Toxicology Related Resources



Coleoptera | Collembola | Diptera

Homoptera | Hymenoptera | Isoptera

Lepidoptera | Orthoptera | Miscellaneous








Sibul, I.; Kuusik, A.; Voolma, K. (2004) Monitoring of gas exchange cycles and ventilatory movements in the pine weevil Hylobius abietis: Respiratory failures evoked by a botanical insecticide. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 110(2): 173-179. ISSN: 0013-8703.

            NAL call number: 421 En895

Descriptors: pest assessment control and management, pesticides, Coleoptera, Hylobius abietis, large pine weevil, NeemAzal T/S, botanical insecticide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, electrolytic microrespirometer, apparatus stress, discontinuous gas exchange cycles, environmental stress, handling stress, muscular activity, respiratory failure, standard metabolic rate, ventilatory movements, comparative study.




Cox, P.D.; Fleming, D.A.; Atkinson, J.E.; Bannon, K.L.; Whitfield, J.M. (1997) The effect of behavior on the survival of Cryptolestes ferrugineus in an insecticide-treated laboratory environment. Journal of Stored Products Research. 33(3): 257-269.

            NAL call number: 421 J829

Descriptors: Cryptolestes ferrugineus, behavior, stored products pests, insecticides, malathion, fenitrothion, movement, Coleoptera, Cucujidae, insect pests, survival.


Gibson, P.H.; Cosens, D.; Buchanan, K. (1997) A chance field observation and pilot laboratory studies of predation of the New Zealand flatworm by the larvae and adults of carabid and staphylinid beetles. Annals of Applied Biology. 130(3): 581-585. ISSN: 0003-4746.

            NAL call number: 442.8 AN72

Descriptors: predation, urban area, adult beetles, autochtonous, larvae, predator, Carabidae, Lumbricus rubellus, Staphylinidae, case and laboratory studies, field study, soil fauna, allotments, Artioposthia trangulata, Vereinigtes koenigreich, Umgebung, Coleoptera, Oligochaeta, Annelida, entomology, environment, zoology, garden, Turbellaria, Plathelmintha, Helmintha, beneficial species, carnivorous worms, noxious animal, invasive species, earthworm, Coleoptera, Scotland.




Sustr, V.; Simek, M. (1996) Behavioral responses to and lethal effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration in soil invertebrates. European Journal of Soil Biology. 32(3): 149-155. ISSN: 1164-5563.

            NAL call number: S590 R4

Descriptors: anesthesia, lethal doses, soil atmosphere, CO2, Enchytraeids, earthworms, oxygen atmospheres, unselected strain, resistance, Hypercarbia, Coleoptera, mortality, hypoxia.



Ebina, J.; Nakajima, S.; Adachi, M.; Yano, H. (1992) Laboratory test on acute toxicity of agricultural chemicals to the early-stage larvae of Luciola cruciata. Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Hygienic and Environmental Sciences. 37: 136-139. ISSN: 0389-5041. Note: Kyotofu Eisei Kogai Kenkyujo Nenpo (Annual Report of Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Hygienic and Environmental Sciences), Journal Number: Z0977AAA.

Descriptors: Lampyridae, larvae, habitat environment, pesticide, acute toxicity, lethal dose, sensitivity, Coleoptera, Pterygota, growth stage.



Coulon, J. (1984) Effet de la température sur l'efficacité de quelques insecticides. Étude de laboratoire sur l'activité de quelques substances appliquées au granarius sitophilus à 15, 20 et 25 degrés C. [Temperature effect on the efficiency of some insecticides. Laboratory study on the activity of some substances applied to Sitophilus granarius at 15, 20 and 25 Degree C.] INRA, Lab. Phytopharmacie, Versailles 78000, France. p. 123-134. ISBN: 2-85340-601-6. Note: In French.

Descriptors: cereal, stored product, Homoptera, insecticide, temperature, laboratory study, Curculionidae, pest, organophosphorus compounds, environmental factor, pyrethroids, Sitophilus granaries, Triticum.




Brand, J.M.; Schultz, J.; Barras, S.J.; Edson, L.J.; Payne, T.L.; Hedden, R.L. (1977) Bark-beetle pheromones: enhancement of Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) aggregation pheromone by yeast metabolites in laboratory bioassays. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 3(6): 657-666. ISSN: 0098-0331.

            NAL call number: QD415.A1J6

Descriptors: attractants, acetic acid, turpentine, trees, agricultural entomology, Hansenula holstii, Pichia pinus, Pichia bovis, volatile metabolites, potentiating attractants for Dendroctonus frontalis, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-, benzeneethanol, 2-phenylethyl ester, acetate, 6,8-dioxabicyclo(3.2.1)octane, 1,5-dimethyl-, (1 alpha,2 alpha,5 alpha)-4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)hept-3-en-2-ol, and turpentine, bicyclo(3.1.1)hept-3-en-2-ol, 4,6,6-trimethyl-, 1,5-dimethyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo(3.2.1)octane, and turpentine, 1,5-dimethyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo(3.2.1)octane, and (1 alpha,2 alpha,5 alpha)-4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)hept-3-en-2-ol, CAS Registry Numbers: 64-19-7, yeasts, bark beetles, Scolytidae, Coleoptera, Eumycota, fungi, North America, repellents and attractants.



Franek, M. (1975) [Studies on the optimum conditions for laboratory cultures of the granary weevil - Sitophilus granarius l. (Col., Curculionidae) for testing insecticides. I. the influence of habitat factors on the development of insects.] Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne. 45(1): 171-215. ISSN: 0032-3780. Note: In Polish.

            NAL call number: 421 P76

Descriptors: insect development, mortality, environmental factors, techniques, stored products, agricultural entomology, Sitophilus granaries, Curculionidae, Coleoptera, chemical control, biodeterioration, storage problems and pests of food.







Trublaevich, Z.N.; Semenova, E.N. (1997) [Estimation of soil toxicity using a laboratory culture of springtails (Folsomia candida).] Ekologiya (Moscow). 5: 377-381. ISSN: 0367-0597. Note: In Russian, Serial normally translated cover to cover in: Russian Journal of Ecology.

            NAL call number: QH540.E3

Descriptors: Folsomia candida, Collembola, mortality, soil toxicity indicator value, laboratory study, lethal dose limit, chemical pollution and factors, ecology, population dynamics, abiotic factors.



Sandifer, R.D.; Hopkin, S.P. (1996) Effects on pH on the toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc to Folsomia candida willem, 1902 (Collembola) in a standard laboratory test system. Chemosphere. 33(12): 2475-2486. ISSN: 0045-6535.

            NAL call number: TD172.C54

Descriptors: pollution assessment control and management, soil science, toxicology, Collembola, springtail, Folsomia candida, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, acidity, heavy metals, toxicology, environmental biology, physiology and pathology, biochemical studies, biophysics, molecular properties and macromolecules.








Choi, J.; Roche, H. (2004) Effect of potassium dichromate and fenitrothion on hemoglobins of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae: Potential biomarker of environmental monitoring. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 92(1-3): 229-239. ISSN: 0167-6369.

            NAL call number: TD194 .E5

Descriptors: blood and lymphatics, transport and circulation, pollution assessment control and management, toxicology, Diptera, Chironomus riparius, chromium, toxin, fenitrothion, hemoglobin, potential biomarker, autoxidation, potassium dichromate, cyanomethemoglobin procedure, laboratory techniques, electrophoresis, environmental monitoring, isoelectric focusing, electrophoretic techniques, multi-wavelength rapid-scanning spectrophotometry, spectrum analysis techniques, redox-active chemical exposure, proteins, peptides and amino acids, porphyrins and bile pigments, toxicology.


Trumble, J.T.; Jensen, P.D. (2004) Ovipositional response, developmental effects and toxicity of hexavalent chromium to Megaselia scalaris, a terrestrial detritivore. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 46(3): 372-376. ISSN: 0090-4341.

            NAL call number: TD172 A7

Descriptors: development, terrestrial ecology, toxicology, Diptera, Megaselia scalaris, adult, egg, larva, female and male development, larval survival, ovipositing and ovipositional response, survival, terrestrial detritivore, hexavalent chromium, developmental effects, toxicity, laboratory experimentation and techniques, artificial diets, avoidance behavior, developmental times, eclosion rates, survivorship, embryology, comparative study, experimental morphology, physiology, pathology.



Burdett, A.S.; Stevens, M.M.; Macmillan, D.L. (2001) Laboratory and field studies on the effect of molinate, clomazone, and thiobencarb on nontarget aquatic invertebrates. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 20(10): 2229-2236. ISSN: 0730-7268.

            NAL call number: QH545.A1E58

Descriptors: non-target organism, herbicide toxicity, laboratory study, larva, development, concentration effect, field study, freshwater pond community structure, ecological abundance, comparative study, risk analysis, water pollution, pesticides, carbamate, isoxazole derivatives, Chironomidae, Diptera.


Henry, K.S.; Wieland, W.H.; Powell, D.E.; Giesy, J.P. (2001) Laboratory analyses of the potential toxicity of sediment-associated polydimethylsiloxane to benthic macroinvertebrates. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 20(11): 2611-2616. ISSN: 0730-7268.

            NAL call number: QH545.A1E58

Descriptors: freshwater ecology, environmental biology, toxic pollution assessment and control, Diptera, Malacostraca, Chironomus tetans, larva, midge, Hyalella azteca, amphipod, polydimethylsiloxane, degradation rate, down-the-drain disposal, log p value, physicochemical characteristics, sediment testing, short-term exposure, whole-life-cycle exposure, methods, life-cycle assay endpoints, emergence, growth, reproduction, survival rates.



Dawson, T.D.; Jenson, J.J.; Norberg-King, T.J. (2000) Laboratory culture of Chironomus tentans for use in toxicity testing: Optimum initial egg-stocking densities. Hydrobiologia. 438: 251-256. ISSN: 0018-8158.

            NAL call number: 410 H992

Descriptors: toxic pollution assessment control and management, Diptera, Chironomus tentans, life stages bioindicator, egg, sediment toxicity testing, monitoring method, adult emergence, body length, ecotoxicology, feeding rate, laboratory conditions, larval weight, stock density, survival, developmental biology.


Xue, R.D.; Barnard, D.R.; Ali, A. (2000) Laboratory toxicity of three mosquito oviposition repellents to six nontarget aquatic invertebrates. Environmental Entomology. 29(3): 437-441. ISSN: 0046-225X.

            NAL call number: QL461.E532

Descriptors: laboratory study, egg laying, repellent effects, ectoparasite, toxicity, non target organisms, mortality, Chironomus decorus, Toxorhynchites amboinensis, freshwater environment, benzenic compound, Diptera.


Yee, K.A.; Prepas, E.E.; Chambers, P.A.; Culp, J.M.; Scrimgeour, G. (2000) Impact of Ca(OH)2 treatment on macroinvertebrate communities in eutrophic hardwater lakes in the Boreal Plain region of Alberta: in situ and laboratory experiments. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 57(1): 125-136. ISSN: 0706-652X.

            NAL call number: 442.9 C16J

Descriptors: calcium hydroxide chemical treatment, population density, species diversity, insect community, macrofauna, zoobenthos, hard water, eutrophication, lakes, Alberta, field and laboratory studies, Hyalella azteca, Chironomus, freshwater environment, Amphipoda, Crustacea, Diptera, Canada.



Amalraj, D.D., Sivagnaname, N., Srinivasan, R. (1999) Susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes and P. papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) to insecticides. The Journal of Communicable Diseases. 31(3): 177-80. ISSN: 0019-5138.

            NAL call number: RA643.7 I6

Abstract: Field collected fully fed adults of Phlebotomus argentipes and P. papatasi were screened in the laboratory for susceptibility to DDT, BHC, malathion, deltamethrin, permethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and bendiocarb. Pondichery strain of P. papatasi and P. argentipes showed variations in their susceptibility to insecticides. Both the species were resistant to permethrin but tolerant to DDT and malathion with LD99.99 values of 13.88, 1.92, 1.08 and 34.63, 4.69, 16.32 times more than the deterministic doses respectively. However, they were susceptible to bendiocarb with LD99.99 7.6 and 1.6 times lower than the deterministic doses. While P. papatasi was susceptible to BHC, P. argentipes showed tolerance (1.6 times). The former showed tolerance to deltamethrin and the latter exhibited resistance (34 times). It was reverse in case of lamdacyhalothrin. High susceptibility of the vector sandflies to bendiocarb suggests that this insecticide could be used effectively against OP and pyrethroid resistant populations for Kalaazar control.

Descriptors: insecticides, pharmacology, Phlebotomus, drug-resistance, DDT, BHC, malathion, deltamethrin, permethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, bendiocarb, pest control.


Conrad, A.U.; Fleming, R.J.; Crane, M. (1999) Laboratory and field response of Chironomus riparius to a pyrethroid insecticide. Water Research (United Kingdom). 33(7): 1603-1610. ISSN: 0043-1354.

            NAL call number: TD420.W3

Descriptors: permethrin, drug toxicity, pyrethroid, insecticide toxicity testing, water pollution, biological monitoring, Chironomidae, sediment, bioassay, standardization, environmental monitoring, law, CAS Registry Number: 51877-74-8, 52645-53-1, environmental health and pollution control.


Tucker, K.A.; Burton, G.A. Jr. (1999) Assessment of nonpoint-source runoff in a stream using in situ and laboratory approaches. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 18(12): 2797-2803. ISSN: 0730-7268.

            NAL call number: QH545.A1E58

Descriptors: water runoff analysis, toxicity testing, etiology, analytic methods, Chironomidae, environmental exposure, benthic environment, laboratory experiment, controlled study, tissues, newborn, environmental health, pollution control.



Kence, M.; T. Jdeidi (1997) Effect of malathion on larval competition in house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) populations. Journal of Economic Entomology. 90(1): 59-65. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: We studied the competitive abilities of 2 strains of house flies, Musca domestica l., A14/WHO, a strain heterozygous for resistance gene(s), and bwb, a susceptible strain, at 4 densities 450, 900, 1,800, and 3,600 eggs per 100 g of medium in pure and mixed cultures in the absence and presence of malathion. Both genotypes exhibited lower survival, lower mean adult weight, and longer developmental time as the density increased in an environment free of insecticide. There was a relative advantage of A14/WHO strain when mixed with bwb at densities >450/100 g. At high densities, bwb in mixed culture was at a disadvantage relative to its performance in pure culture. In an environment with insecticide only the males of the A14/WHO strain survived. During these experiments, we observed a parabolic relationship between the egg density and the number of emerging adults in control experiments without malathion treatment. When cultures were treated with malathion, however, this relationship became linear and number of emerging adults increased with egg density. Malathion treatment reduced the intensity of larval competition at high densities by killing part of the population, thereby increasing yield. Malathion treatment also caused the emergence of much heavier flies.

Descriptors: Musca domestica, malathion insecticide, larvae, competitive ability, intraspecific competition, insecticide resistance, biocontrol, pure and mixed cultures, population density, crowding, survival, body weight, biological development, sex ratio.



Freebairn, K.; J.L. Yen; J.A. McKenzie (1996) Environmental and genetic effects on the asymmetry phenotype: diazinon resistance in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. Genetics. 144(1): 229-239. ISSN: 0016-6731.

            NAL call number: 442.8 G28

Abstract: The asymmetry phenotype of diazinon-resistant flies lacking a fitness/asymmetry Modifier (+/+; R/-) was dominant and independent of developmental temperature, larval density and diazinon concentration. Asymmetry score, pooled over three bristle characters, was approximately 50% greater for these phenotypes than for those of modified genotypes (M/-; -/-) and unmodified susceptibles (+/+; S/S) reared under standard laboratory conditions. Modified and susceptible phenotypes showed increased asymmetry score for temperatures and larval densities above and below standard rearing conditions; a positive correlation was observed between diazinon concentration and asymmetry score. Single and multiple environmental stresses resulted in similar scores that approached, but never exceeded, those of unmodified resistant phenotypes. Irrespective of the developmental conditions anti-symmetry and fluctuating asymmetry were typically observed for each bristle character of unmodified resistant and the modified and susceptible phenotypes, respectively. Thus while similar asymmetry scores could arise from genetic or environmental effects, asymmetry pattern was genetically based. Population cage analyses at different temperatures and larval densities showed a negative association between mean asymmetry and relative fitness.

Descriptors: Lucilia cuprina, genetic effects, diazinon insecticide resistance, genotype environment interactions, alleles, air temperature, population density, bristles, phenotypes, biological development, larvae, asymmetry, environmental factors.



McKenzie, J.A.; J.L. Yen (1995) Genotype, environment and the asymmetry phenotype. Dieldrin-resistance in Lucilia cuprina (the Australian sheep blowfly). Heredity. 75(2): 181-187. ISSN: 0018-067X.

            NAL call number: 443.8 H42

Abstract: Dieldrin-resistant (Rdl/Rdl and Rdl/+) and susceptible (+/+) phenotypes of Lucilia cuprina were scored for departures from bilateral symmetry for bristle characters after development at different temperatures, larval densities or concentrations of dieldrin. The asymmetry phenotype of resistant flies was dominant and independent of developmental temperature and larval density. The asymmetry of susceptibles increased for temperatures and larval densities above and below standard rearing conditions. A positive correlation was observed between asymmetry score and dieldrin concentration for all genotypes. The susceptible phenotype did not attain the asymmetry score of resistants in any environment. Resistant phenotypes showed an antisymmetric pattern in each environment; fluctuating asymmetry was observed for susceptibles. The relevance of the results of genetic and general or specific environmental stresses to estimates of developmental perturbation is discussed.

Descriptors: Lucilia cuprina, genotypes, phenotypes, dieldrin insecticide resistance, susceptibility, bristles, wings, morphology, population density, larvae, environmental temperature, genotype/ environment interactions.



Nestrud, L.B.; R.L. Anderson (1994) Aquatic safety of Lagenidium giganteum: effects on freshwater fish and invertebrates. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 64(3): 228-233. ISSN: 0022-2011.

            NAL call number: 421 J826

Abstract: Eleven freshwater species were exposed to a zoospore-producing fungus, Lagenidium giganteum, with the goal of determining species sensitivity with standard and new test procedures. The tests included standard, 4-day acute exposures of cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex, and D. magna) and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Standard 7-day chronic exposures of C. dubia and a 7-day embryo-larval exposure of P. promelas were also conducted. New, 4-day acute, methods were developed for mosquitos (Aedes aegypti), chironomids (Chironomus sp.), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus sp.), cyclopoid copepods, snails (Physa sp.), hydrozoans (Hydra sp.), and ostracods. To assess L. giganteum zoospore (z) infectivity, each test included daily bioassays with the mosquito (A. aegypti), a target organism. Four-day A. aegypti LC50s ranged from 81 to 516 z/ml. Ceriodaphnia dubia acute test LC50S were as low as 6700 z/ml and the 96-hr LC50 from the chronic test was near 6250 z/ml with reproductive impairment at 12,500 z/ml. Daphnia sp. were also susceptible, with LC50s near 7700 z/ml for D. pulex and 9400 z/ml for D. magna. Chironomus tentans was infected at concentrations of greater than or equal to 5000 z/ml, but mortality was low and an LC50 could not be calculated even after exposures to 50,000 z/ml. The 7-day, early life stage test with P. promelas produced reduced larva growth in most treatments. Several species (Hydra sp., L. variegatus, ostracoda, copepoda, Physa sp., and P. promelas) were not affected in acute tests at exposures of 50,000 z/ml. The data show, contrary to many reports, that L. giganteum may affect some nontarget aquatic species. The key to successful laboratory tests is monitoring and maintaining the zoospores' infection capacity.

Descriptors: Lagenidium giganteum, toxicity, invertebrates, Pimephales promelas, exposure, nontarget effects and organisms, aquatic environment, toxicology.




Chui, V.W.; Koo, C.W.; Lo, W.M.; Xu-Jia, Q. (1993) Laboratory evaluation of Vectobac SUP R -12AS and teflubenzuron against Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae under different physical conditions. Environment International. 19(2): 193-202. ISSN: 0160-4120.

            NAL call number: TD169.E54

Descriptors: control agents, treatment efficiency, laboratory study, larva, secondary effect, environment impact, freshwater environment, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Sida crystalline, Artemia salina, Diptera, Cladocera, Branchiopoda, Crustacea, vector, ureas, microbial insecticide.


Suett, D.L.; Jukes, A.A.; Phelps, K. (1993) Stability of accelerated degradation of soil-applied insecticides- laboratory behavior of aldicarb and carbofuran in relation to their efficacy against cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) in previously treated field soils. Crop Protection. 12(6): 431-442. ISSN: 0261-2194.

            NAL call number: SB599.C8

Descriptors: accelerated degradation, soil insecticides, aldicarb, carbofuran, cabbage root fly, insecticide efficacy, enhanced biodegradation, microorganisms.



Hamer, M.J.; Maund, S.J.; Hill, I.R. (1992) Laboratory methods for evaluating the impact of pesticides on water/sediment organisms. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests and Diseases, Brighton, England, November 23-26, 1992. Vols 1, 2 and 3. ICI Agrochem., Jealotts Hill Res. Stn., Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 6EY, UK. (3): 487-496. ISBN: 0-948404-65-5.

            NAL call number: SB950 A2B74

Descriptors: freshwater ecology, pest assessment control and management, pollution assessment control and management, toxicology, Diptera, Chironomus riparius, benthic communities, environmental fate, toxicity, environmental biology, limnology, toxicology, environmental and industrial toxicology, public health: environmental health, air, water and soil, biochemical studies, comparative studies.



Pontasch, K.W.; Cairns, J.Jr. (1989) Establishing and maintaining laboratory-based microcosms of riffle insect communities: their potential for multispecies toxicity tests. Hydrobiologia. 175(1): 49-60. ISSN: 0018-8158.

            NAL call number: 410 H992

Descriptors: biological indicators, pollutants, flowing freshwater insect community, toxicity, developmental stage, Baetidae, Heptageniidae, Chironomidae, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Virginia.



McKague, A.B.; Pridmore, R.B.; Wood, P.M. (1978) Effects of altosid and dimilin on black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae): laboratory and field tests. The Canadian Entomologist. 110(10): 1103-1110. ISSN: 0008-347X.

            NAL call number: 421 C16

Descriptors: adult, contamination, Diptera, secondary effects, emergence, juvenile hormone analogue, insecticide, larva, chemical control, freshwater environment, mortality, Simulium decorum, Simulium verecundum, insect pests of humans and animals, biocontrol.



Thornton, K.; Wilhm, J. (1974) The effects of pH, phenol, and sodium chloride on survival and caloric, lipid, and nitrogen content of a laboratory population of Chironomus attenuatus (walk.). Hydrobiologia. 45(2-3): 261-280. ISSN: 0018-8158.

            NAL call number: 410 H992

Descriptors: Chironomus, chemical compound, waste water, energy metabolism, freshwater pollution, phenols, acidity, sodium chloride, midges.



Cole, S.L.; Wilhm, J. (1973) Effect of phenol on oxygen uptake rate of a laboratory population of Chironomus Attenuatus (walk.). Water Research. 7(11): 1691-1700. ISSN: 0043-1354.

            NAL call number: TD420 W3

            Descriptors: toxicity, freshwater environment, phenols, pollution, Diptera, midge.






Bloch, G.; D. Wool (1994) Methidathion resistance in the sweetpotato whitefly (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) in Israel: selection, heritability, and correlated changes of esterase activity. Journal of Economic Entomology. 87(5): 1147-1156. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: Artificial selection for increased resistance to methidathion in two replicate lines of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (originating from a cotton-field-collected greenhouse population) was successful; LC50s increased 7-8.6-fold in eight generations in the selected lines. This indicates the existence of additive genetic variance for resistance in the source population. Minimal realized heritability estimates, calculated from the response to selection, were h2 = 0.49 after one generation (with minimal effects of common laboratory environment and inbreeding) and a mean value of h2 = 0.344 after eight generations. Esterase activity (measured from the hydrolysis of beta-naphthyl butyrate) increased in the selected lines in correlation with resistance. We observed no change in mean esterase activity in the unselected (control) population. No consistent differences in fitness components between selected and control lines were detected during selection, but females exposed to sublethal doses of methidathion tended to have increased fecundity.

Descriptors: Bemisia tabaci, methidathion, insecticide resistance, heritability, artificial selection, genetic variance, esterases, enzyme activity, fecundity, Israel.




Omer, A.D.; B.E. Tabashnik; M.W. Johnson; H.S. Costa; D.E. Ullman (1993) Genetic and environmental influences on susceptibility to acephate in sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 86(3): 652-659. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: The effects of genotype, host plant, and age on susceptibility to acephate in the B biotype of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (gennadius) were examined. Offspring of adults collected from a frequently treated site and an infrequently treated site in Hawaii were reared in the laboratory on pole bean, Phaseolus vulgaris l.; tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum mill.; and zucchini, Cucurbita pepo l. Seven- and 14-d-old adult offspring from each host plant were tested for susceptibility to acephate in 12 laboratory bioassays (2 colonies X 3 hosts X 2 ages). Twenty-fold differences in LC50 between colonies with environmental conditions held constant indicated a genetically based resistance to acephate. Host plant had no significant effect on susceptibility to acephate. The LC50 of 7-d-old adults was consistently double the LC50 of 14-d-old adults. Although the 95% confidence limits of LC50 overlapped in pairwise comparisons between age classes, ANOVA showed that the effect of age was highly significant. Results suggest that differences in LC50 that are greater than or equal to-10-fold are likely to be based partly, if not entirely, on genetic differences. Much additional work is needed to determine if the results are broadly applicable. We encourage use of ANOVA in future studies because it provides simple and direct tests for overall effects of genotype, environment, and genotype X environment interaction.

Descriptors: B biotype Bemisia tabaci, genotype environment interaction, hosts of plant pests, LC50, bean, tomato, zucchini, insecticide resistance, susceptibility, acephate.




Moreno, D.S.; Fargerlund, J.; Ewart, W.H. (1984) Citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): behavior of males in response to sex pheromone in laboratory and field. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 77(1): 32-38. ISSN: 0013-8746.

            NAL call number: 420 En82

Descriptors: Homoptera, sexual behavior, male response to sex pheromone, light, Pseudococcidae, environmental factor, Planococcus citri, Micrococcales, bacteria.







Nazzi, F.; Della, V.G.; D'Agaro, M. (2004) A semiochemical from brood cells infested by Varroa destructor triggers hygienic behaviour in Apis mellifera. Apidologie. 35(1): 65-70. ISSN: 0044-8435.

            NAL call number: SF521.A64

Descriptors: behavior, biochemistry and molecular biophysics, communication, terrestrial ecology, Acarina, Chelicerata, Hymenoptera, Varroa destructor, parasite, Apis mellifera, honey bee, brood cells, chemicals and biochemicals, semiochemical, volatile hydrocarbons, SPME gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, chromatographic techniques, laboratory techniques, spectrum analysis techniques, bioassay, laboratory techniques, behavioral triggers, chemical signaling, olfactory cues, behavioral biology, comparative study, environmental biology.


Rudeschko, O.; Maclinik, A.; Doerfelt, H.; Kaatz, H.H.; Schlott, B.; Kinne, R.W. (2004) A novel inhalation allergen present in the working environment of beekeepers. Allergy. 59(3): 332-337. ISSN: 0105-4538.

            NAL call number: RC583.A5

Descriptors: allergy, clinical immunology, human medicine, medical sciences, occupational health, Acarina, Hymenoptera, Varroa mite, inhalation allergen source, beekeeper working environment, ELISA, laboratory techniques, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electrophoretic techniques, amino acid sequencing, genetic techniques, immunoblot, isoelectric focusing.




Tasei, J.N.; Lerin, J.; Ripault, G. (2000) Sub-lethal effects of imidacloprid on bumblebees, Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae), during a laboratory feeding test. Pest Management Science. 56(9): 784-788. ISSN: 1526-498X.

            NAL call number: SB951 P47

Descriptors: agricultural chemical product, non target effect, environment impact, dose activity relation, sublethal dose, ecotoxicology, brood, survival, reproductive potential, Bombus terrestris, wild bees, pollinator, Helianthus annuus, colony, chemical contamination, laboratory study, nectar, pollen, Hymenoptera, toxicity, oil plant, vegetal, guanidines, insecticide, pesticides, systemic, nitroguanidine derivatives.



Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Pratt, L.H. (1997) Radionuclides in bees and honey within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxic and Hazardous Substance Control. 32 (5): 1309-1323. ISSN: 1077-1204.

            NAL call number: TD172.J6

Descriptors: physiology, radiation biology, toxicology, honeybee, honey composition, Hymenoptera, New Mexico.



Hebling, M.J.; Maroti, P.S.; Bueno, O.C.; Silva, O.A.; Pagnocca, F.C. (1996) Toxic effects of leaves of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) to laboratory nests of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. 86(3): 253-256. ISSN: 0007-4853.

            NAL call number: 421 B87

Descriptors: toxic effects, Hymenoptera, Myrtaceae, Atta sexdens rubropilosa, Eucalyptus alba, Formicidae, Ricinus communis, ant mortality rate, diet item, fungal garden growth, oxygen consumption rate, necrosis, energy and respiratory metabolism, toxicology, biochemistry and biophysics, comparative study.



Helson, B.V.; Barber, K.N.; Kingsbury, P.D. (1994) Laboratory toxicology of six forestry insecticides to four species of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 27(1): 107-114. ISSN: 0090-4341.

            NAL call number: TD172 A7

Descriptors: cell biology, ecology, genetics, methods and techniques, pathology, forest pest assessment control and management, pollution assessment control and management, toxicology, Hymenoptera, Andrena erythronii, Apis mellifera, Bombus terricola, Megachile rotundata, permethrin, mexacarbate, aminocarb, fenitrothion, carbaryl, trichlorfon, environmental toxicology, median lethal dose, mexacarbate, permethrin, trichlorfon, cytology and cytochemistry, genetics and cytogenetics, environmental health-air, water and soil pollution, effects of pesticides, herbicides.



Belzunces, L.P.; Colin, M.E. (1993) Le synergisme entre les insecticides et les fongicides s'est appliqué aux doses sous-léthales dans les abeilles. Une approche expérimentale de laboratoire. [Synergism between insecticides and fungicides applied at sublethal doses in bees. An experimental laboratory approach.] Phytoma. (446): 20-22/ 24. ISSN: 1164-6993. Note: In French.

            NAL call number: 464.8 P563

Descriptors: pollinators, fatty oil plants, rape, nontarget effects, insecticides, fungicides, carbendazim, prochloraz, synergism, toxicity, pesticides, environmental impact, pollination, pesticide synergists, agricultural entomology, plant pathology, difenoconazol, decamethrin, CAS registry numbers: 10605-21-7 and 67747-09-5, Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera, Brassica napus var. oleifera, beneficial organisms, oil plants, Spermatophyta, benzimidazole fungicides, conazole fungicides, Capparidales, dicotyledons, angiosperms, control by chemicals and drugs, bee toxicology, poisoning and pharmacology, pollution and degradation.






Su, N.Y.; Chew, V.; Wheeler, G.S.; Scheffrahn, R.H. (1997) Comparison of tunneling responses into insecticide-treated soil by field populations and laboratory groups of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 90(2): 503-509. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822 

Descriptors: Coptotermes formosanus, Reticulitermes flavipes, termiticides, tunneling response, laboratory bioassay, field bioassay, urban environment, termite penetration, chemical barrier.




Su, N.Y.; Scheffrahn, R.H. (1991) Laboratory evaluation of 2 slow-acting toxicants against formosan and eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 84(1): 170-175. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: subterranean termites, bioassays, bait-toxicants, urban-environment, remedial control, Reticulitermes, insecticides, populations, toxicity.








Gopalakrishnan, B.; S. Muthukrishnan; K.J. Kramer (1995) Baculovirus-mediated expression of a Manduca sexta chitinase gene: properties of the recombinant protein. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 25(2): 255-265. ISSN: 0965-1748.

            NAL call number: QL495.A1I57

Abstract: We constructed a recombinant nonoccluded baculovirus, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV), containing a 1.8 kb DNA fragment from a Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm) chitinase cDNA under the control of the polyhedrin gene promoter. When Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) cells (SF9) were infected with this recombinant virus, a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 85 kDa was secreted into the culture medium. This protein hydrolyzed chitin and cross-reacted with a polyclonal antibody to M. sexta molting fluid chitinase. Tunicamycin treatment of infected SF9 cells and subsequent western blot analysis indicated that the secreted enzyme was a glycoprotein. GC-MS analysis revealed that carbohydrate accounted for approximately 25% of the mass of glycoprotein. The recombinant chitinase and the molting fluid enzyme were indistinguishable by N-terminal sequencing, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and carbohydrate analysis, indicating that the recombinant protein was similar, if not identical, to the molting fluid enzyme. Analysis of the expression level of recombinant chitinase in SF9, SF21 and Trichoplusia ni (Hi-5) cell lines showed that the yields were in the order Hi-5 > SF21 > SF9. Chitinase accumulated in hemolymph after injection of fourth instar M. sexta and S. frugiperda larvae with recombinant virus. The median time for mortality of S. frugiperda fourth instar larvae infected with the recombinant virus was approximately 20 h shorter than that for insects infected with a wild type virus. The results support the hypothesis that insect chitinase has potential to enhance the insecticidal activity of entomopathogens.

Descriptors: Manduca sexta, tobacco hornworm, nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, viral insecticides, chitinase, complementary DNA, recombinant DNA, promoters, viral proteins, gene expression, enzyme activity, chitin, hydrolysis, insecticidal properties, Spodoptera frugiperda, fall armyworm.


Sauphanor, B.; J.C. Bouvier (1995) Cross-resistance between benzoylureas and benzoylhydrazines in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella l. Pesticide Science. 45(4): 369-375. ISSN: 0031-613X.

            NAL call number: SB951.P47

Abstract: Failure in the control of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella l., with diflubenzuron was observed for three years in several locations of southern France. A laboratory procedure was set up to screen field populations for resistance to insecticides which regulate or inhibit insect development. Last-instar larvae were captured with corrugated cardboard traps, and the tests were conducted on the F1 progeny. Newly hatched larvae were deposited in individual cups on thin layers of artificial diet, first treated with the pesticide by the way of a spray tower. They were then placed in a controlled environment chamber at 25 (+/-1) degrees C. Mortality was recorded after the first moulting, i.e. five days after infestation. These tests revealed a 370-fold resistance to diflubenzuron in one population of C. pomonella. Cross-resistance was observed with the two other benzoylureas registered in France against this species: teflubenzuron (seven-fold resistance) and triflumuron (102-fold resistance). The two populations observed also presented cross-resistance (26-fold) with the ecdysone analogue tebufenozide (benzoylhydrazine), to which they had not previously been exposed. This is the first record of naturally occurring resistance to this new compound. Ovicidal tests on F3 progeny also indicated possible cross-resistance with the juvenile hormone analogue, fenoxycarb, for one strain. The resistance to these different insecticides appears to be codominant. It also proved possible to detect resistance by testing the F1 progeny of males captured with non-adhesive sex pheromone traps, paired with females of a laboratory susceptible strain.

Descriptors: Cydia pomonella, strains, populations, insecticide resistance, diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, triflumuron, fenoxycarb, insect growth regulators, azinphos methyl, cross resistance.



Chandler, L.D (1993) Use of feeding stimulants to enhance insect growth regulator-induced mortality of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Florida Entomologist. 76(2): 316-326. ISSN: 0015-4040.

            NAL call number: 420 F662

Descriptors: Vigna unguiculata, Spodoptera frugiperda, larvae, mortality, diflubenzuron, biocontrol, insect growth regulators, phagostimulants.



Tabashnik, B.E. (1992) Resistance risk assessment: realized heritability of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellida), tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Colorado Potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 85(5): 1551-1559. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: A new method for estimating realized heritability (h2) of resistance to insecticides from laboratory selection experiments is described. A major advantage of this method for estimating h2, the proportion of total phenotypic variation attributable to additive genetic variation, is that it requires only data that are collected routinely in selection studies (i.e., LC50 and slope before and after selection, and average mortality caused by selection each generation). Estimates of h2 of resistance calculated with this method were virtually identical to two previously reported estimates calculated by a regression method that requires estimates of LC50 for every generation. Estimates of h2 of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in Plutella xylostella (l.) were 0.14, 0.17, and 0.18 in three strains initiated from a moderately resistant field population in Hawaii compared with 0.047 in a laboratory strain from France. Estimated h2 of resistance to B. thuringiensis was 0.17 in Helicoverpa virescens (f.) and 0.09 in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (say). Extrapolation to field populations is problematic. However, assuming that these h2 estimates can be extrapolated to the field and that populations receive prolonged and uniform exposure to B. thuringiensis causing greater than 90% mortality each generation, substantially increased resistance would be expected after less than 10 generations for H. virescens and less than 15 generations for L. decemlineata. In six cases examined here, h2 was higher in the first half of selection experiments (mean = 0.38) than in the second half (mean = 0.15). This suggests that brief selection experiments (4-6 generations) may most efficiently detect the potential for resistance development. Estimation of h2 of resistance based on the method described here provides a means for systematic, quantitative analysis of selection experiments, including many of the greater than 150 previously reported studies. This approach can improve evaluation of results from selection experiments and may enhance their integration into systems of resistance risk assessment.

Descriptors: Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Plutella xylostella, heritability, insecticide resistance, mortality, susceptibility, Bacillus thuringiensis, bacterial insecticides.




Rose, R.L.; Leonard, B.R.; Sparks, T.C.; Graves, J.B. (1990) Enhanced metabolism and knockdown resistance in a field versus a laboratory strain of the soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 83(3): 672-677. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Descriptors: pests, enzymes, metabolism, soyabeans, insecticides, resistance, Permethrin, legumes, agricultural entomology, CAS Registry Numbers: 52645-53-1, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Chrysodeixis includens, pesticide and drug resistance, Louisiana.




Pimaud, M.F.; Cangardel, H.; Fleurat-Lessard, F. (1976) Effets des doses fortes de Zeta dans un environnement confiné sur la reproduction de l'interpunctella Hubner (Lepidoptera Pyralidae) de Plodia dans le laboratoire. [Effects of strong doses of Zeta in a confined environment on the reproduction of Plodia interpunctella Hubner (Lepidoptera Pyralidae) in the laboratory.] Sex pheromones of the Lepidoptera.: Les pheromones sexuelles des Lepidopteres, Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques, Centre de Recherches de Bordeaux. Pont-de-la-Maye, France. p. 129-135. Note: In French.

Descriptors: mating disruption, biocontrol, behavior, stored products, agricultural entomology, 9,12-tetradecadien-1-ol; acetate, Plodia interpunctella, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera, repellents and attractants, pathogen, pest and parasite management, pathogens and biogenic diseases, biodeterioration.






Kaakeh, W.; B.L. Reid; N. Kaakeh; G.W. Bennett (1997) Rate determination, indirect toxicity, contact activity, and residual persistence of lufenuron for the control of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 90(2): 510-522. ISSN: 0022-0493.

            NAL call number: 421 J822

Abstract: Three interrelated laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted for the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron to determine dose-activity, indirect toxicity, contact activity, and residual persistence against the German cockroach, Blatella germanica (l.). Lufenuron activity was determined by evaluating 3 response variables (percentage of molt inhibition, percentage of affected adults, overall percentage of mortality). These variables were unified in a dose-response rating score (the mean effects rating). In the rate determination study, differences in lufenuron activity on different surfaces (clean masonite, oily-frass masonite, unpainted plywood) had more effect on the results than did the application rate (10, 25, 50 mg/m2), life stage (3rd or 5th instars), and exposure time (15, 30, 60 min). Percentage of molt inhibition and the effects ratings were significantly greater at 25 and 50 mg/m2 than at 10 mg/m2. No differences its percentage of affected 4th instars or adults were found between 3rd and 5th instars, however, higher effects on 5th instars were observed for percentage of molt inhibition, overall percentage of mortality, arid effects rating. There was a significant effect on oothecal production from females exposed to lufenuron deposit during oogenesis. The number of viable oothecae decreased, the number of aborted oothecae increased, nymphal hatch decreased, nymphal survival at 7 d after hatch decreased, and nymphal survival of the 1st molt decreased with an increase in the rate at each exposure time. In indirect toxicity tests, lufenuron activity significantly decreased with a decrease in the ratio of exposed to unexposed cockroaches. Exposure time had no effect on the indirect toxicity of lufenuron among cockroaches. Its residual persistence tests, surface had more influence on the results than the environment, rate, or residual aging period. Lufenuron was most active on masonite, with deposits on plywood being more active than on oily-frass masonite. Residues aged in the laboratory were significantly more active than those aged in the greenhouse for most response variables and effects rating. A rate of 25 mg/m2 was significantly different from 10 mg/m2 for most response variables and effects rating. Effects rating reduced significantly at 6 and 12 mo of aging. Surfaces produced significant effects in all response variables until 9 mo of aging. After 12 mo, lufenuron activity on plywood and oily-frass masonite declined significantly compared with the activity on Masonite.

Descriptors: Blattella germanica, chitin synthesis inhibitors, benzoylphenylureas, toxicity, application rates, residual effects, persistence, insecticide residues, mortality, molting, inhibition, reproduction, surfaces, efficacy, biocontrol.




Hinks, C.F. (1985) The influence of temperature on the efficacy of three pyrethroid insecticides against the grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (fab.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), under laboratory conditions. Canadian Entomologist. 117(8): 1007-1012. ISSN: 0008-347X.

            NAL call number: 421 C16

Descriptors: Orthoptera, cereal crop, insecticide, therapeutic efficiency, temperature, laboratory study, toxicity, pest, chemical control, pyrethroids, environmental factor, Melanoplus sanguinipes, Acrididae.







Gosselin, A.; Hare, L. (2004) Effect of sedimentary cadmium on the behavior of a burrowing mayfly (Ephemeroptera, Hexagenia limbata). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 23(2): 383-387. ISSN: 0730-7268.

            NAL call number: QH545.A1E58

Descriptors: behavior, freshwater ecology, toxicology, Ephemeroptera, Hexagenia limbata, burrowing mayfly, nymph, burrowing activity, cadmium, sediment pollutant, infrared video camera, environmental biology.



Pastershank, G.M.; Muir, D.C.; Fairchild, W.L. (1999) Accumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by caddisfly larvae (Hydropsyche bidens (ross)) in miniature laboratory streams. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 18(10): 2352-2360. ISSN: 0730-7268.

            NAL call number: QH545.A1E58

Descriptors: biological accumulation, filter feeder insects, larva, absorption, elimination, laboratory study, stream, artificial medium, freshwater environment, Hydropsychidae, Trichoptera.



Herman, R.A. (1998) Whole-insect laboratory bioassays in insecticide research. Reviews in Toxicology (Netherlands). 2(7-8): 445-475. ISSN: 1382-6980.

            NAL call number: QH545.A1R484

Descriptors: insecticide, bioassay, chemical interaction, environmental factor, automation, quantitative structure activity relation, clinical and experimental biochemistry, toxicology.




Schmuck, R.; Mager, H.; Kuenast, C.; Bock, K.D.; Storck-Weyhermueller, S. (1996) Variability in the reproductive performance of beneficial insects in standard laboratory toxicity assays: Implications for hazard classification of pesticides. Annals of Applied Biology. 128(3): 437-451. ISSN: 0003-4746.

            NAL call number: 442.8 AN72

Descriptors: data analysis, performance analysis, risk analysis, classification, assay, ecotoxicology, non-target effect, laboratory test, variability, beneficial insects, pesticides, method study, biomathematics, entomology, pest management, phytopharmacology, European Union.



Camargo, J.A. (1995) Effect of body size on the intraspecific tolerance of aquatic insects to low pH: A laboratory study. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 54(3): 403-408. ISSN: 0007-4861.

            NAL call number: RA1270.P35A1

Descriptors: freshwater ecology, metabolism, physiology, wildlife management, Trichoptera, Cheumatopsyche pettiti, Lepidostoma liba, sodium, ecosystem, ion regulation, limnology, environmental biology, comparative and experimental morphology, pathology, biochemical studies, minerals.


Tochimoto, H.; Nishima, T. (1995) [Study of aquatic insect, caddisfly, Stenopsyche marmorata as bio-monitor of trace element contamination in rivers and streams: accumulation of waterborne trace elements under laboratory conditions.] Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment. 18(11): 917-923. ISSN: 0916-8958. Note: In Japanese.

Descriptors: river pollution, indicator organism, Trichoptera, trace element, biological concentration, bioaccumulation, exposure test, heavy metal, cadmium, mercury, water quality test, water pollution, environmental quality index, Pterygota, minor component, concentration, enrichment, separation, storage and accumulation, environmental test, 2B group element, transition metal, water quality survey, investigation, analysis, separation.



Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Holmes, S.B.; Capell, S.S.; Eichenberg, D.C. (1992) Lethal and sublethal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on aquatic insects in laboratory bioassays and outdoor stream channels. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 49(2): 252-258. ISSN: 0007-4861.

            NAL call number: RA1270.P35A1

Descriptors: toxicity of microbial insecticide, non-target organisms, mortality, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, freshwater environment, Plecoptera.




Fischer, R.; Heimbach, F. (1991) Pesticides and natural balance - examination, hazard assessment and risk evaluation. Part IV: Possibilities and limits of the use of laboratory data. Gesunde Pflanzen. 43(8): 270-274. ISSN: 0367-4223.

            NAL call number: 464.8 G33

Descriptors: insecticides, pesticides, nontarget effects, techniques, assessment, environment, pollution and degradation, techniques, pest control by chemicals.



Leeuwangh, P. (1989) [Analysis of the risk from pesticides by ecotoxicological research in the laboratory and in test ditches.] Gewasbescherming. 20(2): 51-61. ISSN: 0166-6495. Note: In Dutch.

            NAL call number: SB599.G4

Descriptors: aquatic organisms, nontarget effects, pollution, insecticides, pesticides degradation, canals, ditches, residues, aquatic communities, chlorpyrifos effects, pesticide residues, CAS Registry Numbers: 2921-88-2, Crustacea, fishes, algae, Gasterosteus aculeatus, organothiophosphate insecticides, organophosphorus, Gasterosteiformes, Osteichthyes, Netherlands.



Clements, W.H.; Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J., Jr. (1987) Structural alterations in aquatic insect communities exposed to copper in laboratory streams. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 7(9): 715-722. ISSN: 0730-7268.

            NAL call number: QH545.A1E58

Descriptors: copper, metals, stream water pollution, aquatic insects community, environmental impact, CAS Registry Numbers: 7440-50-8, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Simuliidae, Prosimulium, Chironomidae, degradation, freshwater and brackish water, Virginia.


Poirier, D.G.; Surgeoner, G.A. (1987) Laboratory flow-through bioassays of four forestry insecticides against stream invertebrates. Canadian Entomologist. 119(9): 755-763. ISSN: 0008-347X.

            NAL call number: 421 C16

Descriptors: Orconectes propinquus, Astacura, Pycnopsyche, Diptera, Simulium venustum, Isonychia, Ephemeroptera, Ophiogomphus, Odonata, Phasganophora, Plecoptera, measurement of environmental factors, mortality, environmental simulation for insecticide toxicity evaluation, chemical pollution, organic, insecticide toxicity, stream environment simulation test, ecological techniques, population dynamics, habitat, lotic water, Reptantia, Decapoda, Eucarida, Eumalacostraca, Malacostraca, Crustacea, Nematocera, true flies.



Bauer, M.; Patnode, R. (1984) Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 81-121-1421, Insect Rearing Facilities. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH. Report Number: HETA-81-121-1421, 44 pgs.

Abstract: In December 1980 the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) requested technical assistance in evaluation of the prevalence and causes of occupational allergies at its ninety-eight facilities devoted to raising colonies of insects for entomological research. Visits by NIOSH investigators were made to six insect rearing facilities in order to develop a better understanding of the nature of this type of work. A nationwide survey of employees was conducted using mailed self-administered questionnaires. On the basis of this evaluation, NIOSH has determined that the majority of insect rearing facilities have at least one employee who has experienced symptoms consistent with occupational allergy related to exposures inherent to working with insects. Five facilities have ten or more employees experiencing such symptoms. Recommendations for reducing exposures to allergenic particulates in arthropod research facilities and for medical surveillance of the workers are contained in this report.

Descriptors: environmental surveys, industrial medicine, allergic diseases, laboratories, entomology, exposure, toxicity, inspection, hazardous materials, insect control, toxic substances, occupational safety and health..



Mohsen, Z.H.; Mulla, M.S. (1981) Toxicity of blackfly larvicidal formulations to some aquatic insects in the laboratory. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 26 (5): 696-703. ISSN: 0007-4861.

            NAL call number: RA1270.P35A1

Descriptors: selective blackfly larvicides, nontarget organisms, insecticides, formulations, Simulium larvae, laboratory conditions, environmental impact, pesticides, toxicity, chemical engineering.



Kotila, P.M. (1979) Effect of antimycin of stream insects in field and laboratory trials. Dissertation Abstracts international. B: The Sciences and Engineering. 40(3): 1051. ISSN: 0419-4217.

            NAL call number: Z5055 U49D53

Descriptors: antibiotics, Coleoptera, Diptera, population dynamics, secondary effect, emergence, Ephemeroptera, laboratory study, freshwater environment, toxicity, Plecoptera, Trichoptera.




Ali, S. (1978) Degradation and environmental fate of endosulfan sulfate in mouse, insect and laboratory model ecosystem. Dissertation Abstracts International. B: The Sciences and Engineering. 39(5): 2117. ISSN: 0419-4217.

            NAL call number: Z5055 U49D53

Descriptors: Lepidoptera, catabolism, endosulfan sulphate breakdown and tissue storage, chemical pollution, larvae, salt marsh species, metabolic biochemistry.



Van Belle, G.; L. Fisher (1977) Monitoring the environment for ecological change. Research Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation. 49(7): 1671-1679. Note: Refs.

            NAL call number: 293.8 SE8

            Descriptors: water systems.



Return to Document Top


Return to Main Contents