1): 111-122. ISSN: 1012-3474. Note: In Arabic.

Descriptors: pest mite control, predators, laboratory experiments, temperature, relative humidity, adults, predation, biological control, developmental stages, Gossypium, soybeans, orchards, fruit crops, efficiency, reproductivity, Acarina, age, Arachnida, biological competition, cultivated land, developmental stages, economic plants, environmental conditions, fibre, foods, grain crops, legumes, green manures, humidity, hydrometeorology, industrial crops, injurious factors, Malvaceae, middle east, natural resources, physiological functions, Prostigmata, reproduction, Trombidiformes.


Leonhardt, B.A.; Dickerson, W.A.; Ridgway, R.L.; Devilbiss, E.D. (1988) Laboratory and field evaluation of controlled release dispensers containing grandlure, the pheromone of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 81(3): 937-943. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: trap, mating disruption, temperature, fiber crop, aggregation pheromone, release, diffuser, efficiency, comparative study, chemical composition, plant insect pest population survey, field study, laboratory study, environmental factor, Anthonomus grandis, Gossypium hirsutum, Georgia.


Malagon, J.; Garrido, A.; Busto, T. (1988) Oviposition de los tenebrionis l. (coleóptero de Capnodis: Buprestidae) bajo condiciones controladas del laboratorio. [Oviposition of Capnodis tenebrionis l. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) under controlled laboratory conditions.] Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal. 14(1): 99-105. ISSN: 0213-6910. Note: Ills., graphs, numerical tables, 16 ref., In Spanish.

            NAL call number: SB950 A1S7

Descriptors: fruit trees, Capnodis, oviposition, environmental conditions, environmental control, Coleoptera, physiological functions, trees.







Lartey, R.T.; E.A. Curl; C.M. Peterson (1994) Interactions of mycophagous collembola and biological control fungi in the suppression of Rhizoctonia solani. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 26(1): 81-88. ISSN: 0038-0717.

            NAL call number: S592.7.A1S6

Abstract: A rhizosphere-inhabiting collembolan, Proisotoma minuta (Insecta:Isotomidae), and three known biocontrol fungi were studied in sterilized and non-sterilized soil for suppression of Rhizoctonia solani on cotton in a greenhouse environment. R. solani in dried oat culture was incorporated into soil at four inoculum densities ranging from 10 to 150 mg kg-1. Trichoderma harzianum on wheat bran and Gliocladium virens as dried oatmeal culture were incorporated at 200 and 50 mg kg-1 soil, respectively, and Laetisaria arvalis dried, micromilled mycelium was applied as a seed dressing. Each fungus was applied either alone or with a population of P. minuta at 1000 kg-1 soil. Most effective biological control occurred in sterilized soil when the fungal biocontrol agents were integrated with the insect population; all combinations provided more effective disease suppression than the fungal agents used alone. In non-sterilized soil, having a natural competitive microflora, only P. minuta used alone and the L. arvalis + P. minuta treatment provided consistently significant disease reduction compared to R. solani-infested soil without added agents. Moderate disease control in non-sterilized soil was obtained with T. harzianum or G. virens when combined with the insect population. Plant-growth dry weight measurements did not consistently reflect the disease control benefit. The specific mechanisms promoting increased biocontrol capacity of insect + fungus combinations, though not clearly defined here, must lie within a complex of factors including preference of R. solani as a food source for P. minuta, aversion of the insect to the two sporulating Hyphomycetes used for biocontrol, and direct parasitism of R. solani by the fungal agents.

Descriptors: Gossypium hirsutum, Rhizoctonia solani, fungal diseases, plant disease control, Proisotoma minuta, Gliocladium virens, Trichoderma harzianum, Aphyllophorales, fungal antagonists, biological control agents, efficacy, interactions, suppressive soils, disease resistance, soil insects, feeding behavior, fecundity, community ecology, rhizosphere.








Khyami-Horani, H. (2002) Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus to laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Journal of Basic Microbiology. 42(2): 105-110. ISSN: 0233-111X.

            NAL call number: QR1 Z4

Descriptors: insect pest assessment control and management, toxicology, Diptera, Bacillus sphaericus, biological control agent, spore, Bacillus thuringiensis, Drosophila melanogaster, fruit fly, laboratory populations, larva, Jordan.



Prophetou-Athanasiadou, D.; Hodgson, P.J.; Kouloussis, N.; Jones, T.H. (1993) Oviposition behavior of Drosophila subobscura and its parasitoid Asobara tabida in the laboratory. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 67(3): 285-291. ISSN: 0013-8703.

            NAL call number: 421 En895

Descriptors: egg laying behavior, nutrition, parasitology, physiology, Diptera, Fungi, Hymenoptera, Leguminosae, Lepidoptera, Aphis gossypii, Heliothis virescens, Orius insidiosus, Schizaphis graminum, biological control agent, fecundity, free water, longevity, nymphal diet.


Other Diptera





Perrotey, S.; Madulo-Leblond, G.; Pesson, B. (2002) Laboratory testing of the insect repellent KBR 3023 against Phlebotomus duboscqi (Diptera : Psychodidae). Parasitology Research. 88(7): 712-713. ISSN: 0932-0113.

            NAL call number: QL757 P377

Descriptors: microbiology, insect repellent KBR 3023, Bayrepel, Bayer, Germany, Phlebotomus duboscqi, laboratory evidence, phlebotomine sandfly sensitivity, tropical environment, field efficacy, mosquitos.



Koveos, D.S. (2001) Rapid cold hardening in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae under laboratory and field conditions. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 101(3): 257-263. ISSN: 0013-8703.

            NAL call number: 421 En895

Descriptors: cold resistance, insect pest, olive plant, vegetal, survival, Olea europaea, Tephritidae, environmental factor, Diptera.



Skovgard, H.; J.B. Jespersen (2000) Seasonal and spatial activity of Hymenopterous pupal parasitoids (Pteromalidae and Ichneumonidae) of the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) on Danish pig and cattle farms. Environmental Entomology. 29(3): 630-637. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: Two pig farms, two dairies, and a combined pig and dairy farm in Denmark were sampled weekly from April to December 1997 to determine the distribution and relative abundance of Musca domestica l. pupal parasitoids. Nine parasitoid species were collected in the study, including Spalangia cameroni perkins, S. nigripes curtis, S. subpunctata forster, S. nigra latrielle, Muscidifurax raptor girault and sanders, Nasonia vitripennis (walker), Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (rondani), Urolepis rufipes (ashmead), and Phygadeuon fumator gravenhorst. S. nigra had not previously been recorded as a parasitoid on M. domestica pupae in Denmark. Among the five farms, S. cameroni was the most abundant species collected indoors, whereas M. raptor dominated outdoors in the manure heaps. Maximum activity of parasitoids was observed in late summer, which corresponded well with peaks in temperature and fly density. S. cameroni and M. raptor were active from spring to fall, whereas the other species occurred more sporadic and in lower numbers. The overall rate of parasitism was low, ranging from 5.1 to 13.1% among the farms. Spatial distribution of the three most abundant species at indoor sites revealed that M. raptor primarily searches for fly pupae in the illuminated areas of the stable environment, whereas S. cameroni and S. nigripes were randomly distributed.

Descriptors: Musca domestica, parasitoids, parasites of insect pests, parasitism, population density, activity, phenology, spatial distribution, seasonal abundance, biological control agents, farms, cattle, Denmark.



Collins, A.P. (1998) Laboratory evaluation of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium borellii, as a predator of mosquito larvae. Aquatic Sciences. 60(1): 22-27. ISSN: 1015-1621.

Descriptors: Diptera, Malacostraca, Crustacea, Culex pipiens larva, prey, Macrobrachium borellii, freshwater prawn, predator, hunting success, lentic environment, potential biological control, predation, behavioral biology.


Zahiri, N.; M.E. Rau (1998) Oviposition attraction and repellency of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to waters from conspecific larvae subjected to crowding, confinement, starvation, or infection. Journal of Medical Entomology. 35(5): 782-787. ISSN: 0022-2585.

            NAL call number: 421 J828

Abstract: As the biomass of Aedes aegypti (l.) larvae increased in relation to the volume of rearing waters, oviposition attraction of these waters to conspecific, gravid females first rose to a peak and then declined. Further increases in biomass rendered waters strongly repellent. Comparable responses were elicited by a decrease in the volume of rearing waters or an increase in the relative size or number of mosquito larvae. Low volumes of water reduced oviposition attraction and increased repellency, whereas larger volumes increased attraction. Excessively large volumes diluted attraction to neutrality. Constraints imposed by the physical dimensions of the larval environment which interfered with the normal postural movements and behaviors of the larvae also induced repellency, independent of rearing volume. Titration of repellent waters revealed that infection with the digenean Plagiorchis elegans (rudolphi) generated the most powerful repellent effect, whereas crowding or starvation induced significantly weaker responses. At no time did dilution of repellent waters restore attractive properties. Repellents, even at minute concentrations, overrode attractants. The density-dependent action of oviposition attractants and repellents may help to maintain larval populations near optimal levels through their influence on recruitment. Oviposition repellency induced by sublethal infections with P. elegans may maintain population levels below the carrying capacity of the environment. Persistence of oviposition attraction and repellency varied inversely with temperature. The magnitude of the repellent effect induced by larvae appears to be a good indicator of their probability of survival and may be of selective significance. Repellency may deflect ovipositing females away from sites close to human habitation and may lead to new, and perhaps more effective, method, to control mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit.

Descriptors: Aedes aegypti, oviposition, attractants, deterrents, repellency, larvae, water, crowding, population density, density dependence, constraints, starvation, Plagiorchis, trematode infections, environmental temperature.



Robacker, D.C.; D.S. Moreno; A.B. DeMilo (1996) Attractiveness to Mexican fruit flies of combinations of acetic acid with ammonium/amino attractants with emphasis on effects of hunger. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 22(3): 499-511. ISSN: 0098-0331.

            NAL call number: QD415.A1J6

Abstract: Ammonium acetate was more attractive than other ammonium salts to Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens) in an orchard test. We hypothesized that acetic acid enhanced the attractiveness of ammonia in the orchard test and that acetic acid may similarly enhance attractiveness of AMPu, an attractant consisting of a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium carbonate, methylamine HCl, and putrescine. In laboratory experiments, acetic acid was attractive to flies deprived of either yeast hydrolysate or both sugar and yeast hydrolysate but not to flies fed both sugar and yeast hydrolysate. AMPu/acetic acid combinations were more attractive than AMPu alone to flies deprived of both sugar and yeast hydrolysate but not to flies fed sugar, regardless of yeast hydrolysate deprivation status. Acetic acid is the first attractant found that has become more attractive with both sugar and protein deprivation in studies with A. ludens. It is also the first that has enhanced the attractiveness of another attractant type. In orchard tests, yellow sticky panels baited with either AMPu or 17 mg of acetic acid were at least six times more attractive than unbaited panels. However, panels baited with both acetic acid (17-68 mg) and AMPu were less attractive than AMPu alone. These results differed from the laboratory data in which combinations were never less attractive than AMPu alone.

Descriptors: Anastrepha ludens, attractants, acetic acid, ammonium compounds, amino compounds, hunger, sugar, protein, biocontrol.



Urabe, K.I.; Sekijima, Y.; Nakazawa, K. (1994) Study of the natural predators of a mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus in rice field areas by using precipitin tests: 1. Laboratory tests for the detection of the antigens specific to Culex tritaeniorhynchus extract. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology. 45(1): 43-51. ISSN: 0424-7086.

            NAL call number: QL99 E3

Descriptors: economic entomology, immune system, chemical coordination and homeostasis, nutrition, pest assessment control and management, physiology, Diptera, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, biological control, electrosyneresis, immunological method, environmental biology, nutritional status and methods, immunology and immunochemistry, pesticides, herbicides, comparative and experimental morphology, pathology.



Quednau, F.W. (1993) Reproductive biology and laboratory rearing of Ceranthia samarensis (villeneuve) (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasitoid of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (l.). Canadian Entomologist. 125(4): 749-759. ISSN: 0008-347X.

            NAL call number: 421 \b C16

Descriptors: light, temperature, diapause, mating, behavior, pests, beneficial insects, natural enemies, forest trees, forest pests, hosts, parasitoids, biology, reproduction, broadleaves, agricultural entomology, Ceranthia samarensis, Lepidoptera, Tachinidae, Diptera, Lymantria dispar, Quercus rubra, insect pests, silviculture, biological control, moth reproduction and development.



Andreadis, T.G.; Gere, M.A. (1992) Laboratory evaluation of Acanthocyclops vernalis and Diacyclops bicuspidatus thomasi (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) as predators of Aedes canadensis and Aedes stimulans (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 29(6): 974-979. ISSN: 0022-2585.

            NAL call number: 421 J828

Descriptors: ecology, economic entomology, freshwater ecology, nutrition, insect pest assessment control and management, physiology, public health, vector biology, Copepoda, Diptera, Acanthocyclops vernalis, Aedes canadensis, Aedes stimulans, Diacyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, age, biological control, environmental biology, general dietary studies, developmental biology, vector control, pathology.


MacCollom, G.B.; C.R. Lauzon; R.W. Weires Jr.; A.A. Rutkowski (1992) Attraction of adult apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) to microbial isolates. Journal of Economic Entomology. 85(1): 83-87. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: Eight bacterial species isolated from apple foliage were evaluated for attractiveness to adult apple maggot flies, Rhagoletis pomonella (walsh) in the laboratory. None elicited a strong response from the adult apple maggot flies. Another, previously unknown bacterium was isolated internally from the adult fly,, from under fresh oviposition sites on field collected fruit, and from the decaying flesh of maggot infested apples. Efforts to identify the bacterium indicated that it is similar to Enterobacter agglomerans, but inconsistencies in biochemical tests and colonial morphology were shown. The bacterium, or volatiles produced by the bacterium, is attractive to foraging apple maggot flies in the orchard environment, and significantly increases fly captures on Ladd apple maggot traps with an apple volatiles attractant.

Descriptors: Malus pumila, orchards, Rhagoletis pomonella, bacteria, Enterobacter agglomerans, insect attractants and traps, volatile compounds, Nova Scotia.


Mangan, R.L.; Moreno, D.S. (1992) Interaction of wild males and laboratory-adapted females of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in natural habitats. Environmental Entomology. 21(2): 294-300. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: mating behavior, insect pests, cold resistance, sterile insect release, biocontrol, Diptera, Tephritidae, Anastrepha ludens, Mexico, North America, pest and parasite management, control measures.


Rodriguez, M.L.; Torres, R.; Casillas, S.; Galan, L.; Gonzalez, E. (1992) Laboratory and field evaluation of commercial and locally prepared formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus on Culicidae of northeastern Mexico. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 8(3): 312-313. ISSN: 8756-971X. Note: 58th Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA, March 17, 1992.

            NAL call number: QL536 J686

Descriptors: methods, pest assessment control and management, vector biology, Diptera, Aedes aegypti, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Culex quinquefasciatus, biological control, materials and apparatus, environmental biology, bacteriology, disinfection and vector control, disease vectors.


Toma, T.; Miyagi, I. (1992) Laboratory evaluation of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) for predation of Aedes albopictus mosquito larvae. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 6(3): 281-289. ISSN: 0269-283X.

            NAL call number: RA639.M44

Descriptors: ecology, economic entomology, pest assessment control and management, physiology, public health, allied medical sciences, vector biology, Diptera, Aedes albopictus, Toxorhynchites splendens, biological control, cannibalism, oviposition, behavioral biology, insect behavior, environmental biology, developmental biology, embryology, disinfection and vector control, comparative and experimental morphology, pathology, developmental biology, morphogenesis.




Buckingham, G.R.; Okrah, E.A.; Christian-Meier, M. (1991) Laboratory biology and host range of Hydrellia bacciunasi (Diptera: Ephydridae). Entomophaga. 36(4): 575-586. ISSN: 0013-8959.

            NAL call number: 421 En835

Descriptors: laboratory study, host range and plant, weed, biological control, phytophagous, larva, duration, development, fecundity, longevity, freshwater environment, Florida, Ephydridae, United States, North America, Diptera.



Robacker, D.C.; D.S. Moreno; D.A. Wolfenbarger (1990) Effects of trap color, height, and placement around trees on capture of Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 83(2): 412-419. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: Green and yellow were the most attractive colors to male and female Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (loew), followed by amber, orange, and fluorescent yellow, on colored rectangles in the laboratory and as colored solutions in McPhail traps in the field. The most attractive wavelengths were in the green and yellow spectral regions from 500-580 nm. Black, red, blue, and white were not more attractive than colorless control traps. Attractiveness of red, orange, and yellow doubled from spring to autumn in the field, whereas attractiveness of green and amber did not change. Yeast hydrolysate was significantly more attractive than any of the colors. Combinations of green or yellow with yeast hydrolysate in McPhail traps did not enhance the attractiveness of yeast hydrolysate. More flies were captured at 1 and 2 m above the ground than at 0.1 or 3 m (tree tops). More flies were captured on the north side of trees than on the south side, whereas east and west were not significantly different from each other.

Descriptors: citrus, Anastrepha ludens, insect traps, color as an attractant, height, placement, light wavelengths, Texas.


Van Der Linde, T.C.; Hewitt, P.H.; Nel, A.; Van Der Westhuizen, M.C. (1990) The influence of different constant temperatures and saturation deficits on the survival of adult Culex (culex) theileri theobald (Diptera: culicidae) in the laboratory. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. 53(1): 57-63. ISSN: 0013-8789.

            NAL call number: 420 En86

Descriptors: life history, environmental factor, humidity, temperature, feeding, saturation, biological control.



Buckingham, G.R.; Okrah, E.A.; Thomas, M.C. (1989) Laboratory host range tests with Hydrellia pakistanae (Diptera: Ephydridae), an agent for biological control of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae). Environmental Entomology. 18(1): 164-171. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: insect plant relation, host range testing, host plant selection, weed, natural enemy introduction, phytophagous, freshwater environment, interspecific relation, Diptera.



Lacoursiere, J.O.; Charpentier, G. (1988) Laboratory study of the influence of water temperature and pH on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis efficacy against black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 4(1): 64-72. ISSN: 8756-971X.

            NAL call number: QL536 J686

Descriptors: entomopathogens, microbial pesticides, pathogenicity, environmental factors, hosts, biological control agents, Diptera, Simulium decorum, Bacillus thuringiensis, Prosimulium mixtum, Prosimulium fuscum, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, North America, Canada, Quebec, America, medical and veterinary entomology records, insect pest management, parasites, vectors.


Miura, T.; Takahashi, R.M. (1988) A laboratory study of predation by damselfly nymphs, Enallagma civile, upon mosquito larvae, Culex tarsalis. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 4(2): 129-131. ISSN: 8756-971X.

            NAL call number: QL536 J686

Descriptors: predator-prey relation, predatory behavior, population density, biological control, California, laboratory study, freshwater environment, vector, Culex tarsalis, United States, Culicidae, Diptera.



Nnakumusana, E.S. (1987) The pathogenicity of two isolates of Pythium spp. to mosquito larvae in the laboratory. Insect Science and its Application. 8(1): 21-24. ISSN: 0191-9040.

            NAL call number: QL461.I57

Descriptors: pathogens, natural enemies, environmental factors, entomogenous fungi, pathogenicity, hosts, mosquito nets, Eretmopodites, Diptera, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Toxorhynchites brevipalpis, Aedes africanus, Aedes simpsoni, Anopheles gambiae, Pythium, Culicidae, Uganda, Africa, Peronosporales, Mastigomycotina, Eumycota, East Africa, Africa South of Sahara, medical and veterinary entomology records, control measures, biological control, parasites vectors.


Santamarina Mijares, A.; Gonzalez Broche, R. (1987) Efecto de diversos photoperiods en la infestación de los ross y del forjador, 1976 del culicivorax de Romanomermis (Rhabditida: Mermithidae) en las larvas del quinquefasciatus del mosquito del mosquito dice, 1823 condiciones inferiores del laboratorio. [Effect of different photoperiods on the infestation of Romanomermis culicivorax ross and smith, 1976 (Rhabditida: Mermithidae) in larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus say, 1823 under laboratory conditions.] Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical. 39(1): 63-66. ISSN: 0375-0760. Note: In Spanish.

Descriptors: entomophilic nematodes, infectivity, photoperiod effects, natural enemies, nematology, entomopathogens, Diptera, Culicidae, Nematoda, Mermithidae, Culex quinquefasciatus, Romanomermis culicivorax, parasitic nematodes, parasites, vectors, biological control.



Nnakumusana, E.S. (1985) Laboratory infection of mosquito larvae by entomopathogenic fungi with particular reference to Aspergillus parasiticus and its effects on fecundity and longevity of mosquitoes exposed to conidial infections in larval stages. Current Science. 54(23): 1221-1228. ISSN: 0011-3891.

            NAL call number: 475 Sci23

Descriptors: entomopathogen, pathogenicity, Diptera, temperature, fecundity, longevity, larva, infection, laboratory study, Culicidae, blood sucking, environmental factor, biological control, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, Culex fatigans, Aspergillus parasiticus, Thallophyta, Fungi imperfecti.



Friederich, P. (1984) Temperature-induced dormancy in laboratory and wild eggs of the floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans meigen (Diptera: Culicidae). Zeitschrift fuer Angewandte Zoologie. 71(3): 353-368. ISSN: 0044-2291.

            NAL call number: 449.8 Z36

Descriptors: Diptera, developmental arrest, dormancy, temperature effects, embryonic development, Culicidae, Aedes vexans.


Majori, G.; Ali, A. (1984) Laboratory and field evaluations of industrial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis against some mosquito species of Central Italy. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 43(3): 316-323. ISSN: 0022-2011.

            NAL call number: 421 J826

Descriptors: Diptera, vector, microbial insecticide, formulation, therapeutic efficiency, Italy, larva, freshwater environment, Culicidae, microbiological control, bacteria, entomopathogen, Europe, Culex pipiens, Aedes caspius, Aedes detritus.




Russell, R.C.; Panter, C.; Whelan, P.I. (1983) Laboratory studies of the pathogenicity of the mosquito fungus Culicinomyces to various species in their natural waters. General and Applied Entomology: the Journal of the Entomological Society of Australia (N.S.W.). 15: 53-63. ISSN: 0158-0760.

            NAL call number: 423.92 En84

Descriptors: Diptera, fungi, entomopathogen, microbiological control, therapeutic efficiency, underwater environment, Australia, Oceania, Culex, Anopheles, Aedes, Thallophyta.


Sweeney, A.W.; Roberts, D.W. (1983) Laboratory evaluation of the fungus Culicinomyces clavosporus for control of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvae. Environmental Entomology. 12(3): 774-778. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461 E532

Descriptors: Diptera, fungi, entomopathogen, pathogenicity, laboratory study, screening test, Simuliidae, blood sucking, freshwater environment, Thallophyta.



Jaronski, S.T.; Axtell, R.C. (1982) Effects of organic water pollution on the infectivity of the fungus Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) for larve of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae): field and laboratory evaluation. Journal of Medical Entomology. 19(3): 255-262. ISSN: 0022-2585.

            NAL call number: 421 J828

Descriptors: microbiological control, water pollution, fungal infectivity, environment, Lagenidium giganteum.



Bailey, D.L.; Focks, D.A.; Cameron, A.L. (1981) Effects of Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (coquillett) larvae on production of Aedes aegypti adults in laboratory tests. Mosquito News. 41(3): 522-527. ISSN: 0027-142X.

            NAL call number: 421 M85

Descriptors: larva, entomophagous, biological control, Aedes aegypti, Culicidae, Diptera, freshwater environment, predator-prey relation, Toxorhynchites rutilus, artificial rearing.


Ignoffo, C.M.; Garcia, C.; Kroha, M.J.; Fukuda, T.; Couch, T.L. (1981) Laboratory tests to evaluate the potential efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for use against mosquitoes. Mosquito News. 41(1): 85-93. ISSN: 0027-142X.

            NAL call number: 421 M85

Descriptors: Aedes aegypti, Bacillus thuringiensis, Culicidae, Diptera, entomopathogen, laboratory study, environmental factors, blood sucking, microbial insecticide, microbiological control, pathogenicity, vector, insect pest and disease control.



Padgett, P.D.; Focks, D.A. (1980) Laboratory observations on the predation of Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 17 (5): 466-472. ISSN: 0022-2585.

            NAL call number: 421 J828

Descriptors: Aedes aegypti, predatory behavior, Culicidae, population density, Diptera, entomophagous, larva, freshwater environment, predator, developmental stage, Toxorhynchites rutilus, vector, behavioral study.







Sant'Ana, J.; R. Bruni; A.A. Abdul Baki; J.R. Aldrich (1997) Pheromone-induced movement of nymphs of the predator, Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Biological Control: Theory and Applications in Pest Management. 10(2): 123-128. ISSN: 1049-9644.

            NAL call number: SB925.B5

Abstract: Males of the generalist predator, Podisus maculiventris (say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) (known as the spined soldier bug), attract mates with a pheromone, but the immature stages of the predator also appeared to be attracted. Therefore, attraction of nymphs of P. maculiventris to pheromone was studied in a wind tunnel and in field plots. The behavior of individual nymphs toward pheromone with and without Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemilineata (say) (Chrysomelidae), and/or potato plants in the airstream was studied in a wind tunnel. Field experiments were performed in plots planted with green beans, Phaseolus vulgaris l. that were allowed to become naturally infested with Mexican bean beetles, Epilachna varivestis (moulsant) (Coccinellidae). Spined soldier bug nymphs were released in the middle row of plots planted for 3 weeks, and three commercial pheromone dispensers were placed outside the thirteenth row of a plot. Podisus maculiventris nymphs were significantly attracted to synthetic pheromone both in the laboratory and in the field. Results of wind tunnel experiments indicated that combining the pheromone with the phytophage significantly increased the positive responses of nymphs compared to the pheromone alone; however, inclusion of damaged or undamaged potato plants with pheromone did not enhance the positive responses to the odor source. Spined soldier bugs released in field plots remained relatively sedentary for the first day after release, but by the end of the 1-week sampling period nymphs had significantly moved into rows nearer the pheromone dispensers. The ability to manipulate immature spined soldier bugs significantly expands the potential for using this generalist predator in integrated pest management programs.

Descriptors: Podisus maculiventris, nymphs, movement, behavior, aggregation pheromones, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Solanum tuberosum, wind tunnels, Epilachna varivestis, Phaseolus vulgaris, predators of insect pests, predator augmentation.


Stack, P.A.; F.A. Drummond (1997) Reproduction and development of Orius insidiosus in a blue light-supplemented short photoperiod. Biological Control: Theory and Applications in Pest Management. 9(1): 59-65. ISSN: 1049-9644.

            NAL call number: SB925.B5

Abstract: An important limitation in using the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (say) (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae), as a biological control agent in north temperate winter greenhouse crop production is its tendency to enter reproductive diapause during short photoperiods. Laboratory experiments assessed the effect of a blue light-supplemented short photoperiod over a range of temperature regimes on female reproductive diapause induction, nymph development and survival, ovarian maturation period, and oviposition of O. insidiosus. In experiment one, all O. insidiosus life stages were exposed to a broad-spectrum photoperiod of 15:9 (L:D) h, a blue light-supplemented photoperiod of 9:15 (L:D) h, consisting of 9 h broad-spectrum light followed by 6 h blue light, or a broad-spectrum photoperiod of 9:15 (L:D) h, all at 24 +/- 1 degrees C. Approximately 75% of mated females reproduced in the broad-spectrum long photoperiod and the blue light-supplemented short photoperiod regimes, whereas over 50% of the bugs diapaused in the broad-spectrum short photoperiod regime. There was no difference among the light treatments for all other measured responses. In experiment two, all O. insidiosus life stages were exposed to the blue light-supplemented short photoperiod over a range of temperature regimes (19-28 degrees C). At least 90% of mated females reproduced at each temperature. A linear relationship occurred for temperature and nymph development and for temperature and ovarian maturation period. The oviposition rate was similar at 22 degrees, 25 degrees, and 28 degrees C. This study indicates the potential for using supplemental blue light to enhance O. insidiosus reproduction in a short photoperiod and may be important as a biological control strategy in winter greenhouse production systems.

Descriptors: Orius insidiosus, reproduction, diapause, photoperiod, blue light, biological development, survival, ovarian development, oviposition, environmental temperature, biological control agents, predators of insect pests, Frankliniella occidentalis, Dendranthema.



Painter, M.K.; K.J. Tennessen; T.D. Richardson (1996) Effects of repeated applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis on the mosquito predator Erythemis simplicicollis (Odonata: Libellulidae) from hatching to final instar. Environmental Entomology. 25(1): 184-191. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: Nymphs of a common dragonfly, Erythemis simplicicollis (say), were exposed to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis de Barjac at 1.2 ppm once a week for an entire life cycle in a controlled laboratory environment. Eight weekly applications were administered to 2 treatment groups: external contact only, and external + internal contact using prey (mostly anopheline larvae) that had fed on B. thuringiensis. Each B. thuringiensis-treated group and a control group consisted of 15 nymphs. Mortality was not affected by B. thuringiensis applications. Repeated B. thuringiensis applications did not affect development to the adult stage, morphology, or maiden flight capability. Nymph size of the external contact group, measured by hind femur length and head width, was substantially smaller compared with the control group in most instars from 4-12. However, adult size, based on head width and hind wing length comparisons, did not differ among the 3 groups. Prey consumption and instar duration, which were highly correlated, did not account for the differences in size. Sex ratio (lower proportion of large females in the external group) and initial size (slightly smaller in instar 2 in the external group) appeared to be the major factors contributing to the size differences in the external group. However, these variables were not responsible for the external + internal contact group being smaller in instar 10 compared with the controls, as sex ratios and initial size were equal. If repeated B. thuringiensis applications affect size in E. simplicicollis, the effect may be insignificant in terms of reproductive success, as published studies do not show a positive relationship between size and reproductive success in dragonflies.

Descriptors: Libellulidae, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis, exposure, nontarget effects and organisms, predators of insect pests, nymphs, mortality, prey, consumption, growth rate, biological development, biological control agents, Culicidae.



Darriet, F.; Hougard, J.M. (1993) Étude de laboratoire sur la biologie et le potentiel prédateur du vicina aquatique de parvipes de Ranatra de bogue (Signoret, 1880) (Insecta, Heteroptera, Nepidae) pour la commande de la population larvaire de moustique. [Laboratory study on the biology and predatory potential of the aquatic bug Ranatra parvipes vicina (Signoret, 1880) (Insecta, Heteroptera, Nepidae) for the control of mosquito larval population.] Revue d'Hydrobiologie Tropicale. 26(4): 305-311.

            ISSN: 0240-8783, Note: In French.

            NAL call number: QH91 A103 

Descriptors: laboratory study, biological control of mosquito larvae, predator prey relation, feeding preference, Cameroon, developmental stages, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, freshwater environments, Africa.


Powell, J.E.; L. Lambert (1993) Soybean genotype effects on bigeyed bug feeding on corn earworm in the laboratory. Crop Science. 33(3): 556-559. ISSN: 0011-183X.

            NAL call number: 64.8 C883

Abstract: Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (boddie), is a serious pest of many crops, including soybean, Glycine max (l.) merr. This study was conducted to determine whether or not plant pubescence could be used to enhance predator activity. The influence of plant pubescence or insect resistance of soybean on predation of corn earworm eggs by the bigeyed bug, Geocoris punctipes (say), was investigated in the laboratory. Bigeyed bug adults were allowed to feed on corn earworm eggs that were placed on foliage of soybean genotypes isogenic for dense, normal, or no pubescence, and on genotypes susceptible or resistant to foliar feeding insects. Percent egg puncture by males was similar on all foliage types whether or not choices were offered. Females punctured significantly (P < 0.05) more eggs on normal leaflets in a no choice situation. Significant differences (P > 0.05) were not detected in percent en puncture on soybean genotypes resistant to foliar feeding insects as compared with susceptible genotypes 'Centennial' and 'Davis'). Development of soybean cultivars with reduced pubescence, which is less preferred by corn earworm for oviposition and/or foliar feeding, will probably not influence this beneficial predator, since egg predation was not adversely affected by plant pubescence or insect resistance under laboratory test conditions.

Descriptors: Glycine max, Helicoverpa zea, predator prey relationships, Geocoris punctipes, leaves, Trichomes, pest resistance, feeding behavior, oviposition, predation, genotypes, biological and genetic control, Hemiptera.



Parajulee, M.N.; Phillips, T.W. (1992) Laboratory rearing and field observations of Lyctocoris campestris (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), a predator of stored-product insects. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 85(6): 736-743. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 En82

Descriptors: behavior, ecology, economic entomology, nutrition, physiology, Heteroptera, Lyctocoris campestris, biological control, life history, natural enemy, sex ratio, stored grain, behavioral biology, environmental biology, comparative and experimental morphology, pathology.



Evans, H.F. (1976) The population dynamics of Anthocoris Confusus in a laboratory cage ecosystem. Journal of Animal Ecology. 45(3): 773-789. ISSN: 0021-8790.

            NAL call number: 410 J826

Descriptors: population density and dynamics, environment, biological control, laboratory population, ecology, Hemiptera.







Ponsonby, D.J.; Copland, M.J. (2000) Environmental effects on the development and survival of the scale insect Abgrallaspis cyanophylli (signoret) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) with reference to its suitability for use as a host for rearing biological control agents. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 10(5): 583-594. ISSN: 0958-3157.

            NAL call number: SB975.B562

Descriptors: Abgrallaspis cyanophylli, Diaspididae, biological control, mass rearing, Chilocorus nigritus, temperature, predator.




English-Loeb, G.; Villani, M.; Martinson, T.; Forsline, A.; Consolie, N. (1999) Use of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of grape phylloxera (Homoptera : Phylloxeridae): A laboratory evaluation. Environmental Entomology. 28(5): 890-894. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: parasitic efficiency, entomopathogen, insect pests, fruit crop, dose activity relation, reproduction, humidity, soils, laboratory study, biological control, Vitis vinifera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema glaseri, environmental factor, host parasite relation, Phylloxeridae, Aphidoidea, Homoptera, Nematoda, Nemathelminthia, Helmintha.



Van Dam, N.M.; J.D. Hare (1998) Differences in distribution and performance of two sap-sucking herbivores on glandular and non-glandular Datura wrightii. Ecological Entomology. 23(1): 22-32. ISSN: 0307-6946.

            NAL call number: QL461.E4

Abstract: 1. Datura wrightii regel (solanaceae) is polymorphic with regard to trichome type. Some plants are densely covered with short, non-glandular trichomes, whereas other plants in the same populations possess glandular trichomes that excrete a sticky exudate. The hypothesis that glandular trichomes enhance resistance to all small insect herbivores is evaluated. 2. Field censuses in four southern Californian D. wrightii plant populations revealed that glandular plants are indeed resistant to whitefly spp. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Whiteflies are almost exclusively found on non-glandular plants. In contrast, Tupiocoris notatus (distant) (Heteroptera: Miridae), another sap-sucking herbivore of similar body size, is found predominantly on plants with glandular trichomes. 3. Laboratory experiments showed that whiteflies are unable to colonize glandular D. wrightii phenotypes. After the whitefly adults had landed on the leaves of these plants, they were trapped in the exudate and died. 4. Tupiocoris notatus adults, on the other hand, laid significantly more eggs on glandular plants. The presence of the exudate was shown to be the cue that determined their choice of glandular plants. 5. In no-choice experiments, T. notatus nymphs reared on glandular plants had significantly higher survival rates and had shorter developmental periods than those raised on non-glandular plants. This, combined with the higher oviposition rates, resulted in higher T. notatus population growth rates on glandular plants than on non-glandular plants. 6. Glandular trichomes are not therefore a universal protection against small herbivores. Differences in distribution over the two plant types within the natural herbivore guild on D. wrightii may, among other selection pressures, contribute to the maintenance of the observed trichome polymorphism.

Descriptors: Datura wrightii, Bemisia argentifolii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Trialeurodes abutiloneus, Miridae, pest resistance, trichomes, polymorphism, exudates, population density, oviposition, species differences, biological development, survival, population growth, California, whiteflies, Homoptera.




McClure, M.S. (1995) Diapterobates humeralis (Oribatida: Ceratozetidae): an effective control agent of hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) in Japan. Environmental Entomology. 24(5): 1207-1215. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae annand, is maintained at innocuous population levels in Japan on its 2 native hosts, Tsuga diversifolia masters and T. sieboldii carriere, by host resistance and natural enemies. The most common enemy associated with infestations of A. tsugae in Japan was Diapterobates humeralis (hermann), an arboreal oribatid mite that inhabits coniferous forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere, where it usually feeds on decaying plant tissues, fungi, algae, and lichens. This mite occurred in 12 of 13 prefectures and at 42 of the 76 sites (55%) that were sampled in Honshu, Japan, from 34 to 37 degrees N latitude and between sea level and 2,100 m elevation. This included 17 of 37 forest sites (46%) and 23 of 37 ornamental sites (62%) where adelgids were present, and 2 uninfested ornamental sites. Laboratory cage experiments revealed that D. humeralis did not eat adelgid eggs or nymphs, but rather consumed the woolly filaments that enveloped the ovisacs. However, in so doing 20 adult mites dislodged >95% of the eggs contained within 10 ovisacs from hemlock branches in 7 d. This 2:1 ratio of mites to ovisacs is representative of densities in the field. More eggs were dislodged from ovisacs located along the twig (99%) than from those located at the base of terminal buds (95%), the usual oviposition sites when adelgid densities are high and low, respectively. In a field experiment that simulated effects of egg dislodgment by mites, not a single adelgid was found on any of 4 hemlocks beneath which 2,383 eggs had been placed 16 d earlier. Hatching adelgid nymphs were unable to colonize nearby trees and fell victim to desiccation and generalist predators, mainly ants and spiders that inhabited the forest floor. During the same period 96% of 2,262 adelgids placed directly on 4 other hemlocks successfully colonized the trees. D. humeralis destroyed 86-94% of adelgid egg masses at all 17 infested forest sites and 99-100% of them at 16 of the 23 infested ornamental sites. Included in this latter group were 2 sites where adelgids had been controlled on T. canadensis (l.) carriere, a highly susceptible North American species. At the other 7 infested ornamental sites where adelgid mortality ranged from 55 to 83%, mites were abundant and were ravaging egg masses of A. tsugae when trees were 1st sampled. At 2 of these latter sites that were revisited 3 wk later, only 2-3% of the ovisacs were viable and adelgid densities had been reduced by 90-93%. Although D. humeralis was not a predator of A. tsugae, it was a highly effective control agent by dislodging adelgids from the trees and killing them as it fed on the woolly filaments surrounding the ovisacs. The wide climatic and environmental tolerance of this mite in Japan, its voracity in consuming the woolly ovisacs of A. tsugae, its propensity to dislodge adelgid eggs from trees, its ability to reduce adelgid populations to innocuous levels on T. canadensis in Japan, and its harmlessness to other organisms in the environment make D. humeralis an excellent biological control candidate for North America.

Descriptors: Tsuga, Adelges, Cryptostigmata, feeding behavior, ova, mortality, biological control agents, natural enemies, Honshu.



Crovetti, A.; Rossi, E. (1989) Field and laboratory observations on some eco-ethological aspects of the grape phylloxera (Viteus vitifoliae (fitch)). Meeting on influence of environmental factors on the control of grape pests, diseases and weeds. Proceedings (Thessaloniki). Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA, France)-DOCVE CG1276. 1987-10-06: 107-114.

Descriptors: fruit crop, insect plant relation, environmental factors, polymorphism, laboratory study, field study, sensitivity resistance, plant origin, pest, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Vitis vinifera, grapevine root-aphid, Phylloxeridae, Aphidoidea, Homoptera, comparative study.








Kuske, S.; Babendreier, D.; Edwards, P.J; Turlings, T.C.; Bigler, F. (2004) Parasitism of non-target lepidoptera by mass released Trichogramma brassicae and its implication for the larval parasitoid Lydella thompsoni. BioControl. 49(1): 1-19. ISSN: 1386-6141.

            NAL call number: SB975 .B5636

Descriptors: economic entomology, pest assessment control and management, terrestrial ecology, Lepidoptera, Lydella thompsoni, parasite, larval parasitoid, Trichogramma brassicae, Hymenoptera, biological control agent, inundative releases, Archanara geminipuncta, Chilo phragmitellus, Ostrinia nubilalis, biological control, laboratory host specificity tests, non-target effects, oviposition period, parasitism rates, potential negative effects, environmental biology.



Guillen, L.; Aluja, M.; Equihua, M.; Sivinski, J. (2002) Performance of two fruit fly (Diptera : Tephritidae) pupal parasitoids (Coptera haywardi [Hymenoptera : Diapriidae] and Pachycrepoideus vindemiae [Hymenoptera : Pteromalidae]) under different environmental soil conditions. Biological Control. 23(3): 219-227. ISSN: 1049-9644.

            NAL call number: SB925.B5

Descriptors: Coptera haywardi, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae larvae, pupal burial depth, Tephritidae, pupae parasitoids, biological control, soil type, house fly, suppression, population, Muscidae, Mexico.




Greenberg, L.; J.H. Klotz (2000) Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) trail pheromone enhances consumption of liquid sucrose solution. Journal of Economic Entomology. 93(1): 119-122. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: We investigated whether the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (mayr), trail pheromone, Z9-16:Ald, could enhance recruitment to and consumption of liquid sucrose solutions. All tests were done as paired comparisons with a 10% sucrose solution as food. In the laboratory, mixing 20 microliters of a 10-microgram/ml solution of the pheromone with 50 microliters of the 10% sucrose solution increased the number of ants feeding by >150%. In a field test, we combined the trail pheromone with a 10% sucrose solution in 50-ml vials. These vials were covered with a plastic membrane that has 1.5-mm-diameter holes punched uniformly across its surface. Ants could drink from the holes after the vials were inverted. For half of the vials, 1 microgram of the pheromone was put onto the plastic membrane before the vials were filled with a 10% sucrose solution. The remaining vials had no pheromone on the plastic membrane. After 4 h we measured the consumption in each vial. Bait consumption with the pheromone was enhanced by 29%. In a 2nd series of tests, vials were left outside for 24 h. The consumption rate was 33% higher with the pheromone compared with the controls that didn't have pheromone.

Descriptors: Linepithema humile, trail pheromones, baits, sucrose, solutions, recruitment, food intake, baiting, efficacy, biocontrol.



Bernal J.S.; R.F. Luck; J.G. Morse (1999) Host influences on sex ratio, longevity, and egg load of two Metaphycus species parasitic on soft scales: implications for insectary rearing. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 92(2): 191-204. ISSN: 0013-8703.

            NAL call number: 421 En895

Abstract: Metaphycus flavus (howard) and M. stanleyi compere (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are currently being screened for use as augmentative biological control agents of citrus-infesting soft scales (Homoptera: Coccidae). Two factors were investigated, host quality-dependent sex allocation and local mate competition, which likely influence these parasitoid's sex allocation strategies and are therefore of interest for their mass-rearing. The results of these studies suggested that, under the mass-rearing protocol that is envisioned for these parasitoids, offspring sex ratios in both M. flavus and M. stanleyi are dominated by host quality (= size) influences, but not by interactions with other females. These results indicated that host size strongly influences offspring sex ratios and brood sizes; larger hosts led to more female offspring and larger broods. In contrast, increasing the number of parental females did not lead to fewer female offspring as expected under local mate competition. Additionally, within-brood sex ratios did not vary with brood size; this result is inconsistent with expected sex ratios due to local mate competition. Other results also indicated that host quality was a dominant influence on M. flavus' and M. stanleyi's sex ratios. Larger hosts led to a larger size in the emerging wasps, and larger wasps had greater egg loads and lived longer than smaller wasps. However, wasp longevity, and the influence of wasp size on longevity were mediated by a wasp's diet. Metaphycus flavus females lived the longest when they had access to hosts, honey, and water, followed by honey and water, and shortest when they had access to water alone; M. stanleyi females lived longest with honey and water, followed by hosts, honey, and water, and shortest with water alone. Greater wasp size led to greater longevity in females only when they had access to food (honey, or hosts and honey). Finally, other results suggested that both M. flavus and M. stanleyi are facultatively gregarious. Wasp size did not decrease with brood size as expected under superparasitism. Overall, the results of these studies suggested that holding newly emerged females of both M. flavus and M. stanleyi for several days in the presence of an appropriate food source before field release could enhance a female's performance as an augmentative biological control agent. It increases their initial life expectancy following release, and maximizes the females' egg load (both Metaphycus species) and resources for replacing oviposited eggs (M. flavus only).

Descriptors: Metaphycus flavus, M. stanleyi, Coccus hesperidum, parasitoids, parasites of insect pests, host parasite relationships, quality, size, sex ratio, longevity, diet, fecundity, intraspecific competition, mass rearing, biological control agents.



Reed, D.A.; J.J. Brown (1998) Host/parasitoid interactions: critical timing of parasitoid-derived products. Journal of Insect Physiology. 44(9): 721-732. ISSN: 0022-1910.

            NAL call number: 421 J825

Abstract: Short-term in vitro incubations were used to examine the ability of endoparasitoid larvae to produce and release both ecdysteroids and proteins into their environment. Second instar larvae of both Chelonus near curvimaculatus and Ascogaster quadridentata were observed by SDS-PAGE to release temporally-similar polypeptides in the 20-30 kD Mr range. Peak occurrence of these polypeptides coincided with shedding of the anal vesicle, immediately prior to ecdysis to the third instar. Ecdysis also coincided with the switch from endoparasitic to ectoparasitic development in vivo. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against a particular 27 kD polypeptide of Chelonus, which was found to be species-specific and localized primarily within the anal vesicle during the latter part of the second stadium and whole body homogenates of third instars. In vitro incorporation studies using 35S-methionine indicated rapid changes in the synthetic abilities of second instar larvae shortly before ecdysis. The production and release of ecdysteroids, as measured by RIA, was found to precede the peak occurrence of the 27 kD polypeptide and ecdysteroid presence was undetectable following the molt. In contrast, the polypeptides were observed to gradually increase prior to the molt and slowly decrease after the molt. The Chelonus polypeptide was not detected in host tissues until after parasitoid egression.

Descriptors: Chelonus, Ascogaster quadridentatus, Trichoplusia ni, Cydia pomonella, parasitoids, parasites of insect pests, parasitism, molting hormones, polypeptides, hormone secretion, protein secretion, in vitro, timing, ecdysis, localization, host parasite relationships, biological development.


Wang, B.; Ferro, D.N. (1998) Functional responses of Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under laboratory and field conditions. Environmental Entomology. 27(3): 752-758. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: pests, maize, temperature, environmental factors, hosts, parasitoids, beneficial insects, biological control, agents, natural enemies, cereals, Trichogramma ostriniae, Ostrinia nubilalis, Zea mays, Hymenoptera, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera, Poaceae, Cyperales, OECD countries, insect behavior, New England.



England, S.; E.W. Evans (1997) Effects of pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) honeydew on longevity and fecundity of the alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) parasitoid Bathyplectes curculionis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Environmental Entomology. 26(6): 1437-1441. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: The ability of parasitoids to attack their hosts may be influenced by the availability of adult food sources such as homopteran honeydew. To test this hypothesis for the wasp Bathyplectes curculionis (thomson), a parasitoid of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (gyllenhal), we performed laboratory experiments to determine whether availability of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (harris), honeydew influenced adult longevity and fecundity of the wasp. Adult wasps caged with alfalfa, Medicago sativa l., and pea aphids fed on the aphid honeydew and lived approximately 50% longer than wasps caged with alfalfa alone. In a related experiment, newly emerged, unmated B. curculionis females were allowed to feed for 2 d on pea aphid honeydew, sucrose dissolved in water, or water alone, and were then dissected to determine the number of eggs in a lateral oviduct. Egg production was slightly (11-15%) but significantly greater in females with access to pea aphid honeydew or sugar water than in females with access to water only. These results suggest that availability of pea aphid honeydew in alfalfa fields may enhance the realized fecundity of B. curculionis. Hence, the presence of pea aphids in moderate numbers may be beneficial for biological control of the alfalfa weevil.

Descriptors: Bathyplectes curculionis, Acyrthosiphon pisum, sucrose, nutrient sources, longevity, parasitoids, fecundity, parasites of insect pests, Hypera postica, honeydew, alfalfa fields.



Henter, H.J.; Van Lenteren, J.C. (1996) Variation between laboratory populations in the performance of the parasitoid Encarsia formosa on two host species, Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 80(2): 427-434. ISSN: 0013-8703.

            NAL call number: 421 EN895

Descriptors: environmental biology, parasitology, pathology, physiology, reproductive system, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae, Bemisia tabaci, Encarsia formosa, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, host-parasitoid interactions, intraspecific variation, parthenogenetic reproduction, population studies, potential biocontrol species, comparative biology.



Grille, G.; Basso, C. (1995) Biology, thermal requirements and performance of Trichogramma pretiosum riley and T. galloi zucchi under laboratory conditions Trichogramma and other egg parasitoids. Les Colloques de l'INRA. (73): 79-82. ISSN: 0293-1915. Note: International Symposium on Trichogramma and Other Egg Parasitoids, 4 (Cairo EGY) 1994-10-04.

            NAL call number: S539.7 C6

Descriptors: egg parasitoids, entomophagous, population density, ecological abundance, interspecific comparison, fecundity, longevity, temperature, biological control, pest, Trichogramma pretiosum, Diatraea saccharalis, Suedamerika, environmental factor, Uruguay.



Burnham, K.D.; Baldridge, R.S.; Duhrkopf, R.E.; Vodopich, D.S. (1994) Laboratory study of predation by Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on eggs of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 31(5): 770-771. ISSN: 0022-2585.

            NAL call number: 421 J828

Descriptors: ecology, pathology, physiology, reproduction, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Aedes albopictus, Solenopsis invicta, mortality, population dynamics, behavioral biology, environmental biology, pathology, necrosis.


Mwangi, E.N.; Kaaya, G.P.; Essuman, S.; Kimondo, M.G. (1994) Parasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a hymenopteran parasitoid in the laboratory, and some aspects of its basic biology. Biological Control. 4(2): 101-104. ISSN: 1049-9644.

            NAL call number: SB925.B5

Descriptors: ectoparasites, parasitism, laboratory study, development, temperature, parasitoids, hosts, environmental factors, cattle, rabbits, Amblyomma variegatum, Ixodiphagus hookeri, Bovidae, ruminants, Artiodactyla, ungulates, Leporidae, Amblyomma, Ixodidae, Metastigmata, Acari, Arachnida, Hymenoptera, developing countries, parasites, vectors, pathogens of animals, biological control, behavior, Kenya.


Sengonca, C.; Uygun, N.; Ulusoy, M.R.; Kersting, U. (1994) Laboratory studies on biology and ecology of Eretmocerus debachi rose and rosen (Hym., Aphelinidae) the parasitoid of Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Hom., Aleyrodidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 118(4-5): 407-412. ISSN: 0931-2048.

            NAL call number: 421 Z36

Descriptors: life cycle, methods and techniques, parasitology, pathology, physiology, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Eretmocerus debachi, Parabemisia myricae, biological control, population dynamics, seasonality, environmental biology, temperature as a primary variable, embryology, morphogenesis, comparative and experimental morphology.



Schmidt, G.H.; Kitt, J. (1993) Laboratory rearing of Ooencyrtus pityocampae in unfertilized and unlaid eggs of Thaumetopoea species. Naturwissenschaften. 80(8): 379-380. ISSN: 0028-1042.

            NAL call number: 474 N213

Descriptors: ecology, economic entomology, parasitology, pathology, physiology, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Ooencyrtus pityocampae, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni, insect pest, biological control, egg parasitoid, environmental biology.



Calderone, N.W. (1992) An integrated response to pollination related problems resulting from parasitic honey-bee mites and the Africanized honey bee. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education SARE or Agriculture in Concert with the Environment ACE research projects. (33) 1988. 17 pgs.

            NAL call number: S441.S855

Descriptors: Apis mellifera, pest resistance, Acarapis woodi, Varroa jacobsoni, breeding programs, mite control, acaricidal plants, screening, efficacy, beekeeping, biological control, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New York.


Morales-Ramos, J.A.; Cate, J.R. (1992) Rate of increase and adult longevity of Catolaccus grandis (burks) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in the laboratory at four temperatures. Environmental Entomology. 21(3): 620-627. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: temperature effects, natural enemies, insect pests, parasitoids, hosts, environmental factors, Catolaccus grandis, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Anthonomus grandis, biological control.


Pereira, R.M.; Stimac, J.L. (1992) Transmission of Beauveria bassiana within nests of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the laboratory. Environmental Entomology. 21(6): 1427-1432. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: ecology, infection, pathology, Fungi imperfecti, Deuteromycetes, Hymenoptera, Beauveria bassiana, Solenopsis invicta, biological control agent, infection rates and transmission, pest control, mycology of ant nest.


Stouthamer, R.; R.F. Luck; J.H. Werren (1992) Genetics of sex determination and the improvement of biological control using parasitoids. Environmental Entomology. 21(3): 427-435. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: Diploid males are known to occur in several braconid and ichneumonid species. These diploid males are the result of a single-locus, sex-determination mechanism. Heterozygotes at this sex locus develop into females, whereas hemizygotes (haploids) and homozygotes (diploids) develop into males. Diploid males have a low fertility and their frequency drastically increases with small populations or inbreeding. The implications of this sex-determining mechanism for the use of parasitoids in biological control are explored. Production of diploid males leads to male-biased sex ratios and can reduce rates of establishment and population growth. Taxa in which a single-locus sex determination has been found (e.g., Ichneumonidae and Braconidae) often experience extreme male-biased sex ratios in mass rearing and have been more difficult to establish than taxa with other modes of sex determination (e.g., Chalcidoids). The effect of laboratory rearing on the number of sex alleles, frequency of diploid males, and population growth rates is explored by computer simulation. Methods of rearing and release that can enhance the number of sex alleles and the establishment of parasitoids are discussed. Furthermore, additional small-scale releases may enhance the effectiveness of already established populations by increasing number of sex alleles and the rate at which their population grows.

Descriptors: Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, biological control agents, diploidy, genetic variation, laboratory rearing, parasites of insect pests, population genetics, sex determination, sex ratio, simulation models, Hymenoptera.




Hagley, E.A.; Barber, D.R. (1991) Mortality, fecundity and longevity of parasitoids of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lep.: Gracillariidae) at constant temperatures in the laboratory. Entomophaga. 36(3): 409-415. ISSN: 0013-8959.

            NAL call number: 421 En835

Descriptors: pests, natural enemies, mortality, temperature effect, fecundity, environmental factors, parasitoids, insect hosts, Pnigalio flavipes, Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Sympiesis sericeicornis, Sympiesis marylandensis, Pholetesor ornigis, Phyllonorycter blancardella, Eulophidae, Pholetesor, Braconidae, biological control.



Hamerski, M.R.; Hall, R.W.; Keeney, G.D. (1990) Laboratory biology and rearing of Tetrastichus brevistigma (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid of the elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 83(6): 2196-2199. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: forest insect pests, natural enemies, diapause, photoperiod, rearing techniques, parasitoids, hosts, environmental factors, biological control, Tetrastichus brevistigma, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Pyrrhalta luteola, Spermatophyta, silviculture, pest and parasite management.


Mead, F.; Pratte, M.; Gabouriaut, D. (1990) Influence of a difference in the temperature and day duration on the progression of the life of a society of Polistes dominulus Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) reared in the laboratory. Insectes Sociaux. 37(3): 236-250. ISSN: 0020-1812.

            NAL call number: 421 IN79

Descriptors: predators, temperature, photoperiod, natural enemies, developmental biology, ecology, Polistes dominulus, Vespidae, Hymenoptera, biological control, insect reproduction.


Ridgway, N.M.; Mahr, D.L. (1990) Reproduction, development, and longevity of Pholetesor ornigis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in the laboratory. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 83(4): 790-794. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 En82

Descriptors: reproduction, development, longevity, parasitoid, laboratory study, temperature, photoperiod, insect pest, fruit trees, entomophagous, environmental factor, biological control, Malus domestica, Pholetesor ornigis, Phyllonorycter blancardella,

            Rosaceae, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, leafminer.


Ridgway, N.M.; Mahr, D.L. (1990) Reproduction, development, longevity, and host mortality of Sympiesis marylandensis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in the laboratory. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 83(4): 795-799. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 EN82

Descriptors: pests, natural enemies, developmental biology, reproduction, honeydew, temperature, apples, parasitoids, insect hosts, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Aphis pomi, Phyllonorycter blancardella, Sympiesis marylandensis, Malus, Sternorrhyncha, Homoptera, Hemiptera, biological control, animal wastes, insect pests of plants.



Fabre, J.P.; Chalon, A.; Robert, R.; Chizky, J. (1989) Laboratory rearing tests of Pauesia cedrobii (Hym.: Aphidiidae), a parasite of the aphid: Cedrobium laportei (Hom.: Lachnidae) of the Atlas cedar. Entomophaga. 34(3): 381-389. ISSN: 0013-8959.

            NAL call number: 421 En835

Descriptors: insect rearing, temperature, photoperiod, population dynamics, insect pest, parasite, entomophagous, environmental factor, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Atlas cedar.


Rutz, D.A.; G.A. Scoles (1989) Occurrence and seasonal abundance of parasitoids attacking muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in caged-layer poultry facilities in New York. Environmental Entomology. 18: 51-55. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: Five species of house fly pupal parasitoids, Nasonia vitripennis walker, Muscidifurax raptor girault and sanders, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (rondani), Spalangia sp., and Apanteles carpatus (say), were recovered from house fly pupae exposed in controlled-environment, caged-layer poultry facilities during a 17-mo New York statewide survey. Overall, rates of parasitism were low, ranging from 0.2% in early spring to 14.0% in the fall. The number of fly pupae attacked by N. vitripennis was significantly higher than those killed by the other parasitoid species. Of all parasitized pupae collected in 1981, 76.9% were killed by N. vitripennis. In 1982, N. vitripennis was responsible for killing nearly 94.8% of all parasitized pupae. N. vitripennis was also the most abundant parasitoid, accounting for 95.5 and 99.2% of all parasitoids emerging from sentinel pupae during 1981 and 1982, respectively. In addition, N. vitripennis was the only parasitoid species observed to actively parasitize fly pupae in these facilities during cold winter months when temperatures in the first-floor manure pits ranged from 12 to 16 degrees C. All the other parasitoid species generally were active only during warm summer months.

Descriptors: poultry, Musca domestica, pupae, Nasonia vitripennis, Muscidifurax raptor, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae, Spalangia, Apanteles, parasites of insect pests, biological control, seasonal variation, New York.



Jones, T.H.; Hassell, M.P. (1988) Patterns of parasitism by Trybliographa rapae, a cynipid parasitoid of the cabbage root fly, under laboratory and field conditions. Ecological Entomology. 13(3): 309-317. ISSN: 0307-6946.

            NAL call number: QL461 E4

Descriptors: parasitism, population density, comparative study, environmental factors, spatial distribution, study under natural conditions, laboratory study, entomophagous, parasite, host-parasite relation, Cynipidae, Delia radicum, parasitoid, Hymenoptera, Diptera.


Leisse, N.; Sengonca, C. (1988) Laboruntersuchungen auf der Biologie und dem Niveau von Parasitismus von Trichogramma semblidis (auriv.) als Ei parasitoid von Eupoecilia ambiguella hb. [Laboratory investigations on the biology and level of parasitism of Trichogramma semblidis (auriv.) as an egg parasitoid of Eupoecilia ambiguella hb.] Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie. 6(1-3): 238-242. ISSN: 0344-9084. Note: In German.

            NAL call number: QL461 M68

Descriptors: natural enemies, rearing techniques, temperature, insect pests, grapes, parasitoids, hosts, environmental factors, fruits, techniques, German Society for General and Applied Entomology, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Eupoecilia ambiguella, Rhamnales, insect pests of plants, techniques and methodology, biological control.



Gautam, R.D. (1986) Effect of different temperatures and relative humidities on the efficiency of parasitoid, Telenomus remus nixon (Scelionidae: Hymenoptera) in the laboratory. Journal of Entomological Research. 10(1): 34-39. ISSN: 0378-9519.

            NAL call number: QL483.I4J6

Descriptors: natural enemies, temperature and relative humidity effects, insect hosts, environmental factors, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Spodoptera litura, Telenomus remus, Scelionidae, Hymenoptera, biological control, parasitoid efficiency.



Thorpe, K.W.; Dively, G.P. (1985) Effects of arena size on laboratory evaluations of the egg parasitoids Trichogramma minutum, T. pretiosum, and T. exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Environmental Entomology. 14(6): 762-767. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: natural enemies, egg parasitoids, insect host ecology, environmental factors, eggs, biological control, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothis virescens, Trichogramma minutum, Trichogramma pretiosum, Trichogramma exiguum, Hymenoptera, biological control insects, USA.



Walter, S. (1983) Biologische und ökologische Untersuchungen über Eiparasiten der Klasse Trichogramma westwood (Hym., Chalc.). II: Untersuchungen durchgeführt worden unter Laborzuständen. [Biological and ecological studies on egg parasites of the genus Trichogramma westwood (Hym., Chalc.). II: Investigations carried out under laboratory conditions.] Zoologische Jahrbuecher. Abteilung fuer Systematik,Oekologie und Geographie der Tiere. 110(4): 419-441. ISSN: 0044-5193. Note: In German.

            NAL call number: 410 Z751S

Descriptors: Hymenoptera, egg parasitoid, fecundity, population productivity, host-parasite relations, environmental factors, Lepidoptera, laboratory study, Chalcididae, Trichogramma, Mamestra brassicae, Sitotroga cerealella, Noctuidae.



Ferran, A.; Laforge, J.P. (1973) L'élevage dans le laboratoire sur un centre serveur de remplacement du flavitestacea de Phanerotoma (Hym. Braconidae) s'est rassemblé en environnement normal : les effets sur le potentiel biotique de l'espèce. [The rearing in the laboratory on a substitute host of Phanerotoma flavitestacea (Hym. Braconidae) collected in a natural environment: the effects on the biotic potential of the species.] Entomophaga. 18(4): 397-403. ISSN: 0013-8959. Note: In French.

            NAL call number: 421 En835

Descriptors: insect hosts, biological control agents, natural enemies, parasitoids, biotic potential, substitute hosts, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Phanerotoma flavitestacea, Ephestia kuehniella, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera, Braconidae, Hymenoptera, France.



Stary, P. (1971) Laboratory adaptation of Aphidius smithi sharma and subba rao (Hym. Aphidiidae) to cooler environments. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri, Portici. 28: 19-34. ISSN: 0304-0658.

            NAL call number: 420 P82B

Descriptors: natural enemies, low temperature adaptation, Aphidius smithi, Braconidae, Hymenoptera, biological control, insect pests of plants.







Asano, S. (2004) [Bioassay methods with the silkworm, Bombyx mori for quality control of Bacillus thuringiensis formulations-current method and its modification.] Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology. 48(1): 13-21. ISSN: 0021-4914. Note: In Japanese.

            NAL call number: 475 J27

Descriptors: methods, pest assessment control and management, pesticides, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Bombyx mori, silkworm, Bacillus thuringiensis, bioassay, laboratory techniques, Japan, assay improvements, biopesticide, environmentally benign, entomology, formulation, method problems, protocol of procedure, quality control, reference sample.


Elmes, G.W.; Wardlaw, J.C.; Schonrogge, K.; Thomas, J.A.; Clarke, R.T. (2004) Food stress causes differential survival of socially parasitic caterpillars of Maculinea rebeli integrated in colonies of host and non-host Myrmica ant species. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 110(1): 53-63, ISSN: 0013-8703.

            NAL call number: 421 En895

Descriptors: behavior, terrestrial ecology, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Myrmica rebeli, Myrmica schencki, ant, Maculinea rebeli, caterpillar, experimental regimes, food stress, laboratory cultures, social parasitism, starvation, survival, comparative behavior, environmental biology.



Felke, M.; Lorenz, N.; Langenbruch, G.A. (2002) Laboratory studies on the effects of pollen from Bt-maize on larvae of some butterfly species. Journal of Applied Entomology. 126(6): 320-325. ISSN: 0931-2048.

            NAL call number: 421 Z36

Descriptors: insect pest assessment control and management, Lepidoptera, Bacillus thuringiensis, biological control agent, pathogens.


Friedrich, L.; A. Schmidt-Tiedemann, K.J. Schirra (2002) Control of Sparganothis pilleriana schiff. and Lobesia botrana den. and schiff. in German vineyards using sex pheromone-mediated mating disruption. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 25: 1-9.

Descriptors: viticulture, Sparganothis pilleriana, Lepidoptera, Lobesia botrana, pheromones, mating disruption, third generation.



Andow, D.A. (2001) Patterns of feeding and mortality of adult European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the laboratory. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 94(4): 563-565, ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 EN82

Descriptors: terrestrial ecology, environmental biology, Lepidoptera, Ostrinia nubilalis, European corn borer, feeding patterns, life expectancy, mortality, sucrose diet, comparative study.



Chocorosqui, V.R.; Pasini, A. (2000) Predation do argillacea de Alabama (hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crisálidas de Noctuidae) por larvas e por adultos do perty do granulatum de Calosoma (coleópteros: Carabidae) no laboratório. [Predation of Alabama argillacea (hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pupae by larvae and adults of Calosoma granulatum perty (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the laboratory.] Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil. 29(1): 65-70. ISSN: 0301-8059. Note: In Portuguese.

            NAL call number: QL461.S64

Descriptors: economic entomology, terrestrial ecology, pest assessment control and management, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Alabama argillacea, agricultural pest, prey, pupa, Calosoma granulatum, adult, biological control agent, female, larva, male, predator, biological control, predation capacity, predation rate, environmental biology, comparative and experimental morphology, physiology and pathology.


Farrar, R.R.; Ridgway, R.L. (2000) Laboratory evaluation of selected spray adjuvants as ultraviolet light protectants for the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the celery looper (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 35: 239-250. ISSN: 0749-8004.

            NAL call number: QL461 G4

Descriptors: nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Spodoptera exigua, ultraviolet light protectants, sodium lignin sulfonate, fluorescent brightener, feeding stimulant, gypsy-moth Lepidoptera, Bacillus thuringiensis, nutrient-based phagostimulants, optical brighteners, Lymantriidae baculovirus, radiation protection, activity enhancement, feeding behavior, tobacco budworm, pests.




Li, S.Y.; Otvos, I.S. (1999) Comparison of the activity enhancement of a baculovirus by optical brighteners against laboratory and field strains of Choristoneura occidentalis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 92(3): 534-538. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: pest assessment control and management, viruses, Lepidoptera, Choristoneura fumiferana multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Baculoviridae, biological control agent, western spruce budworm, optical brighteners, virus enchancement, virology, comparison study.



Baode, W.; Ferro, D.N. (1998) Functional responses of Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) under laboratory and field conditions. Environmental Entomology. 27(3): 752-758. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: parasitoid, entomophagous, functional response, parasitism rate, host, insect pests, population density, temperature, linear regression, biological control, laboratory study, field experiment, Trichogramma ostriniae, Ostrinia nubilalis, host-parasite relation.



Abot, A.R.; Moscardi, F.; Fuxa, J.R.; Sosa-Gomez, D.R.; Richter, A.R. (1996) Development of resistance by Anticarsia gemmatalis from Brazil and the United States to a nuclear polyhedrosis virus under laboratory selection pressure. Biological Control. 7(1): 126-130. ISSN: 1049-9644.

            NAL call number: SB925.B5

Descriptors: economic entomology, microbiology, pathology, Baculoviridae, Lepidoptera, Umbelliferae, celery looper, Anticarsia gemmatalis, biological control, nuclear polyhedrosis virus, selection study, USA, Brazil.



Dillard, H.R.; A. C. Cobb (1995) Relationship between leaf injury and colonization of cabbage by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Crop Protection. 14(8): 677-682. ISSN: 0261-2194.

            NAL call number: SB599.C8

Abstract: Mechanical and insect feeding injuries of cabbage provided sites for ingress by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In field studies, injuries sustained by hitting cabbage heads with a blunt object penetrated several leaf layers and were readily infected by S. sclerotiorum. Incidence of Sclerotinia rot ranged from 15 to 36% infected plants in the hitting treatment. Disease incidence was low (0-5%) when wounds were created by allowing lepidopterous larvae (the imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae l., the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella l., and the cabbage looper. Trichoplusia ni hubner) to feed on cabbage leaves. The incidence of colonization of lepidopterous larvae feeding sites by S. sclerotiorum was greater in greenhouse studies (5-60% infected feeding sites) than in field studies. In greenhouse studies, disease incidence was significantly greater in plants receiving hitting injuries than tearing injuries. There was little evidence of inoculation day or injury day effects. Colonization frequency of tissue injured mechanically was similar whether wounds were inoculated immediately or 4 days later. Plants that were incubated in a dry environment developed fewer infections than plants held in a moist environment. Inoculated plants that were not injured did not develop disease.

Descriptors: Brassica oleracea var, Capitata, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, plant pathogenic fungi, infectivity, leaves, injuries, Pieris rapae, Plutella xylostella, Trichoplusia ni, fungal diseases, incidence, greenhouse culture, plant disease control, fungus control, New York, Lepidoptera.


Greenstone, M.H. (1995) Bollworm or budworm? Squashblot immunoassay distinguishes eggs of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 88(2): 213-218. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: Management of pyrethroid resistance in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (f.), requires some means to distinguish it from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea boddie, preferably at the egg stage. The subtle morphological differences that have been described are not useful for field identification. Eggs squashed on nitrocellulose membranes can be unambiguously distinguished by a rapid assay that uses a monoclonal antibody to H. zea egg homogenate. Use of the assay to identify eggs in the field would provide the data needed to make a decision on whether or not to spray pyrethroids. Adoption of a resistance management strategy employing the assay in this fashion would delay the development of pyrethroid resistance in H. virescens, reduce wasteful spraying of pyrethroids and concomitant environmental pollution, save money otherwise lost by spraying the wrong insecticide, and enhance biological control by conserving natural enemies.

Descriptors: Helicoverpa zea, Heliothis virescens, ova, identification, immunoassay, monoclonal antibodies, pests.


Hajek, A.E.; Butler, L.; Wheeler, M.M. (1995) Laboratory bioassays testing the host range of the gypsy moth fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga. Biological Control. 5(4): 530-544. ISSN: 1049-9644.

            NAL call number: SB925.B5

Descriptors: forest ecology, infection, Lepidoptera, Entomophaga maimaiga, Lymantria dispar, biological control, epizootic, seasonality, environmental bioclimatology and biometeorology, phytopathology, host range.



Igbinosa, I.B. (1992) Field and laboratory techniques for assessing infestations of the nettle caterpillar, Latoia viridissima holland (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). Insect Science and its Application. 13(3): 389-398. ISSN: 0191-9040.

            NAL call number: QL461.I57

Descriptors: ecology, necrosis, parasitology, pathology, physiology, reproductive system, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, fungi, Brachymeria sp., Chrysis spina, Coccygodes coccyx, Latoia viridissima, Palexorista sp., Systropus pelopoeus, fecundity, larvae, natural enemies, outbreak forecasting, palm insect pest, parasite populations, predators, developmental biology, mycology, comparative study, mathematical and statistical methods.


Mulrooney, J.E.; Parrott, W.L.; Wilcox, P.A. (1992) Performance of laboratory strains of Heliothis virescens (f.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in feeding tests as affected by outcrossing to the wild. Southwestern Entomologist. 17(4): 319-326. ISSN: 0147-1724.

            NAL call number: QL461 S65

Descriptors: insect strains, diets, genetics, morphology, nutrition, pest assessment control and management, physiology, Lepidoptera, Heliothis virescens, gossypol acetic acid, body size, potential biological control, pupation, survival.


Slovak, M. (1992) Suitability of Exetastes cinctipes and Microplitis mediator for mass rearing against cabbage moth. Ochrana Rostlin. 28(2): 91-94. ISSN: 0036-5394.

            NAL call number: SB950.3 C95O23

Descriptors: Mamestra brassicae, Ichneumonidae, biological control methods, air temperature, mass rearing techniques, environmental factors, temperature, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Mamestra.



Buckingham, G.R.; Bennett, C.A. (1989) Laboratory host range of Parapoynx diminutalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an Asian aquatic moth adventive in Florida and Panama on Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae). Environmental Entomology. 18(3): 526-530. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: host preferences, host plants, host ranges, weed, phytophagous, freshwater environment, biological control, laboratory study.







Fisher, J.R.; W.P. Kemp; F.B. Pierson (1999) Postdiapause development and prediction of hatch of Ageneotettix deorum (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Environmental Entomology. 28(3): 347-352. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: Phenological predictions of life stages of rangeland grasshoppers can be improved with models that predict egg hatch. We investigated the postdiapause development and hatch of the grasshopper Ageneotettix deorum (scudder) in the grasslands of southwest Montana during a 3-yr period. Postdiapause embryonic development rates were estimated by exposing eggs to 12 different constant temperature regimes from 9 to 42 degrees C. We used the population model design system to generate a development rate function and to predict hatch at one site in southwestern Montana for 3 yr and at another site in southwestern Montana for 2 yr. When estimated hatch was compared with field occurrence of 1st instars, the 50% occurrence dates were very similar; within 2.0 +/- 1.8d for all 5 comparisons. The results of our investigations should enhance the ability of decision support systems for grasshopper management to provide forecasts to land managers and pest advisors.

Descriptors: Ageneotettix deorum, diapause, embryonic development, hatch, phenology, environmental temperature, survival, rangeland grasshopper, computer simulation, models, prediction, Montana.




Haschemi, H. (1994) Untersuchungen über die Kalttoleranz der unterschiedlichen Belastungen des deutsche Schabe Blatella germanica (l.) (Blattodea, Blattidae) unter Labor bedingt. [Studies on the cold-tolerance of different strains of the German cockroach Blatella germanica (l.) (Blattodea, Blattidae) under laboratory conditions.] Anzeiger fuer Schadlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz. 67(2): 25-30. ISSN: 0340-7330. Note: In German.

            NAL call number: 421 An9

Descriptors: strain, cold, tolerance, laboratory study, intraspecific comparison, Blattella germanica, Dictyoptera, environmental factor, physical environment, strain differences.



Ballard, J.B. (1983) Assessment of ecological parameters and trap designs which influence the capture of German cockroaches in laboratory and urban environments. Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering. 43(11): 3472-3473. ISSN: 0419-4217.

            NAL call number: Z5055 U49D53

Descriptors: Blattella germanica, trap design evaluation, population density and dynamics, influences on catch, abiotic factors, laboratory urban habitats, collecting techniques, ecology, Dictyoptera.



Chisholm, I.F. (1979) A Laboratory investigation of Paulinia acuminata (degeer) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as a biological control agent for Salvinia molesta. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 69(1): 111-114. ISSN: 0007-4853.

            NAL call number: 421 B87

Descriptors: Acrididae, food intake, laboratory study, biological control, weeds, freshwater environment, nymph, Orthoptera, phytophagous insects, ecology, Africa.







Romeis, J.; Dutton, A.; Bigler, F. (2004) Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Cry1Ab) has no direct effect on larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Journal of Insect Physiology. 50(2-3): 175-183. ISSN: 0022-1910.

            NAL call number: 421 J825

Descriptors: agronomy, economic entomology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, molecular biophysics, pest assessment control and management, terrestrial ecology, toxicology, Bacillus thuringiensis, biocontrol agent, transgenic maize, lepidopteran prey, Chrysoperla carnea, green lacewing, Neuroptera, larva, Chrysopidae, predator, Cry1Ab toxin, genetic and laboratory techniques, prey quality, environmental biology.



Ode, P.J.; Heinz, K.M. (2002) Host-size-dependent sex ratio theory and improving mass-reared parasitoid sex ratios. Biological Control. 24(1): 31-41. ISSN: 1049-9644.

            NAL call number: SB925.B5

Descriptors: Liriomyza huidobrensis, leafminers, Diglyphus isaea, host size dependent sex ratio theory, augmentative biological control, Diptera, Diglyphus begini, hymenoptera, individual decisions, patchy environment, field populations, Trifolii diptera, Agromyzidae, egg parasitoid, wasp, laboratory study.



Thomson, L.J.; Robinson, M.; Hoffmann, A.A. (2001) Field and laboratory evidence for acclimation without costs in an egg parasitoid. Functional Ecology. 15(2): 217-221. ISSN: 0269-8463.

            NAL call number: QH540.F85

Descriptors: parasitoid wasp, insect pest assessment control and management, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Trichogramma carverae, adult, pupa, moth, egg, host, acclimation responses, fitness benefits and costs, heat hardening and resistance, parasitism rates, temperature shock, comparative study.




Mesa, C. (2000) Reconocimiento de insectos y caros Depredadores [Recognition of insects and expensive Predators]. 1. Curso Taller Internacional Control Biologico CORPOICA, Santaf de Bogot (Colombia): 66-67. Note: Doc. 19348, In Spanish.

Descriptors: biological control, mass rearing, Trichogramma, Telenomus, Brachymeria, Copidosoma, environmental factors, Hymenoptera, mass rearing techniques.



Hogsette, J.A. (1999) Management of ectoparasites with biological control organisms. International Journal for Parasitology. 29(1): 147-151. ISSN: 0020-7519.

            NAL call number: QH547.I55

Abstract: Biological control is not a new concept, but for many reasons it is gaining interest for control of livestock ectoparasites. These reasons will be discussed, both from a political view and from environmental and economic views. The US government has vowed to reduce pesticide use by the year 2000, but other forces may drive this change even faster. Pesticide costs are high, and efficacy against some pests is questionable. Also, many producers are concerned about the environment, and are anxious to do their part to reduce chemical pollution. Specialised training is required to reduce on-the-farm difficulties involved with the use of biological control organisms. Otherwise, how do producers or veterinarians purchase and use biocontrol organisms, and how do they critique what has been purchased? Included is a short summary of the three most common ectoparasites of livestock, and the type of biological-control strategies being developed to combat them. Much of the classical work has been done on filth fly control, most likely because of the nuisance status of flies, and because of the availability of candidate beneficial organisms, particularly parasitic wasps. And finally, two fly-control success stories will be briefly described. Tremendous strides have been made in house-fly and stable-fly control with parasitic wasps on feedlots, but more work is needed to better understand the habits of immature fly populations. A predaceous fly is being tested for pest fly control in dairies. Larvae of this fly can kill 15-20 house-fly larvae daily, and the adults do not become pestiferous on farms or around homes. Biological control will be an important part of livestock pest control in the future, but its implementation will require a corps of educated producers who are confident that biological control can work for them.

Descriptors: Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, parasites of insect pests, predators of insect pests, natural enemies, biological control agents, literature reviews.



Mracek, Z.; Becvar, S.; Kindlmann, P.; Webster, J.M. (1998) Infectivity and specificity of Canadian and Czech isolates of Steinernema kraussei (Steiner, 1923) to some insect pests at low temperatures in the laboratory. Nematologica. 44(4): 437-448. ISSN: 0028-2596.

            NAL call number: 436.8 N342

Descriptors: insect isolates, geographical variation, Czech Republic, Canada, host specificity, entomopathogen, room temperature, mortality, parasitism efficiency, laboratory study, environmental factor, biological control agents, Nematoda, Europe.


Senior, L.J.; McEwen, P.K. (1998) Laboratory study of Chrysoperla carnea (stephens) (Neuropt., Chrysopidae) predation on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) (Hom., Aleyrodidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 122(2-3): 99-101. ISSN: 0931-2048.

            NAL call number: 421 Z36

Descriptors: pest management, biological control agent, predator-prey relation, laboratory study, supplemented diet, developmental stage, longevity, Chrysoperla carnea, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, protected cultivation.




Armitage, D.M.; Cook, D.A. (1997) Laboratory experiments to compare the development of populations of five species of insect during dormancy break and subsequent cool storage of malting barley. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 103(4): 245-249. ISSN: 0046-9750.

            NAL call number: 390.9 In7

Descriptors: insect population dynamics, temperature effect, refrigerated storage effects, infestation, dormancy breaking, pest management, cooling, survival rates, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Hordeum vulgare, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granaries, Trogoderma granarium, malting barley, laboratory study, Cucujidae, Coleoptera, Gramineae, Bostrychidae, Curculionidae, Dermestidae.



Hesler, L.S.; A.A. Grigarick (1992) Aquatic arthropods in California rice paddies: effects of water-drainage versus continuous-flood regimes on abundance and species composition. Environmental Entomology. 21(4): 731-736. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Abstract: In conjunction with experiments to evaluate water drainage as a control method for the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus kuschel, studies were performed to compare, the abundance and species composition of aquatic arthropods in two sets of continuously flooded and temporarily drained but reflooded rice, Oryza sativa l., paddies. A total of 1,736 individuals representing 22 arthropod taxa was collected. Few differences in abundance were detected; however, Notonecta spp. were significantly more abundant in reflooded paddies. Percentage similarity (PS) between paired treatments was > 0.50 on all but one date; relatively high PS values on the first sampling dates suggest that the aquatic arthropod community is able to recover rapidly following reflooding. Several taxa appear to possess traits that enhance survival in a rice paddy subjected to temporary drainage. Implications are discussed for the wide-scale use of drainage on California rice acreage.

Descriptors: Oryza sativa, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, notonecta, rice, drained conditions, surveys, sampling, California.


Lytvyn, V.; Y. Fortin; M. Banville; B. Arif; C. Richardson (1992) Comparison of the thymidine kinase genes from three entomopoxviruses. The Journal of General Virology. 73(12): 3235-3240. ISSN: 0022-1317.

            NAL call number: QR360.A1J6

Abstract: The entomopoxviruses (insect poxviruses) of eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana), two year cycle spruce budworm (C. biennis) and the Indian red army worm (Amsacta moorei) are being studied in our laboratory for their potential as biological insecticides and expression vectors. These viruses characteristically replicate in the cytoplasm of insect cells and produce occlusion bodies that serve to protect the virion from the environment. By analogy to mammalian poxviruses, they should also contain a viral thymidine kinase (TK) that functions in viral DNA synthesis. The replication of the A. moorei entomopoxvirus was inhibited by bromodeoxyuridine whereas the baculovirus of Autographa californica was insensitive to this drug. This result was a biochemical indication that entomopoxviruses contained a kinase that phosphorylated this nucleoside analogue and thus viral DNA synthesis was inhibited. TK genes from the three different insect poxviruses were identified, cloned and sequenced. The sequences of the TK genes of the entomopoxviruses were closely related and exhibited 63.2% identity and 9.9% similarity at the protein level. However, there was only 36.7% identity and 13.6% similarity when these enzymes were compared to their mammalian poxvirus counterpart in vaccinia virus. Finally, one entomopoxvirus TK gene was expressed in Escherichia coli mutants lacking the enzyme. These bacteria were converted to a phenotype that could incorporate radioactive thymidine into their chromosomal DNA. The results presented in this paper provide impetus for the design of a recombinant entomopoxvirus expression system in which foreign genes could be introduced into the viral TK locus under selective pressure from bromodeoxyuridine.

Descriptors: Choristoneura fumiferana, Choristoneura biennis, Amsacta moorei, entomopoxvirus, genes, thymidine kinase, DNA, clones, nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, bromodeoxyuridine, possible recombinant entomopoxvirus expression system.



Lei, H.; Yue, B.; Huang, L. (1990) [Influence of humidity and host plants on the growth of laboratory population of citrus black scale (Parlatoria zizyphus lucas).] Journal of Southwest Agricultural University. 12(4): 349-352. ISSN: 1000-2642. Note: 1 ill., 4 tables, 3 ref., In Chinese.

            NAL call number: S471.C62S68

Descriptors: citrus, hosts, Parlatoria, species, insect population, variations, relative humidity, survival, death, longevity, mortality, oviposition, hatching, developmental stages, chemicophysical properties, Coccoidea, Diaspididae, ecology, Hemiptera, Homoptera, humidity, parasitism, physiological functions, Rutaceae, sexual reproduction.




Hassell, M.P.; Lessells, C.M.; McGavin, G.C. (1985) Inverse density dependent parasitism in a patchy environment: a laboratory system. Ecological Entomology. 10(4): 393-402. ISSN: 0307-6946.

            NAL call number: QL461.E4

Descriptors: natural enemies, parasites, hosts, ecology, population dynamics, Heterospilus prosopidis, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Callosobruchus chinensis, Anisopteromalus calandrae, Bruchidae, Pteromalidae, biological control agent.



Pasqualini, E. (1975) Prove sull'elevazione dello steph di carnea di Chrysopa. (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) sugli ambienti climatizzati. [Trials on rearing Chrysopa carnea steph. (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) on climatized environments.] Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia dell'Universita degli Studi di Bologna. 32: 291-304. ISSN: 0373-5176. Note: 3 tables; 4 illus.; 46 ref., In Italian.

Descriptors: biocontrol, rearing techniques, environmental factors, temperatures, humidity.



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