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You are here: Home / Publications / Bibliographies and Resource Guides / Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide / Old World Monkeys  Printer Friendly Page
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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide
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Old World Monkeys

Barr, D. (2002). Visiting the vervets: Cheap and easy enrichment. Animal Keepers' Forum 29(9): 369-374. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: Cercopithecus aethiops, vervets, African green monkeys, care in captivity, interactions with zoo visitors as environmental enrichment.

Blois Heulin, C. and R. Jubin (2004). Influence of the presence of seeds and litter on the behaviour of captive red-capped mangabeys Cercocebus torquatus torquatus. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 85(3-4): 349-362. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: Cercocebus torquatus torquatus, mangabeys, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, foraging behavior, time budgets, animal behavior, sex differences, bare ground, addition of seeds and litter to environment.

Blois-Heulin, C. and R. Jubin (2001). Straw and seeds: Which is better? The influence of straw and/or seeds on the behavioural well-being of captive, group-living mangabeys. [De la paille et des graines, quoi de mieux? Influence de la presence de paille et/ou de graines sur le comportement d'un groupe captif de mangabes a collier.]. Folia Primatologica 72(3): 116. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: captive animal care, foraging enrichment, diets, locomotion, play, caging, red-capped mangabeys, Cercocebus torquatus torquatus, straw.
Notes: In the Special Issue: 12th Annual Meeting of La Societe Francophone de Primatologie, Besancon, September 27-29, 2000.

Bourgeois, S. and L. Brent (2003). The effect of four enrichment conditions on abnormal behavior in seven singly caged baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). American Journal of Primatology 60(Suppl. 1): 80-81. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Papio hamadryas anubis, baboons, single housing, comparison study, effects of environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement training, food enrichment, non-food enrichment, social enrichment, self-directed behavior, caging, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; July 29-August 2, 2003.

Bourgeois, S.R. and L. Brent (2005). Modifying the behaviour of singly caged baboons: Evaluating the effectiveness of four enrichment techniques. Animal Welfare 14(1): 71-81. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: adolescent male olive hybrid baboons, Papio hamadryas anubis, abnormal behavior, effectiveness of enrichment techniques to reduce abnormal behavior, positive reinforcement training, food enrichment, manipulable toys and objects, social environment, activity levels, animal welfare implications, social enrichment as a means of behavior modification for captive baboons.

Chang, T.R., D.L. Forthman, and T.L. Maple (1999). Comparison of confined mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) behavior in traditional and "ecologically representative" exhibits. Zoo Biology 18(3): 163-176. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: Mandrillus sphinx, mandrills, exhibit design, foraging, social behavior, cages, physical activity, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, species-appropriate behavior.

Crockett, C.M. and G.M. Gough (2002). Onset of aggressive toy biting by a laboratory baboon coincides with cessation of self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 39. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), Papio cynocephalus anubis, baboons, animals on a bone marrow transplant protocol, biting of toys, re-direction of tension-related aggression, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologist, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Davey, G. (2005). An environmental design project at Beijing Zoo. International Zoo News 52(2): 80-88; No 339. ISSN: 0020-9155.
NAL Call Number: QL76.I58
Descriptors: Mandrillus sphinx, mandrills, primates in captivity, zoo project report, animal housing in zoos, environmental enrichment techniques, Beijing, China, Beijing Zoo.

Dickie, L. (1998). Environmental enrichment for old world primates with reference to the primate collection at Edinburgh Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 36: 131-139. ISSN: 0074-9664.
NAL Call Number: QL76.I5
Descriptors: welfare of captive animals, daily husbandry routines, animal behavior, enclosure design, substrate, social environment, novel objects, feeding enrichment, Edinburgh Zoo, Scotland.

Fuller, G., L. Sadowski, C. Cassella, and K.E. Lukas (2010). Examining deep litter as environmental enrichment for a family group of wolf's guenons, Cercopithecus wolfi. Zoo Biology 29(5): 626-632. ISSN: 0733-3188.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20286
Descriptors: arboreal primates, litter substrate, behavioral observations, activity budgets, straw compared to wood wool, Wolf's guenons, Cercopithecus wolfi.

Grams, K. and J. Roletto (2002). Genus-specific foraging unit deters destructive behavior in the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx). Animal Keepers' Forum 29(1): 30-31. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: Mandrillus sphinx, mandrill, feeding enrichment, effect of environmental enrichment on destructive behavior in captive primates, foraging behavior.

Harris, H. and A. Edwards (2004). Mirrors as environmental enrichment for African green monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 64(4): 459-467. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Stainless steel circular mirrors were employed in an enrichment plan for 105 singly housed male African green monkeys. We observed 25 randomly selected males to measure mirror use and to assess the mirrors' effectiveness as an enrichment item. We conducted additional mirror-use surveys on all 105 males using fingerprint accumulation as an indicator (rated on a scale of 0 to 4). Use was defined as either being in contact with the mirror (contact use (CU)) or looking directly into the mirror without contact (non-contact use (NC)). Mirror-use data were collected 10 months after the initial introduction of the mirrors and again at 16 months. The two time points were compared by paired t-tests. No significant difference in use was found between the two data collection points. On average, the monkeys used the mirrors 5.2% of the total time intervals recorded (approximately 3 min/hr). Results from the five fingerprint-accumulation surveys showed that 102 of 105 males (97%) had CU with their mirrors over the survey points. Based on the sustained use of the mirrors over a 6-month period, we concluded that the mirrors were an effective enrichment tool that the vast majority of our monkeys routinely used. Habituation did not appear to occur even a year after the mirrors were introduced.
Descriptors: Cercopithecus aethiops, vervets, African green monkeys, single housed males, fingerprint accumulation as indicator of usage, usage survey, time spent using stainless steel mirrors.

Hartley, D. (2003). Space-use by a captive group of juvenile olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 81. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Papio hamadryas anubis, juvenile baboons, use of cage space, PVC perch, animal behavior, scan sampling, dominance hierarchy, relative cage size, environmental enrichment, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; July 29-August 2, 2003.

Hienz, R.D., D.A. Pyle, J.J. Frey, T.J. Zarcone, R.J. Adams, and J.S. Turkkan (2000). Enrichment device use by baboons during long-term vs. intermittent availability. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 39(2): 1-4. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn39-2.html#heinz
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: baboons, activity monitoring devices, environmental enrichment, availability of enrichment, cherry logs, animal behavior, habituation, activity patterns, frequency of use of enrichment devices.

Hinds, S.B., S. Raimond, and B.K. Purcell (2007). The effect of harp music on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature in the African green monkey. Journal of Medical Primatology 36(2): 95-100. ISSN: 0047-2565.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0684.2006.00157.x
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9J66
Abstract: The effectiveness of recorded harp music as a tool for relaxation for non-human primates is explored in this study. Konigsberg Instruments Model T27F-1B cardiovascular telemetry devices were implanted into nine African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). After post-surgical recovery, animals were exposed to recorded harp music. Telemetry data were collected on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature for a 30-minute baseline period before music exposure; a 90-minute period of music exposure; and a 90-minute post-exposure period, where no music was played. No statistical differences were noted in heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature between pre-exposure, exposure, and post-exposure periods. The lack of response in these African green monkeys may be attributable to their generally calm demeanor in captivity; experiments with a more excitable species such as the rhesus macaque might demonstrate a significant relaxation response to music.
Descriptors: Cercopithecus aethiops, African green monkeys, environmental enrichment, stereotypic behavior, telemetry, stress, music, relaxation.

Huber, H.F. and K.P. Lewis (2011). An assessment of gum-based environmental enrichment for captive gummivorous primates. Zoo Biology 30(1): 71-78. ISSN: 0733-3188.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20321
Descriptors: Cercopithecines, exudates, Patas monkey, Erythrocebus patas, obligate gumnivore, gum feeding in captivity.

Jones, M. and N. Pillay (2004). Foraging in captive hamadryas baboons: implications for enrichment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 88(1-2): 101-110. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: Papio hamadryas hamadryas, captive baboons, foraging behavior, aggression, food enrichment devices, environmental enrichment, zoos.

Jones, P., D. Pazzaglia, and B. Richards (2002). Using enrichment as a management tool. Animal Keepers' Forum 29(4): 166-169. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: Mandrillus sphinx, mandrills, care in captivity, enrichment program management.

Jubin, R., B.L. Deputte, and H.C. Blois (2001). Evaluation of the effect of two kinds of screens, installed in their cage, on the social behaviour of a group of red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus). Folia Primatologica 72(3): 121-122. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: Cercocebus torquatus, mangabeys, visual block, mesh screen and opaque screen comparison study, environmental enrichment, effects on social behavior, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 12th Annual Meeting of La Societe Francophone de Primatologie, Besancon, France; September 27-29, 2000.

Kessel, A. and L. Brent (1997). Behavioural effects of transferring singly housed baboons to outdoor social groups. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,August 21, 1995-August 25, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen Zoo: Frederiksberg, Denmark, p. 142-148. ISBN: 8789431146.
Descriptors: Papio hamadryas, captive baboons, housing techniques, transfer from single housing to outdoor social groups, impact on behavior and activity patterns.

Kessel, A. and L. Brent (2001). The rehabilitation of captive baboons. Journal of Medical Primatology 30(2): 71-80. ISSN: 0047-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9J66
Abstract: Eleven baboons who had been singly housed indoors for an average of 5 years were moved to outdoor social groups in an attempt to provide a more species-typical environment and reduce high levels of abnormal behavior. Nine of the baboons were observed while in single housing and, over a 6-month period, while housed outdoors socially to document long-term changes in behavior. Abnormal behavior decreased significantly from an average of 14% of the observation time in the single cages to 3% in the sixth month of social housing. Cage manipulation and self-directed behaviors also significantly decreased, while social behavior, enrichment-directed behavior, and locomotion increased in social housing. Baboons that had been in long-term indoor single housing were able to reproduce and form stable social groups without injury. This study provides evidence that even behaviorally disturbed nonhuman primates can be successfully rehabilitated to live in social groups.
Descriptors: captive baboons, species-typical behaviors, abnormal behavior, baboons, single housing to outdoor social housing, animal behavior, cage manipulation, behavioral rehabilitation.

Little, K.A. and V. Sommer (2002). Change of enclosure in langur monkeys: Implications for the evaluation of environmental enrichment. Zoo Biology 21(6): 549-559 . ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: langurs, zoo animals, group housing, animal space requirements, physical activity, grooming behavior, attachment behavior, aggression, animal stress, animal well-being, effects of a multi-species enclosure.

Maetz Rensing, K., A. Floto, and F.J. Kaup (2004). Intraperitoneal foreign body disease in a baboon (Papio hamadryas). Journal of Medical Primatology 33(2): 113-116. ISSN: 0047-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9J66
Descriptors: Hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas, intraperitoneal foreign body, clinico-pathological description, case study, risk of items used for environmental enrichment.

Marks, D., J. Kelly, T. Rice, S. Ames, R. Marr, J. Westfall, J. Lloyd, and C. Torres (2000). Utilizing restraint chair training to prepare primates for social housing. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 39(4): 9. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Online: http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn39-4.html#chair
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: Papio hamadryas hamadryas, baboons, pole and collar training, behavioral management, juvenile hamadryas baboons, enrichment program, stress, socialization.

Mikels, J. and J. Wallis (2003). Effects of cage mounted enrichment on behavior of a group of juvenile baboons (Papio anubis). American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 81-82. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Papio anubis, female baboons, children's toys mounted on cages, young animals, animal behavior, social housing, decreased aggression and grooming when enrichment is present, meeting abstract.

Seier, J., C. de Villiers, J. van Heerden, and R. Laubscher (2011). The effect of housing and environmental enrichment on stereotyped behavior of adult vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). Lab Animal 40(7): 218-224. ISSN: 0093-7355.
DOI: 10.1038/laban0711-218
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: vervet monkeys, stereotypic behavior, cage size, cage level, foraging log, exercise cage, social housing.

Seier, J.V., M.A. Dhansay, and A. Davids (2005). Risks associated with environmental enrichment: Intestinal obstruction caused by foraging substrate. Journal Of Medical Primatology 34(3): 154-155. ISSN: 0047-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9J66
Descriptors: risks associated with enrichment, straw, foraging substrate, vervet monkey, euthanasia, case report.

Seier, J.V., J. Loza, and L. Benjamin (2004). Housing and stereotyped behaviour: Some observations from an indoor colony of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). Folia Primatologica 75(Suppl. 1): 332. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: stereotypical behavior, vervet monkeys, environmental enrichment, psychological well-being, housing, complex cages.
Notes: Meeting Information: 20th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Turin, Italy, August 22 -28, 2004.

Stahl, D. and W. Kaumanns (2003). Food competition in captive female sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus atys). Primates 44(3): 203-216. ISSN: 0032-8332.
Abstract: We studied the social and foraging behavior of two captive groups of sooty mangabeys under two different spatial food situations. These food conditions were clumped (food was placed in a box) and dispersed (food was dispersed over the entire enclosure). In each group five adult females and two adult males were observed. As a criterion for food competition, individual differences in the relative food intake were used. Adult female mangabeys had a linear, stable, and unidirectional dominance hierarchy. Access to food was rank dependent among females only under clumped food distribution, as current models of the evolution of primate social systems predict. However, feeding success appeared to be mediated not by female but by male agonistic behavior toward females. High-ranking females received relatively less aggression from males and could, therefore, stay and feed longer in the feeding area. Male tolerance of higher-ranking females seems to mediate female feeding success under restricted food resources. The establishment of a special relationship with a high-ranking male might, therefore, be a strategy to get better access to food. This study demonstrates that female competition for access to food should not be analyzed separately from male influences on females and suggests that a more integral role of males in socioecological models of the evolution of primate social systems should be considered.
Descriptors: Cercocebus torquatus atys, mangabeys, gender effects, males and females, feeding behavior, food deprivation, social behavior, social dominance.

Tami, T. and S. Diverio (2000). Effects of environmental enrichment on the behaviour of white crowned mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus lunulatus). Advances in Ethology(35): 28. ISSN: 0931-4202.
Descriptors: Cercocebus torquatus lunulatus, mangabeys, species-typical behavior, cage space utilization, environmental enrichment, social behavior, meeting abstract.

Wallis, J. (2002). Reproduction in baboons: The influence of environmental enhancement. American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 85. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: baboons, climbing structures, effects of environmental complexity, gestation period, group size, housing, meeting abstract, social behavior.

Young, R.J. (1998). Behavioural studies of guenons Cercopithecus spp at Edinburgh Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 36(0): 49-56. ISSN: 0074-9664.
NAL Call Number: QL76.I5
Descriptors: European Endangered Species Programmes (EEPs), animal behavior, social behavior, rearing environment, enclosure use, environmental enrichment, Edinburgh Zoo, literature review.

 

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