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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide
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General Primate Enrichment

Anonymous (1999). USDA seeks comments on environmental enhancement for nonhuman primates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215(4): 466. ISSN: 0003-1488.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3
Descriptors: United States Animal Welfare Act, care of primates, captive animals, environmental enrichment, psychological well-being.

Anonymous (2003). Food as a component of environmental enhancement. In: Committee on Animal Nutrition, Ad Hoc Committee on Nonhuman Primate Nutrition, National Research Council (Eds) Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, 2nd revised edition, National Academies Press: Washington, DC, p. 259-268. ISBN: 0309078601.
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 N88 2003
Descriptors: psychological well-being, foraging enrichment, effects on animal behavior, method of food distribution, enclosure size, nutrient energy needs, diet composition, enrichment program.

Anonymous (2009). Refinements in husbandry, care and common procedures for non-human primates. Laboratory Animals 43(1): S1. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: This report produced by the British Veterinary Association Animal Welfare Foundation (BVAAWF)/Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME)/Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA)/Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Joint Working Group on Refinement (JWGR) sets out practical guidance on refining the husbandry and care of non-human primates (hereinafter primates) and on minimizing the adverse effects of some common procedures. It provides a valuable resource to help understand the physical, social and behavioural characteristics and needs of individual primates, and is intended to develop and complement the existing literature and legislative guidelines. Topics covered include refinements in housing, husbandry and common procedures such as restraint, identification and sampling, with comprehensive advice on issues such as primate communication, assessing and facilitating primate wellbeing, establishing and maintaining social groups, environmental and nutritional enrichment and animal passports. The most commonly used species are the key focus of this resource, but its information and recommendations are generally applicable to other species, provided that relevant individual species characteristics are taken into account.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, animal care, laboratory animals, research, animal experimentation, animal welfare, literature reviews, training (people), animal nutrition, animal use alternatives, species differences.

Anonymous (2009). Social housing of nonhuman primates with cranial implants: A discussion. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 48(2): 1-2. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: ttp://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/LPN48-2.html#implants
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: pair housing, nonhuman primates, captive animals, headcap implants.

Adams, K.M. (Compiler) (2006). Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide., U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Library, Animal Welfare Information Center: Beltsville, MD, 261 p.
Online: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/Primates2009/primates.shtml
NAL Call Number: aHV4701 .A94 no. 32
Abstract: In the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act, Congress included a requirement that facilities housing nonhuman primates provide for the psychological well-being of these animals. This amendment became synonymous with the term "environmental enrichment." According to the USDA, APHIS, Animal Care Research Facility Inspection Guide, facilities that house nonhuman primates must develop and implement an environmental enhancement plan. The plans must address social grouping, environmental enrichment, special considerations, restraint devices, and any exemptions. This resource guide updates the Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide, edited by Michael Kreger and published by AWIC in 1999. It provides a bibliography of information about enrichment for all primate species, animal training, and abnormal behavior. Resources available on the web are also included.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, bibliography, nonhuman primates, abnormal behavior, animal housing, animal training, social grouping, pair housing, manipulanda, animal behavior, toys.

Agoramoorthy, G. and S. Alagappasamy (2004). Management of endangered Asian primates in Singapore Zoo: Welfare, enrichment and conservation implications. Folia Primatologica 75(Suppl. 1): 214. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: proboscis monkeys, douc langurs, orangutans, environmental enrichment, animal welfare, colony management, Singapore Zoo, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 20th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Torino, Italy; August 22-28, 2004.

Agoramoorthy, G. and M. Hsu (2004). Welfare, enrichment and conservation of non-human primates in zoological parks. Folia Primatologica 75(Suppl. 1): 211-212. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: animal welfare, colony husbandry and management, environmental and behavioral enrichment, introduction to symposium, zoos, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 20th Meeting of the International Primatological Society, Torino, Italy; August 22-28, 2004.

Baker, K. (2007). Enrichment and primate centers: Closing the gap between research and practice. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1): 49-54. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: A wealth of published research is available to guide environmental enrichment programs for nonhuman primates, but common practice may not consistently correspond to research findings. A 2003 survey to quantify common practice queried individuals overseeing enrichment programs about (a) social, feeding, structural, and manipulable enrichment; (b) human interaction and training; (c) general program administration; (d) the role of the institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) in the enrichment program; and (e) the impetus for recent programmatic changes. Returned surveys provided information on the management of 35,863 primates and found social housing significantly more constrained than inanimate enrichment. Survey results suggest that social housing of macaques has not increased significantly over the past decade. The most commonly mentioned constraints related to research protocols. Facilities with thorough IACUC reviews of enrichment issues provided social housing for a significantly larger proportion of primates in biomedical research studies than did those with rare IACUC reviews. IACUC reviews prompted program enhancements much less often than did regulatory or accreditation inspections. These results suggest IACUC review is an underutilized mechanism for improving enrichment programs.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment programs, captive management, macaques, social housing, inanimate enrichment, housing of nonhuman primates, IACUC review.

Baker, K.C. (2000). Environmental enhancement: Policy, plans, and perspective. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 35-36. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal care, government and law, captive management, enrichment plans, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 23rd Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Baker, K.C. and D.A. Springer (2006). Frequency of feeding enrichment and response of laboratory nonhuman primates to unfamiliar people. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 45(1): 69-73. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3.A23
Abstract: Although environmental enhancement plans for nonhuman primates vary between facilities, feeding enrichment represents a component of most programs. As part of a facility's feeding enrichment program, offering hand-fed food items by trained staff provides an opportunity for positive human interaction. We hypothesized that increased implementation of such enrichment would be associated with increased likelihood of a monkey accepting a hand-fed treat from a stranger. Several species of monkeys were tested at the Tulane National Primate Research Center. In 2002 and 2005, we recorded the number of caged monkeys that accepted a treat tablet from an unfamiliar person within 10 s. We compared the frequency of caretaker-implemented feeding enrichment documented for each animal room during the month proceeding data collection with the proportion of animals within the room that accepted the treat from the stranger. In 2002, 29.8% of the 500 subjects accepted the treat from the unfamiliar person. The proportion of animals that accepted the treat was significantly correlated with the number of days during which feeding enrichment had been implemented. In 2005, feeding enrichment frequency had increased by 76%, and 53.4% of the 676 subjects accepted the treat. These findings suggest that this simple form of enrichment may improve monkeys' responses to unfamiliar people, and that it holds promise as a method for mediating the stress imposed by human activity in animal rooms. In addition, a stranger's treat-feeding attempts may be a useful indicator of an institution's implementation of their environmental enrichment program.
Descriptors: feeding enrichment, environmental enrichment programs, hand-fed food items, positive human interaction, possible stress mediator, laboratory animals, nonhuman primates.

Baker, K.C., J.L. Weed, C.M. Crockett, and M.A. Bloomsmith (2007). Survey of environmental enhancement programs for laboratory primates. American Journal of Primatology 69(4): 377-394. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20347
Descriptors: survey results, environmental enrichment programs, nonhuman primates, common practices, United States.

Bakker, J., M. Keehnen, and G. Braskamp (2009). Veterinary considerations in providing environmental enrichment for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): Practical examples. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Diseases of Zoo and Wild Animals,May 20, 2009-May 24, 2009, Beekse Bergen, The Netherlands, Berlin, Germany: Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, p. 91-95.
Abstract: This article discusses veterinary and welfare aspects of the provision of environmental enrichment for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).
Descriptors: animal housing, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, zoo animals, Macaca mulatta, monkeys.

Bellanca, R.U., C.M. Crockett, D.C. Johnson, S.M. Demers, and K. Eiffert (1998). Catering to catarrhines: Food enrichment at the University of Washington's Regional Primate Research Center. American Journal of Primatology 45(2): 167-168. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: old world monkeys, apes, environmental enrichment, feeding enrichment.

Bennett, A., C. Corcoran, V. Hardy, L. Miller, and P. Pierre (2010). Team approach to cost and benefit analysis of environmental enrichment: Providing bedding and foraging substrate to pen-housed monkeys. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 49(5): 711. ISSN: 1559-6109.
Descriptors: animal care, bedding, environmental enrichment, animal welfare, foraging substrate, wood shavings, cost savings, veterinary care, facilities considerations.
Notes: Meeting Information: AALAS National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2010.

Bethell, E.J., A. Holmes, A. MacLarnon, and S. Semple (2012). Cognitive bias in a non-human primate: Husbandry procedures influence cognitive indicators of psychological well-being in captive rhesus macaques. Animal Welfare 21(2): 185-195. ISSN: 0962-7286.
DOI: 10.7120/09627286.21.2.185
Descriptors: cognitive bias as a tool to assess animal welfare, rhesus macaque, emotion, enrichment, husbandry procedures.

Bloomsmith, M.A. (2007). Integrating science into the behavioral management of nonhuman primates: Two decades of progress. American Journal of Primatology 69(Suppl. 1): 114-115. ISSN: 0275-2565.
Descriptors: alopecia, behavioral managemetn, environmental enrichment, nonhuman primates, captivity.
Notes: In the Special Issue: Abstracts of the Thirtieth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, June 20-23, 2007.

Boere, V. (2001). Order Primates: Behavior and environmental enrichment. In: M.E. Fowler and Z.S. Cubas (Editors), Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of South American Wild Animals, Iowa State University Press: Ames, Iowa, USA, p. 263-267. ISBN: 0813828465.
Descriptors: New World monkeys, environmental enrichment, animal behavior.

Bonnet, L., F. Bellebeau, G. Briday, M. Gregoire, B. Regnier, and J. Descotes (2004). Socialisation of non-human primates in regulatory toxicity studies in compliance with the new European guidelines. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 197(3): 244-245. ISSN: 0041-008X.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, experimental psychology, toxicology, colony managment, European Union, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Living in a Safe Chemical World: The 10th International Congress of Toxicology, Tampere, Finland; July 11-16, 2004.

Bonnotte, S. (1999). Promouvoir le bien-etre psychologique des primates captifs et de laboratoire: aspects theoriques et pratiques (Apports de la recherche sur l' enrichissement du milieu a la promotion du bien-etre des primates captifs). [Promoting psychological well-being of captive and laboratory human primates: theoritical and practical aspects (Contribution of environmental enrichment research in the promotion of captive primate well-being)]. Revue De Medecine Veterinaire 150(1): 15-26. ISSN: 0035-1555.
NAL Call Number: 41.8 R32
Descriptors: nonhuman primates, captivity, laboratory animals, animal well-being, behavior, environmental factors.
Language of Text: French; Summary in English.

Brent, L. (1997). Behavioural management of nonhuman primates in a laboratory environment. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,August 21, 1995-August 25, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen Zoo: Frederiksberg, Denmark, p. 149-163. ISBN: 8789431146.
Descriptors: chimpanzees, animal behavior, behavioral management programs, environmental enrichment, animal training, primates as laboratory animals.

Brent, L. (2007). Life-long well being: Applying animal welfare science to nonhuman primates in sanctuaries. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1): 55-61. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Nonhuman primates have become common in sanctuaries, and a few such facilities even specialize in their care. Sanctuaries can improve the well being of many unwanted primates, especially in terms of housing and socialization. However, diverse facilities call themselves sanctuaries, and they have varying conditions, care programs, and restrictions. In addition, a general lack of regulation of sanctuaries for nonhuman animals creates problems in enforcing even minimal standards. The application of animal welfare science in the sanctuary setting can help foster high standards and empirically based decision making. Sanctuaries offer excellent environments for studying primates without the limitations inherent in breeding, exhibition, and medical research facilities. However, some sanctuaries avoid scientific study. Many sanctuaries have little opportunity to study animal welfare in a systematic manner due to financial considerations or a lack of specific expertise among staff and volunteers. Most published sanctuary research involves reintroduction procedures at sanctuaries in source countries. Nevertheless, one chimpanzee sanctuary's successes in performing long-term studies and using simple evaluation methods, such as check sheets, have demonstrated the benefits of applying animal welfare science to sanctuary-housed nonhuman primates..
Descriptors: animal sanctuaries, animal welfare, animal well-being, nonhuman primates, animal welfare science, animal management.
Notes: Meeting Information: Primate behavior studies: essential to primate welfare. Proceedings of the special Animal Behavior Society session, 2006.

Brown, M.T. (2005). Mature primate enrichment. The Shape of Enrichment 14(1): 4-6. ISSN: 1088-8152.
NAL Call Number: HV4737.S53
Descriptors: adult nonhuman primates, treat cups, flavored shave ice, essential oils, nature cubes, rain sticks, environmental enrichment ideas.

Camacho, J.N., E. Moeller, and J. Morris (2009). A psychologic wellbeing response plan for nonhuman primates. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 48(5): 558. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3 .A23
Descriptors: alopecia, environmental enrichment, locomotive behavior, behavioral problem, Animal Welfare Act, hair pulling, psychologic distress, self abusive behavior, psychologic wellbeing, animal care personnel.
Notes: Meeting Information: 60th National Meeting of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Denver, CO, USA; Nov 2009.

Clay, A.W., M. Bloomsmith, and T.L. Maple (2005). Assessing individual preferences in nonhuman primates. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,July 31, 2005-August 5, 2005, New York, NY, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx: New York, NY, p. 297-298.
Descriptors: nonhuman primates, behavioral techniques, animal training, captive animals, individual preferences.

Cocks, L., C. Baker, G. Harris, and F. Butcher (1999). Behavioral enrichment for nonhuman primates. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 38(1): 14-15. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn38-1.html#perth
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: behavioral enrichment, Australia, social environment, foraging enrichment, complex environment, indestructible toys, destructible toys, positive reinforcement training.

Coleman, K. (2011). Caring for nonhuman primates in biomedical research facilities: Scientific, moral and emotional considerations. American Journal of Primatology 73(3): 220-225. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20855
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal care technicians, human-animal relationships, reducing stress, high-quality care, animal well-being, positive reinforcement training.

Coleman, K. (2011). Individual differences in temperament and behavioral management practices for nonhuman primates. Applied Animal Behaviour Science In Press, Corrected Proof ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.08.002
Descriptors: behavioral management plans, literature review, individual differences in temperament, effects on captive management of nonhuman primates.

Coleman, K. (2012). Individual differences in temperament and behavioral management practices for nonhuman primates. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 137(3-4): 106-113.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.08.002
Descriptors: temperament; individual animals; positive reinforcement training; behavioral management; nonhuman primates; social housing; pair housing.

Cousins, D. (2006). Review of the use of herb gardens and medicinal plants in primate exhibits in zoos. International Zoo Yearbook 40(1): 341-350. ISSN: 0074-9664.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.2006.00341.x
NAL Call Number: QL76.I5
Descriptors: nonhuman primate exhibits, zoos, herb gardens, self medicating behavior, zoo enclosures, medicinal plants, literature review.

Craig, J. and C. Reed (2003). Diet-based enrichment ideas for small primates. International Zoo News 50(1): 16-20; No 322. ISSN: 0020-9155.
NAL Call Number: QL76.I58
Descriptors: primates, diet in captivity, environmental enrichment, foraging.

Crockett, C.M., R.U. Bellanca, K.S. Heffernan, D.A. Ronan, and W.F. Bonn (2001). Puzzle Ball foraging device for laboratory monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 40(1): 4-7. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn40-1.html#ball
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: puzzle feeder, foraging device, stainless steel, Boomer Ball, effect of puzzle ball on abnormal behavior, animal behavior, psychological well-being, environmental enrichment.

Crockett, C.M., R.U. Bellanca, D.R. Koberstein, D. Rocha, G.J. Bennett, Z.M. Hoffman, and T. Olson (2003). Essential involvement in husbandry staff in a National Primate Research Center's psychological well-being program. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 70. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, colony management, staff involvement, legal requirements, estimate of well-being, meeting abstract.

Crockett, C.M., R.U. Bellanca, K.S. Heffernan, and D.C. Johnson (1999). A psychological well-being program for managing environmental enrichment and behavior issues in a colony of research primates. American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 46-47. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: estimate of well-being, enrichment, colony management, animal welfare, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Tulane University, New Orleans, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

de Rosa, C., A. Vitale, and M. Puopolo (2000). Environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates: an experimental approach. In: Progress in the Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animal Experimentation: Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences,August 29, 1999-September 2, 1999, Bologna, Italy, Elsevier Science: Amsterdam, Netherlands, p. 1295-1304. ISBN: 0444505296.
Descriptors: age effects, enriched environment, feed dispensers, social behavior.

DeHaven, W.R. (2000). USDA's environmental enhancement plans for NHPs: Ensuring the best care possible. Lab Animal 29(1): 44-46. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: laboratory animals, nonhuman primates, enrichment, social environment, restraint of animals, legislation, USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal Welfare Act.

Egeler, J., S. Hoekwater, and H. Hoffman (2010). A novel approach for utilizing large group-housing style cages for nonhuman primates in toxicology studies. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 49(5): 716. ISSN: 1559-6109.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, species specific behavior, socialization, toxicology research, vertical flight, group housing.
Notes: Meeting Information: AALAS National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2010.

Egeler, J., S. Hoekwater, and H. Hoffman (2010). Operant training differences between male and female group-housed nonhuman primates. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 49(5): 660. ISSN: 1559-6109.
Descriptors: group housing, operant training, program progress, gender differences, larger caging.
Notes: Meeting Information: AALAS National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2010.

Emmott, M. (2010). Covance animal environmental enrichment program - In-house enrichment items, their benefits and the process of implementation. Animal Technology and Welfare 9(3): 187-188. ISSN: 1742-0385.
Descriptors: animal behavior, environmental enrichment, exercise, dog, nonhuman primate, play.

Farrand, A. and H. Buchanan Smith (2004). Integrating zoo visitors into olfactory enrichment programmes for captive primates. Folia Primatologica 75(Suppl. 1): 373-374. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: sense of smell, olfaction, prosimians, new world monkeys, animal welfare, zoos, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 20th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Torino, Italy; August 22-28, 2004.

Fernie, A., N. Cross, and C. Phillips (2005). Behavioural responses to a mirror as a visual enrichment tool for captive primate species. In: Proceedings of the 39th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, August 20-24, 2005, Kanagawa, Japan , ISAE: p. 100.
Descriptors: animal behavior, mirror, tool, captive animals, environmental enrichment, meeting abstract.

Glenn, A.S. and J. Watson (2007). Novel nonhuman primate puzzle feeder reduces food wastage and provides environmental enrichment. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 46(4): 114-115. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3.A23
Descriptors: environmental enrichment equipment, puzzle feeders, food enrichment, feeding time, food wastage.
Notes: Meeting Information: 58th National Meeting of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Charlotte, NC, USA; October 14 -18, 2007.

Hall, C. (2004). Primate enrichment. Ratel 31(2): 10-11. ISSN: 0305-1218.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.R37
Descriptors: zoos, environmental enrichment, Hylobates, Erythrocebus, Cercopithecus, Brachyteles, Cebidae, Anthropoidea.

Hau, J. (2004). The refinement of primate models for biomedical research. Folia Primatologica 75(Suppl. 1): 132. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, animal training, behavioral methods, animal welfare, restraint, handling, stress, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 20th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Torino, Italy; August 22-28, 2004.

Hau, J. and S. Schapiro (2004). The welfare of non-human primates. In: E. Kaliste (Editor), Welfare of Laboratory Animals, Kluwer Academic Publ: Dordrecht, p. 291-314. ISBN: 1402022700.
Descriptors: stress, animal welfare, colony management, operant conditioning, cage design, enrichment, blood collection.

Hill, L.R. and G.A. Ambrose (2003). A simple, inexpensive method to minimize floor drain obstructions while supporting environmental enrichment in primate facilities. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(6): 42-45. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: An important component of nonhuman primate environmental enrichment programs is affording the animals the opportunity to manipulate objects. Although these objects and various bulky food items enrich the quality of life for nonhuman primates, they complicate the duties of facility maintenance personnel. A prime example of these sometimes costly complications is a seemingly never-ending series of floor drain obstructions. We devised a simple, inexpensive modified drain cover that prevents large items from entering the drain. The total cost of materials for this device was 1.12 dollars, and it required only 15 min of labor for assembly. The design and implementation of this modified drain cover illustrate why the interaction between physical-plant personnel and animal-care personnel is key to the operation of a successful animal care and use program and proper maintenance of laboratory animal facilities.
Descriptors: object manipulation, husbandry, cost of enrichment, animal welfare, animal housing, facility design, animal care staff, safety.

Honess, P.E. and C.M. Marin (2006). Enrichment and aggression in primates. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30(3): 413-436. ISSN: 0149-7634.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.05.002
NAL Call Number: QL750.B5
Abstract: There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, abnormal behavior, aggressive behavior, self-injurious behavior (SIB), literature review, use of appropriate enrichment, animal welfare.

Hopper, K.J. and J.T. Newsome (2004). Proactive compliance-the team program approach to revitalizing primate enrichment. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 43(2): 37-38. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: The Division of Laboratory Animal Resources (DLAR) at the University of Pittsburgh proactively instituted a nonhuman enrichment plan that is founded on the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Final Report on the Environmental Enhancement to Promote the Psychological Well-being of Nonhuman Primates (July 1999). This document is a draft policy of the USDA that has not yet been enacted. In anticipation of the these standards becoming policy, the DLAR, and our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), primate user groups, and Enrichment Specialist compared these new standards to our previous IACUC-approved plan. Our goal was to be "proactively compliant" to anticipated policy changes described in The Final Report. We established a program that was consistent with the five "critical" elements of The Final Report and our goal to have a revitalized enrichment plan that applied internal evaluation for continued improvement. A task force was implemented to review current literature and regulations on enrichment. Then a subcommittee consisting of veterinarians, investigators whose research would be affected by the anticipated policy changes, and IACUC members was formed. They established criteria for dispensation from plan elements, brought current protocols into compliance, shared enrichment and documentation techniques, and considered research methods in decision-making. In addition, a primate Enrichment Specialist position was developed and recruited. The Enrichment Specialist worked with investigators to evaluate enrichment and documentation needs and organized and implemented plan structure. The DLAR staff provided animal care and veterinary insight and reported to the IACUC. Investigators discussed how research and enrichment affected each other. The IACUC considered these issues before approving the plan. Our revitalized plan is running smoothly. The Enrichment Specialist oversees plan implementation and documentation. The DLAR assists enrichment and animal assessment. Investigators assist with assessment, provide enhanced enrichment, and document their progress. The IACUC addresses dispensation requests through designated review on the large-animal subcommittee.
Descriptors: animal husbandry, environmental enrichment plan, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC), USDA draft policy on enrichment for nonhuman primates, five critical elements, development of an enrichment task force.

Hosey, G.R. (2005). How does the zoo environment affect the behaviour of captive primates? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 90(2): 107-129. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: welfare, visitors, cage space, comparing primates in captivity and the wild, zoos, nonhuman primates.

Howell, S., J. Fritz, M. Schwandt, and B. Malling (2001). A community based environmental enrichment program at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 87. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal behavior, community involvement, education, donations, Primate Foundation of Arizona, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Howell, S., E. Mittra, J. Fritz, and J. Baron (1997). The provision of cage furnishings as environmental enrichment at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. Newsletter Primate Foundation of Arizona 9(2): 1-5.
Descriptors: Pan troglodytes, chimps, environmental enrichment, cage furnishing, Primate Foundation of Arizona.

Hoy, J., P. Murray, and A. Tribe (2007). The state of primate enrichment in Australasian zoos. In: Abstracts of the 25th Annual Conference of the Australasian Primate Society,March 9, 2007-March 11, 2007, Brisbane, Australia, Australasian Primate Society: Brisbane, Australia, p. 9.
Online: http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:233180
Abstract:
Descriptors: meeting abstract, zoo animal enrichment, surveys.

Jennings, M. and M. Prescott (editors) (2009). Refinements in husbandry, care and common procedures for non-human primates: Ninth report of the BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement. Laboratory Animals 43(Suppl. 1): 1-47.
DOI: 10.1258/la.2008.007143
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Descriptors: refinement alternatives, husbandry, nonhuman primates, housing, restraint procedures, environmental enrichment, social housing, animal well-being.

Khan, U. (2003). Enrichments and enclosure furnishings for primates. Zoos' Print 18(10): 23-24. ISSN: 0971-6378.
Descriptors: nonhuman primates, care in captivity, environmental enrichment, zoo habitats.

Kravic, M. and K. McDonald (2003). Environmental enrichment of nonhuman primates with PVC pipe constructs. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 120. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: species-specific behavior, perches, swings, arboreal species, height of perches, multiple uses of PVC, installation of enrichment devices, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 2003 AALAS National Meeting, Seattle, Washington, USA; October 12-16, 2003.

Lambeth, S.P. and L. Brent (1999). Environmental enrichment in the new millennium. American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 27. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: roundtable discussion of the USDA proposed interpretive nonhuman primate policy, environmental enhancement programs, program managers, zoo, laboratory, sanctuary, and exhibitor representatives, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

Luchins, K.R., K.C. Baker, M.H. Gilbert, J.L. Blanchard, and R.P. Bohm (2011). Manzanita wood: A sanitizable enrichment option for nonhuman primates. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 50(6): 884-887.
Descriptors: sanitizing wood enrichment items, manzanita wood, manipulanda, cage-wash procedures, bacterial cultures, compare wood and plastic.

Lukas, K. and C. Kuhar (2007). An analysis of efforts to integrate science and behavioral management of zoo primates. American Journal of Primatology 69(Suppl. 1): 118. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: management of primates in zoos, environmental enrichment, conservation psychology, animal welfare, behavioral research in zoos.
Notes: In the Special Issue: Abstracts of the Thirtieth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, June 20-23, 2007.

Lutz, C.K. and C.H. Nevill (2011). A response to the influence of observer presence on baboon (Papio spp.) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) behavior: A comment on. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 129(1): 55-56. ISSN: 0168-1591.
Online: 10.1016/j.applanim.2010.11.008
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: baboon, behavior assessment, observer effect, macaques.

Lutz, C.K. and M.A. Novak (2005). Environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates: Theory and application. ILAR Journal 46(2): 178-191. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: Investigators have an obligation to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates used in research. Considerable emphasis has been placed on providing nonhuman primates with enriched environments as a means to achieve this objective. A framework is provided that consists of a set of hypotheses about well-being, and the extent to which exposure to various enrichment devices and procedures actually promotes well-being is evaluated. Two hypotheses are concerned with fostering species-typical behavior: use (versus nonuse) of the enrichment, and whether use of enrichment helps normalize other aspects of the behavioral repertoire. Two additional hypotheses are concerned with abnormal behavior: whether currently existing enrichment lowers levels of abnormal behavior, and whether it prevents the behavior. This framework is applied to various enrichment strategies ranging from toys and foraging devices to social interaction. Most devices are used by nonhuman primates and thus constitute an important way to enrich the captive environment. However, enrichment devices vary as to their effectiveness in normalizing the behavioral repertoire and eliminating abnormal behavior. Only social contact satisfies the goal of promoting a wide variety of species-typical activities while at the same time reducing or preventing the development of abnormal behavior.
Descriptors: psychological well-being, effectiveness of enrichment devices, promoting species-typical behavior, science-based approach, reducing or preventing abnormal behavior, importance of social contact, primates as laboratory animals, toys, foraging devices.

Martin, D.P., T. Gilberto, C. Burns, and H.C. Pautler (2002). Nonhuman primate cage modifications for environmental enrichment. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 41(5): 47-49. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: Both to meet the regulatory requirements of the Animal Welfare Act and the increasing body of evidence supporting that most species of nonhuman primates (NHP) should be group-housed whenever possible, modifications to nonhuman primate caging are described. Perches and cage-connecting tunnels were fabricated for existing macaque caging. These are semi-permanent, easily sanitizable, and allow for all cage functions to operate as designed. All NHP housed in these cages were part of experimental studies approved by the institutional animal care and use committee.
Descriptors: caging, environmental enrichment, perches, tunnels, IACUC approval, macaques, regulatory requirements.

Mccusker, C. and T.E. Smith (2004). Odour cues as enrichment tools in primates: Caution. Animal Welfare 13(Suppl.): S248-S249. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: odors, olfactory communication, environmental enrichment, nonhuman primate behavior, auto-grooming, self-directed behaviors, social behavior, animal welfare, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) Symposium on Science in the Service of Animal Welfare, Edinburgh, UK; April 2-4, 2003.

McManamon, R. (1999). Veterinarian's role in monitoring the behavioral enrichment standards of the Animal Welfare Act. In: M.E. Fowler and R.E. Miller (Editors), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 4th edition, W.B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia, PA, p. 387-391. ISBN: 0721686648.
NAL Call Number: SF996.Z66 1999
Descriptors: Animal Welfare Act and regulations, nonhuman primate enrichment, exemptions, risk assessment, browse list, developing and documenting an enrichment plan, behavioral goals.

Megna, N. and J. Ganas (2001). Who's enriching whom? The mutual benefits of involving community seniors in a research facility's enrichment program. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 40(1): 8-10. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn40-1.html#older
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: Alliance for Primate Enrichment by Seniors (APES), environmental enrichment, enrichment treats, behavior, interaction with local seniors.

Metzger, E. and C. McCann (2005). The effect of choice on primate well being. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,July 31, 2005-August 5, 2005, New York, NY, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx: New York, NY, p. 22-25.
Descriptors: nonhuman primates, animal behavior, environmental enrichment, effect of choice on well-being.

Morton, W.R. and K. Swindler (2005). Serendipitous insights involving nonhuman primates. ILAR Journal 46(4): 346-351. ISSN: 1084-2020.
Online: http://dels.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/46_4/html/v4604Morton.shtml
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Abstract: Serendipity is discussed as a form of controlled chaos, a phenomenon in a class with synchronicity and other actions affecting research in terms of theory versus observation (e.g., "optional stopping"). Serendipity is a fundamental aspect of basic research, a profitable and normal outcome in the context of "informed observation." The serendipitous finding fits into the following pattern: it is unanticipated, anomalous, and strategic. All observations that have meaning must fit into some context in the observer's mind or suggest a revolutionary new context. It is critically important to maintain access to the resources provided by established primate centers and similar laboratories to capitalize in a timely way on serendipitous findings and to benefit from valuable discoveries made in more directly targeted development investments. Examples are given of serendipitous insights gained in experimentation and observation relative to nonhuman primate research, including both broad and narrow topics. Genomics, which uses comparison-based strategies and capitalizes on the DNA sequences of genetic information, presents what might seem the basis for endless serendipity because nonhuman primates are likely to share most genes present in the human genome. Other topics discussed include infant behavior, birth periodicity, leprosy, cystic fibrosis, environmental enrichment, endocrinology, drug development, and the rapidly expanding study of infectious diseases and pathogen-based bioterrorism.
Descriptors: basic research, resources provided by established primate centers, serendipitous insights, genomics, infant behavior, environmental enrichment, endocrinology, drug development, infectious diseases, valuable information gained from unanticipated findings.

Mueller, B., I. Lein, E. Heymann, D. Terruhn, R. Teepe, and S. Treue (2008). EUPRIM-Net provides courses dedicated to general primate biology. Folia Primatologica 79(5): 363. ISSN: 0015-5713.
Descriptors: EUPRIM-Net, environmental enrichment, primate husbandry, primate biology.
Notes: Meeting Information: 2nd Congress of the European Federation for Primatology, Prague, Czech Republica; September 3-7, 2007.

Mueller, K.D., J.M. Rawlins, J. Johnson, and J. Chestnut (2007). Using your organization's available resources to provide cost-effective enrichment for nonhuman primates. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 46(4): 119. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3.A23
Descriptors: animal care, cost effectiveness, environmental enrichment.
Notes: Meeting Information: 58th National Meeting of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Charlotte, NC, USA; October 14 -18, 2007.

Nader, M.A., P.W. Czoty, R.W. Gould, and N.V. Riddick (2008). Positron emission tomography imaging studies of dopamine receptors in primate models of addiction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363(1507): 3223-3232. ISSN: 0962-8436.
DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0092
Descriptors: animal models, cocaine self-administration, D2 receptors, dopamine, monkeys, social behavior, social rank, environmental enrichment, living space size, environmental influence in modifying cocaine effects.

Nelson, R.J. and T.D. Mandrell (2005). Enrichment and nonhuman primates: "First, do no harm". ILAR Journal 46(2): 171-177. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), animal care, animal technicians, animal well-being, risk reduction, primates as laboratory animals.

Novak, M.A., A.F. Hamel, B.J. Kelly, A.M. Dettmer, and J.S. Meyer (2013). Stress, the HPA axis, and nonhuman primate well-being: A review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 143(2-4): 135-149. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2012.10.012
Descriptors: stress, laboratory animals, cortisol, abnormal behavior.

Reinhardt, V. (2008). Taking Better Care of Monkeys and Apes: Refinement of Housing and Handling Practices for Caged Nonhuman Primates, Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, DC, 137 p. ISBN: 0938414968.
Descriptors: animal training, positive reinforcement, operant conditioning, blood collection, social interaction, distress, well-being, pair housing, environmental enrichment, foraging enrichment, puzzle feeders, animal behavior, laboratory animals, monkeys, apes, visual contact.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (2000). Blood collection procedure of laboratory primates: A neglected variable in biomedical research. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 3(4): 321-333. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, Cercopithecus aethiops, laboratory housed primates, blood sampling, restraint of animals, mental stress, hormone secretion, ketamine injection, experimental design, animal welfare, animal use refinement.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (2000). The lower row monkey cage: An overlooked variable in biomedical research. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 3(2): 141-149. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, placement of cages, fearfulness, abnormal behavior, stress, animal experiments, animal welfare, literature reviews.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (2000). Social enhancement for adult nonhuman primates in research laboratories: A review. Lab Animal 29(1): 34-41. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, enrichment, animal housing, aggressive behavior, males, training of animals, laboratory workers, social housing, pair housing, social enrichment, human-animal interactions.

Reinhardt, V. (2008). Taking Better Care of Monkeys and Apes, Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, DC, 137 p.
Online: http://labanimals.awionline.org/pubs/PDF/08_TakingBetterCareMonkeysApes.pdf
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7.R45 2008
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, animal welfare, environmental enrichment.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (2005). Annotated Bibliography on Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for Primates Kept in Laboratories, 8th edition, Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, DC, USA.
NAL Call Number: HV4737 .R44 2005
Abstract: This bibliography offers animal caregivers, animal technicians, veterinarians, zoo keepers and students guidance to practical information on refinement and environmental enrichment for primates kept in research institutions.
Descriptors: bibliography on enrichment for nonhuman priamtes, animal welfare, species-typical behavior, abnormal behavior, social behavior and housing, positive reinforcement training, foraging and food processing behavior, safety concerns, ethics, animal welfare regulations and guidelines.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (2008). Environmental Enrichment and Refinement for Nonhuman Primates Kept in Research Laboratories: A Photographic Documentation and Literature Review, 3rd edition, Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 129 p. ISBN: 978-0-938414-92-6.
Online: http://labanimals.awionline.org/pubs/PDF/08_EE.pdf
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, refinement alternatives, environmental enrichment techniques, photographs, housing and handling methods, social housing, wood sticks.

Rennie, A. and H. Buchanan Smith (2006). Refinement of the use of non-human primates in scientific research. II. Housing, husbandry and acquisition. Animal Welfare 15(3): 215-238. ISSN: 0962-7286.
Online: http://www.psychology.stir.ac.uk/staff/staff-profiles/academic-staff/?a=26834
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: animal welfare, environmental and social enrichment, housing, husbandry, refinement, transportation of animals.

Roder, E.L. and P.J.A. Timmermans (2002). Housing and care of monkeys and apes in laboratories: Adaptations allowing essential species-specific behaviour. Laboratory Animals 36(3): 221-242. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: During the last two decades an increasing amount of attention has been paid to the housing and care of monkeys and apes in laboratories, as has been done with the housing and care of other categories of captive animals. The purpose of this review is to develop recommendations for adaptations of housing and care from our knowledge of the daily behavioural activity of monkeys and apes in natural conditions and in enriched laboratory conditions. This review deals mainly with adaptations of daily housing and care with respect to behaviour, and it is restricted to commonly-used species: Callitrichidae (Callitrix jacchus, Saguinus oedipus); Cebidae (Aotus trivirgatus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella); Cercopithecidae (Macaca fascicularis, M. mulatta, M. nemestrina, M. arctoides, Chlorocebus aethiops, Papio hamadryas, P. cynocephalus); Pongidae (Pan troglodytes).
Descriptors: Callitrix jacchus, Saguinus oedipus, Aotus trivirgatus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Macaca nemestrina, Macaca arctoides, Chlorocebus aethiops, Papio hamadryas, Papio cynocephalus, Pan troglodytes, primates as laboratory animals, New World monkeys, chimpanzees, macaques, abnormal behavior, animal welfare, species differences, group size, cage size, perches, foraging, literature reviews, animal use refinement, environmental enrichment.

Schapiro, S.J. (2000). A few new developments in primate housing and husbandry. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science 27(2): 103-110. ISSN: 0901-3393.
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, animal husbandry, animal training, animal welfare.

Schapiro, S.J. and S.P. Lambeth (2007). Control, choice, and assessments of the value of behavioral management to nonhuman primates in captivity. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1): 39-47. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Many people have devoted considerable effort to enhancing the environments of non-human primates in captivity. There is substantial motivation to develop experimental, analytical, and interpretational frameworks to enable objective measurements of the value of environmental enrichment/behavioral management efforts. The consumer-demand approach is a framework not frequently implemented in studies of nonhuman primate welfare but profitably used in studies of the welfare of nonhuman animals in agriculture. Preference studies, in which primates can voluntarily choose to socialize or to participate in training, may be the best current examples of a consumer-demand-like approach to assessing the effects of captive management strategies on primate welfare. Additional work in this area would be beneficial; however, there are potential ethical constraints on purposefully subjecting primates to adverse circumstances to measure their demand for a resource. Primate welfare researchers need to design consumer-demand studies with obstacles that will help measure the relative value of resources to captive primates without compromising the welfare they are attempting to evaluate and enhance.
Descriptors: animal welfare, non-human primates, behavioral management, environmental enrichment, preference studies, ethical contraints, consumer-demand studies.

Schapiro, S.J., S.P. Lambeth, E. Thiele, and O. Rousset (2007). The effects of behavioral management programs on dependent measures in biomedical research. American Journal of Primatology 69(Suppl. 1): 115. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: captive primates, behavioral management, environmental enrichment, socialization strategies.

Schub, T. and M. Eisenstein (2003). Enrichment devices for nonhuman primates. Lab Animal 32(10): 37-40. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: There has been in recent years a substantial increase in the variety of enhancement devices available for nonhuman primates in captivity, and the task of properly outfitting a housing unit can be daunting. Researchers continue to investigate the specific impact and importance of environmental enrichment, but it is generally accepted that increasing the complexity of the environment for the mental and physical stimulation of nonhuman primates is beneficial to their health and contentment, and enrichment is now a standard component of primate husbandry.
Descriptors: housing environment, laboratory animals, animal welfare legislation, environmental complexity.

Seelig, D. (2007). A tail of two monkeys: Social housing for nonhuman primates in the research laboratory setting. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1): 21-30. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Despite great adaptability, most nonhuman primates require regular tactile contact with conspecifics for their psychological well being. By illustrating the inherent value of social contact and by providing clues to the best ways of satisfying this need, behavioral studies are useful in designing social enrichment programs. Although group housing is ideal for most gregarious primates, space constraints and protocol requirements may preclude such environments for macaques housed indoors. Pair housing is an effective and practical alternative. Furthermore, such social experience facilitates integration into future social groups, including those in postresearch retirement facilities. This article references common research protocols that accommodate pair housing and includes scientific recommendations for institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) to facilitate providing physical social contact for non-human primates in laboratories.
Descriptors: social contact, social enrichment, behavioral studies, space constraints, protocol requirements, indoor housing, pair housing, IACUCs, macaques.

Smith, J.A. and K.M. Boyd (2003). The Boyd Group of Papers on: The use of non-human primates in research and testing. Animal Technology and Welfare 2(2): 99-110. ISSN: 0264-4754.
NAL Call Number: SF757.A62
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, Macaca mulatta, toxicology, disease diagnosis, animal law, biomedical research, training animals, neurophysiology, animal models, animal welfare, animal use alternatives, Macaca fascicularis, Callithrix jacchus, animal behavior, housing.

Spratley, M. and K. Cork (2009). Continuous group housing standard for general toxicology studies as a form of environmental enrichment. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 48(5): 600. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3 .A23
Descriptors: social housing, toxicology studies, environmental enrichment, psychological well-being, animal compatibility, species typical behavior.
Notes: 60th National Meeting of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Denver, CO, USA; November 2009.

Tardif, S.D., K. Coleman, T.R. Hobbs, and C. Lutz (2013). IACUC review of nonhuman primate research. ILAR Journal 54(2): 234-245.
DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilt040
Descriptors: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, nonhuman primates, laboratory animals, social housing, distress, animal well-being.

Thom, J.P. and C.M. Crockett (2005). Environmental enrichment by research project at the Washington NPRC: An overview. American Journal of Primatology 66(Suppl.): 81-82. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: research projects, environmental enrichment, social contact, foraging, toys, social behavior, perches, food treats, Washington National Primate Research Center.
Notes: In the Special Issue: Abstracts of Presentations, Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting, The American Society of Primatologists, Portland, OR, USA, August 17-20, 2005.

Thom, J. and C. Crockett (2008). Managing environmental enhancement plans for individual research projects at a National Primate Research Center. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 47(3): 51-57. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3 .A23
Descriptors: monkeys, animal experimentation, research projects, laboratory animals, animal well being, environmental enrichment, social enrichment, program planning, temporal variation, research institutions, university research, developing enrichment plans.

Ueno, Y. (2005). Welfare for primates as research resources. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University(Suppl. 1): 65-70. ISSN: 1513-9700.
Descriptors: nonhuman primates as laboratory animals, ethics, cognitize abilities, physical and psychological well-being, environmental enrichment as a strategy for animal health, performance standards.

Ueno, Y. and N. Morimura(2009). [Welfare considerations for primates in captivity; its ideas and practices]. Reichorui Kenkyu/ Primate Research 24(Special Issue): 385-393. ISSN: 0912-4047.
Descriptors: primates, welfare, psychological well-being, environmental enrichment.
Language of Text: Japanese.

Veira, Y. and L. Brent (2000). Behavioral Intervention Program: Enriching the lives of captive nonhuman primates. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 97. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, psychological distress, environmental enrichment, behavioral treatment options, rearing history, research and breeding programs, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 23rd Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Waitt, C., H.M. Buchanan Smith, and K. Morris (2002). The effects of caretaker-primate relationships on primates in the laboratory. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 4(5): 309-319. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: As contact with caretakers is likely to make up the majority of human-primate interactions in laboratories, caretakers represent an important influence in the lives of captive primates. The aim of this study was to determine how caretaker-primate relationships affected the behavior of primates in the laboratory. We examined whether stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides) who were evaluated by caretakers as being either friendly or unfriendly differed in the quality and quantity of interactions with their caretakers during husbandry procedures and in their behavior at times of high and low levels of caretaker activity. Results revealed that animals who had friendly relationships with caretakers were less disturbed by routine husbandry procedures, approached caretakers more often, and were willing to accept food offered by caretakers compared with animals considered unfriendly toward their caretakers. The study concluded that the quality of the primate-caretaker relationship may have an important impact on behavior and may have implications for the well-being of animals and caretakers, as both can benefit from positive feedback from one another.
Descriptors: stump-tailed macaques, Macaca arctoides, human-animal relationships, animal behavior, laboratory, husbandry procedures, caretaker activity levels, animal well-being.

Waitt, C.D., M. Bushmitz, and P.E. Honess (2010). Designing environments for aged primates. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 49(3): 8-9.
Online: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/LPN49-3.pdf#page=7
Descriptors: aged primates, osteoarthritis, nonhuman primates, captivity, enrichment, perch design.

Weed, J.L., K.C. Baker, and C.M. Crockett (2003). Managing behavioral health and environmental enrichment of laboratory primates. American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 34. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: workshop, behavioral management programs, environmental enrichment programs, social enrichment, positive reinforcement training, well-being, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Alberta, Canada; July 30-August 2, 2003.

Weed, J.L., R. Byrum, S. Parrish, M. Knezevich, D.A. Powell, and P.L.O.N. Wagner (2002). Vasectomies as part of an environmental enrichment plan for primates. American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 41. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: social enrichment, clinical management tool, pair or group housing, self-injurious behavior, behavioral intervention, male nonhuman primates, vasectomy, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Weed, J.L., K.J. McCollom, and F.A. Cisar (2000). Methods for socializing unfamiliar primates to provide environmental enrichment and promote psychological well-being. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 98. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: social housing, pair housing, age effects, stainless steel or acrylic panels, type of caging, partner selection, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 23rd Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Winkler, P. (1999). European Federation for Primatology Workshop 1998 - Diet, foraging behaviour and time budgets in non-human primates: How field studies may help improve the welfare of captive primates. Folia Primatologica 70(1): 62-64. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: animal welfare, nonhuman primate dies, feeding behavior, Haplorhini , Macaca, design of research protocols, Saimiri, time factors.

Wolfensohn, S. and P.L. Finnemore (2006). Refinements in Primate Husbandry., University of Oxford: Oxford, 1 videodisc (25 min., 21 sec.): sd., col.; 4 3/4 in. + 1 guide.
NAL Call Number: DVD.no. 357
Abstract: Between 1998 and 2003, a project was undertaken at Oxford University to develop innovative housing systems for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to encourage group housing, improve environmental enrichment and develop the level of staff:monkey interaction. The management changes resulted in less aggressive, more cooperative animals, with more natural behaviors, together with decreased animal and staff stress, resulting in better experimental models. The cages remained cleaner, releasing staff to spend more time on positive reinforcement training. This video describes the changes in housing and compares the animals' behavior in new systems to their behavior in older systems. A series of video clips from the latter part of the project show various enrichment techniques, the socialization of the animals, blood sampling and injections, and interaction between caretakers and animals. -- Part of this description derives from written material accompanying the DVD.
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, rhesus monkeys, housing, environmental enrichment.
Notes: DVD production of the film "Oxford University rhesus monkey colony: refinements in husbandry" (c2001) with an additional 25 video clips showing rhesus monkeys from the colony living in and with the husbandry changes. DVD. The videodisc is divided into DVD-Video and DVD-ROM. The DVD-Video portion is playable in DVD players and in computers that have 3rd party decoders installed. The DVD-ROM portion is playable on DVD players and in computers with media players.

Wolfle, T.L. (1999). Psychological well-being of nonhuman primates: A brief history. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2(4): 297-302. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, animal housing, environmental enrichment, cage size, animal behavior, Animal Welfare Act, United States of America.

Wormell, D. and M. Brayshaw (2000). The design and redevelopment of new world primate accommodation at Jersey Zoo: A naturalistic approach. Dodo 36: 9-19. ISSN: 0265-5640.
Descriptors: zoo enclosure design, use of tree trunks, environmental enrichment, ropes, quality of life, reduction in stress levels, staff involvement in design process, Jersey Zoo.

 

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