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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide
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Abnormal Behavior

Agoramoorthy, G. and M.J. Hsu (1999). Rehabilitation and release of chimpanzees on a natural island. Methods hold promise for other primates as well. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation 22(1): 3-7. ISSN: 1071-2232.
NAL Call Number: SF996.45.J69
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, chimpanzees, release and relocation program, feeding behavior, nest building, aggression, abnormal behavior, stereotypic behavior.

Baker, K. (2002). Rearing and housing history of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) displaying self-injurious and noninjurious abnormal behaviors. American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 82. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, animal behavior, age when first single housed, noninjurious abnormal behavior, rearing background, self-injurious behavior (SIB), meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Baker, K., M. Bloomsmith, C. Griffis, and M. Gierhart (2003). Self injurious behavior and response to human interaction as enrichment in rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 94-95. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), abnormal behavior, vocalizations, human interaction as environmental enrichment, Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaques, stress.

Baker, K.C., M. Bloomsmith, K. Neu, C. Griffis, M. Maloney, B. Oettinger, V.A.M. Schoof, and M. Martinez (2009). Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 12 (3): 236-252. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, monkeys, laboratory animals, animal behavior, behavior modification, training (animals), conditioned behavior, environmental enrichment, human-animal relations, gender differences, cages, human interacation, abnormal behavior.

Baker, K.C., C.M. Crockett, M.A. Bloomsmith, K. Coleman, and R.U. Bellanca (2006). Behavioral and clinical management of alopecia in nonhuman primates. American Journal of Primatology 68(Suppl. 1): 89.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: alopecia, animal well-being, primates in captivity, environmental enrichment, clinical care.
Notes: Meeting Information: Program of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, San Antonio, TX, August 16-19, 2006.

Balcombe, J., H. Ferdowsian, and D. Durham (2011). Self-harm in laboratory-housed primates: Where is the evidence that the Animal Welfare Act amendment has worked? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 14(4): 361-370. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2011.600667
Descriptors: 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act, assessing levels of abnormal behavior, nonhuman primates.

Bellanca, R.U. and C.M. Crockett (2002). Factors predicting increased incidence of abnormal behavior in male pigtailed macaques. American Journal of Primatology 58(2): 57-69. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.10052
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: To identify factors predicting abnormal behavior in laboratory monkeys, we observed all available singly housed 4- to 11-year-old male pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), the species/age/sex group most likely to be referred to the Washington National Primate Research Center's Psychological Well-Being Program for behavioral assessment. Of the 87 subjects, 29 had been referred to the program whereas 58 had not. Abnormal behavior was unrelated to the subject's housing location (biocontainment vs. other facility) or invasiveness of research. Nursery-reared subjects displayed more abnormal behavior than mother-reared subjects. Across and within rearing categories, the proportion of the first 48 months of life spent singly housed was positively related to the amount of abnormal behavior at maturity. This effect was stronger for subjects separated from the mother for clinical rather than experimental reasons, and least for mother-reared subjects. Locomotor stereotypy, by far the most frequent form of abnormal behavior, was positively related to time in single housing but was unrelated to rearing. These results reinforce the importance of tactile social contact during juvenility for the prevention of abnormal behavior in social primates. They also suggest that self-directed abnormal behaviors and locomotor stereotypies have different etiologies.
Descriptors: Macaca nemestrina, aging, housing, animal, maternal deprivation, motor activity, risk factors, self-injurious behavior, social behavior, stereotypic behavior.

Bellanca, R.U. and C.M. Crockett (2001). Male pigtailed macaques neonatally separated from mothers for clinical reasons show increased abnormal behavior as adults. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 52-53. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal behavior, abnormal behavior as adults, effects of mother rearing, effects of nursery rearing, social contact, meeting abstract, Macaca nemestrina, pigtailed macaques.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Bellanca, R.U., K.S. Heffernan, J.E. Grabber, and C.M. Crockett (1999). Behavioral profiles of laboratory monkeys referred to a regional primate research center's psychological well-being program. American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 33. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: abnormal behavior of captive animals, behavioral profiles, self-injurious behavior (SIB), psychological well-being program, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

Bentson, K.L., C.M. Crockett, K.L. Wahl, E.P. Runeson, R.U. Bellanca, G.H. Lee, J.P. Thom, H.B. Montgomery, M.H. Yi, J.G.S. Mccomas, and J.C. Ha (2010). Floating limb behaviors and self-biting are associated in laboratory monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 72(8): 725-733. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20831
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, floating limb suite (FLS), macaques, Macaca nemestrina, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Papio cynocephalus, laboratory animals, self-biting, effect of rearing environment, mother-reared monkeys, surrogate-peer-nursery-reared monkeys.

Birkett, L.P. and N.E. Newton-Fisher (2011-). How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees? PLoS ONE 6(6): e20101.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020101
Abstract: BACKGROUND Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking.
METHODS We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling.
RESULTS, CONCLUSION, AND SIGNIFICANCE Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is "normal" in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare implications.
Descriptors: captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, abnormal behavior, zoos.

Bloomsmith, M., K. Baker, and M. Novak (2004). Understanding and managing self-injurious behavior in nonhuman primates. American Journal of Primatology 62(Suppl. 1): 119. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: roundtable discussion, definition of self-injurious behavior (SIB), physiological basis, literature review, treatment options, current research, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 27th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, June 8-11, 2004.

Bloomsmith, M.L., S. Lambeth, and T. Stoinski (2001). The behavioral effects of meal predictability on chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 96. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimps, Pan troglodytes, feeding schedules, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, housing type, self-directed behavior, timing of animal husbandry events, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Bloomsmith, M.A., M.J. Marr, and T.L. Maple (2007). Addressing nonhuman primate behavioral problems through the application of operant conditioning: Is the human treatment approach a useful model? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 205-222. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.028
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: animal training, operant conditioning, nonhuman primates, stereotypic behavior, self-injurious behavior (SIB), captivity, behavioral management, treatment of behavioral problems.

Boccia, M.L. and A.S. Hijazi (1998). A foraging task reduces agonistic and stereotypic behaviors in pigtail macaque social groups. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 37(3): 1-5. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn37-3.html#boccia
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: Macaca nemestrina, pigtailed macaques, effect of enrichment on behavior in social groups, foraging tasks to address stereotypic behavior, social groups, abnormal behavior.

Bollen, K.S. and M.a. Novak (2000). A survey of abnormal behavior in captive zoo primates. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 47. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: nonhuman primate behavior, abnormal behavior, effects of captive environments, zoos, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Bolton, I. (2004). The management of behavioral issues in captive nonhuman primates. American Journal of Primatology 62(Suppl. 1): 43. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: behavioral needs, introduction to symposium, species appropriate behaviors, behavioral management, enrichment, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 27th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, June 8-11, 2004.

Bourgeois, S. and L. Brent (2003). The effect of four enrichment conditions on abnormal behavior in seven singly caged baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). American Journal of Primatology 60(Suppl. 1): 80-81. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Papio hamadryas anubis, baboons, single housing, comparison study, effects of environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement training, food enrichment, non-food enrichment, social enrichment, self-directed behavior, caging, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; July 29-August 2, 2003.

Bourgeois, S.R. and L. Brent (2005). Modifying the behaviour of singly caged baboons: Evaluating the effectiveness of four enrichment techniques. Animal Welfare 14(1): 71-81. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: adolescent male olive hybrid baboons, Papio hamadryas anubis, abnormal behavior, effectiveness of enrichment techniques to reduce abnormal behavior, positive reinforcement training, food enrichment, manipulable toys and objects, social environment, activity levels, animal welfare implications, social enrichment as a means of behavior modification for captive baboons.

Bourgeois, S.R., M. Vazquez, and K. Brasky (2007). Combination therapy reduces self-injurious behavior in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes): A case report. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(2): 123-140. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) remains a severe and intractable abnormal behavior for nonhuman primates in diverse settings and is a significant concern for veterinarians and behavioral scientists. To date, no single pharmacological, behavioral, social, or environmental intervention method has emerged as a reliable permanent cure for treating SIB in all, or even most, individuals. Implementation and evaluation of a combination therapeutic approach to treating SIB for nonhuman primates is rare. In May 2004, a 25-year-old male chimpanzee with severe SIB (M = 2.09 episodes/day, range = 1-4 episodes/day) underwent intensive behavioral intervention that utilized a combination of techniques. The combination therapy approach entailed the following: (a) pharmacological intervention with a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue to treat suspected HIV-related sensory neuropathic pain, (b) positive reinforcement training, and (c) environmental enrichment, as well as social and environmental modification. The severity of SIB warranted immediate implementation of intensive combination therapy rather than a systematic evaluation of the individual treatment options. The individually tailored, multifaceted combination therapy resulted in the virtual elimination of SIB in this chimpanzee over a 2-year period.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), chimpanzees, therapeutic intervention, combination therapy, time-frame to elimination of SIB.

Brent, L., D.M. Foley, and T. Koban (2001). Abnormal behavior in baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis sp.) during the postpartum period. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 88-89. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: postpartum period, adult female baboons, social groups, animal models stereotypic behavior, self directed behavior, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Brent, L., T. Koban, and S. Ramirez (2002). Abnormal, abusive, and stress-related behaviors in baboon mothers. Biological Psychiatry 52(11): 1047-1056. ISSN: 0006-3223.
NAL Call Number: RC321.B55
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disturbances during pregnancy and the postpartum period are especially serious, given the negative effects on the mother as well as the child. Understanding the causes of such disturbances has been difficult owing to the complexity of psychological, social, experiential, biological, and genetic factors involved. METHODS: To determine the potential utility of a nonhuman primate model for the study of postpartum disorders, the pathologic and stress-related behavior of 62 female baboons living in social groups was studied during pregnancy and after the birth of an infant. RESULTS: The prevalence of abnormal behavior and self-directed scratching (a measure of stress response) was higher after birth of the infant. Subjects displayed a significantly higher frequency per hour of these behaviors postpartum, which increased over 8 weeks. Abusive behaviors toward the infant were common, occurring in 55% of the subjects. Mothers with low dominance rank, who usually have lower levels of social support, had higher levels of abusive behavior during the postpartum period. CONCLUSIONS: Baboons show variation in measurable behaviors related to stress and abnormal functioning during the pre- and postpartum periods, indicating that a nonhuman primate model may be useful in the study of factors affecting postpartum psychiatric disorders and infant abuse.
Descriptors: self-directed scratching, female baboons, abnormal behavior, social groups, effect of birth on abnormal behaviors, infant abuse, dominance ranking, possible animal models.

Brune, M., U. Brune-Cohrs, and W.C. McGrew (2004). Psychiatric treatment for great apes? Science 306(5704): 2039. ISSN: 1095-9203.
Online: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5704/2039b.pdf
Descriptors: laboratory animal psychology, abnormal behaviors, therapeutic use of neurotransmitter agents, Pan troglodytes, chimps, animal welfare, animal behavior, letter to the editor.

Brüne, M., U. Brüne-Cohrs, W.C. McGrew, and S. Preuschoft (2006). Psychopathology in great apes: Concepts, treatment options and possible homologies to human psychiatric disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30(8): 1246-1259. ISSN: 0149-7634.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.09.002
Abstract: Many captive great apes show gross behavioral abnormalities such as stereotypies, self-mutilation, inappropriate aggression, fear or withdrawal, which impede attempts to integrate these animals in existing or new social groups. These abnormal behaviors resemble symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders in humans such as depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Due to the outstanding importance of social interaction and the prolonged period of infantile and juvenile dependence, early separation of infants from their mothers and other adverse rearing conditions, solitary housing, and sensory deprivation are among the major albeit non-specific sources of psychopathology in apes. In contrast to the wealth of research in monkeys, psychopathology in apes has been under-studied, and only a few studies have examined how to alleviate abnormal behavior in captive apes. Recent studies have shown that the enrichment of living conditions and behavioral treatment (conditioning) may ameliorate some pathological features, and careful familiarization with novel physical and social environments can help re-socialize behaviorally disturbed animals, but usually not to the extent of successful mating and raising offspring. The possibility of psychopharmacological treatment of the most severe disturbed animal patients has only been reluctantly considered, but a few case reports have revealed encouraging results. This article proposes the need to expand research into ape psychopathology, which would require an essentially interdisciplinary approach of primatology and psychiatry, ultimately to the benefit of both.
Descriptors: great apes, behavioral therapy, psychopharmacological treatment, psychopathology, re-socialization, social behavior, separation, inappropriate aggression, stereotypies.

Chase, W.K., L.M. Marinus, M.J. Jorgensen, K.L. Rasmussen, S.J. Suomi, and M.A. Novak (1999). Heart rate patterns in rhesus monkeys with self-injurious behavior (SIB): Are these monkeys "high reactors?". American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 42-43. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-biting , heart rate, reactive temperament, self-injurious behavior (SIB), macaques, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

Clay, A.W., M.A. Bloomsmith, M.J. Marr, and T.L. Maple (2009). Habituation and desensitization as methods for reducing fearful behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 71(1): 30-39. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20622
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: behavior modification, desensitization, fearful behavior, avoidance reactions, habituation, rhesus macaques, animal welfare, animal housing.

Crockett, C.M. (2004). Abnormal behaviour in laboratory monkeys. Folia Primatologica 75(Suppl. 1): 130-131. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, animal welfare, single housing of nonhuman primates, macaques, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Spring Meeting of the Primate Society of Great Britain, St Andrews, Scotland; April 10-11, 2003.

Crockett, C.M. and R.U. Bellanca (2001). Using behaviour profiles to identify correlates and possible prevention of abnormal behaviour in laboratory monkeys. In: The 18th Congress of the International Primatological Society: Primates in the New Millenium. Abstracts and Programme,January 7, 2001-January 12, 2001, Adelaide, South Australia, IPS: Adelaide, South Australia, p. 448. [CD-Rom]
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), stereotypies, activity levels, motor activity, self-direct behavior, macaques, baboons, meeting abstract.

Crockett, C.M. and G.M. Gough (2002). Onset of aggressive toy biting by a laboratory baboon coincides with cessation of self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 39. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), Papio cynocephalus anubis, baboons, animals on a bone marrow transplant protocol, biting of toys, re-direction of tension-related aggression, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologist, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Crockett, C.M., G.P. Sackett, C. Sandman, and a. Chicz Demet (2003). Beta endorphin levels in longtailed and pigtailed macaques vary by species, sex, and abnormal behavior rating: A pilot study. American Journal of Primatology 60(Suppl. 1): 109-110. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Macaca fasicularis, Macaca nemestrina, cynomologous macaques, pigtailed macaques, rating abnormal behavior, behavioral reinforcement, sex differences, species differences, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; July 29-August 2, 2003.

Crockett, C.M., G.P. Sackett, C. Sandman, A. Chicz-DeMet, and K.L. Bentson (2007). Beta-endorphin levels in longtailed and pigtailed macaques vary by abnormal behavior rating and sex. Peptides 28(10): 1987-1997.
DOI: 10.1016/j.peptides.2007.07.014
Abstract: Frequent or severe abnormal behavior may be associated with the release of endorphins that positively reinforce the behavior with an opiate euphoria or analgesia. One line of research exploring this association involves the superhormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The products of POMC appear to be dysregulated in some human subjects who exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB). Macaque monkeys have POMC very similar to humans, and some laboratory macaques display SIB or frequent stereotypies. We investigated associations between plasma levels of three immunoreactive POMC fragments with pos- sible opioid action and abnormal behavior ratings in macaques. In 58 adult male and female macaques (24 Macaca fascicularis and 34 Macaca nemestrina), plasma levels of intact beta- endorphin (bE) and the N-terminal fragment (BEN) were signicantly higher in animals with higher levels of abnormal behavior. The C-terminal fragment (BEC) was signicantly higher in males but unrelated to ratings of abnormal behavior. Levels of ACTH, cortisol, and (bE- ACTH)/bE dysregulation index were unrelated to abnormal behavior. None of the POMC products differed signicantly by subjects’ species, age, or weight. The nding that intact beta-endorphin is positively related to abnormal behavior in two species of macaque is consistent with some previous research on human subjects and nonprimates. The positive relation of the N-terminal fragment of bE to abnormal behavior is a new finding.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), stereotypy, abnormal behavior, opioids, beta-endorphin, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca nemestrina.

Davenport, M.D., C.K. Lutz, S. Tiefenbacher, M.A. Novak, and J.S. Meyer (2008). A rhesus monkey model of self-injury: Effects of relocation stress on behavior and neuroendocrine function. Biological Psychiatry 63(10): 990-996. ISSN: 1873-2402.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2486411
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behavior (SIB), a disorder that afflicts many individuals within both clinical and nonclinical populations, has been linked to states of heightened stress and arousal. However, there are no published longitudinal data on the relationship between increases in stress and changes in the incidence of SIB. This study investigated the short- and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine responses of SIB and control monkeys to the stress of relocation. METHODS: Twenty adult male rhesus macaques were exposed to the stress of relocation to a new housing arrangement in a newly constructed facility. Daytime behavior, sleep, and multiple measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis function were investigated before and after the move. RESULTS: Relocation induced a complex pattern of short- and long-term effects in the animals. The SIB animals showed a long-lasting increase in self-biting behavior, as well as evidence of sleep disturbance. Both groups exhibited elevated cortisol levels in saliva, serum, and hair, and also an unexpected delayed increase in circulating concentrations of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that relocation is a significant stressor for rhesus macaques and that this stressor triggers an increase in self-biting behavior as well as sleep disturbance in monkeys previously identified as suffering from SIB. These findings suggest that life stresses may similarly exacerbate SIB in humans with this disorder. The HPA axis results underscore the potential role of CBG in regulating long-term neuroendocrine responses to major stressors.
Descriptors: self injurious behavior (SIB), relocation stress, macaques, self-biting behavior, sleep disturbance, cortisol levels.

Davenport, M.D., S. Strand, S. Tiefenbacher, J.S. Meyer, C. Shannon, S.J. Suomi, and M.A. Novak (2002). Steroid hormone levels in differentially reared juvenile rhesus monkeys. In: Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner: 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience,November 2, 2002-November 7, 2002, Orlando, Florida, USA, Society for Neuroscience: Washington, DC, p. Abstract No. 207.6. [Online]
Descriptors: comparison study of rearing conditions, cortisol levels, juvenile rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, separation stress, sex differences, aggression, stereotypical behavior, behavioral development.

De Villiers, C. and J.V. Seier (2010). Stopping self injurious behaviour of a young male Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus). Animal Technology and Welfare 9(2): 77-80.
NAL Call Number: SF757.A62
Descriptors: singly housed animals, self mutilation, behavioral intervention, baboon, self-injurious behavior (SIB).

Dellinge-Ness, L.A. and L. Handler (2006). Self-injurious behavior in human and non-human primates. Clinical Psychology Review 26(5): 503-514.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.03.004
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior, review of experimental data, animal models of self-injury.

Dorey, N., J. Rosales Ruiz, R. Smith, and B. Lovelace (2004). A functional analysis of self-injurious behavior in an olive baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis). In: Animal Behavior Managment Alliance (ABMA) Conference Proceedings 2004,April 4, 2004-April 9, 2004, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, p. 81. [CD-Rom]
Descriptors: problematic behavior, zoo animal management, reinforcement, self-injurious behavior (SIB), meeting abstract.

Eaton, G.G., J.M. Worlein, S.T. Kelley, S. Vijayaraghavan, D.L. Hess, M.K. Axthelm, and C.L. Bethea (1999). Self injurious behavior is decreased by cyproterone acetate in adult male rhesus (Macaca mulatta). Hormones and Behavior 35(2): 195-203. ISSN: 0018-506X.
NAL Call Number: QP801.H7H64
Abstract: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) presents a serious problem in laboratory macaques that cannot be socially housed for scientific reasons and among institutionalized children and adults where it is often associated with different forms of brain dysfunction. We have experienced limited success in reducing SIB in macaques by enhancing their environment with enrichment devices. Psychotropic drugs also help, but problems are associated with their use. Because sexual and aggressive behavioral problems in men have been treated with progestational drugs, we tested the efficacy of cyproterone acetate (CA, 5-10 mg/kg/week) on reducing SIB in 8 singly housed, adult male rhesus macaques. The main findings were: (1) SIB and other atypical behaviors were significantly reduced during CA treatment; (2) serum testosterone was significantly reduced during CA treatment; (3) cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels of 5HIAA and HVA, metabolites of serotonin and dopamine, respectively, declined significantly during CA treatment; (4) the duration of SIB positively correlated with levels of 5HIAA in CSF; but (5) sperm counts were not reduced during treatment. Thus, CA was a partially effective treatment (3 months) for adult male macaques whose behavioral problems include SIB. In summary, CA reduced SIB, overall aggression, serum testosterone, CSF 5HIAA, and CSF HVA. We hypothesized that the progestin activity of CA represses the hypothalamic gonadal axis and decreases testosterone, which in turn decreases SIB. In addition, we speculate that the decrease in 5HIAA and HVA in CSF may have been caused by progestins decreasing the activity of MAO. Therefore, the reduction of SIB may also be related to an increase in the availability of active monoamines in the CNS.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), environmental enrichment, use of psychotropic drugs, progestational drugs, cyproterone acetate (CA), adult male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, aggression, central nervous system, drug effects on behavior, social isolation, yawning, testosterone levels.

Espinosa Aviles, D., G. Elizondo, M. Morales Martinez, F. Rodriguez Herrejon, and P. Varela (2004). Treatment of acute self-aggressive behaviour in a captive gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Veterinary Record 154(13): 401-402. ISSN: 0042-4900.
Descriptors: captive gorillas, aggression, mental disorders, anxiety, self-directed behavior, self-injurious behavior (SIB).

Fontenot, M.B., M.N. Wilkes, and C.S. Lynch (2006). Effects of outdoor housing on self-injurious and stereotypic behavior in adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 45(5): 35-43. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3 .A23
Descriptors: outdoor housing, rhesus monkeys, self-injurious behavior (SIB), stereotypic behavior, self-wounding, socially housed animals, individually housed animals.

Fontenot, M.B., M.W. Musso, R.M. McFatter, and G.M. Anderson (2009). Dose-finding study of fluoxetine and venlafaxine for the treatment of self- injurious and stereotypic behavior in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 48(2): 176-184. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3 .A23
Descriptors: fluoxetine, FLX, SIB, self-injurious behavior, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, rhesus macaques.

Franz, C., S. Macherhammer, E. Kalcher, K. Crailsheim, and S. Preuschoft (2003). The influence of housing conditions on the performance of aberrant behaviours in former laboratory chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Association with social interactions. Folia Primatologica 74(4): 194. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: captive primates, abnormal behavior, chimpanzees, Safaripark Ganserndorf, Austria, group housing effects, social behavior.
Notes: In the Special Issue: Abstracts from the 8th Congress of the German Primate Society, October 1-4, 2003, Leipzig, Germany.

Gottlieb, D.H., J.P. Capitanio, and B. McCowan (2013). Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): Animal's history, current environment, and personality. American Journal of Primatology. Not yet published.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22161
Descriptors: motor stereotypic behavior (MSB), self-injurious behavior, risk factors, temperament, activity levels, California National Primate Research Center

Graves, L.M. (2011). The effect of auditory enrichment on abnormal, affiliative, and aggressive behaviors in laboratory-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Thesis, Texas State University-San Marcos, Dept. of Anthropology, Paper 30.
Online: http://ecommons.txstate.edu/anthroptad/30
Descriptors: auditory enrichment, white noise, designer music, Oregon National Primate Research Center, behavior observations.

Graves, L. and K.L. Graham (2011). The effect of auditory enrichment on the expression of abnormal behaviors in laboratory-housed infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144(Suppl. 52): 72-319. ISSN: 0002-9483.
DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21502
Descriptors: behavioral change, white noise, abnormal behavior, auditory enrichment, designer music, meeting abstract.

Honess, P., J. Gimpel, S. Wolfensohn, and G. Mason (2005). Alopecia scoring: The quantitative assessment of hair loss in captive macaques. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 33(3): 193-206. ISSN: 0261-1929.
NAL Call Number: Z7994.L3A5
Abstract: Many captive animals show forms of pelage loss that are absent in wild or free-living conspecifics, which result from grooming or plucking behaviours directed at themselves or at other individuals. For instance, dorsal hair loss in primates such as rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in research facilities, results from excessive hair-pulling or over-grooming by cage-mates. This behaviour appears to be associated with stress, and is controllable to some extent with environmental enrichment. Quantifying alopecia in primates (as in many species) is therefore potentially useful for welfare assessment. A simple system for scoring alopecia was developed and its reliability was tested. Study 1 showed high interobserver reliability between two independent scorers in assessing the state of monkeys coats from photographs. Study 2 showed that there were no significant differences between the scores derived from photographs and from direct observations. Thus, where hair loss due to hair pulling exists in captive primates, this scoring system provides an easy, rapid, and validated quantitative method, for use in assessing the success of attempts to reduce it via improved husbandry. In the future, such scoring systems might also prove useful for quantifying barbering in laboratory rodents.
Descriptors: rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, grooming or plucking behaviors, primates in captive environments, quantifying hair loss (alopecia), welfare assessment using hair loss measurements, development of alopecia scoring system.

Honess, P.E. and C.M. Marin (2006). Enrichment and aggression in primates. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30(3): 413-436. ISSN: 0149-7634.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.05.002
NAL Call Number: QL750.B5
Abstract: There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, abnormal behavior, aggressive behavior, self-injurious behavior (SIB), literature review, use of appropriate enrichment, animal welfare.

Honess, P.E. and C.M. Marin (2006). Enrichment and aggression in primates: Relationship between the brain and aggression. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 30(3): 413-436.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.05.002
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, self-injurious behavior (SIB), psychological well-being, literature review, housing of nonhuman primates, effects of housing, feeding, and environmental enrichment, aggression, animal welfare.

Hook, M.A., S.P. Lambeth, J.E. Perlman, R. Stavisky, M.A. Bloomsmith, and S.J. Schapiro (2002). Inter-group variation in abnormal behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76(2): 165-176. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, abnormal behavior, learning, animal behavior, group size, age effects.

Hook, M.A., S.P. Lambeth, J.E. Perlman, R. Stavisky, M.A. Bloomsmith, and S.J. Schapiro (2002). Inter-group variation in abnormal behaviour in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76(2): 165-176. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: social transmission of behavior, culture, categorization of abnormal behaviors, group membership, housing environment, gender differences, social learning processes.

Hugo, C., J. Seier, C. Mdhluli, W. Daniels, B.H. Harvey, D. Du Toit, S. Wolfe Coote, D. Nel, and D.J. Stein (2003). Fluoxetine decreases stereotypic behavior in primates. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 27(4): 639-643. ISSN: 0278-5846.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Primates reared in captivity may display stereotypic behaviors. These behaviors are arguably reminiscent of human obsessive-compulsive or posttraumatic symptoms, which respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Captive primates with marked stereotypic behaviors were entered into a randomized controlled study of the SSRI, fluoxetine. METHODS: A sample of 10 vervet monkeys with behaviors such as marked saluting, somersaulting, weaving, or head tossing was selected. Subjects were randomized to receive fluoxetine 1 mg/kg for 6 weeks (n=5) or no treatment (n=5). A rater blind to the medication status of subjects noted the frequency of the stereotypic behaviors. RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) demonstrated a significant GroupxTime difference with significantly fewer stereotypic symptoms in the fluoxetine group by endpoint. At this time, three of the five fluoxetine-treated subjects (but none of the no-treatment subjects) were responders on the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) change item (CGI < or =2). CONCLUSIONS: Stereotypic behaviors in captive vervets gradually and partially decrease in response to administration of an SSRI, paralleling research on human anxiety symptoms. Further research on animal stereotypies may be useful in providing appropriate veterinary care, and in exploring the underlying neurobiology of certain psychiatric disorders.
Descriptors: stereotypic behavior, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), fluoxetine, African green monkeys, vervets, Cercopithecus aethiops, treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Kaufman, B.M., A.L. Pouliot, S. Tiefenbacher, and M.A. Novak (2002). Effects of cage size on abnormal behavior in rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 39-40. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, cage size, baboons, hair pulling, cage shaking, individual housing, open pens, self-biting, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Kaufman, B.M., A.L. Pouliot, S. Tiefenbacher, and M.A. Novak (2004). Short and long-term effects of a substantial change in cage size on individually housed, adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 88(3-4): 319-330. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, effects of cage size, general activity reduction, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, tension related behavior, individual housing.

Kempf, D.J., K.C. Baker, M.H. Gilbert, J.L. Blanchard, R.L. Dean, D.R. Deaver, and R.P. Bohm Jr. (2012). Effects of extended-release injectable naltrexone on self-injurious behavior in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Comparative Medicine 62(3): 209-217. ISSN: 1532-0820.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364699/
Abstract: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a spontaneous behavior that threatens the health and wellbeing of multiple species. In humans, the opioid antagonist naltrexone hydrochloride has been used successfully to modulate the endogenous opioid system and reduce the occurrence of SIB. This study is the first to assess the efficacy of extended-release naltrexone in the pharmacologic treatment of SIB in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). In an acute pharmacokinetic study of 4 macaques, we determined the mean naltrexone plasma concentration was maintained above the therapeutic level (2 ng/mL) after administration of a single dose (20 mg/kg) of 28-d extended-release naltrexone throughout the release period. For a subsequent treatment study, we selected 8 singly housed macaques known to engage in SIB. The study comprised a 4-wk baseline phase; an 8-wk treatment phase, during which each macaque received 2 doses of extended-release naltrexone 28 d apart; and a 4-wk posttreatment phase. Plasma samples were collected and analyzed weekly for naltrexone concentrations throughout the treatment and posttreatment phases. In addition, total of 6 h of video was analyzed per animal per phase of the study. Compared with baseline phases, both the frequency and the percentage of time spent displaying SIB decreased during the treatment phase, and the percentage of time remained decreased during the posttreatment phase. In contrast, extended-release naltrexone did not alter the expression of other abnormal, anxiety-related, or agonistic behaviors nor were levels of inactivity affected. The present study supports the use of naltrexone in the treatment of SIB in rhesus macaques
Descriptors: naltrexone, self-injurious behavior (SIB), male, rhesus monkey, pharmacologic treatment of SIB.

Kessel, A. and L. Brent (2001). The rehabilitation of captive baboons. Journal of Medical Primatology 30(2): 71-80. ISSN: 0047-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9J66
Abstract: Eleven baboons who had been singly housed indoors for an average of 5 years were moved to outdoor social groups in an attempt to provide a more species-typical environment and reduce high levels of abnormal behavior. Nine of the baboons were observed while in single housing and, over a 6-month period, while housed outdoors socially to document long-term changes in behavior. Abnormal behavior decreased significantly from an average of 14% of the observation time in the single cages to 3% in the sixth month of social housing. Cage manipulation and self-directed behaviors also significantly decreased, while social behavior, enrichment-directed behavior, and locomotion increased in social housing. Baboons that had been in long-term indoor single housing were able to reproduce and form stable social groups without injury. This study provides evidence that even behaviorally disturbed nonhuman primates can be successfully rehabilitated to live in social groups.
Descriptors: captive baboons, species-typical behaviors, abnormal behavior, baboons, single housing to outdoor social housing, animal behavior, cage manipulation, behavioral rehabilitation.

Lee, J.I., C.W. Lee, H.S. Kwon, Y.T. Kim, C.G. Park, S.J. Kim, and B.C. Kang (2008). Changes in food intake and abnormal behavior using a puzzle feeder in newly acquired sub-adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): A short term study. Experimental Animals 57(5): 433-437. ISSN: 1881-7122.
DOI: 10.1538/expanim.57.433
NAL Call Number: QL55.J55
Descriptors: puzzle feeder, abnormal behavior, stereotypic behavior, rhesus monkeys, adaptation abnormalities, food intake.

Lutz, C.K., W.K. Chase, and M.A. Novak (2000). Abnormal behavior in singly-housed Macaca mulatta: prevalence and potential risk factors. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 71. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, risk factors, age effects, gender effects, colony management, rearing condition, housing conditions, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Lutz, C.K., E.B. Davis, A.M. Ruggiero, and S.J. Suomi (2007). Early predictors of self-biting in socially-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 69(5): 584-590. ISSN: 1098-2345.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20370
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: rhesus monkeys, self-biting behavior, effects of rearing condition, early infant behavior.

Lutz, C., L. Marinus, W. Chase, J. Meyer, and M. Novak (2001). Self-injurious behavior in male rhesus macaques: Association with aggression and stress. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 76-77. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: stress, self-injurious behavior (SIB), abnormal behavior, aggression, male macaques, Macaca mulatta, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Lutz, C., L. Marinus, W. Chase, J. Meyer, and M. Novak (2003). Self-injurious behavior in male rhesus macaques does not reflect externally directed aggression. Physiology and Behavior 78(1): 33-39. ISSN: 0031-9384.
NAL Call Number: QP1.P4
Abstract: Self-injurious behaviors (SIB), such as self-biting and self-wounding, have been observed in a small percentage of captive nonhuman primates. Because rhesus monkeys that exhibit SIB also tend to be more aggressive, it was hypothesized that SIB is related to externally directed aggression and is associated with contexts in which physical contact between participants is prevented. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized relationship between SIB and outward aggression. Subjects were first presented with videotapes of conspecifics, scenery and a blank screen, and their behavior was recorded. Levels of salivary cortisol, an indicator of stress, were also measured before and after presentation of the videos. Although aggression increased when subjects viewed tapes containing conspecifics, neither cortisol levels nor self-biting behavior varied as a function of tape content. The subjects were then placed in two additional test situations: an empty room and the same room containing an unfamiliar conspecific. Aggression was significantly higher in the stranger condition compared to the empty room condition. The two situations yielded parallel increases in cortisol, suggesting that being alone was just as stressful as being paired with an unfamiliar conspecific. Self-biting rates were also similar in these two conditions. Thus, contrary to our prediction, increases in aggression did not correlate with increases in SIB. These results suggest that under similarly stressful conditions, SIB and externally directed aggression are unrelated.
Descriptors: captive nonhuman primates, social behavior, salivary cortisol levels, indicators of stress, videotapes of conspecifics, relationship between self-injurious behavior (SIB) and aggression, rhesus macaques.

Lutz, C., S. Tiefenbacher, J. Meyer, and M. Novak (2004). Extinction deficits in male rhesus macaques with a history of self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Primatology 63(2): 41-48. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) occurs in both human and nonhuman primate populations. Despite the potential for harm, SIB may persist in part because of an inability to inhibit behavior that results in wounding. A lever-pressing task was used to test the prediction that monkeys with SIB would show greater persistence in lever-pressing on extinction trials than monkeys without the disorder. The subjects were 15 individually-housed adult male rhesus macaques, 10 of which (the SIB group) had a veterinary record of self-inflicted wounding. All of the monkeys were trained to lever-press for food rewards to a criterion of 400 total responses. The test procedures consisted of five daily 30-min sessions divided into six 5-min intervals. On day 1, the subjects received continuous reinforcement. On days 2-4, testing consisted of alternating reinforced/unreinforced 5-min intervals, beginning with reinforcement. Reinforced intervals were cued with a buzzer. On day 5, the subjects received no reinforcement. The number of lever-presses and behavioral responses were recorded during each session. Saliva samples were collected for cortisol measurement before and after test sessions on days 1, 2, and 5. As predicted, monkeys with SIB lever-pressed more than controls during extinction intervals on days 2-4. There was no difference on day 1 or day 5. The frequency of scratching, yawning, and abnormal behavior increased when reinforcement was intermittent (days 2-4) or absent (day 5). Cortisol levels were highest with continuous reinforcement (day 1), and may reflect differential levels of food intake rather than stress. The presence of extinction deficits suggests that SIB may persist in some monkeys because they lack the ability to regulate the intensity of their biting behavior.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), male macaques, lever-press task trials, levels of reinforcement, frequency of abnormal behavior, cortisol, ability to regulate behavior, five day trial.

Lutz, C., A. Well, and M. Novak (2003). Stereotypic and self-injurious behavior in rhesus macaques: A survey and retrospective analysis of environment and early experience. American Journal of Primatology 60(1): 1-15. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Abnormal behavior in captive rhesus monkeys can range from active whole-body and self-directed stereotypies to self-injurious behavior (SIB). Although abnormal behaviors are common in singly-housed rhesus monkeys, the type and frequency of these behaviors are highly variable across individual animals, and the factors influencing them are equally varied. The purpose of this investigation was to survey abnormal behavior in a large population of rhesus macaques, to characterize the relationship between stereotypies and self-injury, and to identify potential risk factors for these aberrant behaviors. Behavioral assessments of 362 individually housed rhesus monkeys were collected at the New England Regional Primate Research Center (NERPRC) and combined with colony records. Of the 362 animals surveyed, 321 exhibited at least one abnormal behavior (mean: 2.3, range: 1-8). The most common behavior was pacing. Sex differences were apparent, with males showing more abnormal behavior than females. SIB was also associated with stereotypies. Animals with a veterinary record of self-injury exhibited a greater number of self-directed stereotypies than those that did not self-injure. Housing and protocol conditions, such as individual housing at an early age, longer time housed individually, greater number of blood draws, and nursery rearing, were shown to be risk factors for abnormal behavior. Thus, many factors may influence the development and maintenance of abnormal behavior in captive primates. Some of these factors are intrinsic to the individual (e.g., sex effects), whereas others are related to colony management practices, rearing conditions, and research protocols.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, relationship between stereotypies and self-injury, risk factors, behavioral assessments, captive primates, sex differences, housing conditions, rearing conditions, research protocols, colony management, rhesus macaques.

Lutz, C.K., P.C. Williams, and R.M. Sharp (2013). Abnormal behavior and associated risk factors in captive baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.). American Journal of Primatology ISSN: 1098-2345.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22239
Descriptors: captive animals, stereotypy, baboons.

Macy, J.D.Jr., T.A. Beattie, S.E. Morganstern, and A.F.T. Arnsten (2000). Use of guanfacine to control self-injurious behavior in two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and one baboon (Papio anubis). Comparative Medicine 50(4): 419-425. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77 .C65
Abstract: Background and purpose: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) affects 0.8 to 10% of individually housed non-human primates, and is a substantial threat to their health and well being. The potential for SIB to involve multiple neurotransmitters and the complex variations in response to external stressors complicate case management. Modulation of the adrenergic system by use of guanfacine, an alpha2A-adrenergic receptor agonist, was assessed as a novel therapeutic strategy for SIB. Methods: The efficacy of guanfacine against SIB was evaluated in 11 self-biting episodes among two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and one baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis). Affected animals were given guanfacine IM or PO at 0.5 mg/kg of body weight twice daily (rhesus) or 0.3 mg/kg (baboon) for 5 to 10 days, followed by gradual reduction of the dose to 0.25 mg/kg (rhesus) or 0.15 mg/kg (baboon) once daily over an average of 33 days. Results: The 0.5 mg/kg twice daily regimen of guanfacine halted all self-biting, whereas reducing the dose to 0.25 mg/kg given twice daily or 0.5 mg/kg given once daily resulted in reversion to self-biting in four of the 11 episodes. Recurrence was controlled by returning to twice daily 0.5 mg/kg dosing for one aggressive episode, and resolved in the three milder episodes without dose or frequency being increased. Self-biting after discontinuation of therapy recurred six times over five years in case 1, three times over 1.5 years in case 2, and three times over one year in case 3. Clinical assessment suggested that guanfacine therapy decreased agitation without overt side effects associated with alpha2-agonists, such as profound sedation. Conclusion: The mechanism for. guanfacine inhibition of self-biting is unclear, but could result from strengthening of prefrontal cortex inhibitory functions. Guanfacine therapy provides an effective psychological stabilizing tool that alleviates self-biting, and provides time to assess and address external stressors and triggers.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, Papio anubis, laboratory animals, abnormal behavior, guanfacine, alpha adrenergic receptor agonists, drug therapy, animal welfare, neuroleptics, case reports.

Major, C.A., B.J. Kelly, M.A. Novak, M.D. Davenport, K.M. Stonemetz, and J.S. Meyer (2009). The anxiogenic drug FG7142 increases self-injurious behavior in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Life Sciences 85(21-22): 753-758.
DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2009.10.003
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), rhesus monkeys, self-directed biting, anxiety, N-methyl-?-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG7142), anxiogenic compounds.

Mallapur, A. and B.C. Choudhury (2003). Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(4): 275-284. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.
Descriptors: Semnipithecus entellus, Trachypithecus pileatus, Trachypithecus geei, Trachypithecus johnii, Trachypithecus phayrei, Macaca silenus, Macaca nemestrima, Macaca arctoides, Macaca assamensis, Macaca radiata, Hylobates hoolook, housing, primate psychology, self-injurious behavior (SIB), stereotypic movement disorder, zoo animals, India.

Marinus, L.M., W.K. Chase, K.L. Rasmussen, M.J. Jorgensen, and M.A. Novak (1999). Reaction of rhesus monkeys with self-injurious behavior to heart rate testing: is biting a coping strategy? American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 79. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-biting, coping strategy, heart rate, macaques, locomotor activity, tension reduction, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

Martin, J. (2002). Early life experiences: Activity levels and abnormal behaviours in resocialised chimpanzees. Animal Welfare 11(4): 419-436. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, rearing histories, social deprivation, developmental period, activity levels, abnormal behavior, zoos, enriched social environment.

Mason, G., R. Clubb, N. Latham, and S. Vickery (2007). Why and how should we use environmental enrichment to tackle stereotypic behaviour? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 163-188. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.041
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: sterotypic behavior, abnormal repetitive behavior, motivational frustration, captive environments, zoos, treatment of abnormal behavior, effectiveness of enrichment, literature review.

Mason, G. and J. Rushen (Editors) (2006). Stereotypic Animal Behaviour: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare, 2nd edition, Wallingford, UK: CABI, 367 p. ISBN: 9780851990040; 0851990045.
Descriptors: stereotypic behavior, abnormal behavior, rearing environment, treatment modalities, motivation, cause of stereotypies, welfare implications, nonhuman primates, rodents.

Meyer, J.S., S. Tiefenbacher, C.K. Lutz, and M.A. Novak (2002). Physiological correlates of self-injurious behavior in socially reared adult male rhesus monkeys. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 24(3): 420. ISSN: 0892-0362.
Descriptors: adult male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, animal behavior, physiology, self-injurious behavior, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society in conjunction with the Forty-Second Annual Meeting of the Teratology Society, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA; June 22-27, 2002.

Novak, M.A. (2001). Primate psychopathology: New insights on etiology and physiology. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 111. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: aggression, behavioral disorder, self-injurious behavior (SIB), risk factors, analgesia, arousal, coping strategy, heart rate, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Novak, M.A. (2003). Self-injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys: New insights into its etiology, physiology, and treatment. American Journal of Primatology 59(1): 3-19. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a significant human health problem frequently associated with profound intellectual disabilities, genetic diseases, and psychiatric conditions. However, it also occurs in subclinical populations and appears to be on the rise in adolescents and young adults. SIB is also seen in a small percentage of nonhuman primates that injure themselves through biting. We have begun to characterize SIB in rhesus monkeys to identify some of the risk factors associated with this disorder, and to determine the parallels with the human condition. In our study population, 14% of individually housed monkeys (the vast majority of which are males) have a veterinary record for self-inflicted wounding. Wounding is rare, but self-directed biting is common. SIB can be elicited during aggressive altercations and may be associated with husbandry events. Some monkeys appear to be more vulnerable to acquiring SIB. This increased vulnerability is associated with certain social experiences in the first 2 years of life and with exposure to a larger number of moderately stressful events as compared to controls. Monkeys with SIB also have a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, indicated by a blunted cortisol response to mild stressors. Our findings suggest that SIB may be a coping strategy to reduce arousal. Biting appears to rapidly lower an escalating heart rate. The potentially reinforcing effects of SIB may account for the failure of some treatment regimens. These findings are compared to studies of SIB in humans, and concordances are identified.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), nonhuman primates, risk factors, aggression, effects of husbandry procedures, social experiences, coping strategy, lowering heart rate by biting.

Novak, M.A., A.F. Hamel, B.J. Kelly, A.M. Dettmer, and J.S. Meyer (2012). Stress, the HPA axis, and nonhuman primate well-being: A review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 143(2-4): 135-149. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2012.10.012
Descriptors: cortisol, Environmental enrichment, HPA axis, social housing, stress, abnormal behavior.

Novak, M.A., J.H. Kinsey, M.J. Jorgensen, and T.J. Hazen (1998). Effects of puzzle feeders on pathological behavior in individually housed rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 46(3): 213-227. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), wounding, effects of puzzle difficulty on behavior, manipulation, foraging enrichment, lack of success of behavioral treatment, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, puzzle feeders.

Novak, M.A., J.S. Meyer, C. Lutz and S. Tiefenbacher (2006). Deprived environments: Developmental insights from primatology. In: G. Mason and J. Rushen (Editors), Stereotypic Animal Behaviour: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare, 2nd edition, CABI: Wallingford, UK, p. 153-189. ISBN: 9780851990040; 0851990045.
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, animal behavior, behavior problems, cage size, central nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid, cognitive development, environmental deprivation, laboratory animals, neurotransmitters, rearing techniques, social interaction, zoo animals, nonhuman primates.

Novak, M. and J. Meyer (2005). Self-injurious and stereotypic behavior in macaques: The search for causes and treatments. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,July 31, 2005-August 5, 2005, New York, NY, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx: New York, NY, p. 132-138.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaques, abnormal behavior, captive housing, self-injurious behavior (SIB), stereotypic behavior, treatments.

Ogura, T. (2012). Use of video system and its effects on abnormal behaviour in captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 141(3-4): 173-183. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2012.06.009
Descriptors: control over environment, Japanese macaques, video presentation, animal welfare, Macaca fuscata, effect on abnormal behavior.

Palit, G., A. Kalsotra, R. Kumar, C. Nath, and M.P. Dubey (2001). Behavioural and anti-psychotic effects of Ca2+ channel blockers in rhesus monkey. European Journal of Pharmacology 412(2): 139-144. ISSN: 0014-2999.
Abstract: The potential utility of Ca2+ channel blockers in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders has been recently suggested. In the present study, the behavioural and anti-psychotic effects of Ca2+ channel blockers were investigated in unrestrained rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living together in a colony. The different behaviours categorised as social, solitary and abnormal were video recorded and analysed. Graded doses of verapamil (5-20 mg/kg, i.m.) and nimodipine (7.5-30 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a mild decrease in social and solitary behaviour without producing any cataleptic posture in the tested monkeys. In order to determine potential antipsychotic effects, Ca2+ channel blockers were studied in the model of amphetamine-induced psychosis. Amphetamine, at the dose of 2 mg/kg, i.m., induced suppression of approach, contact, grooming, and feeding, whilst vigilance (checking), stereotyped behaviour and oral hyperkinesia were increased in the monkeys. Pre-treatment with verapamil (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.m.) significantly suppressed amphetamine-induced hypervigilance, stereotypy, oral hyperkinesia and tachypnoea but was unable to reverse other amphetamine-induced behavioural effects. Nimodipine showed insignificant anti-psychotic effects at both 15 and 30 mg/kg doses. These results suggest that verapamil has a definite antipsychotic effect without any extrapyramidal side effects and thus may be of clinical significance in the treatment of psychosis.
Descriptors: anti-psychotic effectsof Ca2+ channel blockers, group housing, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, social behavior, abnormal behavior, behavior classification, verapamil, nimodipine.

Philbin, N. (1998). Towards an understanding of stereotypic behaviour in laboratory macaques. Animal Technology 49(1): 19-33. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: QL55.I5
Descriptors: Macaca sp., laboratory animals, abnormal behavior, animal welfare, cages, animal behavior, risk factors, frequency, duration, environment, genotypes, breed differences, laboratory rearing, literature reviews.

Pomerantz, O., A. Paukner, and J. Terkel (2012). Some stereotypic behaviors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are correlated with both perseveration and the ability to cope with acute stressors. Behavioural Brain Research 230(1): 274-280. ISSN: 0166-4328.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.02.019
Descriptors: stereotypies, neuropsychological tests, cortisol, rhesus macaques, coping mechanism, basal ganglia, brain pathology.

Raper, J.R., M.A. Bloomsmith, A. Stone, and L. Mayo (2002). Use of positive reinforcement training to decrease stereotypic behaviors in a pair of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 70-71. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Pongo pygmaeus, orangutans, zoo animal behavior, positive reinforcement training, well-being, reproductive behavior, social behavior, stereotypic behaviors, primates in zoos, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Reader, S.M. and K.N. Laland (2001). Primate innovation: Sex, age and social rank differences. International Journal of Primatology 22(5): 787-805. ISSN: 0164-0291.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9I54
Descriptors: sex differences, behavioral variation, social hierarchy, abnormal behavior, innovative behavior, effects of age.

Reamer, L., Z. Tooze, C. Coulson, and S. Semple (2010). Correlates of self-directed and stereotypic behaviours in captive red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) . Applied Animal Behaviour Science 124(1-2): 68-74. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2010.01.012
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: red-capped mangabeys, captive nonhuman primates, anxiety, stress, self-directed behavior, stereotypic behavior, Nigeria.

Reinhardt, V. (2002). Artificial weaning of Old World monkeys: Benefits and costs. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5(2): 151-156. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, Papio sp., primates as laboratory animals, early weaning, abnormal behavior, stress, reproductive efficiency, animal welfare, literature reviews, animal use refinement and reduction.

Reinhardt, V. (1999). Pair-housing overcomes self-biting behavior in macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 38(1): 4-5. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn38-1.html#pair
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, self-biting, compatible social housing, effect of prolonged single-housing, reduction in self-injurious behavior (SIB), macaques.

Reinhardt, V. and M. Rossell (2001). Self-biting in caged macaques: Cause, effect, and treatment. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 4(4): 285-294. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis, primates as laboratory animals, vices, animal housing, group size, animal welfare, literature reviews, pair housing.

Rommeck, I., K. Anderson, A. Heagerty, A. Cameron, and B. McCowan (2009). Risk factors and remediation of self-injurious and self-abuse behavior in Rhesus Macaques. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 12(1): 61-72. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1080/10888700802536798
Descriptors: self injurious behavior (SIB), rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, risk factors, cage relocation.

Rommeck, I., D.H. Gottlieb, S.C. Strand, and B. McCowan (2009). The effects of four nursery rearing strategies on infant behavioral development in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 48(4): 395-401.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3 .A23
Descriptors: risk factors for development of abnormal behavior, nursery rearing, self-biting behavior, rhesus monkeys, socialization, floating limb behavior.

Sanchez, M.M., C.O. Ladd, and P.M. Plotsky (2001). Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: Evidence from rodent and primate models. Development and Psychopathology 13(3): 419-449. ISSN: 0954-5794.
Abstract: Increasing evidence supports the view that the interaction of perinatal exposure to adversity with individual genetic liabilities may increase an individual's vulnerability to the expression of psycho- and physiopathology throughout life. The early environment appears to program some aspects of neurobiological development and, in turn, behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and physiological development. Several rodent and primate models of early adverse experience have been analyzed in this review, including those that "model" maternal separation or loss, abuse or neglect, and social deprivation. Accumulating evidence shows that these early traumatic experiences are associated with long-term alterations in coping style, emotional and behavioral regulation. neuroendocrine responsiveness to stress, social "fitness,' cognitive function, brain morphology, neurochemistry, and expression levels of central nervous system genes that have been related to anxiety and mood disorders. Studies are underway to identify important aspects of adverse early experience, such as (a) the existence of "sensitive periods" during development associated with alterations in particular output systems. (b) the presence of "windows of opportunity" during which targeted interventions (e.g., nurturant parenting or supportive-enriching environment) may prevent or reverse dysfunction, (c) the identity of gene polymorphisms contributing to the individual's variability in vulnerability, and (d) a means to translate the timing of these developmental "sensitive periods" across species.
Descriptors: hypothalamo-hypophyseal system physiopathology, pituitary-adrenal system, stress psychology, age factors, anxiety, corticosterone metabolism, Macaca mulatta, mental disorders, risk factors, rats, animal models.

Schroeder, S.R., P.S. Loupe, and R.E. Tessel (2008). Chapter 6 Animal Models of Self-Injurious Behavior. Induction, Prevention, and Recovery. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation 36: 195-231.
DOI: 10.1016/S0074-7750(08)00006-2
Descriptors: literature review, animal models for self-injurious behavior (SIB), isolate-rearing of rhesus monkeys.

Skyner, L.J., J.R. Amory, and G. Hosey (2004). The effect of visitors on the self-injurious behaviour of a male pileated gibbon (Hylobates pileatus). Zoologische Garten 74(1): 38-41. ISSN: 0044-5169.
NAL Call Number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: zoo animal behavior, self biting, self-injurious behavior (SIB), zoo vistor impact, chewing behavior, male gibbon, Hylobates pileatus.

Smith, K., C. Shaver, P. Olexa, and M. St. Claire (2004). Use of a shredded paper substrate to ameliorate abnormal self-directed behavior of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 62(Suppl. 1): 94-95. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior, over-grooming, captivity, shredded paper, chimpanzees.
Notes: In the Special Issue: Special Issue: Abstracts of Presentations Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting The American Society of Primatologists Hosted by The National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA, June 8th to 11th 2004.

Tarou, L., M. Jones, and T. Maple (2001). Seasonal and daily variation in stereotypic behavior in two species of zoo-housed lemur. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 94. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: zoo animal behavior, repetitive behavior, stereotypic behavior, lemurs, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Tarou, L.R., M.A. Bloomsmith, and T.L. Maple (2005). Survey of stereotypic behavior in prosimians. American Journal of Primatology 65(2): 181-196. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Captive animals have been observed to perform a variety of stereotypic behaviors. However, little is known about stereotypic behavior in prosimians. We sent surveys to 96 AZA-accredited institutions to examine stereotypic behavior in these primates. Forty-eight surveys were returned, providing information on 440 individuals of 10 genera. According to the responses, 13.2% of the prosimians surveyed exhibited some form of stereotypic behavior. Pacing was the most common behavior. A logistic regression was used to examine intrinsic characteristics that might influence the performance of stereotypic behavior. The genus of the prosimian was a significant predictor of stereotypic behavior. Individuals of the genus Varecia and Microcebus were more likely to engage in stereotypic behavior than members of the other genera. Rearing history, age, and sex were not significant predictors of stereotypic behavior. To examine the influence of extrinsic variables on stereotypic behavior, we transformed the data into the percentage of individuals within the enclosure that were reported to exhibit stereotypic behavior, and analyzed them at the enclosure level using a general linear model (GLM) analysis of variance (ANOVA). The only environmental variable that significantly predicted stereotypic behavior was the frequency with which enrichment was provided. Frequent enrichment was provided to those exhibits with a higher percentage of prosimians that engaged in stereotypic behavior. The results of this survey suggest that stereotypic behavior in prosimians may be associated with intrinsic factors (i.e., individual or genus differences) in addition to extrinsic factors related to housing. This knowledge may be helpful in identifying the causes of and effective treatments for stereotypic behavior in prosimians.
Descriptors: survey study, effects of enrichment, abnormal behavior, pacing, stereotypies, Varecia sp., Microcebus sp., intrinsic and extrinsic factors, zoo animals, genus differences, housing and individual effects on stereotypic behavior, captive prosimians.

Taylor, D.K., T. Bass, G.S. Flory, and F.C. Hankenson (2005). Use of low-dose chlorpromazine in conjunction with environmental enrichment to eliminate self-injurious behavior in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Comparative Medicine 55(3): 282-288. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77 .C65
Abstract: A 7-year-old, captive-bred, female rhesus macaque was placed in a quarantine facility upon arrival at our institution. At release from quarantine, she was observed pawing at and chewing on her left cheek. Physical examination revealed ulcerative lesions on the buccal surface of the left cheek. Initial differential diagnoses included Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus)-induced lesions and bacterial infection. Dental abnormalities and cheek pouch foreign body were ruled out during the physical exam. Treatment with 30 mg/kg cefazolin intramuscularly every 12 h was initiated. Twelve days later, the animal presented with a 2 x 2-cm, full-thickness erosion involving the opposite (right) cheek. Treatment with buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg intramuscularly every 24 h) was initiated. Cultures for B virus were negative, and only nonpathogenic bacteria were isolated from swabs of the lesions. Hematology and serum chemistry profiles were normal. A wedge biopsy of the lesion revealed no definitive etiology. Further observation revealed that the lesions likely resulted from self-injurious behavior (SIB). Treatment with low-dose chlorpromazine (1 mg/kg intramuscularly once daily for 25 days, and then 0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly once daily for 25 days) was initiated. Bodyweight and condition were maintained during therapy, and serial hematology and serum chemistry profiles were normal. The animal was moved into a different room, and a toy "necklace" was created. The SIB was eliminated, and lesions healed within 35 days. Presently, 20 months after presentation, this animal remains in good health.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), abnormal behavior treatment, primates as laboratory animals, environmental enrichment, chlorpromazine, location change, adult female rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, pawing and chewing at cheek, behavioral treatment program, toy necklace, case study.

Tiefenbacher, S., M.D. Davenport, M.A. Novak, A.L. Pouliot, and J.S. Meyer (2003). Fenfluramine challenge, self-injurious behavior, and aggression in rhesus monkeys. Physiology and Behavior 80(2-3): 327-331. ISSN: 0031-9384.
NAL Call Number: QP1.P4
Abstract: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) and aggression have been linked to reduced serotonergic (5-HT) functioning in both humans and nonhuman primates. The present study examined serum prolactin and cortisol responses to the 5-HT releasing agent D,L-fenfluramine (FEN) in 24 individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 15 of which carried a veterinary record of self-wounding (SW). Subjects received two doses of FEN, 4 and 2 mg/kg, separated by an interval of at least 2 months. For control purposes, monkeys were given an intramuscular saline injection 1 week prior to each FEN challenge. The relationship between the hormonal responses to FEN, wounding history, the rates of self-directed biting and aggression were determined for each animal based on 100 five-minute observations conducted over a period of 12 months surrounding the challenge procedures. Prolactin and cortisol responses to FEN were unrelated either to wounding history or to rates of self-directed biting. However, there were significant inverse correlations between levels of aggression and the prolactin response to both doses of FEN. The present findings provide no evidence for reduced 5-HT system function in rhesus monkeys with SIB under the present challenge conditions. However, the results are consistent with a previously reported inverse relationship between serotonergic activity and aggression. Moreover, a dose-dependent response to FEN was observed only for prolactin, suggesting that this variable is more appropriate than cortisol as an endpoint for FEN challenge in monkeys.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), aggression, serotonergic functioning, cortisol and prolactin responses, D,L-fenfluramine (FEN), wounding in rhesus monkeys, single housing.

Tiefenbacher, S., M.D. Davenport, M.A. Novak, A.L. Pouliot, and J.S. Meyer (2002). Prolactin and cortisol response to fenfluramine challenge in socially reared captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 63-64. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, wounding, aggression, hormonal responses, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Tiefenbacher, S., M.A. Fahey, J.K. Rowlett, J.S. Meyer, A.L. Pouliot, B.M. Jones, and M.A. Novak (2005). The efficacy of diazepam treatment for the management of acute wounding episodes in captive rhesus macaques. Comparative Medicine 55(4): 387-392. ISSN: 1532-0820 .
NAL Call Number: SF77 .C65
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), singly housed animals, rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, diazepam, valium.

Tiefenbacher, S., K.E. Gabry, M.A. Novak, A.L. Pouliot, P.W. Gold, and J.S. Meyer (2002). Central levels of CRF and NPY in male rhesus monkeys with self-injurious behavior. In: Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner: 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience,November 2, 2002-November 7, 2002, Orlando, Florida, USA, Society for Neuroscience: Washington, DC, p. Abstract No. 398.3.
Descriptors: anxiety, self-injurious behavior (SIB), rearing conditions, self-directed biting, age at social separation, corticotropin releasing factor, anxiety-related neuropeptides, male rhesus monkeys, meeting abstract.

Tiefenbacher, S., M.J. Jorgensen, M.A. Novak, and J.S. Meyer (1999). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal activity in rhesus monkeys with self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 108-109. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal activity, self-injurious behavior, rhesus macaques, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

Tiefenbacher, S., L.M. Marinus, M.D. Davenport, A.L. Pouliot, B.M. Kaufman, M.A. Fahey, M.A. Novak, and J.S. Meyer (2003). Evidence for endogenous opioid involvement in the expression of self-injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 60(Suppl. 1): 103. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: acupressure, behavioral expression, central opioid activity, self-injurious behavior (SIB), rhesus macaques, stereotypic behavior, self biting, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; July 29-August 2, 2003.

Tiefenbacher, S., L.M. Marinus, M.A. Novak, and J.S. Meyer (2003). Endogenous opioid activity in a nonhuman primate model of self - injurious behavior. In: Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner: 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience,November 8, 2003-November 12, 2003, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, Society for Neuroscience: Washington, DC, p. Abstract No. 960.14.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), self-directed biting, levels of plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (IR), rhesus macaques, stereotypic behavior, wounding history, plasma opioid activity, SIB effect on endogenous opioid peptide release.

Tiefenbacher, S., M. Novak, L. Marinus, A. Pouliot, M. Fahey, and J. Meyer (2001). Cortisol response to ACTH challenge in rhesus monkeys with self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 61-62. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: captive animal behavior, rhesus monkeys, self-injurious behavior (SIB), biting frequency, stress, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Tiefenbacher, S., M.A. Novak, M.J. Jorgensen, and J.S. Meyer (2000). Physiological correlates of self-injurious behavior in captive, socially-reared rhesus monkeys. Psychoneuroendocrinology 25(8): 799-817. ISSN: 0306-4530.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), rhesus macaques, monoamine metabolites, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), cortisol, testosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), individual housing, self-directed biting, stress.

Tiefenbacher, S., M.A. Novak, C.K. Lutz, and J.S. Meyer (2005). The physiology and neurochemistry of self-injurious behavior: A nonhuman primate model. Frontiers in Bioscience: A Journal and Virtual Library 10(1): 1-11. ISSN: 1093-4715.
DOI: 10.2741/1500
Abstract: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a serious behavioral condition that afflicts millions of individuals in the United States alone. The underlying factors contributing to the development of self-injury in people are poorly understood, and existing treatment strategies for this condition are limited. A low but persistent percentage of socially reared individually housed rhesus monkeys also spontaneously develop SIB. Data obtained from colony records suggest that the risk of developing SIB in socially reared rhesus monkeys is heightened by adverse early experience and subsequent stress exposure. The present review summarizes the physiological and neurochemical findings obtained in this nonhuman primate model of SIB, focusing on monoamine neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and neuroendocrine systems. The results indicate that monkeys with SIB exhibit long-lasting disturbances in central and peripheral opioid and stress response systems, which lead to increased levels of anxiety. Based on these findings, we propose an integrated developmental-neurochemical hypothesis in which SIB arises from adverse life events in a subset of vulnerable monkeys, is maintained by a persisting dysregulation of several neurochemical and physiological systems, and functions to periodically reduce anxiety when the levels of anxiety become excessive. Implications of this hypothesis for understanding self-injury in patients with borderline personality disorder and members of the general population are discussed.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), treatment strategies, rhesus macaques, early experience, stress exposure, literature review, anxiety, implications for human patients, animal models.

Tiefenbacher, S., M.A. Novak, L.M. Marinus, W.K. Chase, J.A. Miller, and J.S. Meyer (2004). Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical function in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with self-injurious behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29(4): 501-515. ISSN: 0306-4530.
Abstract: Individually housed rhesus monkeys sometimes spontaneously develop self-injurious behavior (SIB) in the form of self-directed biting that, on occasion, results in severe tissue damage and mutilation. We previously demonstrated lower levels of plasma cortisol in rhesus monkeys with a history of self-wounding (SW) when compared to non-wounders (NW). Furthermore, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with rates of self-directed biting. The present study was designed to further characterize the relationships between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity, self-wounding, and self-directed biting. Basal 24-h urinary free cortisol excretion, the urinary free cortisol response to a low dose of dexamethasone, and the plasma cortisol response to ACTH were examined in 24 individually housed rhesus monkeys, based on wounding history, i.e. the presence/absence of a veterinary record of self-wounding, and current rates of self-directed biting, i.e. the median split of self-directed biting frequency (independent of wounding status). There were no reliable group differences on any of the physiological measures when analyzed by wounding history. However, the plasma cortisol response 30 min post-ACTH stimulation was significantly correlated with wounding recency, such that lower responsivity was associated with more recent wounding episodes. When the results were analyzed on the basis of biting frequency, high frequency biters (HFB) compared to low frequency biters (LFB) showed decreased HPA negative feedback sensitivity to dexamethasone and a trend towards an attenuated plasma cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. These findings suggest that SIB in socially reared monkeys is associated with complex changes in HPA axis function that are related to the expression of the pathology, i.e. self-directed biting, and to the recency of a wounding episode. It remains to be determined whether humans who exhibit SIB show similar alterations in HPA function.
Descriptors: self-directed biting, cortisol levels, self-injurious behavior (SIB), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function, biting frequency, socially reared animals, rhesus monkeys, single housing.

Vandeleest, J.J., B. McCowan, and J.P. Capitanio (2011). Early rearing interacts with temperament and housing to influence the risk for motor stereotypy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 132: 81-89. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.02.010
Descriptors: early rearing, temperament, rhesus monkeys, abnormal behavior, motor stereotypy.

Videan, E.N., J. Ely, M. Lammey, and D. Hernandez (2008). Successful elimination of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): A case study using a combination of risperidone and environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology 70(Suppl. 1): 50. ISSN: 0275-2565.
Descriptors: self injurious behavior (SIB), chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, treatment of abnormal behavior, risperidone, environmental enrichment.
Notes: Meeting Information: 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, West Palm Beach, FL, USA; June 18 -21, 2008.

Waitt, C. and H.M. Buchanan Smith (2002). What time is feeding? How delays and anticipation of feeding schedules affect stump-tailed macaque behavior. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75(1): 75-85. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: husbandry routine, psychological well-being, Macaca arctoides, stump-tailed macaques, timing of food delivery, captive animal behavior, self-directed behavior, predictability of feeding.

Watson, S.L., J.G. McCoy, M.B. Fontenot, D.B. Hanbury, and C.P. Ward (2009). L-Tryptophan and Correlates of Self-Injurious Behavior in Small-Eared Bushbabies (Otolemur garnettii). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 48(2): 185-191.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3 .A23
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), L-tryptophan, bushbabies, prosimian primates, dietary supplement, husbandry procedures, stereotypy.

Weed, J.L., R. Byrum, S. Parrish, M. Knezevich, D.A. Powell, and P.L.O.N. Wagner (2002). Vasectomies as part of an environmental enrichment plan for primates. American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 41. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: social enrichment, clinical management tool, pair or group housing, self-injurious behavior, behavioral intervention, male nonhuman primates, vasectomy, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Weed, J.L., P.O. Wagner, R. Byrum, S. Parrish, M. Knezevich, and D.A. Powell (2003). Treatment of persistent self-injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys through socialization: A preliminary report. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(5): 21-23. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: This paper is a retrospective report describing outcomes for six male rhesus monkeys, each with a history of persistent self-injurious behavior (SIB), after their social introduction to female rhesus monkeys. Pairing procedures for five of the six male primates were implemented after surgical vasectomy. One male had previous pairing experience with a female prior to vasectomy resulting in an unplanned pregnancy. This male was re-socialized with his former female partner after surgery. The SIB-related medical histories of the males before and after the pairings are presented. One goal for promoting pair-housing of chronic SIB male monkeys with female monkeys was to determine whether this intervention would function to reduce or eliminate the expression of SIB and thus provide enhanced socialization opportunities for previously singly housed animals.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, male rhesus macaques, self-injurious behavior, socialization with females, vasectomy, pair housing conditions, retrospective studies.

Wells, D.L. and E.C. Blaney (2003). Camouflaging gorillas: A method of reducing the 'visitor effect'. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Zoo Research,July 7, 2003-July 8, 2003, Marwell Zoological Park, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland: London, UK, p. 332-333.
Descriptors: gorillas, Gorilla gorilla, zoo housing and exhibiting techniques, aggressive behavior, abnormal behavior, stereotypic behavior, camouflage net barrier, visitor effects on behavior.

West, A.M., S.P. Leland, M.A. Lorence, T.M. Welty, W.L. Wagner, and J.M. Erwin (2008). Behavioral correlates of alopecia severity in laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 70(Suppl. 1): 51. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20556
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: behavior, integumentary system disease, environmental enrichment, foraging , behavioral pattern, scratching, grooming, self grooming, cage contact, alopecia.
Notes: Meeting Information: 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, West Palm Beach, FL, USA; June 18 -21, 2008.

Yokoyama, C., H. Onoe, K. Onoe, H. Tsukada, Y. Watanabe, and K. Fukui (2003). [Non-human primate behaviors as models for development of higher cognitive functions]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 23(1): 1-9. ISSN: 1340-2544.
Abstract: Non-human primate behaviors have a special value for the neurobiological study of the development of higher cognitive functions of humans, because of the near evolutional relation between two species. We surveyed results and futures of neurobiological studies of a retrieval task, a learning-set and a self-injurious behavior expressed by non-human primates. On the retrieval task that is related to the development of inhibitory control, it was revealed a hierarchical ordering of inhibitory control processes in which the distinct neuronal circuits were involved. On the learning-set that is related to the development of abstract thinking, neural circuits for the individual learning dramatically changed from an automatic process to a cognitive process depending on the learning-set formation. The self-injurious behavior is expressed during early normal development in humans, and no other animals but non-human primates express it without administration of drugs. For that behavior, probable change in interactions of multiple monoaminergic systems was suggested as its underlying causes. Further studies on development of higher cognitive functions using non-human primates could be required for understanding the nature of human cognition.
Descriptors: neurobiological studies, retrieval task, learning set, self-injurious behavior, nonhuman primates, monoaminergic system, cognition.
Language of Text: Japanese.

 

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