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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide
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General Environmental Enrichment

Anonymous (2004). Looking after animals kept in research laboratories. Animal Welfare Institute Quarterly 53(2): online (1-3).
Online: http://www.awionline.org/content-types-orchid-legacy/looking-after-animals-kept-research-laboratories
Descriptors: colony managment, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, list-serv discussion.

Anonymous (2002). Refinement and environmental enrichment database. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 30(6): 567. ISSN: 0261-1929.
Online: http://www.awionline.org/SearchResultsSite/refine.aspx
NAL Call Number: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: introduction to electronic database, online enrichment resource, Animal Welfare Institute.

Anonymous (2003). Toying with enrichment options. Lab Animal 32(10): 7. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: aggression, environmental enrichment, music, species differences, social interactions.

Anonymous (2003). The welfare of zoo animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(7): 957-983. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: special journal supplement, animal well-being, ethics, wild animals in captivity, strategic collection planning, positive reinforcement training, environmental enrichment, stress, zoo design, animal surpluses.
Notes: Meeting Information: 2002 AVMA Animal Welfare Forum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA; October 11, 2002.

AAZK Enrichment Committee (2004). Enrichment Notebook, 3rd Edition, AAZK, Inc.: Topeka, Kansas, USA, ISBN: 192967211X. [CD-Rom]
NAL Call Number: SF408.45.A44 2004
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, zoo animals, bibliography.

Balcombe, J.P., N.D. Barnard, and C. Sandusky (2004). Laboratory routines cause animal stress. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 43(6): 42-51. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: stress, laboratory animals, laboratory procedures, handling, blood collection, orogastric gavage, physiological parameters, distress, humane implications.

Bassett, L. and H.M. Buchanan-Smith (2007). Effects of predictability on the welfare of captive animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 223-245. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.029
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: predictability of stimuli, physiological response, behavioral response, animal welfare, animal husbandry, literature review.

Baumans, V. and Animal Welfare Institute. (2007). Making Lives Easier for Animals in Research Labs., The Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, DC, v, 190 p.: ill.; 24 cm.
Online: http://www.awionline.org/content-types-orchid-legacy/awi-quarterly/making-lives-easier-animals-research-labs
NAL Call Number: SF406 .M35 2007
Abstract: This book is a collection of electronic discussions that took place on the Animal Welfare Institute's Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum between October 2002 and May 2007. Comments are based upon first-hand experiences about ways to improve the conditions under which animals are housed and handled in research facilities. Animals discussed include mice and other rodents, rabbits, farm animals, rhesus macaques and other nonhuman primates, dogs, cats, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Topics include housing, environmental enrichment, animal training, safety issues, maladaptive behaviors, and the human-animal relationship.
Descriptors: laboratory animals, handling, environmental enrichment.

Baumans, V. and P.L.P. Van Loo (2013). How to improve housing conditions of laboratory animals: The possibilities of environmental refinement. Veterinary Journal 195(1): 24-32. ISSN: 1090-0233.
DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.09.023
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, refinement, laboratory animals, animal well-being.

Bayne, K. (2005). Potential for unintended consequences of environmental enrichment for laboratory animals and research results. ILAR Journal 46(2): 129-139. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: Many aspects of the research animal's housing environment are controlled for quality and/or standardization. Of recent interest is the potential for environmental enrichment to have unexpected consequences such as unintended harm to the animal, or the introduction of variability into a study that may confound the experimental data. The effects of enrichment provided to nonhuman primates, rodents, and rabbits are described to illustrate that the effects can be numerous and may vary by strain and/or species. Examples of parameters measured where no change is detected are also included because this information provides an important counterpoint to studies that demonstrate an effect. In addition, this review of effects and noneffects serves as a reminder that the provision of enrichment should be evaluated in the context of the health of the animal and research goals on a case-by-case basis. It should also be kept in mind that the effects produced by enrichment are similar to those of other components of the animal's environment. Although it is unlikely that every possible environmental variable can be controlled both within and among research institutions, more detailed disclosure of the living environment of the subject animals in publications will allow for a better comparison of the findings and contribute to the broader knowledge base of the effects of enrichment.
Descriptors: potential harm to animals, controlling for environmental variables in research, confounding results, effects of enrichment on data, animal health, detailing the animal's living environment in publications.

Bayne, K.A. (2003). Environmental enrichment of nonhuman primates, dogs and rabbits used in toxicology studies. Toxicologic Pathology 31(Suppl.): 132-137. ISSN: 0192-6233.
Abstract: The increasing emphasis on the provision of environmental enrichment to laboratory animals, vis-a-vis the USDA Animal Welfare Regulations, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC 1996), and a potential forthcoming policy from the USDA on the subject, can be difficult to accommodate in a toxicology research environment. A summary will be provided of current requirements and recommendations. Then, strategies for meeting regulatory requirements will be described for non-rodent animals used in toxicology research. These strategies will address methods of both social enrichment, such as pair or group housing, as well as non-social enrichment, such as cage furniture, food enrichments, and toys. In addition, the value of positive interactions with staff (e.g., through training paradigms or socialization programs) will also be discussed. Apparent in the discussion of these strategies will be an overarching recognition of the necessity to avoid introducing confounding variables into the research project and to avoid compromising animal health. The roles of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) and the attending veterinarian in helping scientists balance animal well-being, the scientific enterprise and the regulatory environment will be described.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal welfare, laboratory animals, housing, toxicology, animal welfare legislation, dogs, rabbits, social environment.

Ben Ari, E.T. (2001). What's new at the zoo. Bioscience 51(3): 172-177. ISSN: 0006-3568.
NAL Call Number: 500 Am322A
Descriptors: zoo animals, quality of life for captive animals, environmental enrichment, zoo biologists, systematic approach to enrichment programs, animal behavior.

Benefiel, A.C., W.K. Dong, and W.T. Greenough (2005). Mandatory "enriched" housing of laboratory animals: The need for evidence-based evaluation. ILAR Journal 46(2): 95-105. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: Environmental enrichment for laboratory animals has come to be viewed as a potential method for improving animal well-being in addition to its original sense as a paradigm for learning how experience molds the brain. It is suggested that the term housing supplementation better describes the wide range of alterations to laboratory animal housing that has been proposed or investigated. Changes in the environments of animals have important effects on brain structure, physiology, and behavior--including recovery from illness and injury--and on which genes are expressed in various organs. Studies are reviewed that show how the brain and other organs respond to environmental change. These data warrant caution that minor cage supplementation intended for improvement of animal well-being may alter important aspects of an animal's physiology and development in a manner not easily predicted from available research. Thus, various forms of housing supplementation, although utilized or even preferred by the animals, may not enhance laboratory animal well-being and may be detrimental to the research for which the laboratory animals are used.
Descriptors: housing supplementation, environmental change, laboratory animals, brain, well-being, physiology.

Buchanan-Smith, H.M., A.E. Rennie, A. Vitale, S. Pollo, M.J. Prescott, and D.B. Morton (2005). Harmonising the definition of refinement. Animal Welfare 14(4): 379-384. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal use refinement, animal housing, environmental enrichment, animal welfare.

Burghardt, G.M. (1999). Deprivation and enrichment in laboratory animal environments. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2(4): 263-266. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: animal welfare, animal housing, laws and regulations, stress factors.
Notes: Meeting Information: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare workshop "IACUC Responsibility for Research Animal Well-being," San Antonio, Texas, USA: December 7-8, 1998.

Carlstead, K. and D. Shepherdson (2000). Alleviating stress in zoo animals with environmental enrichment. In: G.P. Moberg and J.A. Mench (Editors), The Biology of Animal Stress: Basic Principles and Implications for Animal Welfare, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution: Washington DC, USA., p. 337-354. ISBN: 0851993591.
NAL Call Number: QP82.2.S8 B55 2000
Descriptors: stress, zoo animals, animal housing, animal behavior.

Chang, F.T. and L.A. Hart (2002). Human-animal bonds in the laboratory: How animal behavior affects the perspective of caregivers. ILAR Journal 43(1): 10-18 . ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: laboratory animals, dogs, mice, laboratory workers, anthropology, animal welfare, animal husbandry, training of animals, stress, enrichment, safety at work, work satisfaction, human-animal relations, animal technicians, environmental enrichment.

Cipreste, C.F., C.S. de Azevedo and R.J. Young (2010). How to develop a zoo-based environmental enrichment program: Incorporating environmental enrichment into exhibits. In: D.G. Kleiman, K.V. Thompson and C.K. Baer (Editors), Wild Mammals in Captivity, 2nd edition, The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, p. 171-180. ISBN: 0226440095.
NAL Call Number: SF408 .W55 2010
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, developing a program, zoos, animals in captivity.

Claxton, A.M. (2011). The potential of the human-animal relationship as an environmental enrichment for the welfare of zoo-housed animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133(1-2): 1-10. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.03.002
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: environmental enrichment strategies, pyschological welfare, provision of feeding devices, social housing, novel objects, human-animal relationship (HAR), zoo animals.

Cosgrove, C. (2004). Animal welfare and facility design. Animal Lab News 3(6): 55-57.
Online: http://www.animallab.com/articles.asp?pid=77
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, animal welfare, social behavior, public perception, biomedical research, vertical space, human contact.

Davey, G., P. Henzi, and L. Higgins (2005). The influence of environmental enrichment on Chinese visitor behavior. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 8(2): 131-140. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Welfare improvements for nonhuman animals should aim to satisfy the needs of visitors as well as those of the animals. Little research has been conducted, however, and existing work is confined to zoos in developed countries. This article reports the behavioral responses of Chinese visitors to environmental enrichment improvements in a zoo enclosure. Visit, viewing, and stopping behaviors significantly increased at the transformed exhibit, indicating that it provoked greater visitor interest. Furthermore, increased intragroup behaviors suggested that the exhibit probably motivated visitors to interact socially. The positive impact of the exhibit changes supports the enrichment efforts taking place in zoos around the world. The changes also provide encouragement for zoos in developing countries such as China because greater visitor interest provides a strong argument and an incentive for improving welfare standards.
Descriptors: visitor response to environmental enrichment, zoos, enrichment causes zoo visitors to interact more frequently, China, animal welfare standards.

de Azevedo, C.S., C.F. Cipreste, and R.J. Young (2007). Environmental enrichment: A GAP analysis. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 329-343. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.034
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, farm animals, animal welfare, experimental design, statistical analysis, GAP analysis, literature review.

Dean, S.W. (1999). Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals used in regulatory toxicology studies. Laboratory Animals 33(4): 309-327. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: There is a wealth of information in the published literature which describes a multitude of approaches to enriching the environment of laboratory animals. This paper attempts to review the various methods of enrichment through social contact, enhancement of the environment and diet, and improvements in husbandry. It attempts to place the various enrichment initiatives within the context of a laboratory which conducts regulatory toxicology, describes some of the experiences in the author's own laboratory and attempts to highlight those ideas which might prove practical to implement in the future. The aim is to demonstrate that a creative approach to environmental enrichment is indeed compatible with regulatory toxicology. It is hoped that this will encourage those responsible for the care and welfare of animals in such a laboratory to challenge historical practices and include environmental enrichment as a fundamental necessity of study design.
Descriptors: laboratory animals, cages, monkeys, foraging, enrichment, environment, dogs, group size, toys, rabbits, floor pens, rats, mice, social dominance, floor type, pelleted feeds, guinea pigs, toxicology, animal welfare, literature reviews.

Fillman Holliday, D. and M.S. Landi (2002). Animal care best practices for regulatory testing. ILAR Journal 43(Suppl.): S49-S58. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: Best practices result from a partnership between law, science, and the people working with the animals on regulated studies. In an ideal setting, people working with animals observe and study animal behavior as influenced by different housing and handling paradigms. These observations are published to create a body of science, and laws are promulgated based on the science. The ideal world does not exist, but there are certain components of best practices common to all species. These components include study design, housing, social contact, diet/feed, enrichment devices, and human interaction. This paper outlines how the forces of law, science, and people work to create best practices for species in regulated studies, specifically mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and nonhuman primates.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animals, laboratory physiology, laboratory animal science standards, toxicity tests methods, xenobiotics toxicity, animals, laboratory psychology, laboratory animal science methods, social environment.

Forman, J.M., L.N. Claude, A.M. Albright, and A.M. Lima (2001). The design of enriched animal habitats from a biological engineering perspective. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 44(5): 1363-1371. ISSN: 0001-2351.
NAL Call Number: 290.9Am32T
Abstract: Applying biological engineering principles to animal habitat design represents a paradigm shift from traditional approaches by virtue of placing the biology of the animal(s) at the center of the design process and designing a habitat around the animal(s). The objective of this article is to detail this paradigm shift, first by providing a detailed discussion on the design of enriched environments for captive animals, and then through a case study involving the transformation of a tiger cage into a tiger habitat. All habitat design elements are created based on the physical and behavioral needs of the animal.
Descriptors: zoo animals, tigers, cages, habitats, design, engineering, enrichment, animal behavior, needs assessment, basic needs, quality of life.

Fraser, D., J. Jasper, and D.M. Weary (2000). Environmental enrichment to improve animal welfare: goals, methods, and measures of success. In: Progress in the Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animal Experimentation: Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences,August 29, 1999-September 2, 1999, Bologna, Italy, Elsevier Science: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 1283-1293. ISBN: 0444505296.
NAL Call Number: QL1 .D48 v.31
Descriptors: laboratory animals, experimentation, animal welfare, animal behavior.

Goldschmidt, C. and A. Malleau (2004). Environmental enrichment at the Toronto Zoo. CSAW News Fall/Winter(12): 4-5.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment program, pychological well-being, zoo animals, animal behavior, abnormal behavior, categories of enrichment items.

Guittin, P. and T. Decelle (2002). Future improvements and implementation of animal care practices within the animal testing regulatory environment. ILAR Journal 43(Suppl.): S80-S84. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: Animal welfare is an increasingly important concern when considering biomedical experimentation. Many of the emerging regulations and guidelines specifically address animal welfare in laboratory animal care and use. The current revision of the appendix of the European Convention, ETS123 (Council of Europe), updates and improves on the current animal care standardization in Europe. New guidelines from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Association focus specifically on safety testing. These guidelines will affect the way toxicity studies are conducted and therefore the global drug development process. With the 3Rs principles taken into account, consideration regarding animal welfare will demand changes in animal care practices in regulatory safety testing. The most significant future improvements in animal care and use practices are likely to be environmental enrichment, management of animal pain and distress, and improved application of the humane endpoints. Our challenge is to implement respective guidelines based on scientific data and animal welfare, through a complex interplay of regulatory objective and public opinion. The current goal is to work toward solutions that continue to provide relevant animal models for risk assessment in drug development and that are science based. In this way, future improvements in animal care and use practices can be founded on facts, scientific results, and analysis. Some of these improvements become common practice in some countries. International harmonization can facilitate the development and practical application of "best scientific practices" by the consensus development process that harmonization requires. Since the implementation of good laboratory practices (GLP) standards in safety testing, these new regulations and recommendations represent a new way forward for animal safety studies.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal welfare, laboratory animals, legislation and regulations, prevention and control of pain, social environment, toxicity tests.

Guseletov, T. and O. Guseletov (2009). Interior decoration and equipment of enclosures for carnivores and primates as environment enrichment and way of improvement of aesthetic perception of captive animals. Nauchnye Issledovaniya v Zoologicheskikh Parkakh 25: 47-50.
Descriptors: Bolsherechye Zoo, Russia, abnormal behavior, provision of environmental enrichment, visitor perceptions.
Language of Text: Russian.

Hawkins, P. (2002). Recognizing and assessing pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals: a survey of current practice in the UK with recommendations. Laboratory Animals 36(4): 378-395. ISSN: 0023-6772.
Online: http://la.rsmjournals.com/cgi/reprint/36/4/378
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: animal welfare, recognizing and assessing pain and distress, laboratory animals, survey review, techniques to reduce suffering, humane endpoints, refining husbandry, analgesia, United Kingdom Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986.

Hawkins, P., D.B. Morton, R. Bevan, K. Heath, J. Kirkwood, P. Pearce, L. Scott, G. Whelan, and A. Webb (2004). Husbandry refinements for rats, mice, dogs and non-human primates used in telemetry procedures. Seventh report of the BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement, Part B. Laboratory Animals 38(1): 1-10. ISSN: 0023-6772.
Online: http://www.lal.org.uk/index.php/education-a-training | Look under Refinement and Animal Welfare
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: animal husbandry, dogs, mice, primates, rats, telemetry, animal welfare, surgery.

Hepper, P.G. and D.L. Wells (2004). Enrichment is not always enriching. Animal Welfare 13(Suppl.): S243. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, animal behavior, open field test, animal welfare, social enrichment.

Hosey, G.R. (2000). Zoo animals and their human audiences: what is the visitor effect. Animal Welfare 9(4): 343-357. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: zoo animals, primates, visitor behavior, animal behavior, stress, group interaction, enrichment, animal housing, animal welfare, literature reviews.

Hoy, J.M., P.J. Murray, and A. Tribe (2010). Thirty years later: Enrichment practices for captive mammals. Zoo Biology 29(3): 303-316. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, staff time, enrichment quantity, enrichment variety, enrichment frequency, enrichment evaluation, international multi-institutional questionnaire survey, zoo-housed animals.

Hutchinson, J.M.C. (2005). Is more choice always desirable? Evidence and arguments from leks, food selection, and environmental enrichment. Biological Reviews 80(1): 73-92. ISSN: 1464-7931.
Descriptors: behavioral ecology, computational models, simulation, enrichment, food selection, lekking behavior.

Jennings, M. (2009). Refinement: A sense of progress. ATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 37(2): 149-153. ISSN: 0261-1929.
NAL Call Number: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: animal euthanasia, animal housing, animal testing refinement, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, research animals, animal testing alternatives.

Kuehn, B.M. (2002). Zoo animal welfare boosted by environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement training. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 221(11): 1532. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: effects of captivity, animal well-being, protected contact, social interactions, densensitization, enrichment strategies, training of animals.

Kulpa Eddy, J.A., S. Taylor, and K.M. Adams (2005). USDA perspective on environmental enrichment for animals. ILAR Journal 46(2): 83-94. ISSN: 1084-2020.
Online: http://dels-old.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/46_2/pdfs/v4602kulpa-eddy.pdf
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: This article provides a brief historical background of the events and circumstances that led to the 1985 Animal Welfare Act (AWA) amendments. It describes the development of the regulations promulgated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1991 as a result of these amendments, the reasoning given for the proposals, and the revisions that were made during the process. Information is included on USDA implementation of the regulations regarding exercise for dogs and environmental enhancement for nonhuman primates. Also mentioned briefly are the requirements for socialization of marine mammals and space requirements for certain other regulated warm-blooded species. These requirements apply to animal dealers (breeders and brokers), exhibitors, commercial transporters, and research facilities. The standards for exercise and environmental enhancement were different from any others previously contained in the AWA regulations, and required more research and understanding of species-specific needs by the regulated community. Finally, this article describes some of the initiatives being undertaken by the research community and USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS)-Animal Care to provide the necessary education and guidance indicated by the violation history data.
Descriptors: Animal Welfare Act, regulated facilities, United States of America, standards for exercise for dogs, environmental enhancement for nonhuman primates, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Lindley, A. (2004). Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals: Young, R.J. The Veterinary Journal 168(2): 173. ISSN: 1090-0233.
NAL Call Number: SF601.V484
Abstract: This article is a review of a new book by R.J. Young called Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. The book was published by Blackwell Publishing, Oxford in 2003 (240 pp.; ISBN: 0632064072)
Descriptors: book review, content description, environmental enrichment.

Lutz, C.K. and M.A. Novak (2005). Primate natural history and social behavior: Implications for laboratory housing. In: S. Wolfe-Coote (Editor), The Laboratory Primate, The Handbook of Experimental Animals, Elsevier Academic Press: Boston, MA, p. 133-142. ISBN: 0120802619.
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L33 2005
Descriptors: primates, captive animal care, social behavior, natural history, housing techniques.

Luyster, J.S. (2003). Enrichment as a behavioral modification tool in the zoo hospital setting. Animal Keepers' Forum 30(5): 196-200. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: zoo hospitals, environmental enrichment programs, care in captivity, behavioral modification, animals in captivity.

Maple, T.L. (2007). Toward a science of welfare for animals in the zoo. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1): 63-70. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Although the accredited institutions of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums have all committed to enhancing the welfare of nonhuman animals, acceptable standards and best practices are still under debate. Currently, experts from zoos and the field hold widely divergent opinions about exhibition and management standards for elephants. Standards and practices for managing nonhuman primates provide a model for other nonhuman creatures exhibited in zoos and aquariums. Examining the key issues for primates demonstrates the value of applying scientific data before promulgating standards. The field of applied behavior analysis provides a wealth of information to frame the debate. Animal behaviorists have contributed to an emerging science of animal welfare, which may provide a foundation for empirical zoo management, standards, and practices.
Descriptors: animal behavior, captive animal housing, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, zoological gardens, nonhuman primates.
Notes: Meeting Information: Primate behavior studies: essential to primate welfare. Proceedings of the special Animal Behavior Society session, 2006.

Maple, T.L. and B.M. Perdue (2013). Environmental Enrichment. In: T.L. Maple and B.M. Perdue (Authors), Zoo Animal Welfare, Springer Berlin Heidelberg: New York, p. 95-117. ISBN: 978-3-642-35954-5.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-35955-2
Descriptors: types of enrichment, implementation and evaluation of enrichment, zoo animals.

Margulis, S., M. Rafacz, and B. Jacobs (2005). Quantifying the effectiveness of environmental enrichment: Lessons learned and rules of thumb. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,July 31, 2005-August 5, 2005, New York, NY, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx: New York, NY, p. 219-226.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, methodology for quantifying effectiveness, zoo animals, nonhuman primates.

Mason, G., R. Clubb, N. Latham, and S. Vickery (2007). Why and how should we use environmental enrichment to tackle stereotypic behaviour? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 163-188. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.041
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: sterotypic behavior, abnormal repetitive behavior, motivational frustration, captive environments, zoos, treatment of abnormal behavior, effectiveness of enrichment, literature review.

McPhee, M.E., J.S. Foster, M. Sevenich, and C.D. Saunders (1998). Public perceptions of behavioral enrichment: assumptions gone awry. Zoo Biology 17(6): 525-534 . ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: cages, zoo animals, consumer attitudes, animal welfare, enrichment, visitor interpretation, animal behavior.

Meehan, C.L. and J.A. Mench (2007). The challenge of challenge: Can problem solving opportunities enhance animal welfare? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 246-261. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.031
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: cognition, problem solving, foraging enrichment, environmental enrichment, stress, animal welfare.

Mellen, J. and M.S. MacPhee (2001). Philosophy of environmental enrichment: past, present, and future. Zoo Biology 20(3): 211-226. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: zoo animals, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, animal husbandry, animal behavior, reproductive performance, stress, captive habitats.

Milgram, N.W., C.T. Siwak-Tapp, J. Araujo, and E. Head (2006). Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment. Ageing Research Reviews 5(3): 354-369. ISSN: 1568-1637.
DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2006.04.004
Abstract: Cognitive enrichment early in life, as indicated by level of education, complexity of work environment or nature of leisure activities, appears to protect against the development of age-associated cognitive decline and also dementia. These effects are more robust for measures of crystallized intelligence than for measures of fluid intelligence and depend on the ability of the brain to compensate for pathological changes associated with aging. This compensatory ability is referred to as cognitive reserve. The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that cognitive enrichment promotes utilization of available functions. Alternatively, late life cognitive changes in cognition may be linked to a factor, such as cholinergic dysfunction, that is also present early in life and contributes to the reduced levels of early life cognitive enrichment. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment early in life have also been observed in rodents and primates. Research with rodents indicates that these changes have structural correlates, which likely include increased synapses in specific brain regions. Dogs also show age-dependent cognitive decline, and both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies indicate that this decline can be attenuated by cognitive enrichment. Furthermore, cognitive enrichment has differential effects, improving some functions more than others. From a neurobiological perspective, behavioral enrichment in the dog may act to promote neurogenesis later in life. This can be distinguished from nutritional interventions with antioxidants, which appear to attenuate the development of neuropathology. These results suggest that a combination of behavioral and nutritional or pharmacological interventions may be optimal for reducing the rate of age-dependent cognitive decline.
Descriptors: aging, Alzheimer's disease, animal models, cognition, enviornmental enrichment, reduction in cognitive decline, combination of behavioral and nutritional or pharmacological interventions.

Morgan, K.N. and C.T. Tromborg (2007). Sources of stress in captivity. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 262-302. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.032
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: captivity, stress, environmental challenges, captive animals, literature review.

Morimura, N. (2000). Psychological well-being of captive animals. Japanese Journal of Animal Psychology 50(1): 183-191. ISSN: 0916-8419.
Descriptors: U.S. Animal Welfare Act, environmental enrichment, natural behavior, husbandry improvements, selectability and controllability of the environment, evaluation of enrichment program.

Morton, D. (1998). The recognition of adverse effects on animals during experiments and its use in the implementation of refinement. In: Ethical Approaches to Animal Based Science. Proceedings of the Joint ANZCCART/NAEAC Conference,September 19, 1997-September 20, 1997, Auckland, New Zealand, p. 61-67. ISBN: 0908654839.
Descriptors: animal welfare, adverse effects, pain, laboratory animals, animal husbandry, physiology, animals in experiments, refinement of techniques, three Rs, United Kingdom, environmental enrichment.

Narushima, E. (2001). Environmental enrichment for geriatric animals in zoos. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Japan 54(11): 935-941. ISSN: 0447-0192.
Descriptors: captive environment, geriatric animals, animals in zoos, environmental enrichment programs.

Olsson, I.A.S., C.M. Nevison, E.G. Patterson Kane, C.M. Sherwin, H.A. Van de Weerd, and H. Wurbel (2003). Understanding behaviour: The relevance of ethological approaches in laboratory animal science. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81(3): 245-264 . ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: mice, rats, laboratory animals, animal behavior, strain differences, animal housing, cages, environmental enrichment, smell, vision, hearing, taste, touch, validity.

Olsson, I.A.S. and K. Westlund (2007). More than numbers matter: The effect of social factors on behaviour and welfare of laboratory rodents and non-human primates. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 103(3-4): 229-254. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.022
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: laboratory animals, housing and husbandry, animal behavior, animal welfare, rodents, nonhuman primates, social housing, social instability, housing systems, data interpretation.

Ottesen, J.L., A. Weber, H. Gurtler, and L.F. Mikkelsen (2004). New housing conditions: improving the welfare of experimental animals. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 32(Suppl. 1B): 397-404. ISSN: 0261-1929.
NAL Call Number: Z7994.L3A5
Abstract: As animal experiments and testing are still a necessary part of the discovery and development of new drugs and do not seem likely to be totally replaced in the foreseeable future, it is important that the care and use of these animals are continuously refined. Since the housing facilities are where most experimental animals spend the major part of their lives, this area should be given special attention to ensure optimal welfare for the animals. in a unique collaboration between a pharmaceutical company and an animal welfare organisation, the housing conditions of mice, rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits and dogs, respectively, were reviewed with focus on the basic needs of the animals. Prototypes for new housing systems satisfying the most important of these basic needs of the animals were developed, with valuable input from international experts with special knowledge of the behaviour of experimental animals. These new housing systems and species-specific, newly introduced socialisation programmes contribute to improved animal welfare and a better occupational health of the animal caretakers. Since these new housing systems are more pleasant and appealing, they may also have the added benefit that they contribute to a broader public acceptance of the use of experimental animals.
Descriptors: animals in laboratories, housing systems, animal testing, socialization programs, drug development in research, public appeal, addressing basic needs of animals.

Poole, T. (1998). A systematic approach to environmental enrichment using the "scan" system. Animal Technology 49(1): 7-17. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: QL55.I5
Descriptors: laboratory animals, cages, animal behavior, laboratory rearing, animal welfare, environmental enrichment.

Purchase, I.F.H. and M. Nedeva (2003). The impact of the ethical review process for research using animals in the UK: Attitudes to animal welfare by those working under the Animals (Procedures) Act 1986. Animal Technology and Welfare 2(2): 77-84 . ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: SF757.A62
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal law, animal use alternatives, animal welfare, animal use refinement, animal care, environmental enrichment, questionnaires, researchers, United Kingdom.

Rabin, L.A. (2002). Maintaining behavioural diversity in captivity for conservation: natural behaviour management. Animal Welfare 12(1): 85-94. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: predator-prey interactions, animal welfare, captivity, natural behavior manangement, behavioral diversity, environmental enrichment strategies.

Reading, R.P., B. Miller, and D. Shepherdson (2013). The value of enrichment to reintroduction success. Zoo Biology 32(3): 332-341. ISSN: 0733-3188.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21054
Descriptors: behavioral enrichment, reintroduction success, animal welfare.

Rees, P.A. (2011). Zoo animal behaviour, enrichment and training. In: P.A. Rees (Author) An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management, 1st edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, p. 187-221. ISBN: 9781405193504 (print).
DOI: 10.1002/9781444397840.ch10
Descriptors: enrichment, animal training, measuring behavior, ethograms, effect of humans on animal behavior, zoo animals, stereotypic behavior.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (2001). Legal space requirement stipulations for animals in the laboratory: are they adequate? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 4(2): 143-149. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: animal experiments, cage size, floor space, laboratory animals, space requirements, Animal Welfare Act.

Reinhardt, V. (2005). Environmental enrichment and refinement of handling procedures. In: S. Wolfe-Coote (Editor), The Laboratory Primate, The Handbook of Experimental Animals, Elsevier Academic Press: Boston, MA, p. 209-227. ISBN: 0120802619.
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L33 2005
Descriptors: nonhuman primates, handling techniques, primates as laboratory animals, environmental enrichment.

Rice, T.R., S. Walden, G.E. Laule, and G.A. Heidbrink (2002). Behavioral management: it's everyone's job. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 41(4): 58-62. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: In this day and age of regulatory demands and with the ever-increasing flow of environmental enhancement data and opinions, it can become very confusing for animal programs to create and maintain a successful behavioral management program. Behavioral management as a concept provides a common ground from which animal facilities may start to build a successful facility behavioral program. In addition, the implementation of a behavioral management program can help to break down barriers between members of the various disciplines within the biomedical community. It is everyone's responsibility and duty to work together with this common goal: to provide the best care and environment we can for the animals in our charge. Working together to improve animal behavior can help us to achieve this goal.
Descriptors: animals in laboratories, behavioral management, enrichment, animal care, cooperation of animal facility staff, animal behavior.

Rübel, A. (1999). Behavioural enrichment at Zürich Zoo - How we give the animals back their true nature. KTBL Schrift(No. 382): 42-48. ISSN: 0173-2811.
Descriptors: zoo animals, animal behavior, animal housing, environmental enrichment, Switzerland.

Shepherdson, D. (2002). Realizing the vision: Improving zoo animal environments through enrichment. AZA Communique(June): 5-6.
NAL Call Number: QL1 .A44
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, historical background, American Zoo and Aquarium Association Behavior Advisory Group, enrichment definition.

Shepherdson, D.J. (2003). Environmental enrichment: Past, present and future. International Zoo Yearbook 38: 118-124. ISSN: 0074-9664.
NAL Call Number: QL76.I5
Descriptors: enrichment concepts, animal keeper enthusiasm, animal welfare, zoo animals, husbandry routines.

Shyne, A. (2006). Meta-analytic review of the effects of enrichment on stereotypic behavior in zoo mammals. 25(4): 317-337. ISSN: 0733-3188.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20091
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: animal care, environmental enrichment, zoos, stereotypic behavior, literature review.

Stewart, K.L. (2003). Environmental enrichment program development: hurdling the common obstacles. Animal Technology and Welfare 2(1): 9-12. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: SF757.A62
Descriptors: animal well-being, pscyhological enrichment, animal housing, budget, personnel, experimental design, engineering standards.

Stewart, K.L. and K. Bayne (2004). Environmental enrichment for laboratory animals. In: J.D. Reuter and M.A. Suckow (Editors), Laboratory Animal Medicine and Management, International Veterinary Information Service: Ithaca, New York, USA, online p.
Online: http://www.ivis.org/advances/Reuter/stewart/ivis.pdf
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, program development, regulations, guidelines, species-specific behavior, social enrichment, non-social enrichment, providing opportunity for control in the environment.

Stewart, K.L. and S.S. Raje (2001). Environmental enrichment committee: its role in program development. Lab Animal 30(8): 50-2. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: The authors discuss the role of the Environmental Enrichment Committee in developing, implementing, assessing, and modifying a university animal enrichment program.
Descriptors: animal welfare, guidelines, housing, animal, environment, indiana, organizational policy, program development, universities.

Swaisgood, R.R. (2007). Current status and future directions of applied behavioral research for animal welfare and conservation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 139-162. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.027
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: captive breeding and release programs, animal welfare, conservation biology, integrating fields of study.

Tarou, L.R. and M.J. Bashaw (2007). Maximizing the effectiveness of environmental enrichment: Suggestions from the experimental analysis of behavior. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 189-204. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.026
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: experimental analysis of behavior, behavioral reinforcement, extinction, habituation, environmental enrichment.

Turner, P.V., K.L. Smiler, M. Hargaden, and M.A. Koch (2003). Refinements in the care and use of animals in toxicology studies - Regulation, validation, and progress. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(6): 8-15. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: laboratory animals, rats, cynomolgus macaques, toxicity testing, blood, health issues, environmental enrichment.

VandeBerg, J.L. and W.H. Stone (2002). The future of animal research. ILAR Journal 43(2): 110-113. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: animal welfare, genetically modified animals, laboratory animals, cloning, primates, public policy, research trends, rodents.

Watson, L.M. and J.L. Weed (1998). Managing the environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates and domestic farm animals housed at the National Institutes of Health. American Journal of Primatology 45(2): 211-212. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal behavior, environmental enrichment, laboratory animals, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 21st Annual Meeting The American Society of Primatologists, Houston, Texas, USA; June 28-July 2, 1998.

Wells, D.L. (2009). Sensory stimulation as environmental enrichment for captive animals: A review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118(1-2): 1-11. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2009.01.002
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal welfare, wild animals in captivity, sensory stimulation, environmental enrichment, literature review.

Weekley, L.B., P. Guittin, and G. Chamberland (2002). The international symposium on regulatory testing and animal welfare: Recommendations on best scientific practices for safety evaluation using nonrodent species. ILAR Journal 43(Suppl.): S118-S122. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: animal testing alternatives, animal welfare, laboratory animals, government regulation, toxicity tests, Callithrix, dogs, health planning guidelines, international cooperation, Macaca, swine.

White, B.C., L.A. Houser, J.A. Fuller, S. Taylor, and J.L.L. Elliott (2003). Activity-based exhibition of five mammalian species: evaluation of behavioral changes. Zoo Biology 22(3): 269-285. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: animal behavior, activity levels, stereotypic behavior, natural behavior, use of space, husbandry management, orangutans, siamangs, tapirs, babirusa, tigers.

Williams, L.E. (1996). Ethological considerations for designing behavioral enrichment. Lab Animal 25(7): 29-33. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: animal behavior, behavior patterns, animal ecology, species differences, animal welfare, laboratory animals, animal social structure.

Wolfle, T.L. (2005). Introduction: Environmental enrichment. ILAR Journal 46(2): 79-82. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: effect on scientific outcomes, animal well-being, Animal Welfare Act, federal requirements, facility design, potential for negative consequences, rodents, rabbits, dogs, nonhuman primates, developing enrichment programs, United States of America.

Yoshida, H. (2000). A report about the present situation of American zoos' efforts for the environment enrichment for animals - at the Enrichment Workshop in Columbus Zoo. Primate Research 16(1): 45-53. ISSN: 0912-4047.
Descriptors: animal housing, enrichment, report of workshop, Columbus Zoo.

 

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