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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide / Great Apes and Gibbons  Printer Friendly Page
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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide
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Great Apes and Gibbons

Abello, M., M. Velasco, and F. Esteban (1999). A training programme for a male gorilla at the Barcelona Zoo. International Zoo News 46(7): 418-420. ISSN: 0020-9155.
NAL Call Number: QL76.I58
Descriptors: semen collection, animal training program, gorillas in zoos, Gorilla gorilla, Barcelona Zoo, Spain.

Abello, M. and M. Colell (2009). Early introduction of hand-reared gorillas Gorilla gorilla to conspecifics at Barcelona Zoo: general procedures and three case studies. International Zoo Yearbook 43: 159-175. ISSN: 0074-9664.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.2008.00079.x
NAL Call Number: QL76.I5
Descriptors: social behavior, rearing environment, socialization procedures, gorillas, Barcelona Zoo.

Allard, S.M., T.S. Stoinski, M.A. Bloomsmith, and T.L. Maple (2003). The effects of enrichment structures on captive gorilla behavior. American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 95-96. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: gorillas, foraging behavior, captive animals in zoos, environmental enrichment, animal behavior, affiliative behavior, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; July 29-August 2, 2003. Guest Editor: Marilyn A. Norconk.

Baker, K., M.L. Bloomsmith, S. Ross, S. Lambeth, and P. Noble (2001). Control vs. passive exposure to joystick controlled computer tasks intended as enrichment for chimpanees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 64. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: behavioral enrichment, joystick tasks, vocalizations, animal welfare, food rewards, chimps, control of environment, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Baker, K.C. (2000). Advanced age influences chimpanzee behavior in small social groups. Zoo Biology 19(2): 111-119. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: animal behavior, social interactions, age influences on social behavior, captive management of chimpanzees, enrichment devices, social housing, aggression, object manipulation.

Baker, K.C. (2004). Benefits of positive human interaction for socially housed chimpanzees. Animal Welfare 13(2): 239-245. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: human interaction as environmental enrichment, positive interactions, social interaction, animal behavior, adult chimps, grooming, reduction in levels of abnormal behaviors.

Baker, K.C. and F. Aureli (2000). Coping with conflict during initial encounters in chimpanzees. Ethology 106(6): 527-541. ISSN: 0179-1613.
NAL Call Number: QL750.E74
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, social behavior, agonistic behavior during animal introductions, allogrooming, chimpanzees, cost and benefits of social grouping.

Baker, K.C., E. Seres, F. Aureli, and F.B. De Waal (2000). Injury risks among chimpanzees in three housing conditions. American Journal of Primatology 51(3): 161-175. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Meeting the psychological needs of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) can be a challenge given their aggressiveness on the one hand and the complexity of their social lives on the other. It is unclear how to balance the need to provide opportunities for species-appropriate behavior against potential risks of injury chimpanzees may inflict on each other. This study evaluates the suggestion that simpler social environments protect chimpanzees from wounding. Over a two-year period all visible injuries to 46 adult males, 64 adult females, and 25 immature chimpanzees were recorded at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center. Approximately half of the subjects were mother-reared, and the rest were nursery-reared. Housing included compounds containing about 20 chimpanzees, interconnected indoor-outdoor runs for groups of up to 12 individuals, and smaller indoor-outdoor runs for pairs and trios. Annual wounding rates were calculated for serious wounds (extensive injuries and all those requiring veterinary intervention) as well as for minor wounds. Compound-housed chimpanzees incurred the highest level of minor wounding, but serious wounding levels were not affected by housing condition. Even with a period of dominance instability and elevated levels of wounding in one compound, compound chimpanzees were not injured more than those in smaller social groups over the long term. Nursery-reared females in moderate-sized groups were wounded more than mother-reared females. Also, nursery-reared males and females were wounded less often when paired with mother-reared companions. Overall, this study indicates that maintaining chimpanzees in pairs and trios would not be an effective means for reducing injuries. The management of wounding in chimpanzee colonies is influenced more by the sex and rearing composition of a colony.
Descriptors: animal welfare, three housing situations, comparison study, Pan troglodytes, wounds and injuries, aggression, risk assessment, Yerkes Primate Research Center.

Bania, A.E., S. Harris, H.R. Kinsley, and S.T. Boysen (2005). Possible conspecific imitation in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): To brush or not to brush? American Journal of Primatology 66(Suppl. 1): 163-164. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: imitative behavior, environmental enrichment, chimpanzees.
Notes: Meeting Information: 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Portland, OR, USA, August 17 -20, 2005.

Behringer, V., K. Hachenburger, C. Knott, and D. Selzer (2008). What is a gorilla's most loved toy? Shape of Enrichment 17(1&2): 6-11.
NAL Call Number: HV4737.S53
Descriptors: Gorilla gorilla gorilla, animal welfare, feeding, cage design, zoos, Germany.

Bell, B. and P. Khan (2001). Training multi-task medical behaviors in the bonobo (Pan paniscus). In: The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century,May, 2000, Brookfield Zoo, Chicago Zoological Society: Brookfield, Illinois, USA, p. 128-130. ISBN: 0913934283.
Online: http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pagegen/inc/ACBell.pdf
NAL Call Number: QL737.P96 A642 2001
Descriptors: training for medical behavior, bonobos, Pan paniscus, ultrasound measurements, squeeze restraint, routine blood draws, Milwaukee County Zoo, USA.

Birke, L. (2002). Effects of browse, human visitors and noise on the behaviour of captive orangutans. Animal Welfare 11(2): 189-202 . ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: Pongo pygmaeus, herbaceous browse, zoo animal behavior, enrichment, human activity, zoo animals, visitor behavior, visitor impact, animal welfare, human-animal interaction, environmental enrichment.

Bloomsmith, M. (2007). Feeding enrichment for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Twenty years later. American Journal of Primatology 69(Suppl. 1): 124. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20448
NAL Call Number: Ql737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, animal behavior, animal welfare, feeding enrichment, psychological well-being.
Notes: Meeting Information: 30th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; June 20 -23, 2007.

Bloomsmith, M., L. Brent, and K. Baker (2001). The care and management of captive chimpanzees workshop: Managing social behavior. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 25. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training, environmental enrichment, animal husbandry, social behavior, Pan troglodytes, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Bloomsmith, M.A., K.C. Baker, S.P. Lambeth, S.K. Ross, and S.J. Shapiro (2001). Is giving chimpanzees control over environmental enrichment a good idea? In: The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century,May 10, 2000-May 13, 2000, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, IL, Chicago Zoological Society: Chicago, Illinois, USA, p. 88-89. ISBN: 0913934283.
Online: http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pagegen/inc/ACBloom2.pdf
NAL Call Number: QL737.P96 A642 2001
Descriptors: psychological well-being, providing animals control over their environment, chimps, Pan troglodytes, computer-joystick task, behavioral change.

Bloomsmith, M.A., K.C. Baker, S.K. Ross, and S.P. Lambeth (1999). Comparing animal training to non-training human interaction as environmental enrichment for chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 35-36. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, animal care, animal training, environmental enrichment, non-training human interactions, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

Bloomsmith, M.A. and J.G. Else (2005). Behavioral management of chimpanzees in biomedical research facilities: The state of the science. ILAR Journal 46(2): 192-201. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: The current status of the behavioral management of chimpanzees housed in US research facilities is examined, and recent advances are described. Behavioral management includes the application of environmental enrichment, animal training, and environmental design for improving animal welfare. Authors surveyed the six major chimpanzee holding facilities and found that the vast majority of chimpanzees are housed socially, with access to the outdoors. The institutions currently invest in behavioral scientists, enrichment specialists, and, most recently, chimpanzee trainers to implement and study chimpanzee behavioral management. This review is based on the substantial scientific literature related to managing social behavior, identifying the behavioral effects of restricted socialization, evaluating various forms of enrichment, and describing positive reinforcement animal training. Authors outline recent accomplishments in behavioral management, summarize behavioral issues that have been evaluated, and identify issues for future consideration. It is proposed that the enhanced application of behavioral management techniques, including training, could significantly reduce chimpanzee stress that is generally associated with experimental manipulations, and could improve animal welfare and the quality of biomedical research. The next challenge is to implement effectively and thoroughly the approaches that have been shown to be beneficial.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, animal training, environmental design, animal welfare, behavioral management of chimpanzees in biomedical research, United States of America, results of a survey, literature review, managing social behavior, positive reinforcement training, chimps, Pan troglodytes.

Bloomsmith, M.A. and S.P. Lambeth (2000). Videotapes as enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology 19(6): 541-551. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: male and female chimpanzees, group size, responses to video recordings, animal behavior, enrichment, effects of housing, sex differences, visual stimuli, environmental enrichment.

Bloomsmith, M.A., S.P. Lambeth, J.E. Perlman, M.A. Hook, and S.J. Schapiro (2000). Control over videotape enrichment for socially housed chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 44-45. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: videotapes as enrichment for chimps, social behavior, social housing, visual stimuli, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Bloomsmith, M.A., S.K. Ross, and K.C. Baker (2000). Control over computer-assisted enrichment for socially housed chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 45. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal care, chimps, scan sampling technique, behavioral observation, computer-assisted enrichment, social housing, meeting abstract.

Bloomsmith, M.L., S. Lambeth, and T. Stoinski (2001). The behavioral effects of meal predictability on chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 96. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimps, Pan troglodytes, feeding schedules, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, housing type, self-directed behavior, timing of animal husbandry events, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Bourgeois, S.R. and L. Brent (2005). Modifying the behaviour of singly caged baboons: Evaluating the effectiveness of four enrichment techniques. Animal Welfare 14(1): 71-81. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: adolescent male olive hybrid baboons, Papio hamadryas anubis, abnormal behavior, effectiveness of enrichment techniques to reduce abnormal behavior, positive reinforcement training, food enrichment, manipulable toys and objects, social environment, activity levels, animal welfare implications, social enrichment as a means of behavior modification for captive baboons.

Brent, L. (2004). Solutions for research chimpanzees. Lab Animal 33(1): 37-43. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: As one of humankind's closest animal relatives, the chimpanzee has proven to be a valuable but controversial research model. The author provides an overview of efforts to improve chimpanzee welfare, and describes a facility dedicated to providing lifelong care for these nonhuman primates following retirement from research.
Descriptors: ethics of animal experimentation, animal welfare, research models, Pan troglodytes, animal husbandry, legislation.

Brent, L. and A. Fultz (2007). A science-based approach to the creation and operation of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) sanctuary. American Journal of Primatology 69(Suppl. 1): 118. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20448
NAL Call Number: Ql737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal sanctuaries, animal care and management, environmental enrichment, meeting abstract, chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.
Notes: Meeting Information: 30th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; June 20 -23, 2007.

Brent, L. (2001). Behavior and environmental enrichment of individually housed chimpanzees. In: Special Topics in Primatology, Vol. 2, American Society of Primatologists: Chicago, Illinois, USA, p. 146-171. ISBN: 096583011X.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P96 C355 2001
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, chimps, enrichment, individually housed animals, impacts of enrichment on behavior, review article.

Bryer, M. and S. Schwartz (2010). The National Zoo's O line: The enrichment value of an orangutan transit system. Animal Keepers' Forum 37(2): 73-76. ISSN: 0164-9531.
Descriptors: National Zoological park, orangutan transit system (O Line), orangutan, environmental enrichment, locomotor behavior, behavioral data.

Buckley, C. (2003). Captive orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) and environmental enrichment. Ratel 30(1): 11-22. ISSN: 0305-1218.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.R37
Descriptors: Pongo pygmaeus, zoos, enriched environment, care in captivity, Dublin Zoo, Ireland.

Bucken, S.M. and W.D. Galrtler (2013). Mixed-species exhibit: An environmental enrichment for zoo animals-social interaction and spatial use of orangutans, northern plains grey langurs and asian small-clawed otters in the Zoological Garden of Gelsenkirchen [Vergesellschaftung als Verhaltensbereicherung im Zoo - Soziale Interaktion und Raumnutzung bei Orang-Utans, Hulmans und Kurzkrallenottern in der Zoom Erlebniswelt Gelsenkirchen]. Zoologische Garten 82(1-2): 40-59. ISSN: 0044-5169 .
DOI: 10.1016/j.zoolgart.2013.04.004
Descriptors: mixed species exhibit, apes, langurs, otters, behavioral observations, enriched environments.

Burks, K. (2001). Bachelor gorilla introductions: using empirical data in decision-making. In: The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century,May 10, 2000-May 13, 2000, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, IL, Chicago Zoological Society: Chicago, Illinois, USA, p. 67-70. ISBN: 0913934283.
Online: http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pagegen/inc/ACBurks.pdf
NAL Call Number: QL737.P96 A642 2001
Descriptors: social groups, Western lowland gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, animal introductions, formation of bachelor groups, decision making, animal behavior, empirical data, Disney's Animal Kingdom, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Burks, K.D., M.A. Bloomsmith, D.L. Forthman, and T.L. Maple (2001). Managing the socialization of an adult male gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with a history of social deprivation. Zoo Biology 20(5): 347-358. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: adult male gorilla, zoo animals, socially deprived individual, aggressive behavior, behavior change, group size, attachment behavior, agonistic behavior, social behavior, animal welfare.

Carder, G. and S. Semple (2008). Visitor effects on anxiety in two captive groups of western lowland gorillas. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 115(3/4): 211-220. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2008.06.001
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: gorilla, animal behavior, fear in animals, anxiety, zoo animals, animal welfare, environmental enrichment.

Carrasco, L., M. Colell, M. Calvo, M.T. Abello, M. Velasco, and S. Posada (2009). Benefits of training/playing therapy in a group of captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Animal Welfare 18(1): 9-19. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: Gorilla gorilla, captive animals, play, animal well-being, environmental enrichment, females.

Casanova, C., R. Mondragon Ceballos, and P.C. Lee (2008). Innovative social behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 70(1): 54-61. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20456
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: We present evidence of agonistic buffering in captive chimpanzees, recorded from 1993 until 2005, mainly from ad libitum sampling in over 2000 hr of observation. A total of 33 agonistic buffering episodes were analyzed for context and effects of this complex social behavior. Agonistic buffering was directed at the whole chimpanzee colony as they supported an individual who initially received aggression from the alpha male, independently of the victim's age, sex or social rank. Chimpanzee agonistic buffering behavior is compared with that in other nonhuman primate species, and we describe some particularities of chimpanzee agonistic buffering: the status of the buffers used-socially important offspring such as those from the alpha female-and the social rank of the adult male responsible for the buffering episode-alpha male. Possible functions for this behavior in chimpanzees are suggested as appeasement of group members in a particularly crowded captive setting, and/or as a "forced reconciliation" mechanism. Chimpanzees exhibit behavioral flexibility by adapting themselves to new social and physical situations and use novel behavior to achieve social benefits.
Descriptors: animal behavior, Pan troglodytes, social behavior, agonistic behavior, chimpanzees.

Casler, L.E. and L.T. Nash (1999). Day nest building and nest use by captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 41-42. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimps, behavioral enrichment, nest building and usage, substrate used to build nests, rearing differences, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

Caws, C.E., S. Wehnelt, and F. Aureli (2008). The effect of a new vertical structure in mitigating aggressive behaviour in a large group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Animal Welfare 17(2): 149-154. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: escape routes, aggressive behavior in groups, chimpanzees, vertical space, Chester Zoological Gardens, UK, ropes, nets, wooden poles.

Celli, M.L., M. Tomonaga, T. Udono, M. Teramoto, and K. Nagano (2003). Tool use task as environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81(2): 171-182 . ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, environmental enrichment, animal welfare, foraging, using tools to access honey, animal behavior, physical activity, learning, animal well-being.

Chamove, A.S. (2002). Fire as chimpanzee enrichment. Australasian Primatology 16(1): 2-4.
Online: http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/news/journals/AustPrim/AustPrim.16.1.pdf
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, chimpanzees, fire, environmental enrichment.

Clark, F.E. and L.J. Smith (2013). Effect of a cognitive challenge device containing food and non-food rewards on chimpanzee well-being. American Journal of Primatology 75(8): 807-816. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22141
Descriptors: chimpanzees, cognitive challenge device, food rewards, zoo housed animals.

Coe, J., D. Scott, and K. Lukas (2009). Facility design for bachelor gorilla groups. Zoo Biology 28(2): 144-162. ISSN: 1098-2361.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20233
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: gorillas, male animals, zoo animals, exhibits, facility design.

Condon, E. and S. Wehnelt (2003). The effect of an enriched environment on behavioural and hormonal indicators of welfare in orang-utans at Chester Zoo. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Zoo Research,July 7, 2003-July 8, 2003, July 7-8, 2003, Marwell Zoological Park, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland: London, England, p. 53-58.
Descriptors: Pongo pygmaeus, stress hormones, cortisol levels, animal behavior, impacts of environmental enrichment, animal welfare, Chester Zoo, UK.

Cordoni, G. and E. Palagi (2007). Response of captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to different housing conditions: Testing the aggression-density and coping models. Journal of Comparative Psychology 121(2): 171-180. ISSN: 0735-7036.
Descriptors: Gorilla gorilla gorilla, lowland gorillas, social behavior, cage sizing, responses to spatial reduction in housing conditions, coping responses, housing densities.

Cox, C.R., T.T. Dubois, and V.I. Renzetti (2002). Effects of supplemental feeding enrichment on gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) activity at the Los Angeles Zoo. American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 83. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: gorillas, animal behavior, food seeking opportunities, foraging behavior, leafy browse, regurgitation and reingestion, safflower seeds, Los Angeles Zoo, California, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Craig, J. (2004). Training an older orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) for voluntary injection. In: Animal Behavior Management Alliance (ABMA) Conference Proceedings 2004,April 4, 2004-April 9, 2004, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, Animal Behavior Managment Alliance: Baltimore, Maryland, p. 68. [CD-Rom]
Descriptors: chemical immobilization, shaping behavior, presentation of body parts, zoos.

Cranfield, M. (2004). Risk/benefit of behavior modification of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei): A conservation tool or detriment? In: Animal Behavior Management Alliance (ABMA) Conference Proceedings 2004,April 4, 2004-April 9, 2004, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, Animal Behavior Management Alliance: p. 85. [CD-Rom]
Descriptors: habituation to humans, behavioral data collection, stress, compromising animal health, enabling veterinary care, meeting abstract.

Csatadi, K., K. Leus, and J.J.M. Pereboom (2008). A brief note on the effects of novel enrichment on an unwanted behaviour of captive bonobos. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 112(1-2): 201-204. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2007.09.001
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Abstract: Animals in captivity may show undesirable behaviour when they are not sufficiently challenged, making it essential for their well-being to provide daily enrichment to zoo animals. Primates need a regular replacement with novel enrichment objects to prevent them from getting bored and look for challenging situations which might be even more undesirable. A socially housed group of bonobos showed behavioural problems such as stealing and rough handling and playing with a newborn infant in the group. To study whether providing novel environmental enrichment has an effect on this phenomenon we performed an experiment where we observed the change in behaviour in the presence of familiar and novel enrichment devices. When provided with novel enrichments, the general activity of the group increased. Simultaneously, these novel behavioural challenges significantly decreased the frequency of taking the newborn infant from its mother. Our results confirm previous findings that continuous application of new enrichments is necessary for providing sensory stimulation to primates as it promotes their well-being and indirectly might influence breeding success as well.
Descriptors: activity level, bonobo, novel enrichment, Pan paniscus, activity patterns, behavior, captivity.

Enciso, A.E., J.M. Calcagno, and K.C. Gold (1999). Social interactions between captive adult male and infant lowland gorillas: Implications regarding kin selection and zoo management. Zoo Biology 18(1): 53-62. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: male gorilla, captive animals, parental behavior, male animals, aggressive behavior, kin selection, young animals, adult male-infant interactions.

Fay E., C. (2011). Great ape cognition and captive care: Can cognitive challenges enhance well-being? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 135(1-2): 1-12. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.10.010
Descriptors: captive great apes, cognitive enrichment, problem-solving tasks.

Fernie, A.C., A. Tribe, P.J. Murray, A. Lisle, and C.J.C. Phillips (2012). A survey of the attitudes of stakeholders in the zoo industry towards the husbandry requirements of captive Great Apes. Animal Welfare 21(2): 233-245. ISSN: 0962-7286.
DOI: 10.7120/09627286.21.2.233
Descriptors: captive Great Apes, captive environments, husbandry attributes, social environment, environmental enrichment, psychological wll-being, animal welfare.

Fouts, R.S. (1998). On the psychological well being of chimpanzees. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1(1): 65-73 . ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: chimpanzees, laboratory animals, cage size and design, space requirements, housing costs, social behavior, animal experiments, pain, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, social enrichment.

Franklin, J.A. and S.R. Taylor (2000). The health management of orangutans through training. In: American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings,American Zoo and Aquarium Association: Wheeling, West Virginia, USA, Vol. 2000, p. 1-2.
NAL Call Number: QL76.5.U6A47
Descriptors: Pongo pygmaeus, orangutans, care in captivity, health management through training.

Franz, C., S. Macherhammer, E. Kalcher, K. Crailsheim, and S. Preuschoft (2003). The influence of housing conditions on the performance of aberrant behaviours in former laboratory chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Association with social interactions. Folia Primatologica 74(4): 194. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: captive primates, abnormal behavior, chimpanzees, Safaripark Ganserndorf, Austria, group housing effects, social behavior.
Notes: In the Special Issue: Abstracts from the 8th Congress of the German Primate Society, October 1-4, 2003, Leipzig, Germany.

Fritz, J. (2004). Do chimpanzees like music? Will they choose their own? Laboratory Primate Newsletter 43(4): 6. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn43-4.html#music
Descriptors: environmental choice, Primate Foundation of Arizona, choice of music, brief introduction to a chimp study.

Grisham, J., F. Lyon, P. Pearson, and C. MacFarlane (2000). Great EscApe: The great ape facility at Oklahoma City Zoological Park. International Zoo Yearbook 37: 366-374. ISSN: 0074-9664.
NAL Call Number: QL76.I5
Descriptors: exhibit design and construction, great apes, biology and conservation, educational experience, landscaping, natural surroundings, Oklahoma City Zoo, Oklahoma, USA.

Gronqvist, G., M. Kingston-Jones, A. May, and J. Lehmann (2013). The effects of three types of environmental enrichment on the behaviour of captive Javan gibbons (Hylobates moloch). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 147(1-2): 214-223. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2013.04.021
Descriptors: zoo housed animals, gibbons, Javan gibbons, comparison of enrichment devices, foraging enrichment.

Grundmann, E. and M.C. Bomsel (2000). Nests and nest building behaviour in rehabilitant orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Folia Primatologica 71(4): 227. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: behavior, focal sampling, videotaping, nest architecture, nesting behavior, reintroduction programs, social learning, socialization cages, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 6th Congress of the German Primate Society, Utrecht, Germany; August 18-21, 1999.

Guillen-Salazar, F., E. Font, and A. Sendra (2001). The presence of visitors does not affect the results of an instrumental enrichment programme for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Folia Primatologica 72(6): 357. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: chimps, Pan troglodytes, visitor effects on chimp behavior, environmental enrichment program, animal welfare, primates in captivity, housing, pipe feeder, Valencia Zoo, Spain, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 1st Meeting of the Asociacion Primatologica Espanola (APE) and the First European Workshop on Primate Research, Madrid, Spain; October 16-19, 1996.

Guillen-Salazar, F., C. Perez-Selles, and S. Navarro-Serra (2005). Evaluation of an environmental enrichment technique for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by means of a single case experimental design. Folia Primatologica 76(1): 54. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: animal welfare, environmental enrichment techniques, relatively small sample size of zoo animal populations, new experimental design, adult male chimpanzee, Valencia Zoo, Spain, effect of enrichment on animal's activity budget, meeting abstract .
Notes: Meeting Information: 5th Meeting of the Spanish Primatological Society, Valencia, Spain; September 16 -20, 2003.

Guillen-Salazar, F., E. Font, A. Sendra, and I. Docavo (2001). Evaluacion de dos procedimientos de enriquecimiento ambiental para chimpances (Pan troglodytes Blumenbach, 1799) en el Zoologico de Valencia (Espana). [Evaluation of two environmental enrichment devices for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes Blumenbach, 1799) at the Valencia Zoo (Spain)]
. Boletin De La Real Sociedad Espanola De Historia Natural Seccion Biologica 96(3-4): 263-271. ISSN: 0366-3272.
NAL Call Number: 442.9 SO18
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, chimps, Valencia Zoo, Spain, environmental enrichment devices, primates in captivity, pipe feeder, enrichment evaluation, activity patterns of captive animals, animal behavior.
Language of Text: Spanish; Summary in English and Spanish.

Harper, P. (2001). Eight years of environmental enrichment for Adelaide Zoo's adult male orangutan. Australasian Primatology 15(1): 15-23.
Descriptors: Pongo pygmaeus, adult male orangutan, environmental enrichment, zoo enclosures, animal welfare, Adelaide Zoo, Australia.

Harvey, H., T. Rice, R. Kayhart, and C. Torres (2000). The effects of specific types of music on the activity levels of singly housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 60. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimp behavior, Pan troglodytes, chimpanzees, individual housing, musical and auditory enrichment, type of music, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Hebert, P.L. and K. Bard (2000). Orangutan use of vertical space in an innovative habitat. Zoo Biology 19(4): 239-251. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: importance of vertical space, exhibit design, instantaneous scan sampling, activity levels, species-typical behavior, Pongo pygmaeus, orangutans, use of space, stereotypical behavior, use of lower canopy and skylights.

Hemphill, J. and W.C. Mcgrew (1998). Environmental enrichment thwarted: food accessibility and activity levels in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Zoologische Garten 68(6): 381-394. ISSN: 0044-5169.
NAL Call Number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: activity levels, captive conditions versus natural environment, environmental enrichment, foraging behavior, zoos, locomotions, species-typical behavior, Columbus Zoo, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
Language of Text: Summary in English and German.

Herrelko, E.S., S.-J. Vick, and H.M. Buchanan-Smith (2012). Cognitive research in zoo-housed chimpanzees: Influence of personality and impact on welfare. American Journal of Primatology 74(9): 828-840. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22036
Descriptors: cognitive research as enrichment, chimpanzees, temperament, personality, animal welfare, self-directed behavior, vigilancen.

Hill, S.P. and D.M. Broom (2003). Home improvements: behavioural responses of captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to enrichment efforts. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Zoo Research,July 7, 2003-July 8, 2003, Marwell Zoological Park, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland: London, England, p. 1-3.
Descriptors: adult gorillas, environmental manipulation, encouraging normal behavior, food presentation, husbandry routines, coping responses, zoos in Europe.

Hirata, S. and N. Morimura (2000). Naive chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) observation of experienced conspecifics in a tool-using task. Journal of Comparative Psychology 114(3): 291-296. ISSN: 0735-7036.
Abstract: The authors investigated the occurrence of naive chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) spontaneous observation of experienced conspecifics during a tool-use task entailing honey fishing. The chimpanzees were presented with 20 kinds of "tools" of which 12 kinds were usable. Six pairs of naive and experienced chimpanzees were brought to this honey-fishing situation. A total of 40 observation episodes occurred between the naive and experienced groups, 34 of which were from naive toward experienced individuals. Naive chimpanzees never observed their partners after their own success but did so after their own failure or before their first attempts. In addition, there were 10 cases in which naive individuals used the left-over tools of the experienced ones. Two factors for the transmission of tool use were clearly evident in this study: (a) spontaneous observation of an appropriate behavioral sequence and (b) enhanced environmental cues made by skilled individuals.
Descriptors: imitative behavior, Pan troglodytes, chimpanzee use of tools, problem solving, cognition and learning, social behavior, honey fishing.

Hoffman, K., S. Howell, M. Schwandt, and J. Fritz (2002). Vasectomy as a birth control modality for captive chimpanzees. Lab Animal 31(8): 45-48. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal welfare, contraception veterinary, Pan troglodytes, male chimpanzees, vasectomy, animal behavior, contraception methods, guidelines.

Howell, S. and J. Fritz (1999). The nuts and bolts of captive chimpanzee diets and food as enrichment: a survey. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2(3): 205-215. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, animal feeding, foods for enrichment, animal welfare, diets, leafy browse, breakfast cereals, surveys.

Howell, S., J. Fritz, M. Schwandt, B. Malling, and K. Miles (2001). A community based occupational enrichment program for captive chimpanzees. Lab Animal 30(8): 30-33. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: The authors describe a cost-effective program for providing chimpanzee enrichment that at the same time educates the local community about the care of these animals in research.
Descriptors: animal welfare, laboratory animals, cost-benefit analysis, diet, education, housing, chimps, Pan troglodytes, social behavior, toys.

Howell, S., E. Roeder, C. Nelson, J. Fritz, and M. Schwandt (2002). The effect of music on the behavior of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 83-84. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: scan sampling, focal behavior, aggression, exploration, calming effect of soft vocal music, social behavior, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1 June to 4 June 2002.

Howell, S., M. Schwandt, J. Fritz, K. Ossi, and E. Cobb (2003). Customizing an environmental enrichment program for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 96. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, animal care, environmental enrichment program, feeding enrichment, rearing effects, sex effects, socially housed population, stationary furnishing, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; July 29-August 2, 2003.

Howell, S., M. Schwandt, J. Fritz, E. Roeder, and C. Nelson (2003). A stereo music system as environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Lab Animal 32(10): 31-36. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: Music has been shown to have beneficial effects on humans but little is known about the effects of music on nonhuman primates in biomedical research settings. The authors monitored the effects of music on the behavior of captive chimpanzees and found that music had significant positive effects, including a reduction in agitated and aggressive behaviors.
Descriptors: reduction in aggression, agitation, and anxiety, effects of music on behavior, chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, controlled study, environmental enrichment.

Howell, S., M. Schwandt, J. Fritz, and S. Walker (2002). From laboratory to more natural enclosures: Maintaining the well-being of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 41(4): 5-9. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn41-4.html#howell
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: Chimpanzee Health Improvement, Maintenance and Protection (CHIMP) Act, effect of environment on behavior, well-being, enriched environment, complexity, USA.

Jensvold, M.L.A., C.M. Sanz, R.S. Fouts, and D.H. Fouts (2001). Effect of enclosure size and complexity on the behaviors of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 4(1): 53-69 . ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, floor space, physical activity, locomotion, posture, animal welfare, cages, design, environmental enrichment.

Jones, P., R. Cantrell, and M. Chaplin (2004). Enriching your enrichment program. Animal Keepers' Forum 31(10): 430-436. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: gorillas, enrichment framework, naturalistic exhibits, puzzle feeders, mesh boxes, bungees, rope braiding, Disney's Animal Kingdom, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Kinder, T. (2003). Demographic differences in the use of an enrichment device among zoo living western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 128. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, PVC puzzle feeders, novelty, social behavior, object manipulation, age effects, gender effects, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Alberta, Canada; 30 July to 2 August 2003.

Kissinger, J. and N. Bouwens (2005). Enrichment using projected lights and images. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,July 31, 2005-August 5, 2005, New York, NY, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx: New York, NY, p. 186-190.
Descriptors: Gorilla gorilla gorilla, animal behavior, environmental enrichment, use of projected lights and images, zoo animals.

Lambeth, S., M. Bloomsmith, K. Baker, J. Perlman, M. Hook, and S. Schapiro (2001). Control over videotape enrichment for socially housed chimpanzees: subsequent challenge tests. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 62-63. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, animal care, social behavior, solitary play, stress, videotape enrichment use by chimps, psychological well-being, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Lambeth, S.P., J.E. Perlman, and S.J. Schapiro (2000). Positive reinforcement training paired with videotape exposure decreases training time investment for a complicated task in female chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 79-80. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, training complicated tasks, time investment, videotape use, animal behavior, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Twenty-third Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Leyendecker, M. and U. Magiera (2001). Lebensraumbereicherung bel adulten orang-utans, Pongo pygmaeus, im zoo. [Living space enrichment for adult orangutans, Pongo pygmaeus, in the zoo]. Zoologische Garten 71(3): 173-193. ISSN: 0044-5169.
NAL Call Number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, adult orangutans, Pongo pygmaeus, feeding enrichment, object manipulation, food boxes, juice feeders, roof-feeding, seeds, decrease in antagonistic and abnormal behaviors.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Lock, L., J. Hooley, and C. Moinard (2009). Comparison of use of two foraging devices by captive woolly monkeys and chimpanzees. Ratel 36(1): 11-15. ISSN: 0305-1218.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.R37
Descriptors: feeding behavior, foraging devices, environmental enrichment, woolly monkeys, L. lagotricha, chimps, Pan troglodytes.

Lukas, K.E., M.P. Hoff, and T.L. Maple (2003). Gorilla behavior in response to systematic alternation between zoo enclosures. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81(4): 367-386. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: complex naturalistic enclosures, behavioral data collection, animal behavior, use of exhibit space, novelty, environmental enrichment, Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Mallavarapu, S., M.A. Bloomsmith, C.S. Kuhar, and T.L. Maple (2013). Using multiple joystick systems in computerised enrichment for captive orangutans. Animal Welfare 22(3): 401-409. ISSN: 0962-7286.
DOI: 10.7120/09627286.22.3.401
Descriptors: orangutans, zoo animals, computer tasks, food rewards, behavioral observations, environmental enrichment.

Martin, J.E. (2005). The effects of rearing conditions on grooming and play behaviour in captive chimpanzees. Animal Welfare 14(2): 125-133.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: rearing background, psychological well-being, chimps, zoos, social behavior.

Marvan, R., T. Polak, H. Marsault, J. Kantorova, and V. Vancata (2008). A comparative analysis of positional behaviour of captive common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Effect of structural change in the enclosure. Folia Primatologica 79(5): 360. ISSN: 0015-5713.
Descriptors: behavior, environmental analysis, arboreal substrates, positional behavior, primate enclosures, effects of structural changes in exhibit.
Notes: Meeting Information: 2nd Congress of the European Federation for Primatology, Prague, Czech Republic; September 3 -7, 2007.

Mentz, I. and K. Perret (1999). Environmental enrichment bei Flachlandgorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) - Beobachtungen zur Nahrungsaufnahme und zum Manipulationsverhalten. [Environmental enrichment in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla): observations on feeding behavior and manipulation of food]. Zoologische Garten 69(1): 49-63. ISSN: 0044-5169.
NAL Call Number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: Gorilla gorilla gorilla, gorillas, behavioral enrichment, tool use in connection with feeding, feeding enrichment, food boxes, raisin sticks, psychological well-being, Muenster Zoo, Germany.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English and German.

Morimura, N. (2003). A note on enrichment for spontaneous tool use by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 82(3): 241-247. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, provision of choice to captive animals, well-being, feeding enrichments, voluntary tool-use, tube feeders, juice, behavioral freedom.

Morimura, N. (2006). Cognitive enrichment in chimpanzees: An approach of welfare entailing an animal's entire resources. In: T. Matsuzawa, M. Tomonaga and M. Tanaka (Editors), Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees, Springer-Verlag: Tokyo, Japan, p. 368-391. ISBN: 4431302468.
Descriptors: cognition, tool identitfication, animal behavior, nonhuman primates, chimpanzees, social behavior, culture, animal welfare.

Morimura, N. (2007). Note on effects of a daylong feeding enrichment program for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 106(1/3): 178-183. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.06.015
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: animal behavior, feeding enrichment, feeding behavior, preferences, laboratory animals, chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

Morimura, N. (2009). Effect of a continuous drip feeder on feeding time of chimpanzees. Shape of Enrichment 18(1&2): 12-13. ISSN: 1088-8152.
NAL Call Number: HV4737.S53
Descriptors: foraging devices, feeding behavior, chimpanzees.

Nakamichi, M. and E. Kato (2001). Long-term proximity relationships in a captive social group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Zoo Biology 20(3): 197-209. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, endangered species, zoo animals, animal behavior, gender and age effects, group interaction, aggressive behavior.

Neu, K., S. Lambeth, E. Toback, and S. Schapiro (2001). Hay can be used to decrease feces smearing in groups of captive chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 78. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: chimps, Pan troglodytes, abnormal behavior, animal housing, behavioral enrichment, reduction in feces smearing, hay, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Neuwald, A. and B.U. Heckner (2000). Neue wege in der haltung von flachlandgorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Savage and Wyman, 1847) im loro parque teneriffa. [A new way of keeping lowland gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Savage and Wyman, 1847) in Loro Park, Tenerife]. Zoologische Garten 70(6): 376-402. ISSN: 0044-5169.
NAL Call Number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: Gorilla gorilla gorilla, male gorillas, dominance hierarchies, enclosure design and size, bachelor group dynamics, play behavior, social interactions, social structure, Loro Parque, Tenerife.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English and German.

Ochiai, O.T. and T. Matsuzawa (2001). Introduction of two wooden climbing frames as environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and its assessment. Japanese Journal of Animal Psychology 51(1): 1-9. ISSN: 0916-8419.
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, well-being, three-dimensional space, provision of wooden climbing frames, activity budgets, spacing patterns.

Panu, L.D. (2006). Chimp Haven's integrated enrichment program. Animal Keepers' Forum 33(6): 251-253. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, Chimp Haven, environmental enrichment program, captive animals, animal sanctuaries.

Pizzutto, C.S., M.G.E.G. Sgai, S.H.R. Correa, A.M. Beresca, P.V. Furtado, C.A. de Oliveira, M. Nichi, and M.A.B.V. Guimaraes (2010). [Enriquecimento ambiental e condicionamento operante com reforco positivo no retorno da ciclicidade ovariana de uma femea de chimpanze (Pan troglodytes) - relato de caso]. The influence of environmental enrichment and operant conditioning with positive reinforcement on the return of ovarian cyclicity of a female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) - case report . Clinica Veterinaria 15(85): 66...70. ISSN: 1413-571X.
Descriptors: social enrichment techniques, adult female chimpanzee, ovarian cycle, positive reinforcement training, stress levels.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summaries in English and Spanish.

Pomerantz, O. and J. Terkel (2009). Effects of positive reinforcement training techniques on the psychological welfare of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 71(8): 687-695. ISSN: 1098-2345.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20703
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: positive reinforcement training (PRT), captive wild animals, chimpanzees, zoos, animal behavior, social rank.

Rosati, A.G., E. Herrmann, J. Kaminski, C. Krupenye, A.P. Melis, K. Schroepfer, J. Tan, F. Warneken, and V. Wobber (2013). Assessing the psychological health of captive and wild apes: A response to Ferdowsian et al. (2011). Journal of Comparative Psychology 127(3): 329-336. ISSN: 0735-7036.
DOI: 10.1037/a0029144
Descriptors: effects of captivity, captive chimpanzees, pyschopathology.

Ross, S.K., M.A. Bloomsmith, K.C. Baker, and W.D. Hopkins (2000). Initiating a computer-assisted enrichment system for captive chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 86-87. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, chimpanzees, modified computer-joystick system, patterns of use, task learning in captive chimps, activity budgets, food rewards, age effects, lack of habituation, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 23rd Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Ross, S.R. and K.E. Lukas (2001). The care and management of captive chimpanzees workshop: Managing social behavior. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 4(4): 299-301. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: chimpanzees as laboratory and zoo animals, Pan troglodytes, group size, artificial rearing, social behavior, aggressive behavior, training of animals, conference report.

Ross, S.R., K.E. Wagner, S.J. Schapiro, and J. Hau (2010). Ape behavior in two alternating environments: Comparing exhibit and short-term holding areas. American Journal of Primatology 72(11): 951-959.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20857
Descriptors: captive apes, chimpanzees, gorillas, captive management, husbandry, exhibit areas, holding areas, animal behavior, zoos.

Ryan, E.B., K.L. Proudfoot, and D. Fraser (2011). The effect of feeding enrichment methods on the behavior of captive Western lowland gorillas. Zoo Biology 30: 1-7. ISSN: 1098-2361.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20403
Descriptors: feeding enrichment techniques, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, forage, hay, boomer balls, social hierarchy, social structure effects on enrichment strategies.

Sanz, C., A. Blicher, K. Dalke, L. Gratton Fabbri, T. McClure Richards, and R.S. Fouts (1999). Use of temporary and semipermanent enrichment objects by five chimpanzees. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2(1): 1-11. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, manipulanda, cargo nets, climbing structures, treat mounds, physical activity, social behavior, animal husbandry, animal welfare, social dominance.

Savage Rumbaugh, S., K. Wamba, P. Wamba, and N. Wamba (2007). Welfare of apes in captive environments: Comments on, and by, a specific group of apes. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1): 7-19. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: Pongidae, Pan paniscus, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, cognition, cognitive development, language development, attitudes and opinions, captive apes.
Notes: In the special issue: Primate behavior studies: Essential to primate welfare / edited by V. W. Koch. Proceedings of a special session of the 2006 Animal Behavior Society annual meeting.

Schnapp, N. (2001). Primate centre promises insight into ape research. Nature 410(6829): 618. ISSN: 0028-0836.
Descriptors: apes, animal welfare, zoo exhibits, public opinion, research on intelligence, cognitive abilities, tool-using, numerical skills and social behavior, Wolfgang Köhler Primate Research Centre, Zoo Leipzig, Germany.

Seiver, D., P. Walsh, B. Weber, and M. MacPhee (2001). Operant conditioning of apes to facilitate medical procedures and immobilizations. In: The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century,May 10, 2000-May 13, 2000, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, IL, Chicago Zoological Society: Chicago, Illinois, USA, p. 137-139. ISBN: 0913934283.
Online: http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pagegen/inc/ACSeiver.pdf
NAL Call Number: QL737.P96 A642 2001
Descriptors: apes, positive reinforment training, animal behaivor, husbandry training, immobilizations, administration of medication, Disney's Animal Kindgom, Florida, USA.

Sendall, C., A. Melin, and J. Paterson (2003). Social and environmental enrichment in a captive troop of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 54. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Gorilla gorilla gorilla, gorilla social relationships, focal animal sampling, socialization, effects of introduction on behavior, Calgary Zoo, Canada, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; July 29-August 2, 2003.

Smith, K., C. Shaver, P. Olexa, and M. St. Claire (2004). Use of a shredded paper substrate to ameliorate abnormal self-directed behavior of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 62(Suppl. 1): 94-95. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior, over-grooming, captivity, shredded paper, chimpanzees.
Notes: In the Special Issue: Special Issue: Abstracts of Presentations Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting The American Society of Primatologists Hosted by The National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA, June 8th to 11th 2004.

Smith, K., T. Tobery, and J. Erwin (2003). Use of space and manipulable objects in chimpanzees: Individual differences in response to environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 80. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, blanket use by chimpanzees, conspecific contact, environmental enrichment response, manipulable objects, sleeping sites, social contact, space use, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; July 29-August 2, 2003.

Stoinski, T.S., N. Czekala, K.E. Lukas, and T.L. Maple (2002). Urinary androgen and corticoid levels in captive, male Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla): Age and social group related differences. American Journal of Primatology 56(2): 73-87. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Urinary androgen and corticoid levels were measured for 52 captive male Western lowland gorillas to examine age-related variance and potential differences resulting from various social situations. Significant diurnal variation was present in both hormones. Age-related differences in androgens revealed that males experienced two stages of androgen increase and one stage of decrease: increases occurred from juvenile (less than 10 yr of age) to subadult (between 10-13 yr) and subadult to young adult (14-20 yr), whereas decreases occurred from young adult to adult (> 20 yr). Age-related differences in corticoid levels varied depending on the time of day, but morning corticoids were greatest in juvenile males, followed by young adult males. The type of social grouping was associated with differences in corticoid levels, as animals housed socially (in either a heterosexual or all-male group) had similar corticoid levels, whereas solitary males showed greater corticoid levels than their socially-housed counterparts. The increased levels of corticoids in solitary-housed males suggest this management strategy might not be optimal, although more data are needed. Additionally, the significantly greater levels of androgens and corticoids in young adult male gorillas may present management challenges, and thus zoos may need to consider increasing the flexibility of their current management practices with respect to males.
Descriptors: captive male gorillas in zoos, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, social housing, circadian rhythm, stress, age differences, effects of social situation on androgen and corticoid levels, single housing, mangement strategies.

Takacs, R. (2009). Design ideas for an orangutan enclosure. The Shape of Enrichment 18(3): 4-9. ISSN: 1088-8152.
NAL Call Number: HV4737.S53
Descriptors: orangutan, species-typical behavior, group housing, enrichment devices, climbing structure, keeper access, hay cube, automated devices, termite mounds, puzzle feeders.

Tarou, L., M.P. Hoff, M.A. Bloomsmith, and T.L. Maple (2001). A longitudinal examination of aging in Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 93-94. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Gorilla gorilla gorilla, aging in gorillas, environmental enrichment, locomotion, object manipulation, social contact, meeting abstract.

Tarou, L.R., L. Mayo, a.M. Stone, D. Adcock, C.W. Kuhar, M.a. Bloomsmith, and T.L. Maple (2002). Computer-assisted enrichment for zoo-housed orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 84. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: computer-joystick system, animal behavior, lack of habituation, increases in stress-related behaviors, aggression, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; June 1-4,2002.

Tecot, S., M.L. Jensvold, and R. Fouts (1999). Evaluation of an enriched physical environment: Space and structure utilization in Pan troglodytes. American Journal of Physical Anthropology(Suppl. 28): 264. ISSN: 0002-9483.
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, chimp behavior, environmental enrichment, social housing, spatial complexity, structure utilization, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 68th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Columbus, Ohio, USA; April 26-May 1, 1999.

Tresz, H. (2011). Rita the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti): The start of an enrichment program at the Doha Zoo, Qatar. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 50(1): 6-9.
Descriptors: chimpanzees, care in captivity, environmental enrichment, Doha Zoo.

Ujhelyi, M., B. Merker, P. Buk, and T. Geissmann (2000). Observations on the behavior of gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys, H. gabriellae, and H. lar) in the presence of mirrors. Journal of Comparative Psychology 114(3): 253-262. ISSN: 0735-7036.
Abstract: Three captive gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys, H. gabriellae, and H. lar) were videotaped in the course of longitudinal exposure to mirrors introduced into their familiar cage or island housing situation. The gibbons, which differed in age, sex, species, and rearing condition, exhibited great individual differences in their behavioral reactions to mirrors, spanning from a minimal reaction dominated by social responses to a dramatic sequence of progressive behavioral change that featured a variety of contingency testing behaviors and included mirror-mediated, self-directed behavior. Additional information on the mirror competence of gibbons was provided by modified mark tests and a hidden object task. The results are discussed in relation to current criteria for self-recognition in primates and factors involved in individual and species differences in reactions to mirror exposure.
Descriptors: gibbons, Hylobates sp., exploratory behavior, reaction to mirrors based on age, sex, species and rearing background, hidden object task, modified mark task, videotaped behavior, social behavior, concept of self, species specificity.

Valdovinos, E. (2001). Effects of enrichment items on the Sacramento Zoo orangutans. Animal Keepers' Forum 28(9): 354-364. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: Pongo pygmaeus, orangutans, environmental enrichment in zoos, interspecific competition, Sacramento Zoo, California, USA.

Videan, E.N., J. Ely, M. Lammey, and D. Hernandez (2008). Successful elimination of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): A case study using a combination of risperidone and environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology 70(Suppl. 1): 50. ISSN: 0275-2565.
Descriptors: self injurious behavior (SIB), chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, treatment of abnormal behavior, risperidone, environmental enrichment.
Notes: Meeting Information: 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, West Palm Beach, FL, USA; June 18 -21, 2008.

Videan, E., T. Flores, M. Lammey, R. Allred, D. Lee, R. Holguin, and D. Herrera (2009). "Jello shots": Flavor preference and use of novel food enrichment (LabGel(C)) as medication delivery in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 71(Suppl. 1): 73. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20733
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: feeding enrichment, jello, captive animals, delivery of medication, chimps.

Videan, E.N., J. Fritz, S. Howell, and J. Murphy (2007). Effects of two types and two genre of music on social behavior in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 46(1): 66-70. ISSN: 1559-6109.
Abstract: Is music just noise, and thus potentially harmful to laboratory animals, or can it have a beneficial effect? Research addressing this question has generated mixed results, perhaps because of the different types and styles of music used across various studies. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of 2 different types (vocal versus instrumental) and 2 genres (classical vocal versus 'easy-listening' vocal) of music on social behavior in 31 female and 26 male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Results indicated that instrumental music was more effective at increasing affiliative behavior in both male and female chimpanzees, whereas vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior. A comparison of 2 genre of vocal music indicated that easy-listening (slower tempo) vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior in male chimpanzees than classical (faster tempo) vocal music. Agonistic behavior in females remained low (<0.5%) throughout the study and was unaffected by music. These results indicate that, like humans, captive chimpanzees react differently to various types and genres of music. The reactions varied depending on both the sex of the subject and the type of social behavior examined. Management programs should consider both type and genre when implementing a musical enrichment program for nonhuman primates.
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, social behavior, music, behavioral study, effect of music genre and type on agonistic behavior, sex differences, social behavior, captive management programs.

Videan, E.N., J. Fritz, M.L. Schwandt, H.F. Smith, and S. Howell (2005). Controllability in environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 8(2): 117-130. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: This study considers the use of nonsocial environmental enrichment by captive chimpanzees at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. The goal was to determine whether a relationship existed between controllability of enrichment items by captive chimpanzees and frequency of use. The study measured controllability, the ability of nonhuman animals to alter aspects of their environment by the potential destructibility of the enrichment item. This study examined additional factors that may affect enrichment use: individual age, sex, rearing history, social group composition, and availability of outdoor access. The chimpanzees in the study used destructible items-the enrichment category with the highest level of controllability-more than indestructible items across all age, sex, and rearing classes. Thus, controllability seems to be an important factor in chimpanzee enrichment. Younger individuals and groups with outdoor access used enrichment more than did older individuals and groups with indoor-only access. Individual sex, rearing history, and social group composition had minimal effects on enrichment use. These results support the importance of control to captive chimpanzees and further enable captive management to customize enrichment programs to the needs of particular animals.
Descriptors: captive wild animals, chimps, Pan troglodytes, Primate Foundation of Arizona, controllability of enrichment items, frequency of use of environmental enrichment, destructibility of toys, life history differences, age differences, customizing enrichment programs.

Videan, E., J. Fritz, M. Schwandt, H. Smith, and S. Howell (2005). Controllability in environmental enrichment of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 8(2): 117-130. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, chimpanzees, animal welfare, destructability, environmental enrichment devices, control over environment.

Visalberghi, E., M.M. Yamakoshi, S. Hirata, and T. Matsuzawa (2002). Responses to novel foods in captive chimpanzees. Zoo Biology 21(6): 539-548 . ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, feeding behavior, ingestion of novel foods, fearfulness, social facilitation, laboratory animals, animal preferences, prediction, human-animal relations, environmental enrichment, feeding enrichment.

Wallace, E.K., M. Kingston-Jones, M. Ford, and S.S. Semple (2013). An investigation into the use of music as potential auditory enrichment for moloch gibbons (Hylobates moloch). Zoo Biology 32(4): 423–426.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21074
Descriptors: moloch gibbons, zoo housed animals, music, auditory enrichment.

Warne, S.P. and D.M. Broom (2002). Behavioural responses in captive gorillas following changes to their physical and social environment. Advances in Ethology 37: 91. ISSN: 0301-2808.
NAL Call Number: 410 Z35B
Descriptors: gorillas, abnormal behavior, behavioral data collection, environmental manipulations, activity budgets, coping responses, animal welfare.
Notes: Meeting Information: 4th International Symposium on Physiology and Behaviour of Wild and Zoo Animals, Berlin, Germany; September 29-October 2, 2002.

Weghorst, J.A. and W.C. Mcgrew (2000). Up where they belong? Habitat use and activity budget in two captive groups of western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Zoologische Garten 70(5): 273-284. ISSN: 0044-5169.
NAL Call Number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, activity budgets, behavioral stimulation, captive groups, three dimensional space compared to two dimensional space, differences in arboreality, zoo habitat use, Columbus Zoo, Cincinnati Zoo, USA.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English and German.

Wehnelt, S., S. Bird, and A. Lenihan (2006). Chimpanzee forest exhibit at Chester Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 40(1): 313-322. ISSN: 0074-9664.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.2006.00313.x
NAL Call Number: QL76.I5
Descriptors: chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, animal behavior, complex climbing structure, exhibit vegetation, moat, environmental enrichment, group dynamics, UK.

Weiche, I. and J.R. Anderson (2007). Influence of social and environmental factors on nesting behaviour in captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Folia Primatologica 78(3): 154-165. ISSN: 0015-5713.
DOI: 10.1159/000099137
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: sleeping sites, night housing, nesting, animal welfare, gorilla husbandry, behavioral enrichment, captive animals.

Wells, D.L. and E.C. Blaney (2003). Camouflaging gorillas: A method of reducing the 'visitor effect'. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Zoo Research,July 7, 2003-July 8, 2003, Marwell Zoological Park, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland: London, UK, p. 332-333.
Descriptors: gorillas, Gorilla gorilla, zoo housing and exhibiting techniques, aggressive behavior, abnormal behavior, stereotypic behavior, camouflage net barrier, visitor effects on behavior.

Wells, D.L., D. Coleman, and M.G. Challis (2006). A note on the effect of auditory stimulation on the behaviour and welfare of zoo-housed gorillas. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 100(3-4): 327-332. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2005.12.003
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: Gorilla gorilla, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, comparative study, auditory stimulation, captive animal care, music, sounds, Belfast Zoo.

Wells, D.L., P.G. Hepper, D. Coleman, and M.G. Challis (2007). A note on the effect of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour and welfare of zoo-housed gorillas. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 106(1-3): 155-160. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.07.010
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: western lowland gorillas, olfactory stimulation, animal behavior, environmental enrichment technique, animal welfare, zoos.

Wells, D.L. and R.M. Irwin (2009). The effect of feeding enrichment on the Moloch Gibbon (Hylobates moloch). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 12(1): 21-29. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1080/10888700802536533
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: feeding devices, frozen ice pops, PVC tubes, food baskets, zoo animals, moloch gibbons, Hylobates moloch, interaction times.

West, A.M., S.P. Leland, J.M. Erwin, C.K. Shaver, W.L. Wagner, and M.C. St-Claire (2007). Comparison of behavioral patterns among seven juvenile chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) under differing housing configurations: A pilot study. American Journal of Primatology 69(Suppl. 1): 109. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20448
NAL Call Number: Ql737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal behavior, environmental enrichment, psychological well-being, social contact, individual differences, social separation, abnormal behavior, housing configurations, comparison study, chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.
Notes: Meeting Information: 30th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; June 20 -23, 2007.

Whittaker, G., M. Whittaker, and J. Coe (2005). Prototyping naturalistic enrichment features: A case study. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,July 31, 2005-August 5, 2005, New York, NY, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx: New York, NY, p. 60-70.
Descriptors: Babyrousa babyrussa, babirusa, Hylobates syndactylus, siamangs, monitor lizards, captive animal care, environmental enrichment, zoos.

Whittaker, M., G. Laule, J. Perman, S. Shapiro, and M. Keeling (2001). A behavioral management approach to caring for great apes. In: The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century,May 10, 2000-May 13, 2000, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, Illinois, Chicago Zoological Society: Chicago, Illinois, USA, p. 131-134. ISBN: 0913934283.
Online: http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pagegen/inc/ACWhittaker.pdf
NAL Call Number: QL737.P96 A642 2001
Descriptors: great apes, enrichment, animal welfare, positive reinforcement training, captive management, behavioral management program.

Woods, S. (2000). Spontaneous tool behaviors in a captive group of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Innovation and observational learning. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 99. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, neural coordination, behavioral enrichment, food acquisition, observational learning, social interactions, spontaneous tool use, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Zambetta, K. (2005). Sex, age, and life history differences in the utilization of enrichment in captive lowland gorillas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 126(S40): 229. ISSN: 0002-9483.
Descriptors: gorillas, behavioral ecology, use of environmental enrichment, captive environments, psychological well-being, rearing history, age and sex differences, life history differences, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 74th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA; April 6 -9, 2005.

Zaragoza, F., M. Ibáñez, B. Mas, S. Laiglesia, and B. Anzola (2011). Influence of environmental enrichment in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes spp.) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Behavior and faecal cortisol levels. [Influencia del enriquecimiento ambiental de chimpancés (Pan troglodytes spp.) y gorilas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) en cautividad: comportamiento y niveles de cortisol en heces]. Revista Científica 21(5): 447-456.
Online: http://www.saber.ula.ve/handle/123456789/33803
Descriptors: animal behavior, chimpanzee, cortisol, environmental enrichment, gorilla.
Language of Text: Summary in Spanish.

 

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